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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Editorial 02-04-2018 Definition: an official in a government department, in

1). Bidders (Noun) – बोली लगाने वाला particular one perceived as being concerned with procedural
Definition: a person or organization making a formal offer correctness at the expense of people's needs.
for something, especially at an auction. Synonyms: official, administrator, office-holder, office-
Synonyms: Applicant, Aspirant, Competitor. bearer, civil servant, public servant, government servant
Antonyms: associate, helper. Usage: the unemployed will be dealt with not by faceless
Usage: she was the highest bidder for this rare portrait bureaucrats but by individuals

2). Lucrative (Adjective) – लाभप्रद 4). Bugbears (Noun) – डरावना

Definition: producing a great deal of profit. Definition: a cause of obsessive fear, anxiety, or irritation
Synonyms: profitable, profit- Synonyms: pet
making, gainful, remunerative, moneymaking, paying, high- hate, hate, bane, irritant, irritation, dislike, anathema, aversio
income, well paid n
Antonyms: unprofitable, loss, poorly paid Antonyms: brave, courageous, calmness, ease.
Usage: a lucrative career as a stand-up comedian Usage: the biggest villain is that adman's bugbear, saturated
3). Bureaucrats (Noun) – नौकरशाह
5). Ascertain (Verb) – पता लगाना
Definition: find (something) out for certain; make sure of. | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: find out, discover, get/come to know, work out, Definition: an absurd pretence intended to create a pleasant
make out, fathom (out), become aware of or respectable appearance.
Antonyms: assist, confuse, destroy, ignore. Synonyms:
Usage: an attempt to ascertain the cause of the accident farce, pantomime, travesty, mockery, parody, pretence, act,
masquerade, sham
6). Ousted (Verb) – बेदख़ल करना Antonyms: honest, reality, truth.
Definition: drive out or expel (someone) from a position or Usage: talk of unity was nothing more than a charade
Synonyms: drive out, expel, force out, throw 12). Tumultuous (Adjective) – उतार चढ़ाव भरे
out, remove, remove from office/power, eject, get rid of Definition: making an uproar or loud, confused noise.
Antonyms: hire, take in, allow, hold.s Synonyms: loud, deafening, thunderous, thundering
Usage: the reformists were ousted from power Antonyms: mild, gentle, moderate.
Usage: tumultuous applause
7). Backlash (Noun) – प्रततक्रिया
Definition: a strong negative reaction by a large number of 13). Exhortations (Noun) – संबोधन
people, especially to a social or political development. Definition: an address or communication emphatically
Synonyms: adverse reaction/response, counteraction, urging someone to do something.
counterblast, comeback, recoil Synonyms:
Antonyms: encourage, boost. urging, encouragement, persuasion, pressure, pressurization,
Usage: a public backlash against racism pushing,
8). Rendered (Verb) – प्रस्तुत करना Antonyms: discouragement, suppress.
Definition: provide or give (a service, help, etc.). Usage: exhortations to consumers to switch off electrical
Synonyms: give, provide, supply, furnish, make appliances
available, contribute
Antonyms: take back, hold back.refuse. 14). Cynicism (Noun) -- कु टिलता
Usage: money serves as a reward for services rendered Definition: an inclination to believe that people are
motivated purely by self-interest
9). Entrant (Noun) – शातमल होनेवाला Synonyms:
Definition: a person or group that enters or takes part in scepticism, doubt, distrust, mistrust, doubtfulness, suspicion
something. Antonyms: optimism, faith, trust.
Synonyms: new member, new arrival, beginner, newcomer, Usage: public cynicism about politics
fresher, freshman, recruit
Antonyms: veteran, popular, well-worsen. 15). Hefty (Adjective) – पृष्ट
Usage: the prize will be awarded to the entrant who wins the Definition: done with vigour or force.
tiebreak Synonyms: powerful, violent, hard, forceful, heavy,
vigorous, mighty
10). Staunch (Adjective) – तनष्ठावान Antonyms: small, light, paltry.
Definition: very loyal and committed in attitude. Usage: he aimed a hefty kick at the door
stalwart, loyal, faithful, trusty, committed, devoted, dedicated 16). Acquittal (Noun) – दोषमुति
, dependable Definition: a judgement or verdict that a person is not guilty
Antonyms: disloyal, unfaithful, unreliable of the crime with which they have been charged.
Usage: a staunch supporter of the anti-nuclear lobby Synonyms: absolution, clearing, exoneration, exculpation,
declaration of innocence
11). Charade (Noun) – शब्द पहेली Antonyms: conviction, hiring, hold, blame.
Usage: the trial resulted in an acquittal | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Editorial 03-04-2018 fiasco, failure, catastrophe, disaster, disintegration, mess, wre
1). Litigation (Noun) -- मुक़दमेबाजी ck, ruin
Definition: the process of taking legal action. Antonyms: victory, success, win
Synonyms: legal proceeding(s), legal action, lawsuit, legal Usage: the only man to reach double figures in the second-
dispute, legal case, case, legal contest innings debacle
Antonyms: effect, result.
Usage: the company wishes to avoid litigation 7). Endorsed (Verb) – पृष्ठांक्रकत करना
Definition: recommend (a product) in an advertisement.
2). Contempt (Noun) – अवमान Synonyms: support, back, approve (of), be in agreement
Definition: the feeling that a person or a thing is worthless or with, favour
beneath consideration. Antonyms: oppose, agaist.
Synonyms: Usage: he earns more money endorsing sports clothes than
scorn, disdain, disrespect, deprecation, disparagement, denigr playing football
Opprobrium 8). Imminent (Adjective) – समुपतस्ित
Antonyms: respect, worthable. Definition: About to happened
Usage: Pam stared at the girl with total contempt Synonyms: impending, at hand, close, near, approaching,
fast approaching, coming, forthcoming
3). Perplexing (Verb) – हैरान करने वाला Antonyms: avoidable, distant, later,
Definition: make (someone) feel completely baffled. Usage: they were in imminent danger of being swept away
puzzle, baffle, mystify, bemuse, bewilder, confound, confuse, 9). Myopic (Adjective) – कमबीन
nonplus Definition: lacking foresight or intellectual insight.
Antonyms: clear, transparent, confident. Synonyms: unimaginative, uncreative, unadventurous,
Usage: she was perplexed by her husband's moodiness narrow-minded, lacking foresight
Antonyms: long-site, far-site.
4). Envisaged (Verb) – पटरकल्पना की गयी Usage: the government still has a myopic attitude to public
Definition: contemplate or conceive of as a possibility or a spending
desirable future event.
Synonyms: 10). Credibility (Noun) -- तवश्वसनीयता
foresee, predict, forecast, foretell, anticipate, expect, think Definition: the quality of being trusted and believed in.
likely, envision Synonyms:
Antonyms: disregard, ignore. trustworthiness, reliability, dependability, integrity, character
Usage: the Rome Treaty envisaged free movement across Antonyms: implausibility, unbelievable.
frontiers Usage: the government's loss of credibility

5). Drubbing (Verb) – पराजय होना Editorial 04-04-2018

Definition: a resounding defeat in a match or contest. 1). Glitches (Verb) – खातमयां होना
Synonyms: defeat, beating, trouncing, rout, loss, Definition: suffer a sudden malfunction or fault.
vanquishing, crushing Synonyms: Problem, fault, bug, mistake.
Antonyms: victory, success, win Antonyms: correct, advantage, strength.
Usage: Scotland's 3-0 drubbing by France Usage: the elevators glitched

6). Debacle (Noun) – असफलता 2). Bounty (Noun) – इनाम

Definition: a sudden and ignominious failure; a fiasco. Definition: a sum paid for killing or capturing a person or
animal. | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: reward, prize, award, recompense, remuneration, 8). Predecessor (Noun) – पूवाणतधकारी
commission, consideration Definition: a person who held a job or office before the
Antonyms: meanness, punishment. current holder.
Usage: there was an increased bounty on his head Synonyms: former/previous holder of the post, forerunner,
precursor, antecedent
3). Staggered (Verb) – लड़खड़ाकर चलना Antonyms: derivative, descendant, successor
Definition: walk or move unsteadily, as if about to fall. Usage: the new President's foreign policy is very similar to
Synonyms: lurch, walk that of his predecessor
unsteadily, reel, sway, teeter, totter, stumble, wobble
Antonyms: carry on, continue. 9). Nuances (Noun) – बारीक्रकयों, अतत सूक्ष्म अंतर
Usage: he staggered to his feet, swaying a little Definition: a subtle difference in or shade of meaning,
expression, or sound.
4). Crucial (Adjective) - महत्वपूर्ण Synonyms: fine distinction, subtle
Definition: decisive or critical, especially in the success or distinction/difference, shade, shading, gradation, variation
failure of something. Antonyms: brightness, information, light.
Synonyms: Usage: he was familiar with the nuances of the local dialect
pivotal, critical, key, climacteric, decisive, deciding, determin
ing, settling, 10). Bottleneck (Noun) – भीड़
testing Definition: a narrow section of road or a junction that
Antonyms: minor, secondary. impedes traffic flow.
Usage: negotiations were at a crucial stage Synonyms: traffic jam, jam, congestion, hold-
up, gridlock, queue, tailback.
5). Disengages (Verb) – छु ड़ाना Antonyms: free flow, aid, opening.
Definition: separate or release (someone or something) from Usage: the bottleneck on Talbot Road
something to which they are attached or connected.
Synonyms: Editorial 05-04-2018
remove, detach, disentangle, extricate, separate, release, loose 1). Miserable (Adjective) – दीन, दुखी
n, loose, disconnect Definition: (of a person) wretchedly unhappy or
Antonyms: attached, connect, couple. uncomfortable.
Usage: I disengaged his hand from mine Synonyms:
unhappy, sad, sorrowful, dejected, depressed, downcast, dow
6). Conjectured (Verb) – अनुमान लगाना nhearted,
Definition: form an opinion or supposition about down
(something) on the basis of incomplete information. Antonyms: happy, joyful, good.
Synonyms: guess, speculate, surmise, infer, fancy, imagine, Usage: their happiness made Anne feel even more miserable
believe, think, suspect
Antonyms: calculative, know, measure. 2). Exaggeration (Noun) – अततश्योति
Usage: many conjectured that she had a second husband in Definition: a statement that represents something as better or
mind worse than it really is.
Synonyms: overstatement, overemphasis, magnification,
7). Endowed (Verb) – प्रदान करना amplification, aggrandizement, overplaying
Definition: provide with a quality, ability, or asset. Antonyms: truth, decrease, reduction.
Synonyms: provide, supply, furnish, equip, invest, give, Usage: it would be an exaggeration to say I had morning
present, favour, bless sickness, but I did feel queasy
Antonyms: decrease, reduce, destroy.
Usage: he was endowed with tremendous physical strength. 3). Resentment (Noun) – नाराजगी
Definition: bitter indignation at having been treated unfairly. | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: Definition: cause (a strong or violent force) to be released or

bitterness, indignation, irritation, pique, displeasure, dissatisf become unrestrained.
action, Synonyms: let loose, release, free, set
Disgruntlement. free, loose, unloose, unbridle
Antonyms: calm, delight, happiness. Antonyms: hold, keep, restrain.
Usage: his resentment at being demoted Usage: the failure of the talks could unleash more fighting

