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Example Ia 18 Out of 20
Example Ia 18 Out of 20Example Ia 18 Out of 20Example Ia 18 Out of 20Example Ia 18 Out of 20Example Ia 18 Out of 20
Example Ia 18 Out of 20Example Ia 18 Out of 20Example Ia 18 Out of 20

- MATH 2014 -Assignment 1
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You are on page 1of 6

read through it, you will see comments from the moderator in boxes like this:

Moderator’s comment:

At the end of the sample project is a summary of the moderator’s grades, showing

how the project has been graded against all the criteria A to G. These criteria are

explained in detail in chapter 13 of the Mathematical Studies textbook.

Reading projects and the moderator’s comments will help you to see where marks

are gained and lost, and will give you helpful tips in writing your own project.

normally distributed?

Introduction

It is stated that many events follow a normal distribution and that it is the

most important continuous distribution. While gazing out at the back

garden looking at all the daisies growing in the grass, I wondered if the

heights of the daisies would follow a normal distribution. So, for my

project I am going to collect as many daisies from my back garden as I

can and test if their heights follow a normal distribution. I will cut the

daisies off at the bottom, lay them ﬂat on a piece of paper and measure

them with a ruler to the nearest millimetre. I will measure them from the

bottom of the stem to the top of the yellow part of the ﬂower.

I will group my data in intervals of equal height and complete a grouped

frequency table. With this information I will draw a histogram to ﬁnd out

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Sample project 4 1

if my data resembles a normal distribution. That means that it will have a

sort of bell shape and be symmetrical.

If so, I will ﬁnd the mean height and the standard deviations of the

heights. I will need these values to ﬁnd the percentage of daisies within

one, two and three standard deviations of the mean and compare these

values with the percentages within one, two and three standard deviations

of the mean in a normal distribution.

I will then use the groups in my frequency table to work out how many Moderator’s comment:

daisies I should have expected in each group if the data was normally The project has a title,

distributed. Then I will use both values (my frequencies and the statement of the task

calculated ones) to perform a chi-squared goodness of ﬁt test at the 5% and a clear and detailed

description of the plan.

signiﬁcance level to ﬁnd out if my data satisﬁes a normal distribution.

Data collection

I collected 120 daisies from my garden. I cut the stems as far down as I

could and then laid the daisies ﬂat on a sheet of paper. I marked the

bottom of the stem and the top of the ﬂower. Then I measured the

distance between the two marks correct to the nearest millimetre. Here is

a photo of three of the daisies. I just held them ﬂat to mark the ends but

had to put Sellotape on these three so that I could take the photo. In the

photo the largest daisy is 11.7 cm, the middle one is 7.1 cm and the

smallest one in the photo is 3.2 cm.

Moderator’s comment:

Relevant data has been

collected. The data is

sufficient in quantity. It

has been set up for use.

The data collected is fairly

simple and there is only

one type of data.

3.8 5.6 9.4 11.7 7.7 4.8 4.2 5.6 10.1 7.3

8.1 8.5 9.2 6.3 6.7 7.2 7.1 3.2 2.1 5.0

5.3 8.1 9.2 11.1 8.7 9.3 5.6 6.4 3.4 4.6

4.8 6.9 6.0 6.4 10.6 9.9 9.5 8.8 8.0 8.2

6.9 7.3 7.5 8.2 8.1 8.3 4.8 5.2 5.9 6.0

6.8 6.9 7.1 7.6 8.2 8.2 9.3 9.1 5.5 6.7

6.3 6.6 9.2 6.7 5.7 5.2 5.1 5.9 6.3 6.8

9.1 8.8 9.3 7.0 7.8 7.3 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.1

4.6 4.3 5.5 5.6 10.2 6.9 6.9 8.6 8.9 8.4

6.9 7.2 6.5 6.4 6.5 5.1 5.3 8.4 9.1 8.3

7.7 7.6 7.9 5.4 5.8 5.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.8

6.4 7.9 5.6 5.8 7.1 8.4 5.7 5.6 7.3 7.4

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Sample project 4 2

Next I grouped my data into a grouped frequency table given below and,

using Autograph, drew a histogram to represent the heights of the daisies

and ﬁnd out if they followed a normal distribution or not.

