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USER’S MANUAL

August 2000

RESAP USER’S MANUAL

Prepared by:

Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd.


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October 1979 Version 1 at Revision Level 5
August 1980 Version 2 at Revision Level 6
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August 2000 Version 9 at Revision Level 0


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Email: support@sestech.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1-1


1.1 INTRODUCTION TO RESAP.....................................................................................................................1-1
1.2 PREPARING INPUT DATA........................................................................................................................1-1
1.3 VIEWING, PRINTING AND PLOTTING COMPUTATION RESULTS.......................................................1-2
1.4 WHAT’S NEW IN THIS RELEASE ............................................................................................................1-2
1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THIS MANUAL ........................................................................................................1-2
2 INTERPRETATION OF SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS....................................... 2-1
2.1 OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................2-1
2.2 TYPES OF EARTH STRUCTURE .............................................................................................................2-1
2.2.1 HORIZONTAL LAYERS ................................................................................................................2-2
2.2.2 VERTICAL LAYERS ......................................................................................................................2-2
2.2.3 EXPONENTIAL EARTH ................................................................................................................2-3
2.3 EARTH RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT METHODS................................................................................2-4
2.4 COMPUTATION ALGORITHMS ...............................................................................................................2-5
2.4.1 THE LEVENBERG-MARQUARDT (LM) METHOD.......................................................................2-6
2.4.2 THE STEEPEST-DESCENT METHOD ........................................................................................2-7
2.5 CONTROL OF THE ITERATIVE MINIMIZATION PROCESS ...................................................................2-8
2.6 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................................................2-8
2.6.1 MAKING MEASUREMENTS IN THE ABSENCE OF NOISE SOURCES .....................................2-8
2.6.2 MAKING MEASUREMENTS IN THE PRESENCE OF NOISE SOURCES ..................................2-9
2.6.3 USEFUL REFERENCES.............................................................................................................2-10
2.7 MULTI-LAYER SOILS: MANUAL GUIDANCE OF RESAP ....................................................................2-10
3 RESAP COMMAND INPUT FILES .................................................................................... 3-1
3.1 WHAT'S IN THIS CHAPTER .....................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 THE RESAP INPUT COMMAND LANGUAGE..........................................................................................3-1
3.3 RESAP COMMAND HIERARCHY.............................................................................................................3-1
3.4 OUTLINE OF A TYPICAL RESAP INPUT FILE ........................................................................................3-3
3.5 A TYPICAL RESAP INPUT FILE ...............................................................................................................3-4
3.5.1 RESAP SOURCE DATA - SOIL RESISTANCE OR RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS ...............3-4
3.5.2 OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL RESAP INPUT FILE ........................................................................3-6
4 SAMPLE RUNS ................................................................................................................. 4-1
4.1 LIMITED LAYER RESAP RUN ..................................................................................................................4-1
4.2 MULTILAYER EXAMPLES........................................................................................................................4-2

RESAP Page iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D)

Page

4.2.1 A THREE-LAYER SOIL MODEL ...................................................................................................4-2


4.2.2 A FOUR-LAYER SOIL MODEL .....................................................................................................4-4
4.2.3 A FIVE-LAYER SOIL MODEL .......................................................................................................4-6
APPENDIX A STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDS ................................ A-1
A.1 FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. A-1
A.2 COMMAND FORMAT AND SYNTAX....................................................................................................... A-1
A.3 SHORTHAND FORMS.............................................................................................................................. A-2
A.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS................................................................................................................. A-2
A.5 STANDARD COMMANDS ........................................................................................................................ A-2
A.6 SPECIFICATION COMMANDS ................................................................................................................ A-3

RESAP Page iv
TABLE OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 2.1 Earth Structures.................................................................................................................................................. 2-2


Figure 2.2 Vertical Layers ................................................................................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2.3 Earth Resistivity Measurements Methods........................................................................................................... 2-5
Table 2.1 Suggested Wenner Probe Spacings .................................................................................................................... 2-9
Figure 3.1 Template for RESAP Input Files: Horizontal Soil Layering .............................................................................. 3-2
Table 3.1 Basic RESAP Modules, Qualifiers, and Commands........................................................................................... 3-3
Figure 3.2 Block Diagram of a Complete RESAP Input File............................................................................................... 3-4
Table 3.2 Measured Apparent Resistances at Substation Site............................................................................................ 3-5
Printout 3.1 RESAP Input File RS_LIMIT.F05 ...................................................................................................................... 3-6
Figure 4.1 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Limited-Layer (Two-Layer) Soil Model. .................................. 4-1
Printout 4.1 RESAP Input File RS_MULT3.F05 .................................................................................................................... 4-3
Figure 4.2 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Three-Layer Soil Model........................................................... 4-3
Printout 4.2 RESAP Input File RS_MULT4.F05 .................................................................................................................... 4-5
Figure 4.3 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Four-Layer Soil Model. ........................................................... 4-5
Printout 4.3 RESAP Input File RS_MULT5.F05 .................................................................................................................... 4-6
Figure 4.4 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Five-Layer Soil Model. ............................................................ 4-7

RESAP Page v
Chapter 1 Introduction

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO RESAP


Computer program RESAP determines equivalent earth structure models from measured soil resistivity
data; these models can be used to analyze grounding systems, conduct cathodic protection studies,
examine electromagnetic induction (EMI) problems and compute line parameters.