4). Dispel (Verb) – दूर करना 10). Accused (Verb) – अतभयुि

Definition: make (a doubt, feeling, or belief) disappear. Definition: claim that (someone) has done something wrong.
Synonyms: banish, eliminate, dismiss, chase away, drive Synonyms: blame for, hold responsible for, lay the blame on
away, drive off, get rid of, dissipate someone for, hold accountable for
Antonyms: accept, collect, keep. Antonyms: clear, discharge, acquitted.
Usage: the brightness of the day did nothing to dispel Usage: he was accused of favouritism
Elaine's dejection
Editorial 06-04-2018
5). Oppressed (Adjective) – जुल्म क्रकया हुआ 1). Bickering (Verb) – कलह करना, झगड़ना
Definition: subject to harsh and authoritarian treatment. Definition: argue about petty and trivial matters.
Synonyms: persecute, abuse, maltreat, ill-treat, treat harshly, Synonyms: squabble, argue
be brutal to, be cruel to, tyrannize Antonyms: agree, concur, make peace.
Antonyms: aid, assist, comfort, please. Usage: couples who bicker over who gets what from the
Usage: oppressed racial minorities divorce

6). Unpalatable (Adjective) – कड़ा 2).Unravelling (Verb) – सुलझाने

Definition: difficult to put up with or accept. Definition: investigate and solve or explain (something
Synonyms: complicated or puzzling).
disagreeable, unpleasant, displeasing, unattractive, regrettable Synonyms: solve, resolve, work out, clear up, puzzle out,
, find an answer to, get to the bottom of
unwelcome, upsetting Antonyms: wonder, joint, unite, wind.
Antonyms: agreement, pleasing, pleasant. Usage: they were attempting to unravel the cause of death
Usage: the unpalatable fact that many of the world's people
are starving 3).Debacle (Noun) -- पराजय
Definition: a sudden and ignominious failure; a fiasco.
7). Prevailing (Adjective) – प्रचतलत Synonyms: fiasco, failure, catastrophe, disaster,
Definition: existing at a particular time; current. disintegration, mess, wreck, ruin
Synonyms: exist, be in existence, be present, be the case, Antonyms: success, win, rise.
hold, obtain, occur, be prevalent Usage: the only man to reach double figures in the second-
Antonyms: uncommon, unfixed, minor. innings debacle
Usage: the unfavourable prevailing economic conditions
4).Scandal (Noun) – कांड
8). Fury (Noun) -- रोष Definition: an action or event regarded as morally or legally
Definition: wild or violent anger. wrong and causing general public outrage.
Synonyms: rage, anger, wrath, passion, outrage, spleen, tem Synonyms: outrageous wrongdoing, outrageous behaviour,
per, savagery, frenzy immoral behaviour, unethical behaviour
Antonyms: calm, rest, happiness. Antonyms: approval, compliment, flattery.
Usage: tears of fury and frustration Usage: a bribery scandal involving one of his key supporters

9). Unleashed (Verb) – बंधन से मुि करना 5).Tussle (Noun) – हािापाई, संघषण | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Definition: a vigorous struggle or scuffle, typically in order Editorial 07-04-2018

to obtain or achieve something. 1). Railed (Verb) – आवाज उठाना
Synonyms: scuffle, fight, struggle, skirmish, brawl, Definition: complain or protest strongly and persistently
scrimmage, scramble, scrum, fisticuffs about.
Antonyms: agreement, peace, calm. Synonyms: protest strongly at, make a protest against,
Usage: there was a tussle for the ball fulminate against, inveigh against, rage against, thunder
6).Ouster (Noun) -- तनष्कासन Antonyms: be happy, flatter, praise.
Definition: ejection from a property, especially wrongful Usage: he railed at human fickleness
ejection; deprivation of an inheritance.
Synonyms: eviction, dispossession, legal 2). Steward (Noun) – प्रबंधक
Antonyms: welcoming, employment. Definition: a person responsible for supplies
Usage: ouster proceedings to remove the husband from the Synonyms: major-domo, seneschal, manciple
matrimonial home Usage: the steward of the household

7).Bandwagon (Noun) – अंधानुकरर् 3). Confer (Verb) – प्रधान करना

Definition: (especially formerly) a wagon used for carrying a Definition: have discussions; exchange opinions.
band in a parade or procession. Synonyms: consult, have discussions, discuss things,
Synonyms: trend, Style, vogue exchange views, talk
Antonyms: outrages, Antic. Antonyms: refuse, dishonour.
Usage: the colourful bandwagon was later purchased for use Usage: the officials were conferring with allies
in circus parades
4). Impunity (Noun) – दंड मुति
8).Scrutinized (Verb) – छानबीन करना
Definition: exemption from punishment or freedom from the
Definition: examine or inspect closely and thoroughly. injurious consequences of an action.
Synonyms: examine carefully, inspect, survey, scan, study, Synonyms: immunity, indemnity, exemption from
look over, peruse punishment, freedom from punishment, exemption
Antonyms: glance at, oral Antonyms: prohibition, veto, impristonment.
Usage: customers were warned to scrutinize the small print Usage: the impunity enjoyed by military officers implicated
in civilian killings
9).Glossed (Verb) – तछपाना
Definition: try to conceal or disguise (something 5).Poaching (Verb) – अवैध तशकार करना
unfavourable) by treating it briefly or representing it Definition: take or acquire in an unfair or clandestine way.
misleadingly. Synonyms: steal, appropriate, purloin, misappropriate, take
Synonyms: conceal, cover up, hide, camouflage, disguise, Antonyms: loosen, given, release.
mask, veil, draw a veil over, whitewash Usage: employers risk having their newly trained workers
Antonyms: disclose, exaggerate poached by other firms
Usage: the social costs of this growth are glossed over
6).Thriving (Adjective) – कामयाब
10).Jettison (Verb) – बोझ तगराना
Definition: prosper; flourish.
Definition: throw or drop (something) from an aircraft or Synonyms: flourish, prosper, grow vigorously, develop well,
ship. burgeon, bloom, blossom, do well, advance, make strides
Synonyms: dump, drop, ditch, discharge, eject, throw out, Antonyms: failing, poor, losing.
empty out, pour out, tip out, unload Usage: education groups thrive on organization
Antonyms: load, keep, retain
Usage: six aircraft jettisoned their loads in the sea
7).Incongruous (Adjective) –- बेमेल | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Definition: not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings Definition: cause pain or trouble to; affect adversely.
or other aspects of something. Synonyms: trouble, bother, burden, distress, cause trouble to,
Synonyms: unpredictable, unsuitable, unsuited. cause suffering to
Antonyms: uniform, suitable. Antonyms: comfort, support, assist.
Usage: the duffel coat looked incongruous with the black Usage: his younger child was afflicted with a skin disease
dress she wore underneath
3). Unscathed (Verb) – तबना क्रकसी नुकसान के
8).Deterrent (Noun) – तनवारक Definition: without suffering any injury, damage, or harm.
Definition: a thing that discourages or is intended to Synonyms: unharmed, unhurt, uninjured, undamaged, in one
discourage someone from doing something. piece, intact, safe, safe and sound
Synonyms: disincentive, discouragement, dissuasion, Antonyms: harmed, hurt, injured.
damper, brake, curb, check Usage: I came through all those perils unscathed
Antonyms: encouragement, catalyst, incentive
Usage: cameras are a major deterrent to crime 4). Glaringly (Adverb) -- चौंधाते हुए
Definition: in a highly obvious or conspicuous manner.
9). Stardom (Noun) – महानता, मतहमा Synonyms: Extremely, highly, hugely, incledibly.
Definition: the state or status of being a very famous or Antonyms: darkly, dully, sadly.
talented entertainer or sports player. Usage: the theft glaringly exposes the lack of security
Synonyms: Acclaim, celebrity, greatness, glory.
Antonyms: obscurity, unimportance, lowliness 5). Mustering (Verb) – इकट्ठा होना
Usage: her rise to stardom has been meteoric Definition: assemble (troops), especially for inspection or in
preparation for battle.
10). Expeditions (Noun) – अतभयान Synonyms: assemble, bring together, call
Definition: promptness or speed in doing something. together, marshal, mobilize, rally, round up, raise
Synonyms: speed, haste, hastiness, hurriedness, promptness, Antonyms: division, separation.
speediness, swiftness, quickness, rapidity Usage: 17,000 men had been mustered on Haldon Hill
Antonyms: blockage, halt, slowing.
Usage: the landlord shall remedy the defects with all possible 6). Ransom (Noun) – क्रफरौती
expedition Definition: a sum of money demanded or paid for the release
of a captive.
11). Snares (Noun) – जाल Synonyms: pay-off, payment, price
Definition: a trap for catching birds or mammals, typically Usage: the kidnappers demanded a ransom
one having a noose of wire or cord.
Synonyms: trap, gin, net, noose 7). Impeached (Verb) – तवरोध करना
Antonyms: honesty, repulsion. Definition: call into question the integrity or validity of (a
Usage: he came upon a hare struggling in an illegal snare practice).
Synonyms: challenge, question, call into question, cast doubt
Editorial 09-04-2018 on, raise doubts about
1). Adjourned (Verb) – स्ितगत होना Antonyms: conform, acquit.
Definition: (of a group of people) go somewhere for rest or Usage: there is no desire to impeach the privileges of the
refreshment. House of Commons
Synonyms: withdraw, retire, retreat, beat a retreat, take
oneself, decamp 8). Plea (Noun) – यातचका करना
Antonyms: advance, continue, do, hasten. Definition: a request made in an urgent and emotional
Usage: they adjourned to a local pub manner.
Synonyms: appeal, entreaty, supplication, petition, prayer
2). Afflicting (Verb) – पीड़ा देना Antonyms: demand, decision. | |