Height, h cm Frequency

2≤h<3 1

3≤h<4 3

4≤h<5 7

5≤h<6 23

6≤h<7 24

7≤h<8 22 Moderator’s comment:

Simple process

8≤h<9 23

9 ≤ h < 10 12

10 ≤ h < 11 3

11 ≤ h < 12 2

frequency

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

height

data follows a normal distribution.

Now I need to ﬁnd the mean and the standard deviation of the heights of

the daisies.

The total height is 849.2 cm

849.2 Moderator’s comment:

So the mean height is

120

=7.08 cm Simple process

And the standard deviation is 1.69 cm.

There should be about 68.3% of the heights between one standard

deviation above and below the mean, about 95.4% between two standard

deviations of the mean and 99.7% between three standard deviations of

the mean.

I will check if my data is close to these percentages.

1 standard deviation from the mean is 7.08 – 1.69 = 5.39 cm

and 7.08 + 1.69 = 8.77 cm

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Sample project 4 3

82

Between 5.39 cm and 8.77 cm there are 82 daisies. This is 120 × 100

= 68.3%. This is exactly the percentage that it should be.

2 standard deviations from the mean is 7.08 – 2 × 1.69 = 3.7 cm and

7.08 + 2 × 1.69 = 10.46 cm

113

Between 3.7 cm and 10.46 cm there are 113 daisies. This is 120

× 100 = 94.2%.

This is slightly less than 95.4% but not too far off.

3 standard deviations from the mean is 7.08 – 3 × 1.69 = 2.01 cm and

7.08 + 3 × 1.69 = 12.15 cm

Between 2.01 cm and 12.15 cm are 120 daisies. This is 100% of the daisies

which is not too far away from the 99.7% that would be expected.

Now I will perform a chi-squared goodness of ﬁt test at the 5%

signiﬁcance level to see if my data follows a normal distribution. I will

use my GDC to ﬁnd the expected values for my grouped frequency table.

To do this I will ﬁnd the percentage and multiply the answer by 120.

I will give my answers to 1 decimal place. Eg the GDC gives a value

of 0.0263 for the percentage between 3 and 4 – when I multiply this

by 120 I get 3.1566 and so I will use 3.2 in my table. Because the normal

distribution graph has the y-axis as an asymptote I will have to change

the end values and use h < 3 and h ≥ 11.

To ﬁnd the expected values I use the normalcdf function on my GDC

and multiply the answer by 120. So, for the ﬁrst value 120 normalcdf

(0, 3, 7.08, 1.69) = 0.944. I rounded all my answers to 1 decimal place.

Height, h cm Frequency Expected value

0≤h<3 1 0.9

3≤h<4 3 3.2

4≤h<5 7 9.0

5≤h<6 23 18.3

6≤h<7 24 26.4

7≤h<8 22 27.1

8≤h<9 23 19.8

9 ≤ h < 10 12 10.3

10 ≤ h < 11 3 3.8

h ≥ 11 2 1.2

Since some of my expected values are less than 5, I will have to combine groups.

Height, h cm Frequency Expected value

0≤h<5 11 13.1

5≤h<6 23 18.3 Moderator’s comment:

6≤h<7 24 26.4 Further process, outside

the syllabus but clearly

7≤h<8 22 27.1

explained.

8≤h<9 23 19.8

9 ≤ h < 10 12 10.3

h ≥ 10 5 5

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Sample project 4 4

H0: the data follows a normal distribution with mean = 7.08 cm and

standard deviation = 1.69 cm.

H1: the data does not follow a normal distribution with mean = 7.08 cm

and standard deviation = 1.69 cm.

Because I had to calculate the mean and standard deviation from my

sample, the degrees of freedom is n − 3. So, degrees of freedom = 7 – 3 = 4

The critical value for 4 degrees of freedom at the 5% signiﬁcance level is

9.488.

The formula for the chi-squared test statistic is:

2

χ2 = ∑ ( f o − f e ) where f0 are the observed frequencies and fe are the expected

fe

frequencies.