The types of earth structure which can be analyzed using RESAP include soils with multiple horizontal
layers, soils with vertical layers (up to 2) and soils having a resistivity which varies exponentially with
depth. This last "exponential" earth structure is comparable to an earth structure with horizontal layers; it
is sometimes used as an earth model for computing transmission line parameters.

Several numerical techniques have been implemented to obtain the best fit between measured results and
those computed based on the proposed equivalent earth model. The techniques are all least-square
minimization algorithms which include the following: Steepest-Descent, Levenberg-Marquardt,
Fletcher-Powel, G-Conjugate, Conjugate Gradients, Simplex.

1.2 PREPARING INPUT DATA


The soil resistivity interpretation input file can be prepared using one of two input interface modules as
well as a standard text editor (or the one provided with CDEGS). The two interface modules available
are:

• The Windows Toolbox mode (SWIMS).


• The command mode (SICL).
Either of the above interfaces or a text editor can be used to prepare the input data. The Windows
Toolbox input mode converts the results of an input session to a Command mode compatible ASCII
input file (RS_JobID.F05) which can be edited at any time. Chapter 3 of the Engineering How
To…Guide entitled “A Simple Substation Grounding Design” presents examples showing how to
prepare input data using the Windows Toolbox and SICL input data processor.

Each of these programs provides you with a user-friendly environment, including preliminary error-
checking and detailed on-line help in which you can specify the engineering data required by RESAP. In
addition, the Windows Toolbox mode (SWIMS) can plot measurement data on your screen to help you
verify your data entry. At the end of the interactive session, SICL, and Input Toolbox create a complete,
syntactically correct RESAP input file. This RESAP file can be edited directly by an experienced user or
is automatically produced when using one of the above-listed input interface modules.

Note that, if you prefer to prepare your data outside of these interactive environments, you can always
use a text editor create or edit a SICL input file before invoking the SICL input processor, and then use
the OPEN-FILE and READ commands within SICL to process the file you have prepared.

RESAP Page 1-1


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.3 VIEWING, PRINTING AND PLOTTING COMPUTATION


RESULTS
In this manual, we will refer to the input/output files of RESAP by either the logical units to which they
are connected or their file names on the PC platform. For their file-naming convention on UNIX and
VMS platforms, please refer to the Getting Started manual.

When you run RESAP, computation results are stored in a user-readable printout file (RS_JobID.f09)
and in a machine-readable database file (RS_JobID.f21), where JobID is a character string you use to
identify the files belonging to a given run. If you have requested plots in your input data, then a plot file
(RS_JobID.f30) is also created by RESAP (note that even if you have not requested plots in your input
data, you can still generate them with the SIRPS report and plot generator, as described below). When
RESAP has finished running, you can view your results in the following ways:

i) For most convenience, use the SIRPS report and plot generator to extract information from the
machine-readable database file. SIRPS can extract a summary of the most important results and
display it promptly on your screen or save it in a report file for subsequent printing. SIRPS can
also prepare customized reports and plots, for immediate display on your video screen or
subsequent hardcopy printing. SIRPS can be operated in the Windows Toolbox (SWOMS)
mode or in command (CSIRPS) mode. The Windows Toolbox mode is described in great detail
in some of the How To… Engineering Guides (for example Section 3.4 of the How To…
Engineering Guides titled “A Simple Substation Grounding Analysis” and “NCC-SES Gas
Insulated Substation Grounding Analysis”). For more details about the command mode,
please see the SIRPS User's Manual.
ii) Edit or print the user-readable printout file which contains complete computation results.
Note that no results are automatically displayed on your screen or on your printer when a RESAP run
ends. In order to view and print your results , proceed as described above.

1.4 WHAT’S NEW IN THIS RELEASE


In this release, there is now a feature to automatically determine the total number of layers in
horizontally layered soils.

1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THIS MANUAL


The RESAP User's Manual is structured as follows:

• Chapter 2: provides an overview of the input data required by RESAP and the computations it
performs. Chapter 2 also presents fundamental concepts associated with making soil resistivity
measurements and interpreting them.