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Usage: he made a dramatic plea for disarmament Usage: he is using a common figure of rhetoric, hyperbole

9). Repudiates (Verb) – अस्वीकार करना 4). Sermonising (Verb) – उपदेश देना
Definition: refuse to accept; reject. Definition: to give a long talk to people, telling them how
Synonyms: reject, renounce, abandon, forswear, give up, they should behave in order to be better people
turn one's back on, have nothing more Synonyms: advocate, preach.
Antonyms: accept, allow, enforce. Usage: My grandmother's all right until she starts
Usage: she has repudiated policies associated with previous sermonizing and then she's unbearable.
party leaders
5). Contentious (Adjective) – तवतवदास्पद
10). Fraught (Adjective) -- चचता से भरा हुआ Definition: causing or likely to cause an argument;
Definition: causing or affected by anxiety or stress. controversial.
Synonyms: anxious, worried, upset, distraught, overwrought, Synonyms: controversial, disputable, debatable, disputed,
agitated, distressed, distracted contended, open to question
Antonyms: calm, peace. Antonyms: agreeable.
Usage: there was a fraught silence Usage: a contentious issue

11). Unabashed (Adjective) – अतवच्चतलत 6). Meddling (Verb) – दखल देना

Definition: not embarrassed, disconcerted, or ashamed. Definition: interfere in something that is not one's concern
Synonyms: unashamed, shameless, unembarrassed, brazen, Synonyms: interfere, butt
audacious, barefaced, blatant, flagrant in, intrude, intervene, interlope, pry, poke, nose, busybody
Antonyms: abashed, ashamed, sheepish Usage: I don't want him meddling in our affairs
Usage: he was unabashed by the furore his words provoked
7). Credence (Noun) – तवश्वास
Editorial 10-04-2018 Definition: belief in or acceptance of something as true.
1). Perceptible (Adjective) – प्रत्यक्ष Synonyms: acceptance, belief, faith, trust, confidence,
Definition: (especially of a slight movement or change of reliance, traction
state) able to be seen or noticed Antonyms: fear, uncertainty.
Synonyms: noticeable, perceivable, detectable, discernible Usage: psychoanalysis finds little credence among laymen
Antonyms: imperceptible, inconspicuous
Usage: a perceptible decline in public confidence 8). Discreetly (Adjective) – सावधानी से
Definition: careful and prudent in one's speech or actions,
2). Rupture (Verb) – िू ि जाना especially in order to keep something confidential or to avoid
Definition: breach or disturb (a harmonious feeling or embarrassment.
situation). Synonyms:
Synonyms: sever, break, cut off, break off, breach, disrupt careful, circumspect, cautious, wary, chary, guarded, close-
Antonyms: joint, strengthen, closing. lipped, close-mouthed
Usage: once trust and confidence has been ruptured it can Antonyms: foolishly, stupidly, unthinkingly.
be difficult to regain Usage: we made some discreet inquiries

3). Rhetoric (Noun) – अलंकार शास्त्र 9). Obscuring (Verb) – अस्पष्ट करना
Definition: the art of effective or persuasive speaking or Definition: make unclear and difficult to understand.
writing, especially the exploitation of figures of speech and Synonyms: confuse, complicate, obfuscate, cloud, blur,
other compositional techniques. muddy
Synonyms: oratory, eloquence, power of speech, command Antonyms: clear, brighten, explain.
of language, expression Usage: the debate has become obscured by conflicting
Antonyms: quite, conciseness. ideological perspectives | |

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Antonyms: calm, easy, Kind.

10). Critiqued (Verb) – आलोचना करना Usage: a ruthless manipulator
Definition: evaluate (a theory or practice) in a detailed and
analytical way. 6). Perpetual (Adjective) – लगातार होना
Synonyms: Definition: occurring repeatedly; so frequent as to seem
analysis, evaluation, assessment, appraisal, appreciation, revi endless and uninterrupted.
ew, write-up Synonyms: interminable, incessant, ceaseless, endless,
Antonyms: unplanned, without respite, relentless, unrelenting
Usage: the authors critique the methods and practices used Antonyms: bounded, changeable.
in the research Usage: their perpetual money worries

Editorial 11-04-2018 7). Ethnic (Adjective) – संजातीय

1). Downright (Adjective) – सवणिा Definition: relating to a population subgroup (within a larger
Definition: (of something bad or unpleasant) utter; complete or dominant national or cultural group) with a common
(used for emphasis). national or cultural tradition.
Synonyms: complete, total, absolute, utter, thorough, perfect, Synonyms: racial, race-
out-and-out, outright related, ethnological, genetic, inherited
Antonyms: partial, anything but Usage: ethnic and cultural rights and traditions
Usage: it's a downright disgrace
8). Catastrophes (Noun) – आपदाओं
2). Coalition (Noun) – गठबंधन Definition: an event causing great and usually sudden
Definition: a temporary alliance for combined action, damage or suffering; a disaster.
especially of political parties forming a government. Synonyms: disaster, calamity, cataclysm, crisis, holocaust,
Synonyms: alliance, union, partnership, affiliation, bloc, ruin, ruination, tragedy, blow
caucus Antonyms: advantage, favour, miracle, joy.
Antonyms: division, separation, divorce. Usage: an environmental catastrophe
Usage: a coalition between Liberals and Conservatives
9). Obligation (Noun) – कतणव्य
3). Disastrous (Adjective) – तवनाशकारी Definition: a debt of gratitude for a service or favour.
Definition: causing great damage. Synonyms:
Synonyms: catastrophic, calamitous, cataclysmic, tragic contract, agreement, deed, covenant, bond, treaty, deal, pact,
Antonyms: advantage, good, happy. compact,
Usage: a disastrous fire swept through the museum understanding
Antonyms: asset, disbelief.
Usage: she didn't want to be under an obligation to him
4). Sectarian (Adjective) – संप्रदातयक
Definition: rigidly following the doctrines of a sect or other
group. 10). Verdict (Noun) – अतधमत
Synonyms: Definition: a decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal
factional, schismatic, cliquish, clannish, partisan, parti pris case or an inquest.
Antonyms: conformation, broad. Synonyms: judgement, adjudication, adjudgement, decision,
Usage: the sectarian Bolshevism advocated by Moscow finding, ruling, resolution
Usage: the jury returned a verdict of not guilty
5). Ruthless (Adjective) - िू र
Definition: having or showing no pity or compassion for 11). Admonished (Verb) – तधक्कारना
others. Definition: advise or urge (someone) earnestly.
Synonyms: merciless, pitiless, cruel, heartless, hard-
hearted, hard, stony-hearted, stony | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: Definition: make (an unpleasant feeling) less intense.

advise, recommend, urge, caution, warn, counsel, exhort, imp Synonyms: relieve, ease, alleviate, soothe, mitigate, dampen,
lore, allay, calm, palliate, abate
beseech, entreat Antonyms: aggravate, intensify.
Antonyms: allow. Usage: the letter assuaged the fears of most members
Usage: she admonished him to drink no more than one glass
of wine Editorial 12-04-2018
1). Blurry (Adjective) -- धुुँधली
12). Embarrassing (Verb) – शमणनाक होना Definition: perceived or remembered indistinctly.
Definition: cause (someone) to feel awkward, self-conscious, Synonyms: cloudy, fuzzy.
or ashamed. Antonyms: clear, transparent.
Synonyms: shame, humiliate, make ashamed, demean, abash Usage: there's a very blurry line between art and advertising
Antonyms: easy, helpful, uncomplicated.
Usage: she wouldn't embarrass either of them by making a
2). Xenophobic (Adjective) – जाततवाद, जातीयवादी
Definition: having or showing a dislike of or prejudice
against people from other countries.
13). Frustration (Noun) – कुं ठा, हताशा Synonyms: racist, racialist, ethnocentric, ethnocentrist
Definition: the feeling of being upset or annoyed as a result Antonyms: fair, nice, patience.
of being unable to change or achieve something Usage: xenophobic attitudes
exasperation, annoyance, anger, vexation, irritation, bitternes
3). Rhetoric (Noun) -- अलंकार शास्त्र
Definition: the art of effective or persuasive speaking or
writing, especially the exploitation of figures of speech and
Antonyms: advantage, aid, assistant.
other compositional techniques.
Usage: tears of frustration rolled down her cheeks
Synonyms: oratory, eloquence, power of speech, command
of language, expression
14). Litigation (Noun) -- मुकदमेबाजी Usage: he is using a common figure of rhetoric, hyperbole
Definition: the process of taking legal action.
Synonyms: legal proceeding(s), legal action, lawsuit, legal
4). Anointed (Verb) – अतभषेक करना
dispute, legal case, case, legal contest
Definition: smear or rub with oil, typically as part of a
Antonyms: unauthorized.
religious ceremony.
Usage: the company wishes to avoid litigation
Synonyms: smear with oil, rub with oil, apply oil to, spread
oil over
15). Reluctance (Noun) – अतनच्छा Usage: high priests were anointed with oil
Definition: unwillingness or disinclination to do something.
Synonyms: unwillingness, disinclination, lack of enthusiasm
5). Philanthropist (Noun) – लोकोपकारक
Antonyms: willingness, eagerness
Definition: a person who seeks to promote the welfare of
Usage: she sensed his reluctance to continue
others, especially by the generous donation of money to good
16). Ambiguity (Noun) – अस्पष्टता Synonyms:
Definition: the quality of being open to more than one benefactor, benefactress, humanitarian, patron, patroness, don
interpretation; inexactness. or,
Synonyms: ambivalence, equivocation contributor
Antonyms: unambiguousness, transparency Antonyms: opponent.
Usage: we can detect no ambiguity in this section of the Act Usage: the trust was founded by an American philanthropist