2

(23 18.3)2 (24 26.4)2 (22 27.1)2 (23 19.8)2

F = (11 13.1

13.1)

18.3

26.4

27.1

19.8

(12 10.3)2 (5 5)2

10.3

5

3.52

Since 3.52 is less than 9.488 I will accept the null hypothesis. So, the data

that I collected does follow a normal distribution. This is reassuring as it

does say that many events in nature follow a normal distribution and the

heights of the daisies that I picked agree with this.

I gathered the daisies and measured them as accurately as I could. Then I

made a grouped frequency table and drew a histogram from that to see if

the data formed a bell-shaped curve. It wasn’t quite a perfect bell-shape

but was near enough for me to carry on with the experiment to see if the

heights of my daisies formed a normal distribution. Then I found the

overall mean and standard deviation of my data. I used the raw data as

this gave me a more accurate answer than using the grouped data. The

grouped data would only have given me an estimate of the mean and the

standard deviation as we would have had to use the mid-points of the

groups for the List 1 entries into the GDC. As the entries in each group

are not all the same as the mid-point this only gives an estimate value of

the mean and the standard deviation. By using the raw data I get much

more accurate values.

Then I counted the number of daisies that were 1 standard deviation

above and below the mean value and worked out the percentage of

daisies for this value. It came to 68.3% which agrees with the percentage

expected from a normal distribution curve. Then I counted the number of

daisies that were 2 standard deviations above and below the mean and

worked out the percentage. This time it was 94.2% which was lower than

would be expected from a perfect normal distribution. Lastly I found that

all my daisies were within 3 standard deviations of the mean. This was

slightly more than would be expected from a perfect normal distribution.

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Sample project 4 5

After this I decided to test if my grouped data did indeed follow a normal

distribution. I used my GDC to work out the expected values. I noticed

that some of my expected values were less than 5, and so I had to group

my data in a way that did not give me expected values less than 5. This

meant grouping the top three groups and the last two groups. Then I used

the formula for the chi-squared goodness of ﬁt test to work out the

chi-squared test statistic. This was found to be 3.52 which was less than

the critical value of 9.488 and so I could accept my null hypothesis that

my data followed a normal distribution. Because I had to calculate the

mean and standard deviation from my sample the degrees of freedom

were not (n – 1) as is usually the case but (n – 3) instead.

My raw data was collected in my back garden and I did my best to make

sure that all the daisies were cut off at the same place – but there could

have been some small differences in the exact place on the stem that they

were cut. Then I laid them ﬂat and measured with a ruler. I did my best to

be as accurate as I could – but again there could have been slight errors in

my measurements. However, I do not think that these errors would have

made any difference to my ﬁnal result.

My back garden is in the sun most of the day. I could have also picked a

sample of daisies that were growing in the shade and compared the

heights of these daisies to the heights of the ones that grew in the sun. It

would have been interesting to see if their mean height was smaller and if

their heights also followed a normal distribution.

Bibliography:

Mathematical Studies Course Companion: Bedding, Coad, Forrest, Fussey,

Tokman: OUP, 2007

Criterion Grade Comment

A 3 The project does have a title, a statement of the task and a description of the plan

which is completely clear. (3 out of 3 marks awarded.)

B 2 Relevant data has been collected. The data is sufficient in quantity but not in quality.

However, it has been set up for use. The data collected is fairly simple. There is only

one type of data. (2 marks awarded, out of a possible 3.)

C 5 All the mathematical processes used are accurate and relevant. The further process is

outside the syllabus but, as long as it is clear and relevant to the stated task and the

student understands this process, then it is acceptable. (5 out of 5 marks awarded.)

D 3 The interpretations are consistent with the processes used and there is a thorough

discussion of the results. (3 out of 3 marks awarded.)

E 1 There is an attempt made to discuss the validity of the processes used and the data

collection process. (1 out of 1 mark awarded.)

F 2 The project is structured but explanations could have been more thorough in places.

(2 marks awarded, out of a possible 3.)

G 2 Notation and terminology are correct throughout the project. (2 out of 2 marks awarded)

Total grade 18

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Sample project 4 6

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