RESAP Page 1-2


Chapter 1 Introduction

• Chapter 3: describes how to prepare a RESAP input file in the SICL-compatible command
language format.
• Chapter 4: presents sample analyses and illustrate the procedure to improve the quality of
interpretation for difficult cases.
• Appendix A: provides a detailed discussion of the command mode language structure and
syntax.
Note that while Chapter 3 presents a good overview of the RESAP commands, it does not
describe all commands, nor all available options of each command described. For a complete list
of RESAP commands and a detailed description of each command and its parameters, refer to the
CDEGS Help reference. The complete CDEGS help is accessed by selecting Contents from the
Help menu of the main CDEGS interface. In the Windows Input Toolbox mode, please note that
you may press the F1 key at any time to display context-sensitive help pertinent to the topic to
which you have given focus with your mouse.

RESAP Page 1-3


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

2 INTERPRETATION OF SOIL RESISTIVITY


MEASUREMENTS

2.1 OVERVIEW
The purpose of earth resistivity tests related to power system design is to assist in the determination of an
appropriate soil model which can be used to predict the effect of the underlying soil characteristics on
the performance of a grounding system during ground faults.

The electrical characteristics of the earth are usually sufficiently uniform over horizontal distances to
permit the soil beneath typical sites to be considered uniform over horizontal dimensions. In such cases,
vertical variations in resistivity can often be described by one, two, or more frequently, three or more
distinct horizontal layers of earth.

Sometimes, however, earth resistivity variations over horizontal dimensions are significant and can
therefore not be neglected. In such instances, the horizontal variations in resistivity can often be
modelled as two or more distinct vertical layers of earth.

Program RESAP interprets measured apparent earth resistivity (or resistance) data to determine an
equivalent earth structure model which can be used to analyze grounding systems, conduct cathodic
protection studies, examine electromagnetic induction (EMI) problems and compute line parameters.

From the resistivity measurement data obtained using a four-electrode configuration (located along a
straight line), RESAP determines an equivalent layered or "exponential" earth. The earth layers may be
vertical or horizontal.

For horizontal layer soil model, the electrodes can be arbitrarily spaced and this general configuration
will, of course, include the Wenner and the Schlumberger configurations.

The "exponential" earth is a soil the resistivity of which varies exponentially with depth: it is sometimes
used as an earth model for computing transmission line parameters.

Several numerical techniques are available to obtain the best fit between measured results and those
computed based on the proposed equivalent earth model. The user may choose which algorithm to use
and the program will automatically optimize the soil parameters based on the technique selected. The
main characteristics of each algorithm are briefly described in Section 2.4.

2.2 TYPES OF EARTH STRUCTURE


Figure 2.1 illustrates the three types of earth structure which can be analyzed by RESAP.

RESAP Page 2-1


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

Figure 2.1 Earth Structures

2.2.1 Horizontal Layers


In the process of interpretation, RESAP will adjust the resistivities and thicknesses of horizontally-
layered earth layers so that the computed apparent resistivity curve matches the measured apparent
resistivities. If the real earth structure consists of more than two layers, then the user may choose
between a multi layer soil model or an equivalent two-layer soil model. If the latter is chosen, then the
best fit for a two-layer earth is determined. If a multilayer soil model is selected instead, then the user
must specify how many layers the target equivalent (or reconstructed) soil model should have, and
optionally an initial estimate of the parameters of each layer. RESAP will then optimize the soil layer
characteristics of the target equivalent soil model.

2.2.2 Vertical Layers


Soils with vertical layers are more difficult to analyze than those with horizontal layers because of the
lack of axial symmetry with respect to the vertical axis. In addition to the characteristics of the earth
layers (i.e., earth resistivities and thickness of the layers), it is necessary to determine the angle between
the measurement traverse and the trace lines (on the earth's surface) of the layers' interface planes. At
this stage it is useful to discuss the conventions which apply when vertical earth models are specified.

Computer program RESAP always assumes that the apparent earth resistivity measurements have been
conducted with the traverse maintained to the left of the line dividing the center layer in two (or to the
left of the interface plane between the left and right layers, for earth models consisting of two layers
only). As shown in Figure 2.1, this convention does not mean that all measurement probes must remain
to the left of this center line. It simply means that the center point of the traverse cannot be located to the
right of the center line. This is not a true restriction since one can always analyze the symmetrical
problem by simply switching the names of the left and right layers.

RESAP Page 2-2


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

In order for measurement results to be meaningful, it is necessary to determine a reference point which
will be fixed with respect to the layer interfaces. In practice, the center point of the traverse or one of the
four probes is not moved during the measurements. RESAP offers two choices to the user:

• Current probe C1 is held fixed.