17). Assuaged (Verb) – आश्वासन देना,शांत करना 6). Conceived (Verb) -- कल्पना करना | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Definition: form or devise (a plan or idea) in the mind. Synonyms: separatist, dissenter, dissident, nonconformist,
Synonyms: think up, think of, come up with, dream up, draw free thinker, renegade, recusant
up, devise, form, formulate Antonyms: tolerance, fairness.
Antonyms: neglect, dislike, avoid. Usage: religious sectarianism
Usage: the dam project was originally conceived in 1977
Editorial 13-04-2018
7). Surreptitiously (Adverb) – चुपके से 1). Capitulated (Verb) – समपणर् करना
Definition: in a way that attempts to avoid notice or Definition: cease to resist an opponent or an unwelcome
attention; secretively. demand; yield.
Synonyms: Covertly, Secretly, Privately. Synonyms: surrender, give in, yield, admit defeat, concede
Antonyms: openly, publicly. defeat, give up the struggle, submit, back down
Usage: Mary surreptitiously slipped from the room Antonyms: defend, fight, win.
Usage: the patriots had to capitulate to the enemy forces
8). Throttling (Verb) – कु चलना
Definition: attack or kill (someone) by choking or strangling 2).Undermine (Verb) – कमजोर करना
them. Definition: erode the base or foundation of (a rock
Synonyms: formation).
choke, strangle, strangulate, garrotte, asphyxiate, smother, suf Synonyms: erode, wear away, eat away at, chip away,
focate, undercut erode,
stifle Antonyms: aid, assist.
Antonyms: help, free, let go. Usage: the flow of water had undermined pillars supporting
Usage: she was sorely tempted to throttle him the roof

9). Lairage (Noun) -- एक जगह जहां पशु या भेड़ बाजार या वध 3). Frayed (Verb) – अस्तव्यस्त होना
करने के रास्ते पर तवश्राम करते हैं Definition: unravel or become worn at the edge, typically
Definition: a place where cattle or sheep may be rested on through constant rubbing.
the way to market or slaughter. Synonyms: unravel, wear, wear thin, wear out, wear away,
Usage: Horses are in lairage. wear through, become worn
Antonyms: please, sew.
10). Stridently (Adverb) -- कोलाहलमय तरीके से Usage: cheap fabric soon frays
Definition: in an extremely forceful way.
Synonyms: clamorous, clashing, discordant, grating, harsh, 4). Scuffles (Noun) – हािापाई
jangling, jarring Definition: a short, confused fight or struggle at close
Antonyms: quiet, soft, low, mild. quarters.
Usage: I stridently opposed the policies of the government Synonyms:
fight, struggle, tussle, brawl, fracas, rumpus, melee, free-for-
11). Slaughtered (Verb) – हत्या करना all, rough and tumble
Definition: kill (people or animals) in a cruel or violent way, Antonyms: calm, peace, quiet.
typically in large numbers. Usage: there were minor scuffles with police
Synonyms: massacre, murder, butcher, kill, kill off,
annihilate, exterminate, execute, liquidate 5). Sheer (Adjective) – आनंद ही आनंद
Antonyms: create, construction. Definition: nothing other than; unmitigated (used for
Usage: innocent civilians are being slaughtered emphasis).
12). Sectarianism (Noun) – संप्रदायवाद utter, complete, absolute, total, pure, perfect, downright, out-
Definition: excessive attachment to a particular sect or party, and-out, thorough
especially in religion. Antonyms: heavy, slow, thick. | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Usage: she giggled with sheer delight 11). Chilling (Verb) -- द्रुतशीतन करना
Definition: horrify or frighten (someone).
6). Ambivalent (Adjective) – तववादस्पद Synonyms:
Definition: having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas scare, frighten, petrify, terrify, alarm, appal, disturb, disquiet,
about something or someone. unsettle
Synonyms: equivocal, uncertain, unsure, doubtful, Antonyms: warm, comfort.
indecisive, inconclusive, irresolute, in two minds Usage: the city was chilled by the violence
Antonyms: definite, sure, settled.
Usage: some loved her, some hated her, few were 12). Nomadic (Adjective) – खानाबदोश
ambivalent about her Definition: living the life of a nomad; wandering.
Synonyms: Pastoral, Peripatetic, wandering, drifting.
7). Flinging (Verb) – फैं क देना Antonyms: native, settle.
Definition: throw or hurl forcefully. Usage: nomadic herdsmen
throw, toss, sling, hurl, cast, pitch, lob, bowl, launch, flip, shy 13). Insinuation (Noun) – फु सलाव
, send, Definition: an unpleasant hint or suggestion of something
propel bad.
Antonyms: continue, keep, load. Synonyms:
Usage: he picked up the debris and flung it away implication, inference, suggestion, hint, intimation, imputatio
n, innuendo, reference
8). Inexplicable (Adjective) – अकिनीय Antonyms: conceal, hide.
Definition: unable to be explained or accounted for. Usage: I've done nothing to deserve all your vicious
Synonyms: insinuations
unaccountable, unexplainable, incomprehensible, unfathomab
le, 14). Anxieties (Noun) – व्यग्रता
impenetrable, insoluble Definition: a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about
Antonyms: usual, regular. something with an uncertain outcome.
Usage: for some inexplicable reason her mind went Synonyms: worry, concern, apprehension, apprehensiveness,
completely blank consternation, uneasiness
Antonyms: happy, joy, peaceful.
9). Extravaganza (Noun) -- अततकाल्पतनक Usage: he felt a surge of anxiety
Definition: an elaborate and spectacular entertainment or
production. 15). Tussle (Noun) – संघषण
Synonyms: Definition: a vigorous struggle or scuffle, typically in order
spectacular, display, spectacle, exhibition, performance, prese to obtain or achieve something.
ntation ,show Synonyms:
Antonyms: reality, truth, hining. scuffle, fight, struggle, skirmish, brawl, scrimmage, scramble
Usage: an extravaganza of dance in many forms , scrum,
10). Abduction (Noun) – अपहरर् Antonyms: peace, accord.
Definition: the action of forcibly taking someone away Usage: there was a tussle for the ball
against their will.
Synonyms: Rape, Seizure, Theft.
Editorial 14-04-2018
Antonyms: give, give up, release.
Usage: they organized the abduction of Mr Cordes on his 1). Obscure (Adjective) – अस्पष्ट
way to the airport Definition: not discovered or known about; uncertain.
Synonyms: unclear, uncertain, unknown, in doubt, doubtful,
dubious, mysterious, hazy | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Antonyms: famous, renowned Usage: the charity cares for destitute and deprived children
Usage: his origins and parentage are obscure
8). Pandering (Verb) – तलप्त होना
2). Carnage (Noun) – नरसंहार Definition: gratify or indulge (an immoral or distasteful
Definition: the killing of a large number of people. desire or taste or a person with such a desire or taste)
Synonyms: slaughter, massacre, mass murder, mass Synonyms: indulge, gratify, satisfy, cater to, give in
destruction, butchery, to, fulfil, yield to, bow newspapers are pandering to people's
bloodbath, indiscriminate baser instincts to, humour, please.
Antonyms: peace, joy. Antonyms: anger, deny, refuse.
Usage: the bombing was timed to cause as much carnage as Usage: newspapers are pandering to people's baser instincts
9). Clamour (Noun) – कोलाहल
3). Mishap (Noun) – दुघणिना Definition: a loud and confused noise, especially that of
Definition: an unlucky accident. people shouting.
Synonyms: Synonyms: din, racket, loud
accident, trouble, problem, difficulty, issue, setback, reverse, noise, uproar, tumult, babel, shouting, yelling, screaming
adversity Antonyms: silence, peace.
Antonyms: proof, certainty, boon. Usage: the questions rose to a clamour
Usage: although there were a few minor mishaps, none of
the pancakes stuck to the ceiling 10). Discernible (Adjective) – स्पष्ट
Definition: able to be discerned; perceptible.
4). Blips (Noun) – झिका Synonyms: visible, detectable, noticeable, perceptible,
Definition: an unexpected, minor, and typically temporary observable, perceivable, distinguishable
deviation from a general trend. Antonyms: Discernible
Synonyms: blow, shock Usage: the scandal had no discernible effect on his career
Usage: the Chancellor dismissed rising inflation as a blip
Editorial 16-04-2018
5). Ghastly (Adjective) – भयानक 1). Vestige (Noun) – अवशेष
Definition: causing great horror or fear. Definition: a trace or remnant of something that is
Synonyms: terrible, frightful, horrible, grim, awful, dire disappearing or no longer exists
Antonyms: good, beautiful. Synonyms:
Usage: one of the most ghastly crimes ever committed remnant, remainder, fragment, relic, echo, indication, sign, tr
6). Amendments (Noun) – संशोधन Antonyms: information, lot.
Definition: a minor change or addition designed to improve a Usage: the last vestiges of colonialism
text, piece of legislation
Synonyms: revision, alteration, change, modification, 2). Allure (Noun) – लुभाना
qualification, adaptation, adjustment Definition: the quality of being powerfully and mysteriously
Antonyms: damage, harm, hurt. attractive or fascinating.
Usage: an amendment to existing bail laws Synonyms: attraction, lure, draw, pull, appeal, glamour,
allurement, enticement
7). Deprived (Adjective) – वंतचत Antonyms: repulsion, opposition.
Definition: suffering a severe and damaging lack of basic Usage: people for whom gold holds no allure
material and cultural benefits.
Synonyms: disadvantaged, underprivileged, poverty- 3). Frontrunner (Noun) – प्रततयोगी
stricken, impoverished, poor, destitute Definition: the contestant that is leading in a race or other
Antonyms: rich, wealthy. competition. | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: competitor, favourite, rival, contender, favourite, 9). Flouted (Verb) – उल्लंघन करना
competition, challenger. Definition: openly disregard (a rule, law, or convention).
Antonyms: dislike, unwilling. Synonyms: defy, refuse to obey, go against, rebel
Usage: the front runner for the presidential nomination against, scorn, disdain, show contempt for.
Antonyms: observe, follow.
4). Unprecedented (Adjective) – अभूतपूवण Usage: the advertising code is being flouted
Definition: never done or known before.
Synonyms: 10). Chant (Noun) – मंत्र जाप करना
unparalleled, unequalled, unmatched, unrivalled, without Definition: a repeated rhythmic phrase, typically one shouted
parallel, without equal. or sung in unison by a crowd.
Antonyms: normal, common. Synonyms: shout, cry, slogan, rallying call, war
Usage: the government took the unprecedented step of cry, chorus, chanting
releasing confidential correspondence Antonyms: happy, joy.
Usage: a group of young people set up a chant of ‘Why are
5). Aberration (Noun) – तवपिन we waiting?
Definition: a departure from what is normal, usual, or
expected, typically an unwelcome one. 11). Bravado (Noun) – साहस
Synonyms: anomaly, deviation, divergence, abnormality, Definition: a bold manner or a show of boldness intended to
irregularity, variation, digression, freak impress or intimidate.
Antonyms: usual, regular, normal. Synonyms: boldness, bold
Usage: they described the outbreak of violence in the area as manner, swagger, swaggering, bluster, swashbuckling
an aberration Antonyms: modesty, fear
Usage: he possesses none of the classic wheeler-dealer's
6). Devastating (Adjective) – भयानक casual bravado
Definition: causing severe shock, distress, or grief.
Synonyms: 12). Monstrous (Adjective) – राक्षसी
shattering, shocking, traumatic, overwhelming, crushing, extr Definition: having the ugly or frightening appearance of a
emely upsetting monster.
Antonyms: casual, fortunate. Synonyms: grotesque, hideous, ugly, ghastly, gruesome,
Usage: the news came as a devastating blow horrible, horrid, horrific
Antonyms: lovely, beautiful, normal
7). Ascertain (Verb) – पता लगाना Usage: monstrous, bug-eyed fish
Definition: find (something) out for certain; make sure of.
Synonyms: find out, discover, get/come to know, work 13). Brute (Noun) – जानवर
out, make out, fathom (out), become aware of. Definition: a savagely violent man or animal.
Antonyms: disprove, assist, confuse. Synonyms:
Usage: an attempt to ascertain the cause of the accident savage, beast, monster, animal, sadist, barbarian, devil, demo
n, fiend
8). Requisite (Adjective) – अपेतक्षत Antonyms: gentle, mild, weak.
Definition: made necessary by particular circumstances or Usage: he was a cold-blooded brute
Synonyms: necessary, required, prerequisite, essential, 14). Misery (Noun) – दुुःख,संकि
indispensable, vital Definition: a state or feeling of great physical or mental
Antonyms: optional, unnecessary, non-essential distress or discomfort.
Usage: the application will not be processed until the Synonyms:
requisite fee is paid unhappiness, distress, wretchedness, hardship, suffering, affli
ction, | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