• Center point M of the traverse is held fixed.
Finally, measurements can be conducted while probes are being moved closer and closer to the layer
interfaces or further and further away. The two situations are differentiated by the angle θ defining the
orientation of the measurement traverse with respect to the earth surface trace lines of the layer interface
planes. RESAP always assumes that the trace lines are parallel to the vertical center line of Figure 2.2.
The angle θ is defined by a vector lying on the traverse direction (and directed from C1 to C2) and an
upward directed vector lying on a trace line (θ varies between 0 and 360 degrees). Note, however, that
earth models with more than two vertical layers cannot be resolved using the present version of RESAP.

Figure 2.2 Vertical Layers

2.2.3 Exponential Earth


For an "exponential" earth model, the program calculates the zero depth resistivity, the infinite depth
resistivity and the exponential constant coefficient. The zero depth and infinite depth resistivities give a
good indication of the top and deep soil resistivities respectively.

RESAP Page 2-3


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

2.3 EARTH RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT METHODS


The measurement configuration most widely used in the electric power industry is a four-electrode
(probe) method developed by F. Wenner. As shown in Figure 2.3(a), 4 uniformly spaced electrodes are
inserted into the earth surface along a straight line, with the outer pair being used as current input probes
and the inner pair as potential references.

Using the Wenner geometry, the apparent measured resistivity is:


ρ = 2πaR , (2.1)

where ρ is the apparent soil resistivity in ohm-meters, a is the spacing between two adjacent electrodes
in meters and R is the measured apparent resistance (ratio of measured voltage to test current in ohms).

When the electrode penetration depth is small compared to electrode spacing, Eq (2.1) effectively
describes the variation in measured resistivity as a function of electrode separation a. Physically, the
greater the electrode spacing, the greater the volume of earth encompassed by the test current in its
traverse from C1 to C2 and hence, the greater the depth of earth involved in the measurement.

An important variation of the Wenner method which is widely used in geophysical prospecting is the
unequally-spaced symmetrical configuration, called the “Schlumberger” arrangement (Figure 2.3(b)).
This method circumvents a shortcoming of the Wenner method often encountered at large probe
spacings whereby the magnitude of the potential between the potential probes becomes too small to give
reliable measurements. By increasing the distance between the potential probes, the potential value is
increased and the sensitivity limitations encountered using the Wenner method may be overcome. The
apparent resistivity according to the Schlumberger method is given by:

ρ = πRc (c + d ) d (2.2)

where c is the spacing between adjacent potential and current electrodes (in meters), d is the spacing
between potential electrodes (in meters) and R is the measured apparent resistance.

In order to provide complete flexibility to the user, RESAP offers a general electrode configuration
which can interpret measurements made with completely arbitrary electrode spacings: that is, the
spacings Se1, Si, and Se2 in Figure 2.3(c) can all be unequal. This can be very helpful if difficult field
conditions make it impractical to respect the symmetrical electrode positions required by the Wenner and
Schlumberger methods. The apparent resistivity of the general four-electrode configuration is given by:

2πR
ρ= , (2.3)
G

where G is the geometric factor given by

1 1 1 1
G= + − − , (2.4)
Se1 Se 2 Se1 + Si Se 2 + Si

RESAP Page 2-4


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

Se1 is the spacing between a current (outer) electrode C1 and its adjacent potential (inner) electrode P1
(in meters), Si is the spacing between two potential (inner) electrodes (in meters), Se2 is the spacing
between the remaining (outer) electrode C2 and its adjacent potential (inner) electrode (in meters), R is
the apparent soil resistance in ohms (V/I), and ρ is the apparent soil resistivity in ohm-m corresponding
to the electrode spacings Se1, Si and Se2.

It is important to note that equations (2.1), (2.2) and (2.3) are valid only for electrode spacings much
larger than electrode length (or burial depth, if spherical sources are used). When the electrode length
can not be neglected compared to the electrode spacings, RESAP will use a more sophisticated
expression which takes the lengths of the probes into consideration.

Figure 2.3 Earth Resistivity Measurements Methods

2.4 COMPUTATION ALGORITHMS


The main computations performed by RESAP are function minimizations. RESAP uses a Least-Square
algorithm to determine the parameters of the presumed earth model which will minimize the difference
between the measured and computed apparent resistivities.

RESAP Page 2-5


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

RESAP can perform the minimization (designated henceforth as optimization procedure) based on five
different algorithms:

• Steepest-Descent Method (default method),


• Levenberg-Marquardt Method,
• Fletcher-Powel G-Conjugate Method,
• Conjugate Gradients Method,
• Simplex Method (inactive).
Due to historical reasons, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method is available only for the
MULTILAYER setting of SOIL-TYPE, while the Fletcher-Powel G-Conjugate Method and the
Conjugate Gradients Method are available only for the LIMITED-LAYER setting of SOIL-TYPE. The
Steepest-Descent method is available for both settings, however, it is more robust for the
MULTILAYER setting of SOIL-TYPE.

The Levenberg-Marquardt method and the Steepest-Descent method have been proven to be very stable.
They will be sufficient for obtaining a reasonable soil model most of times. The LM method is known to
be much faster than the Steepest-Descent method, although the Steepest Descent is supposed to be more
robust than the LM method (In some cases, the LM method is more sensitive to the initial guesses of the
soil model than the Steepest-Descent method). The Steepest-Descent method for the LIMITED-LAYER
setting of SOIL-TYPE is invoked by selecting SHORT-WENNER METHOD in MEASUREMENTS
module.

Extensive tests show that for most cases only one or two RESAP runs will be able to obtain the target
soil model. However, for some unusual cases, manual intervention is sometimes required in order to
obtain a good fit.

The Fletcher-Powel and Conjugate Gradient methods often converge very quickly to the final solution,
but may fail in some cases, particularly if the initial estimates of the parameters are far from the
optimized values or if the search step size is inadequate.

2.4.1 The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method


A least-square minimization algorithm which uses the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method has been
implemented for the General electrode configuration (including Wenner and Schlumberger electrode
configurations). Our tests showed that the LM method converges about 10 times faster than the Steepest-
Descent method. The tests also showed that most of the time, the LM method is as stable as the Steepest-
Descent method. Its only drawback (and this may not be a limitation after all) is that it requires at least as
many measurement points as there are unknowns, i.e., for a 5-layer soil type, 9 measurement points are
needed (5x2-1, resistivity and thickness of each layer except for bottom layer). Such restriction does not
apply for the Steepest-Descent method.

RESAP Page 2-6


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

The Levenberg-Marquardt method is invoked by specifying the new command MARQUARDT in the
OPTIMIZATION module as follows:

OPTIMIZATION



METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT

Since the LM method requires inverting a usually ill-conditioned Hessian matrix (the second derivative
matrix), a regularization parameter λ was used to stabilize the Hessian matrix so that the matrix inverse
can be done accurately. There are three methods to compute the regularization parameter λ: (i)
Marquardt method, (ii) Empirical method and (iii) Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) method. These
methods can be selected by the newly introduced REGULARIZATION command under the
OPTIMIZATION module. The syntax is as follows:

OPTIMIZATION



REGULARIZATIon, *! MARQUARDT, Lambda
EMPIRICAL, Lambda
GENERALIZED <Inactive>, Lambda

Presently, only the MARQUARDT and EMPIRICAL qualifiers (methods) are available. The default
method for computing the regularization parameter λ is MARQUARDT which is more robust than the
EMPIRICAL and GENERALIZED methods. The MARQUARDT method is less sensitive to the initial
guess of λ, however, the regularization parameter λ of each iteration is not optimized. Although both the
EMPIRICAL and GENERALIZED methods are capable of finding an optimal λ at each iteration such
that the iteration converges as fast as possible, they are more sensitive to the initial value of the
regularization parameter. The EMPIRICAL method may fail in some cases.

The default value of the regularization parameter is 0.2. The default value can be overridden by the
variable Lambda in the REGULARIZATIon command. A λ which is too small leads to an ill-
conditioned Hessian matrix, while too large a λ which is too large, will slow down the minimization
process.

2.4.2 The Steepest-Descent method


A new set of standard and high precision filters with shorter lengths has been introduced to reduce the
minimization time. There are 27 filter coefficients for the standard filter and 256 filter coefficients for
the high precision filter. Tests showed that the standard filter is normally sufficient for most of cases.
The high precision filter will be used automatically if the accuracy of standard filter becomes insufficient
in the least-square minimization process. The following changes were made to the FILTER command in
the COMPUTATIONS module:

RESAP Page 2-7


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

COMPUTATIONS

FILTER, *! AUTOMATIC
STANDARD(BUILT-IN)
HIGH-PRECISIon
(PRECISION-HIgh)
GEN-INTEG-HIgh <Inactive>
GEN-INTEG-Standard <Inactive>
GEN-FFT-HIGH
GEN-FFT-STANdard

The direct integration method for generating filters is no longer available. Note also that the option
which allows users to generate their own filters is deactivated.