anguish, anxiety 6). Bluster (Verb) – धमकाना

Antonyms: contentment, pleasure Definition: talk in a loud, aggressive, or indignant way with
Usage: a man who had brought her nothing but misery little effect.
Synonyms: rant, thunder; boast, brag, swagger
Editorial 17-04-2018 Antonyms: quiet, silent.
1). Bracing (Adjective) – ताजा और सशि Usage: you threaten and bluster, but won't carry it through
Definition: fresh and invigorating.
Synonyms: 7). Glut (Noun) – भरमार
invigorating, refreshing, stimulating, energizing, exhilarating, Definition: an excessively abundant supply of something.
enlivening, Synonyms:
revivin surplus, excess, surfeit, superfluity, overabundance, superabu
Antonyms: warm, hot, responsive. ndance
Usage: the bracing sea air Antonyms: dearth, scarcity
Usage: there is a glut of cars on the market
2). Peers (Verb) – तनकि / इमानदारी से देखना
Definition: look with difficulty or concentration at someone 8). Allying (Verb) – जोड़ना
or something. Definition: combine or unite a resource or commodity with
Synonyms: squint, look closely/earnestly, try to see, look (another) for mutual benefit.
through narrowed eyes, narrow one's eye Synonyms: combine, marry, couple, merge, amalgamate,
Antonyms: clear, broad minded. join, pool, fuse
Usage: Faye peered at her with suspicion Antonyms: away, far, unalike.
Usage: he allied his racing experience with his father's
3). Bruising (Verb) – परे शान करना या अपमान करना business acumen
Definition: hurt (someone's feelings).
Synonyms: 9). Reluctant (Adjective) -- अतनच्छु क
upset, offend, insult, affront, hurt, wound, pain, injure, crush, Definition: unwilling and hesitant; disinclined.
displease, Synonyms:
peeve unwilling, disinclined, unenthusiastic, grudging, resistant, res
Antonyms: heel, aid, help. isting,
Usage: she tried to bolster her bruised pride opposed
Antonyms: careless, bold.
4). Fallout (Noun) – पटरर्ाम Usage: today, many ordinary people are still reluctant to talk
Definition: the adverse results of a situation or action. about politics
Synonyms: outgrowth, consequence, offshoot.
Antonyms: suppress, decrease. 10). Ostensibly (Adverb) – प्रकि रूप से
Usage: he's prepared to take calculated risks regardless of Definition: as appears or is stated to be true, though not
political fallout necessarily so; apparently.
Synonyms: apparently, seemingly, on the face of it, to all
5). Manoeuvre (Noun) -- पैंतरे बाजी appearances, on the surface Antonyms: unlikely,
Definition: carefully guide or manipulate (someone or improbably.
something) in order to achieve an end. Usage: the party secretary resigned, ostensibly from ill
Synonyms: intrigue, plot, scheme, plan, lay health
plans, conspire, pull strings
Antonyms: 11). Credentials (Noun) – दस्तावेज
operation, exercise, activity, move, movement, action Definition: a qualification, achievement, quality, or aspect of
Usage: they were manoeuvring him into betraying his friend a person's background, especially when used to indicate their
suitability for something. | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: documents, papers, identity Synonyms: terrible, frightful, horrible, grim, awful, dire
papers, identification papers, bona fides Antonyms: beautiful, good, delight.
Antonyms: disapprove, refuse. Usage: one of the most ghastly crimes ever committed
Usage: recruitment is based mainly on academic credentials
7). Outcry (Noun) – तचल्लाहि
EDITORIAL 18-04-2018 Definition: a strong expression of public disapproval or
1). Procurement (Noun) – खरीद anger.
Definition: the action of obtaining or procuring something. Synonyms: complaints, howls of protest, objections,
Synonyms: acquisition, acquirement, appropriation, indignation, furore, clamour, clamouring
attainment Antonyms: great, nice, pleasant.
Antonyms: fail, forfeit. Usage: the public outcry over the bombing
Usage: financial assistance for the procurement of legal
advice 8). Dichotomy (Noun) – तवभाजन
Definition: a division or contrast between two things that are
2). Unremunerative (Adjective) -- अलाभकारी or are represented as being opposed or entirely different.
Definition: bringing little or no profit or income. Synonyms: division, separation, divorce, split, gulf, chasm
Synonyms: Profitless, nonprofit, worthless Antonyms: agreement, likenes.
Antonyms: benefit, gain, profit. Usage: a rigid dichotomy between science and mysticism
Usage: unremunerative research work
9). Vengeful (Adjective) – तामतसक
3). Clamour (Noun) – कोलाहल Definition: seeking to harm someone in return for a
Definition: a loud and confused noise, especially that of perceived injury.
people shouting. Synonyms: vindictive, revengeful, out for revenge, avenging,
Synonyms: din, racket, loud noise, uproar, tumult, babel, unforgiving, resentful
shouting, yelling, screaming Antonyms: agreeable, kind, nice.
Antonyms: peace, silence. Usage: a vengeful ex-con
Usage: the questions rose to a clamour
10). Clamoured (Verb) – शोर मचाना
4). Evoked (Verb) – मन में आना Definition: (of a group of people) shout loudly and
Definition: bring or recall (a feeling, memory, or image) to insistently.
the conscious mind. Synonyms: yell, shout loudly, bay, scream, shriek, roar
Synonyms: bring to mind, call to mind, put one in mind of, Antonyms: silence, calm.
call up, conjure up, summon up Usage: the surging crowds clamoured for attention
Antonyms: forgot.
Usage: the sight evoked pleasant memories of his childhood 11). Arbitrariness (Noun) – मनमानापन
Definition: the quality of being based on random choice or
5). Outrage (Noun) – आिोश personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
Definition: an extremely strong reaction of anger, shock, or Synonyms: random, irrational, irresponsible.
indignation. Antonyms: democratic, accountable, radical.
Synonyms: Usage: disparate peoples were forced together by the
indignation, fury, anger, rage, disapproval, wrath, shock, rese arbitrariness of a colonial map-maker's pen
ntment, horror
Antonyms: favour, like, wish, honour. 12). Penitence (Noun) – तोबा, पछतावा
Usage: her voice trembled with outrage Definition: the action of feeling or showing sorrow and
regret for having done wrong; repentance.
6). Ghastly (Adjective) – भयंकर रूप से
Definition: causing great horror or fear. | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: Synonyms: imprisonment, internment, confinement,

repentance, contrition, compunction, regret, remorse, remorse detention, custody, captivity, restraint
fulness Antonyms: freedom, free.
Antonyms: approval, comfort, happiness. Usage: the public would not be served by her incarceration
Usage: a public display of penitence
6). Perpetrators (Noun) – अपरातधयों
Editorial 19-04-2018 Definition: a person who carries out a harmful, illegal, or
1). Acquittal (Noun) – तनदोष बयान immoral act.
Definition: a judgement or verdict that a person is not guilty Synonyms: The criminal, Offender, the delinquent
of the crime with which they have been charged. Usage: the perpetrators of this horrific crime must be
Synonyms: brought to justice
absolution, clearing, exoneration, exculpation, declaration of
innocence 7). Bolstered (Verb) – बल तमलना
Antonyms: blame, hold. Definition: support or strengthen.
Usage: the trial resulted in an acquittal Synonyms: strengthen, support, reinforce, make
stronger, boost, fortify, give a boost to
2). Cynicism (Noun) – कु टिलता Antonyms: undermine.
Definition: an inclination to believe that people are Usage: the fall in interest rates is starting to bolster
motivated purely by self-interest; scepticism. confidence
scepticism, doubt, distrust, mistrust, doubtfulness, suspicion, 8). Inevitable (adjective) – अपटरहायण, अतनवायण
disbelief, Definition: certain to happen; unavoidable.
incredulity Synonyms: unavoidable, inescapable, bound to happen, sure
Antonyms: belief, certainty, faith. to happen, inexorable
Usage: public cynicism about politics Antonyms: avoidable, uncertain
Usage: war was inevitable
3). Prosecuting (Verb) – क़ानूनी कारवाई करना
Definition: institute legal proceedings in respect of (a claim 9). Irresolute (Adjective) – अतनतित, अस्िायी
or offence). Definition: showing or feeling hesitancy; uncertain.
Synonyms: take to court, bring/institute legal proceedings Synonyms: indecisive, hesitant, tentative, nervous, weak
against, bring an action against, take legal action against Antonyms: decisive, judgement.
Antonyms: free, stop, cease. Usage: she stood irresolute outside his door
Usage: the state's attorney's office seemed to decide that this
was a case worth prosecuting 10). Replenishing (Verb) – भरपाई
Definition: restore (a stock or supply) to a former level or
4). Shattered (Verb) – तबखर जाना condition.
Definition: break or cause to break suddenly and violently Synonyms: stock up, restock, restore, fill up, make up
into pieces. Antonyms: empty, exhaust, use up
Synonyms: smash, smash to smithereens, break, break into Usage: all creatures need sleep to replenish their energies
pieces, burst, blow out
Antonyms: joint, merge, combain. 11). Throes (Noun) – व्यिा
Usage: bullets riddled the bar top, glasses shattered, bottles Definition: intense or violent pain and struggle, especially
exploded accompanying birth, death, or great change.
Synonyms: agony, pain, paroxysm, pangs, suffering, torture,
5). Incarceration (Noun) – कै द कर देना torment, anguish, distress, hardship
Definition: the state of being confined in prison; Antonyms: comfort, health, order.
imprisonment. Usage: he convulsed in his death throes | |