2.5 CONTROL OF THE ITERATIVE MINIMIZATION PROCESS


The least-square minimization process in RESAP is controlled by the ACCURACY, ITERATION and
STEPSIZE commands in the OPTIMIZATION module. In the MULTILAYER soil model, the
functionality of the STEPSIZE command has been changed. STEPSIZE specifies the minimum change
of RMS error below which the optimization process will stop. The program will conduct a convergence
test by computing the average RMS error change over the past 25 iterations. The minimization will stop
if the averaged RMS error change is less than the value specified by STEPSIZE command. Decreasing
the STEPSIZE usually improves the fit of the computed soil model to the measured data, but increases
the computation time. The default value of STEPSIZE is 0.0001 (0.01%). The default value for
ACCURACY is 0.025 (2.5%) and the default value for ITERATIONS is 500.

2.6 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

2.6.1 Making Measurements in the Absence of Noise Sources


In the absence of significant noise sources, accurate measurements are possible using conventional wide-
band electronic voltmeters and ammeters. A portable generator (3-5 KVA, 110/220V) should be used to
inject the current between the outer probes. It is recommended that the voltmeter and ammeter be
sensitive to the µV and µA range. For horizontal soil models, there is practically no limitation on the
electrode spacings that can be processed by RESAP when the new Steepest-Descent method is invoked.
Table 2.1 lists suggested probe spacings for various magnitudes of traverse length.

RESAP Page 2-8


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

Recommended Wenner Electrode Spacings (m)

Short Spacings 0.10 0.15 0.23 0.35 0.50 0.70

Moderate Spacings 1.00 1.50 2.30 3.50 5.00 7.00

Large Spacings 10.00 15.00 23.00 35.00 50.00 70.00

Extreme Spacings 100.00 150.00 230.00 350.00 500.00 700.00

Table 2.1 Suggested Wenner Probe Spacings

It is recommended that the length of the buried portions of the rods be recorded, particularly at short and
moderate spacings. This length should be on the order of 1/10 to 1/3 of the Wenner spacing for the
“current” rods (up to a maximum of 1 m) and a few centimeters to a maximum of 0.3 m (at large
spacings) for the “potential” rods.

A cluster of rods arranged in a circular configuration should be used as necessary to increase the injected
current at large spacings.

To accurately determine the grounding performance of a substation, it is necessary to carry out resistivity
measurements along a traverse (preferably two traverses orthogonal to each other). The largest distance
between the two adjacent probes in the Wenner configuration should be ideally at least 3 times (or more)
the maximum length of the grounding grid. This will establish a soil structure with a reasonable degree
of confidence for the computer analysis.

Finally, soil resistivity measurements at short spacings should be conducted first without the addition of
water at the electrodes (except maybe very locally next to the electrode to improve contact with the soil).
Another set of measurements should then be conducted about 15 minutes after abundantly watering the
soil surface with rain water. Such tests will establish soil surface characteristics before and after rain.

2.6.2 Making Measurements in the Presence of Noise Sources


If energized power lines or associated facilities are present near the measurement site, electrical noise
due to load currents will be induced in the potential leads of the resistivity measurement circuits. The
magnitude of the induced noise increases with the electrode spacing, while the measured voltage is
decreasing. There will be a spacing at which noise constitutes a significant portion of the test voltage.
This spacing depends on the angle of the traverse with respect to the power system and on the capacity
of the portable generator.

This problem can be eliminated by injecting currents at frequencies different from the power line
frequency (e.g., 70 Hz) and discriminating between the test current and electric noise using a selective
voltmeter. The following equipment and instrumentation is required for this type of measurement:

• A portable power generator (2.5 - 5 KW)


• A variable frequency power unit (1.0 - 2.5 KVA)

RESAP Page 2-9


Chapter 2 Interpretation of Soil Resistivity Measurements

• A frequency selective voltmeter (to measure the voltage between the potential probes while
rejecting noise.
• Broadband ammeter to measure the injection current.

The use of the above equipment eliminates the noise problem, but requires adequate transportation
vehicles and additional test crew to carry out the measurements.

2.6.3 Useful References


Very useful information on resistivity and resistance measurements can be found in the following
documents:

• Chapters 9 and 10 of the SES research report to EPRI entitled “Transmission Line Grounding”
(Report EL-2699, Project 1494-1).
• Chapters 4 of the 1996 CDEGS Users’ Group Handbook.
• Chapter 2 of the How To…Engineering Guide entitled “A Large Suburban Substation
Grounding System Analysis: Measurements & Computer Modeling”.

2.7 MULTI-LAYER SOILS: MANUAL GUIDANCE OF RESAP


If no soil type is requested, by default, RESAP will assume a multi-layer soil structure and automatically
determine the appropriate number of layers based on your soil resistivity measurement. The program
produces a soil model which approximates the measured soil resistivity values to the greatest extent
possible. By varying the number of layers, the thicknesses of these layers and their resistivities in the
initial estimated soil model, you can significantly improve the computed model. For the vast majority of
cases involving horizontal soil models, the automated optimization algorithm will choose the proper
initial values and derive a reasonable soil model after a single RESAP run.

However, there exist some very unusual situations in which you have to intervene in the RESAP
interpretation process. For example, after reaching a certain RMS error, the automated interpretation
algorithm in RESAP can no longer improve the quality of the curve-fitting because the measured
resistivity curve is full of noise, or is not a smooth curve, or exhibit some unphysical features. In all
these cases, there might be a need to modify data points manually or to provide an initial soil model as
the starting point for RESAP to optimize. Occasionally, even with less noisy data, the automated
algorithm in RESAP can no longer improve the quality of the fitting after getting the RMS error below a
certain value. In this case, locking some soil parameters to user-specified initial values in the SOIL-
TYPE module can help in deriving a better final soil model.

In other cases, the user has partial knowledge about the target soil model: for example, for a substation
with backfill, the approximate resistivity and thickness of the top layer may be known. In this case, one
might want to provide an initial guess of the soil model to RESAP, in order to guide the program in
deriving a soil model with top layer characteristics as close as possible to reality.

RESAP Page 2-10


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

3 RESAP COMMAND INPUT FILES

3.1 WHAT'S IN THIS CHAPTER


This chapter describes how RESAP commands are used to create RESAP input files. At the same time,
the whole process of the interpretation of soil resistivity measurements is illustrated. For more
information on how to carry out a RESAP soil resistivity analysis using the Windows Toolbox mode,
refer to the Chapter 3 of the How To… Engineering Guide titled “A Simple Substation Grounding
Analysis”.

Section 3.2 of this chapter presents an overview of the RESAP command language. Section 3.3
describes the hierarchy of RESAP commands, while Section 3.4 presents an outline of the basic RESAP
modules and commands which are used to prepare the great majority of RESAP input files. Section 3.5
presents a typical example of a complete RESAP input file and an outline (or template) file structure
which describes the majority of RESAP input files.

3.2 THE RESAP INPUT COMMAND LANGUAGE


Every RESAP input file begins with the Program Command, which is the program name, i.e., RESAP.
The body of a RESAP command file consists of several groups of interrelated commands or modules.
Each group of commands is introduced by a Module Command. Each Module Command (or module
header) is followed by a series of commands which specify data and parameters for RESAP. These are
called the Specification Commands. A command is made up of the command verb, optional qualifiers,
and optional or mandatory data variables. Variables and qualifiers specified on the same command line
are separated by commas. Real numbers can be entered with exponents, for example 2.1E-09 or 0.7E+11
(note that no spaces are allowed before or after the "E"). RESAP commands can be abbreviated
according to rules set out in Appendix A. This appendix also gives information on the structure of the
RESAP command language. A RESAP input file also includes Standard Commands, which are general-
purpose commands that are unrelated to the engineering calculations of the program, such as comment
lines which are used to describe the input file. Detailed descriptions and definitions of each command
and its parameters are given in the CDEGS Help Reference.

3.3 RESAP COMMAND HIERARCHY


Figure 3.1 is a template for most RESAP runs involving horizontally layered soils. The file structure
shown in this figure represents both the limited-layer (2-layer) soil model used in the example as well as
the multilayer soil modeling case.

At the top of the RESAP command hierarchy is the Program Command ("RESAP"), which is unique.
Below this level are the Module Commands, then commands belonging to each module, and then the
subcommands belonging to each command.

RESAP Page 3-1


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

Figure 3.1 Template for RESAP Input Files: Horizontal Soil Layering

RESAP Page 3-2


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

It is important to note that if an input file is created interactively using the SICL input preprocessor, or if
a manually prepared input file is to be read by SICL, it is possible to skip certain command levels in the
hierarchy. In SICL, any command which takes no qualifiers or variables, and which only serves to
introduce subcommands, can be omitted in the input file. SICL will supply the omitted commands in the
RESAP input file it creates. SICL will prompt the user to resolve any ambiguities that may arise. If the
input file is to be read directly by RESAP (or any other engineering program), it must include all
commands in the hierarchy.

Note also that it is possible to specify the different modules of a RESAP input file in any order, but
certain error and warning messages may be adversely affected if a logical order is not respected for
certain commands. Consider, for example, the command UNITS of the OPTIONS module; any data
specified before the UNITS command will be assumed to be in METRIC units for the purposes of error-
checking, whether metric or British units are specified by the UNITS command. Within a given module,
commands which are logically independent, for example the commands RUN-IDENTIFI and UNITS of
the OPTIONS module, can be specified in any order. In general, however, you should follow the order
set out the template in Figure 3.1 and the sample input files of this chapter when specifying most types
of data, since many commands within a module must follow each other in a specific order. Note that if a
non-cumulative command such as UNITS is specified more than once, then the setting specified by the
last appearance of the command in the input file will be retained.