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12). Reluctant (Adjective) -- अतनच्छु क 1). Manifestation (Noun) -- अतभव्यति

Definition: unwilling and hesitant; disinclined. Definition: an event, action, or object that clearly shows or
Synonyms: embodies something abstract or theoretical
unwilling, disinclined, unenthusiastic, grudging, resistant, res Synonyms: display, demonstration, showing, show,
isting, exhibition, presentation
opposed Antonyms: concealment, realty.
Antonyms: Usage: the manifestation of anxiety over disease
Usage: today, many ordinary people are still reluctant to talk
about politics 2). Spurt (Verb) – उछालना
Definition: gush out in a sudden and forceful stream.
13). Deploy (Verb) – तैनात करना Synonyms: squirt, shoot, spray, fountain, jet, erupt; gush
Definition: move (troops or equipment) into position for Antonyms: peace, continuity.
military action. Usage: he cut his finger, and blood spurted over the sliced
Synonyms: potatoes
position, station, post, place, install, locate, situate, site, estab
lish 3). Replenish (Verb) – क्रफर से भरना
Antonyms: stable, bold, permanamt. Definition: fill (something) up again
Usage: forces were deployed at strategic locations Synonyms: refill, top up, fill up, recharge, reload; freshen
Antonyms: damage, empty, null.
14). Gambit (Noun) – कपि Usage: he replenished Justin's glass with mineral water
Definition: an act or remark that is calculated to gain an
advantage, especially at the outset of a situation. 4). Abound (Verb) -- प्रचुर मात्रा में होना
Synonyms: Definition: exist in large numbers or amounts
stratagem, machination, scheme, plan, tactic, manoeuvre, mo Synonyms: be plentiful, be abundant, be numerous,
ve, course of action proliferate
Antonyms: honesty, frankness. Antonyms: fail, lack, small.
Usage: his resignation was a tactical gambit Usage: rumors of a further scandal abound

15). Hoarding (Noun) – जमाखोरी 5). Gambit (Noun) – पहला कदम

Definition: a temporary board fence erected round a building Definition: an act or remark that is calculated to gain an
site. advantage
Synonyms: store, store up, stock up on, stockpile, put aside, Synonyms: machination, scheme, plan, tactic, manoeuvre,
put by, put away, lay by, lay in, lay up, set aside, stow away, move
buy up, cache Antonyms: random, approximate.
Antonyms: squander. Usage: his resignation was a tactical gambit
Usage: thousands of antiques hoarded by a compulsive
collector 6). Perpetuate (Verb) – अतवरत बनाना
Definition: make (something) continue indefinitely
16). Perpetuating (Verb) – कायम रखना Synonyms: keep alive, keep going, keep in existence,
Definition: make (something) continue indefinitely. preserve, conserve
Synonyms: keep alive, keep going, keep in Antonyms: halt, stop, end.
existence, preserve, conserve, sustain, maintain Usage: the confusion was perpetuated through inadvertence
Antonyms: temporary, not stable.
Usage: the confusion was perpetuated through inadvertence 7). Opaque (Adjective) -- अपारदशी
Definition: not able to be seen through; not transparent
Editorial 20-04-2018 | |
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Synonyms: non-transparent, cloudy, filmy, blurred, smeared, Synonyms: oppression, victimization, maltreatment, ill
hazy treatment, mistreatment
Antonyms: bright, transparent, smart. Antonyms: happiness, joy.
Usage: bottles filled with a pale opaque liquid Usage: her family fled religious persecution

8). Revamp (Adjective) – सुधार 4). Hazardous (Adjective) – खतरनाक

Definition: give new and improved form, structure, or Definition: risky; dangerous
appearance to Synonyms: dangerous, risky, unsafe, perilous, precarious,
Synonyms: renovate, redecorate, refurbish, recondition, insecure, tricky
rehabilitate, rebuild Antonyms: beneficiary, healthy good.
Antonyms: break, damage, destroy. Usage: we work in hazardous conditions
Usage: an attempt to revamp the museum's image
5). Succour (Noun) – परे शानी में सहायता देना
9). Ambit (Noun) -- सीमा Definition: assistance and support in times of hardship and
Definition: the scope, extent, or bounds of something distress
Synonyms: scope, extent, bounds, confines, limits, range, Synonyms: aid, help, a helping hand, assistance;
breadth, width, reach, sweep, purview, span, stretch ministration, comfort, ease
Antonyms: no limit, infinity. Antonyms: obstruction, hurt.
Usage: a full discussion of this complex issue was beyond Usage: the wounded had little chance of succour
the ambit of one book
6). Conducive (Adjective) – अनुकूल
10). Redound (Verb) – सहायता देना Definition: making a certain situation or outcome likely or
Definition: contribute greatly to (a person's credit or honour) possible.
Synonyms: contribute to, be conducive to, result in, lead to, Synonyms: good for, helpful to, instrumental in, calculated
effect to produce, productive of
Antonyms: source. Antonyms: useless, worthless, adverse.
Usage: his latest diplomatic effort will redound to his credit Usage: the harsh lights and cameras were hardly conducive
to a relaxed atmosphere

Editorial 21-04-2018 7). Surmise (Verb) – अनुमान लगाना

1). Ancestry (Noun) – पुरखे Definition: suppose that something is true without having
Definition: one's family or ethnic descent. evidence to confirm it.
Synonyms: ancestors, forebears, forefathers, progenitors Synonyms: guess, conjecture, suspect, deduce, infer, come to
Antonyms: origin, end, result. the conclusion, conclude
Usage: he was proud of his Irish ancestry Antonyms: fact, proof, truth, certainty.
Usage: he surmised that something must be wrong
2). Repatriate (Verb) – क्रकसीको अपने देश में भेज देना
Definition: send (someone) back to their own country. 8). Entail (Adjective) – आवश्यक
Synonyms: intromit, admit, let in, allow in Definition: involve (something) as a necessary or inevitable
Antonyms: refugee. part or consequence.
Usage: the last German POWs were repatriated in Synonyms: necessitate, make necessary, require, need,
November 1948 demand, call for; presuppose
Antonyms: exclude, untangle, untwist.
Usage: a situation which entails considerable risks
3). Persecution (Noun) -- जुल्म
Definition: hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of
race or political or religious beliefs 9). Arbitrary (Adjective) – मनमाना | |

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Definition: based on random choice or personal whim, rather Usage: she was simmering with resentment
than any reason or system
Synonyms: capricious, whimsical, random, chance, erratic, 5). Ramifications (Noun) – पटरर्ाम
unpredictable, inconsistent Definition: a complex or unwelcome consequence of an
Antonyms: rational, reasoned action or event.
Usage: an arbitrary decision Synonyms: consequence, result, aftermath, outcome, effect,
upshot, issue, sequel
10). Proximity (Noun) – तनकिता Antonyms: source, origin, cause.
Definition: nearness in space, time, or relationship Usage: any change is bound to have legal ramifications
Synonyms: closeness, nearness, presence, juxtaposition,
propinquity, adjacency 6). Insinuations (Noun) – फु सलाव
Antonyms: distance, remoteness. Definition: an unpleasant hint or suggestion of something
Usage: do not operate microphones in close proximity to bad.
television sets Synonyms:
implication, inference, suggestion, hint, intimation, imputatio
Editorial 23-04-2018 n,
innuendo, reference
1). Confrontation (Noun) – आमना- सामना
Antonyms: conceal, leave alone, hide.
Definition: a hostile or argumentative situation or meeting
Usage: I've done nothing to deserve all your vicious
between opposing parties.
Synonyms: conflict, clash, brush, fight, battle, contest,
encounter, head-to-head, face-off
7). Bribery (Noun) -- टरश्वतखोरी
Antonyms: agreement, calm, peace.
Definition: the giving or offering of a bribe.
Usage: a confrontation with the legislature
Synonyms: corruption, subornation.
Antonyms: mortality, probity, frankness.
2). Impeach (Verb) – प्रभातवत करना
Usage: his opponent had been guilty of bribery and
Definition: call into question the integrity or validity of (a
Synonyms: challenge, question, call into question, cast doubt
8). Prerogative (Noun) -- परमातधकार
on, raise doubts about
Antonyms: absolve, exonerate, answer. Definition: a right or privilege exclusive to a particular
individual or class.
Usage: there is no desire to impeach the privileges of the
House of Commons Synonyms:
entitlement, right, privilege, advantage, due, birthright
Antonyms: duty, obligation.
3). Dissent (Noun) – असहमत होना
Usage: in some countries, higher education is predominantly
Definition: the holding or expression of opinions at variance
the prerogative of the rich
with those commonly or officially held.
Synonyms: disagreement, lack of agreement, difference of
9). Perceived (Verb) – कतित होना
opinion, argument, dispute, demur
Antonyms: agree, assent Definition: become aware or conscious of (something); come
to realize or understand.
Usage: there was no dissent from this view
Synonyms: discern, recognize, become cognizant
of, become aware of, become conscious of
4). Simmering (Verb) – िोतधत होना
Antonyms: disbelieve, disregard, ignore, miss,
Definition: show or feel barely suppressed anger or other
strong emotion.
Usage: his mouth fell open as he perceived the truth
Synonyms: be furious, be enraged, be angry, be incensed, be
infuriated, be beside oneself
10). Rift (Noun) – अनबन
Antonyms: be happy, cool, soothe, freeze. | |
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Definition: a crack, split, or break in something.

Synonyms: Editorial 24-04-2018
crack, fault, flaw, split, break, breach, fissure, fracture, cleft,
1). Authoritarianism (Noun) – अतधनायकवाद
Definition: favouring or enforcing strict obedience to
gap, cranny, slit
authority at the expense of personal freedom.
Antonyms: closure, closing, continuation, solid, agreement,
autocratic, dictatorial, totalitarian, despotic, tyrannical, autarc
Usage: the wind had torn open a rift in the clouds
draconian, absolute
11). Imperil (Verb) – संकि में डालना Antonyms: democratic, liberal, lenient, permissive
Definition: put at risk of being harmed, injured, or destroyed. Usage: the transition from an authoritarian to a democratic
Synonyms: endanger, jeopardize, risk, put at risk, put in regime
danger, expose to danger, put in jeopardy
Antonyms: help, risk, hazard, risk.
2). Plebiscite (Noun) – जनमत-संग्रह
Usage: they advised against tax increases for fear of
Definition: the direct vote of all the members of an electorate
imperilling the recovery
on an important public question such as a change in the
12). Dispensed (Verb) – समाप्त करना Synonyms: vote, referendum, ballot, poll
Definition: distribute or provide (a service or information) to Usage: the administration will hold a plebiscite for the
a number of people. approval of constitutional reforms
Synonyms: distribute, pass round, pass out, hand out, deal
out, dole out, share out, divide out
3). Detention (Noun) – नजरबंदी
Antonyms: Collect, Include, keep.
Definition: the action of detaining someone or the state of
Usage: orderlies went round dispensing drinks
being detained in official custody.
13). Charm (Noun) – मोहकता custody, imprisonment, confinement, incarceration, internme
Definition: the power or quality of delighting, attracting, or nt, captivity, restraint, arrest
fascinating others. Antonyms: aid, custody, delay, help.
Synonyms: Usage: the fifteen people arrested were still in police
attractiveness, beauty, glamour, prettiness, loveliness detention
Antonyms: Unattractiveness, repel.
Usage: he was captivated by her youthful charm
4). Soaring (Verb) – तेजी से वृति
Definition: increase rapidly above the usual level.
14). Bolstered (Verb) – बल तमलना Synonyms: increase rapidly, shoot up, rise
Definition: support or strengthen. rapidly, escalate, spiral upwards
Synonyms: strengthen, support, reinforce, make Antonyms: decrease, drop, decline, fall.
stronger, boost, fortify, give a boost to Usage: the cost of living continued to soar
Antonyms: Week, glassy, fullness.
Usage: the fall in interest rates is starting to bolster
5). Averting (Verb) – िालना
Definition: turn away (one's eyes or thoughts).
Synonyms: turn aside, turn away, turn to one side
15). Egalitarian (Adjective) – समतावादी Antonyms: aid, assist, help.
Definition: believing in or based on the principle that all Usage: she averted her eyes while we made stilted
people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. conversation
Synonyms: democratic, equitable, impartial, just, unbiased
Antonyms: snob, snoot.
6). Cite (Verb) -- सराहना
Usage: a fairer, more egalitarian society | |

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Definition: praise (someone, typically a member of the Usage: an emerald and gold cross was salvaged from the
armed forces) in an official report for a courageous act. wreck
Synonyms: commend, pay tribute to, praise, recognize, give
recognition to 12). Manoeuvring (Verb) – पैंतरे बाजी करना
Antonyms: conceal, deny, take, withhold, forget. Definition: move skilfully or carefully.
Usage: he has been cited many times for his contributions in Synonyms: steer, guide, drive, negotiate, navigate, pilot,
the intelligence area direct, manipulate, move
Antonyms: ignorance, inaction, stoppage, honesty.
7). Prelude (Noun) – प्रस्ताव Usage: the lorry was unable to manoeuvre comfortably in
Definition: an action or event serving as an introduction to the narrow street
something more important.
Synonyms: 13). Beleaguered (Verb) – परे शान होना
preliminary, overture, opening, preparation, introduction, star Definition: put in a very difficult situation.
t, beginning Synonyms: hard-pressed, troubled, in difficulties, under
Antonyms: Conclusion, postscript. pressure, under stress, with one's back to
Usage: a ceasefire had been agreed as a prelude to full peace Antonyms: assist, aid, make happy, assist.
negotiations Usage: the board is supporting the beleaguered director

8). Enclave (Noun) -- अलग,तवतशष्ट 14). Viable (Adjective) – व्यवहायण

Definition: a place or group that is different in character Definition: capable of working successfully; feasible.
from those surrounding it. Synonyms: workable, feasible, practicable, practical,
Synonyms: distinct, vary, different. applicable, usable, manageable, operable, operational,
Antonyms: same, similar, alike, close, near, homogeneous. possible
Usage: the engineering department is traditionally a male Antonyms: impracticable, impossible, unfeasible.
enclave Usage: the proposed investment was economically viable

9). Insurgency (Noun) – तवद्रोह Editorial 25-04-2018

Definition: an active revolt or uprising.
1). Delineate (Verb) – तचतत्रत करना
Synonyms: activist, protest, radical, rebel.
Definition: describe or portray (something) precisely.
Antonyms: loyal, government
Synonyms: describe, set forth, set out, present, outline,
Usage: rebels are waging an armed insurgency to topple the
depict, portray, represent
Antonyms: Confuse, Distort.
Usage: the law should delineate and prohibit behaviour
10). Dissent (Noun) – असहमत होना which is socially abhorrent
Definition: the holding or expression of opinions at variance
with those commonly or officially held.
2). Contours (Noun) – आकृ तत
Synonyms: disagreement, lack of agreement, difference of
Definition: an outline representing or bounding the shape or
opinion, argument, dispute
form of something.
Antonyms: assent, agree, accept
Synonyms: outline, shape, form
Usage: there was no dissent from this view
Antonyms: Core, Affection, Centre.
Usage: she traced the contours of his face with her finger
11). Salvage (Verb) – उबार
Definition: rescue (a wrecked or disabled ship or its cargo)
3). Conjecture (Noun) – अनुमान
from loss at sea.
Definition: an opinion or conclusion formed on the basis of
Synonyms: rescue, save, recover, retrieve, raise, reclaim, get
incomplete information.
Antonyms: lose, forfeit, harm, hurt, abandon.
guess, speculation, surmise, fancy, notion, belief, suspicion | |
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Antonyms: fact, truth, known. Usage: the player can expect a suspension for his latest
Usage: conjectures about the newcomer were many and misdemeanour
10). Consternation (Noun) – तनराशा
4). Signatories (Noun) -- हस्ताक्षरकताण Definition: a feeling of anxiety or dismay, typically at
Definition: a party that has signed an agreement, especially a something unexpected.
state that has signed a treaty. Synonyms: dismay, perturbation, anxiety, distress, disquiet,
Synonyms: witness, certifier, oath. disquietude, discomposure
Usage: Britain is a signatory to the convention Antonyms: Calm, Composure, Confidence, Peaceful.
Usage: to her consternation her car wouldn't start
5). Veracity (Noun) – सच्चाई
Definition: conformity to facts; accuracy. 11). Defunct (Adjective) – अनुपयोगी
Synonyms: Definition: no longer existing or functioning.
truthfulness, truth, accuracy, accurateness, correctness, exact Synonyms: disused, no longer in use, unused, inoperative,
ness non-functioning, unusable
Antonyms: falsehood, unfairness, deceit. Antonyms: working, extant, alive, living
Usage: officials expressed doubts concerning the veracity of Usage: the now defunct Somerset & Dorset railway line
the story
12). Crawling (Verb) -- रें गने
6). Indelible (Adjective) – अतमि Definition: behave obsequiously or ingratiatingly in the hope
Definition: making marks that cannot be removed. of gaining someone's favour.
Synonyms: Synonyms: grovel to, be obsequious towards, ingratiate
ineradicable, inerasable, ineffaceable, unexpungeable, indestr oneself with, be servile towards, be sycophantic towards
uctible, permanent Antonyms: oppose, disagreement.
Antonyms: Temporary, erasable, eradicable. Usage: a reporter's job can involve crawling to objectionable
Usage: an indelible marker pen people

7). Promulgation (Verb) – प्रचार Editorial 26-04-2018

Definition: to make known by open declaration 1). Ambit (Noun) – सीमा
Synonyms: publish; proclaim formally or put into operation Definition: the scope, extent, or bounds of something.
Antonyms: hide, keep secrete, keep quiet, collect. Synonyms: Circut, scope, range, reach.
Usage: Modi promulgated a new order. Antonyms: No limit, without end.
Usage: a full discussion of this complex issue was beyond
8). Absconding (Verb) – फरार होना the ambit of one book
Definition: leave hurriedly and secretly, typically to escape
from custody or avoid arrest. 2). Abrogating (Verb) -- अतभतनषेध करना
Synonyms: run away, escape, bolt, clear out, flee, make off, Definition: repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal
take flight, take off, fly, decamp agreement).
Antonyms: wait, remains, joint, appear. Synonyms:
Usage: the barman absconded with a week's takings repudiate, revoke, repeal, rescind, overturn, overrule, overrid
e, do away with
9). Misdemeanours (Noun) – दुष्कमण Antonyms: institute, introduce
Definition: a minor wrongdoing. Usage: a proposal to abrogate temporarily the right to strike
Synonyms: wrongdoing, evil deed, crime, felony, criminal
act 3). Brunt (Noun) – आघात
Antonyms: goodness, loyal, trustable. Definition: the worst part or chief impact of a specified
action. | |
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Synonyms: full force, force, impact, shock, burden, pressure, Definition: inspiring fear or respect through being
strain, stress, impetus, thrust impressively large, powerful, intense, or capable.
Antonyms: ease, peace, relaxation. Synonyms:
Usage: education will bear the brunt of the cuts intimidating, forbidding, redoubtable, daunting, alarming, fri
ghtening, terrifying, petrifying
4). Sacrosanct (Adjective) – पुण्यमय Antonyms: pleasant-looking, comforting, easy, weak
Definition: (especially of a principle, place, or routine) Usage: a formidable opponent
regarded as too important or valuable to be interfered with.
Synonyms: 11). Guerrillas (Noun) – छापामारों
sacred, hallowed, respected, inviolable, inviolate, unimpeach Definition: a member of a small independent group taking
able, part in irregular fighting, typically against larger regular
unchallengeable forces.
Antonyms: violable, impeachable. Synonyms: freedom fighter, underground fighter, irregular
Usage: the individual's right to work has been upheld as soldier, irregular, resistance fighter
sacrosanct Usage: this town fell to the guerrillas

5). Repealed (Verb) – तनरस्त कर देना 12). Limbo (Noun) – अपूर्ण

Definition: revoke or annul (a law or act of parliament). Definition: an uncertain period of awaiting a decision or
Synonyms: resolution; an intermediate state or condition.
revoke, rescind, cancel, reverse, abrogate, annul, nullify, decl Synonyms: in abeyance, unattended
are null and void to, unfinished, incomplete
Antonyms: introduce, enact, ratify Antonyms: in hand, under way, continuing
Usage: the legislation was repealed five months later Usage: the legal battle could leave the club in limbo until
next year
6). Insurgency (Noun) --- तवद्रोह
Definition: an active revolt or uprising. 13). Cynical (Adjective) -- संशयी
Synonyms: revolt, uprising, defiance, dissent. Definition: doubtful as to whether something will happen or
Antonyms: calm, obedience, peace, orthodoxy. whether it is worthwhile.
Usage: rebels are waging an armed insurgency to topple the Synonyms:
monarchy sceptical, doubtful, distrustful, suspicious, disbelieving, unbel
7). Apparatchik (Noun) – सदस्य Scoffing
Definition: a member of a Communist Party apparat. Antonyms: optimistic, credulous
Usage: old apparatchiks have given way to the Russian Usage: most residents are cynical about efforts to clean
government's young reformers mobsters out of their city

9). Bureaucratic (Adjective) – नौकरशाही Editorial 28-04-2018

Definition: relating to a system of government in which most 1). Bloated (Verb) – फू ला हुआ
of the important decisions are taken by state officials rather Definition: swollen with fluid or gas.
than by elected representatives. Synonyms: swollen, puffed up/out, blown up, distended,
Synonyms: administrative, official, procedural, red-tape, inflated, enlarged
governmental, ministerial, state Antonyms: shrunken, became small.
Antonyms: simple, unofficial. Usage: he had a bloated, unshaven face
Usage: well-established bureaucratic procedures
2). Exemplified (Verb) – उदाहरर् देना
10). Formidable (Adjective) – दुजेय Definition: illustrate or clarify by giving an example. | |

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Synonyms: illustrate, give an example of, give an instance Definition: accept or act in accordance with (a rule, decision,
of, demonstrate, instance or recommendation).
Antonyms: Conceal, Confuse, hide Synonyms: comply with, obey, observe, follow, keep to,
Usage: he exemplified his point with an anecdote hold to, conform to, adhere to, stick to
Antonyms: flout, reject, fade, disappear.
3). Depreciated (Verb) -- मूल्यह्रास करना Usage: I said I would abide by their decision
Definition: diminish in value over a period of time.
Synonyms: decrease in value, lose value, decline in price, 9). Reiterates (Verb) – दोहराती
drop in price, fall in price, cheapen, devalue Definition: say something again or a number of times,
Antonyms: appreciate, raise. typically for emphasis or clarity.
Usage: the latest cars will depreciate heavily in the first year Synonyms: repeat, say again, restate, retell, recapitulate, go
over (and over), iterate, rehearse
4). Unpersuasive (Adjective) – अप्रत्यातशत Antonyms: Take back, return.
Definition: not good, by mistake. Usage: she reiterated that the government would remain
Synonyms: Poor, thin, faulty. steadfast in its support
Antonyms: Strong, capable, efficient.
Usage: Labour’s minor unpersuasive made a great loss.
Editorial 27-04-2018
5). Puisne (Adjective) – ख़राब 1). Reinvigorated (Verb) – पुनजीतवत करना
Definition: small and weak. Definition: give new energy or strength to.
Synonyms: Synonyms: enliven, modernize, renew, renovate.
undersized, underdeveloped, undernourished, underfed, stunt Antonyms: destroy, kill, ruin, depress.
ed Usage: we are fully committed to reinvigorating the
Antonyms: strong, sturdy, significant, sizeable, substantial economy of the area
Usage: white-faced, puny children
2). Benumbing (Verb) – लकवा मारना
6). Sacrosanct (Adjective) – पुण्यमय Definition: deprive of physical or emotional feeling.
Definition: (especially of a principle, place, or routine) Synonyms: Blunt, chill, daze, cumber.
regarded as too important or valuable to be interfered with. Antonyms: enliven, deadened.
Synonyms: Usage: a hoarse shout cut through his benumbed senses
sacred, hallowed, respected, inviolable, inviolate, unimpeach
able, 3). Patronage (Noun) -- सरपरस्ती
unchallengeable Definition: the support given by a patron.
Antonyms: strong, able, efficient, mobile. Synonyms: sponsorship, backing, funding, financing,
Usage: the individual's right to work has been upheld as philanthropy, promotion, furtherance
sacrosanct Antonyms: attack, blockage, disapproval.
Usage: the arts could no longer depend on private patronage
7). Evoke (Verb) – याद आना
Definition: bring or recall (a feeling, memory, or image) to 4). Overawed (Verb) – अतभभूत होना
the conscious mind. Definition: impress (someone) so much that they are silent
Synonyms: bring to mind, call to mind, put one in mind or inhibited.
of, call up, conjure up, summon up Synonyms: intimidate, daunt, cow, take someone's breath
Antonyms: Calm, Ignore, halt. away, awe, disconcert
Usage: the sight evoked pleasant memories of his childhood Antonyms: Create, delight, take apart.
Usage: the eleven-year-old was overawed by the atmosphere
8). Abide (Verb) – पालन करना
5). Belligerent (Adjective) – शत्रुतापूर्ण | |
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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Definition: hostile and aggressive. Definition: causing or affected by anxiety or stress.

Synonyms: Synonyms:
hostile, aggressive, threatening, antagonistic, pugnacious, bell anxious, worried, upset, distraught, overwrought, agitated, dis
icose tressed
Antonyms: friendly, peaceable, neutral. Antonyms: Calm, passion, peace.
Usage: the mood at the meeting was belligerent Usage: there was a fraught silence

6). Exorcise (Verb) -- भगाना 2). Prevailed (Verb) – प्रबल होना

Definition: rid (a person or place) of a supposed evil spirit. Definition: prove more powerful or superior.
Synonyms: drive out, cast out, expel Synonyms: win, win out, win through, triumph, be
Antonyms: adopt, embrace, take on victorious, be the victor, gain the victory
Usage: infants were exorcised prior to baptism Antonyms: Fail, forfeit, lose, surrender.
Usage: it is hard for logic to prevail over emotion
7). Assaulted (Verb) – हमला करना
Definition: make a physical attack on. 3). Imperative (Adjective) -- आज्ञािणक
Synonyms: hit, strike, physically attack, aim blows Definition: of vital importance; crucial.
at, slap, smack, beat, thrash Synonyms: vitally important, of vital importance, all-
Antonyms: opposition, resistance, important, vital, crucial, critical, essential
protection, security, shelter Antonyms: unimportant, optional
Usage: he pleaded guilty to assaulting a police officer Usage: immediate action was imperative

8). Quell (Verb) – वश में करना 4). Ballooning (Verb) – तेजी से वृति होना
Definition: put an end to (a rebellion or other disorder), Definition: (of an amount of money spent or owed) increase
typically by the use of force. rapidly.
Synonyms: put an end to, stamp out, put a stop to, end, Synonyms: increase rapidly, soar, rocket, shoot
finish, get rid of, crush, put down, check up, escalate, mount, surge, spiral, grow rapidly
Antonyms: bring about, prompt Antonyms: sag, flap
Usage: extra police were called to quell the disturbance Usage: the company's debt has ballooned in the last five
9). Tainted (Verb) – ख़राब होना
Definition: contaminate or pollute (something). 5). Overarching (Adjective) – संपूर्ण
Synonyms: contaminate, pollute, adulterate, infect, blight, Definition: comprehensive or all-embracing.
befoul, spoil Synonyms: Overall, throughout, underlying, including.
Antonyms: pure, holy, clean. Antonyms: limit, small, narrow, null.
Usage: the air was tainted by fumes from the cars Usage: a single overarching principle

10). Piecemeal (adjective) – िम से 6). Demarcated (Verb) – पटरसीतमत करना

Definition: characterized by unsystematic partial measures Definition: to determine or mark off the boundaries or limits
taken over a period of time. of
Synonyms: a little at a time, piece by piece, bit by Synonyms: delimt, markoff, detach, divide.
bit, gradually, slowly, in stages, in steps Antonyms: attach, combine, connect
Antonyms: abrupt, sudden Usage: art was being demarcated from the more objective
Usage: the village is slowly being killed off by piecemeal science
7). Parleys (Noun) – बातचीत
Editorial 30-04-2018 Definition: a conference between opposing sides in a
1). Fraught (Adjective) – चचततत dispute, especially a discussion of terms for an armistice. | |

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Important Monthly English Vocabulary PDF | April 2018 | Based on “The Hindu”

Synonyms: negotiation, talk(s), meeting, conference, Antonyms: withdrawal.

summit, discussion, dialogue Usage: he was furious about this intrusion into his private
Antonyms: quiet, silence. life
Usage: a parley is in progress and the invaders may
10). Conciliatory (Adjective) – तमलाप करने वाला
8). Skirmishes (Noun) – झडपों Definition: intended or likely to placate or pacify.
Definition: any brisk conflict or encounter Synonyms:
Synonyms: altercation, argument, battle, clash. propitiatory, placatory, appeasing, pacifying, pacific, mollifyi
Antonyms: accord, calm, aggrement. ng
Usage: She had a skirmish with her landlord about the rent Antonyms: antagonistic
Usage: a conciliatory approach
9). Intrusion (Noun) – अततिमर्
Definition: the action of intruding.
Synonyms: encroachment on, trespass on, obtrusion into | |

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