3.4 OUTLINE OF A TYPICAL RESAP INPUT FILE


RESAP input files can consist of up to 6 modules and dozens of different commands. This reflects the
variety of soil data and soil model types that RESAP can accommodate. However, most RESAP input
files use only a subset of the modules and commands available in RESAP.

A short list of the most useful RESAP modules, qualifiers, and commands is given in Table 3.1. This
table includes all the modules, qualifiers, and commands used in the great majority of RESAP input
files. In Table 3.1, commands one level below the module commands in the RESAP command hierarchy
are marked by a dash (-). Subcommands belonging to a higher-level command are marked by indenting.

MODULE QUALIFIERS SUBCOMMANDS


OPTIONS - RUN-IDENTIFI
- UNITS
SOIL-TYPE - MULTILAYER - HORIZONTAL
- LIMITED-LAYER - LAYER
MEASUREMENTS - APPARENT-RES - RESULTS
- RESISTIVITY - METHOD

Table 3.1 Basic RESAP Modules, Qualifiers, and Commands

RESAP Page 3-3


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

Although Table 3.1 contains all the commands used in a typical RESAP input file, more modules and
commands are available in RESAP. Figure 3.1 presents a block diagram showing all the possible
RESAP modules, including the comments section.

PROGRAM COMMAND

COMMENTS SECTION

OPTIONS MODULE

SOIL-TYPE MODULE

MEASUREMENTS
MODULE

OPTIMIZATION
MODULE

COMPUTATIONS
MODULE

Figure 3.2 Block Diagram of a Complete RESAP Input File

3.5 A TYPICAL RESAP INPUT FILE

3.5.1 RESAP Source Data - Soil Resistance or Resistivity Measurements


The first step in most grounding and interference studies is the development of an electrical equivalent
soil model for the earth in which a grounding system, an energized conductor, or a conductor subject to
electromagnetic interference is located. For example, detailed soil resistivity measurements at a
substation site resulted in the apparent resistance values given in Table 3.2. The resistivity measurements
were carried out based on the Wenner equal probe spacing technique (see Figure 2.3(a)).

RESAP Page 3-4


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

Separation Depth of Depth of Apparent


Between Probes Current Probes Potential Probes Resistance (V/I)
(m) (m) (m) (ohms)
0.3 0.09 0.06 155.0
1.0 0.09 0.06 44.0
2.0 0.09 0.06 5.60
5.0 0.09 0.06 3.05
7.0 0.15 0.06 1.53
10.0 0.15 0.06 1.01
15.0 0.30 0.06 0.703
25.0 0.30 0.06 0.403
30.0 0.30 0.06 0.325
50.0 0.60 0.09 0.199
70.0 0.60 0.09 0.136
100.0 0.60 0.09 0.097
130.0 1.00 0.09 0.074
150.0 1.00 0.09 0.065

Table 3.2 Measured Apparent Resistances at Substation Site

To produce an equivalent soil model, the data given in Table 3.2 must be entered into RESAP, along
with appropriate instructions on what type of model we want to try to fit to this data, how we want the
calculated model to be presented, and what kind of units we want to use. This is done by preparing the
input file which is presented and explained in the following section.

Using the data described in the preceding section, the list of commands given in Table 3.1 allows us to
build the input file given in Printout 3.1. As was mentioned in Chapter 1, the input file can be prepared
interactively using one of the user-friendly input preprocessors available in CDEGS: the Windows
Toolbox, SICL and SMILS. Alternatively, it can be prepared using a text editor and read into RESAP.
For more information on how to prepare this file using the Window Input Toolbox mode, refer to the
Chapter 3 of the How To… Engineering Guide titled “A Simple Substation Grounding Analysis”.

An inspection of the input file confirms that it is composed using only the modules and commands listed
in Table 3.1 and Standard Commands. Complete information on all RESAP commands is contained in
the CDEGS Help Reference.

RESAP Page 3-5


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

RESAP

TEXT,MODULE,THIS IS A FIRST COMMENT LINE. IT IS


TEXT,MODULE,ALWAYS A GOOD IDEA TO INCLUDE COMMENTS
TEXT,MODULE,WHICH WILL APPEAR IN YOUR PRINTOUT
TEXT,MODULE,A TWO-LAYER SOIL MODEL
OPTIONS
UNITS,METRIC
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,SUBSTATION SITE # 1
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,0.3,155.0,0.09,0.06
RESULTS,1.0,44.0,0.09,0.06
RESULTS,2.0,5.60,0.09,0.06
RESULTS,5.0,3.05,0.09,0.06
RESULTS,7.0,1.53,0.15,0.06
RESULTS,10.0,1.01,0.15,0.06
RESULTS,15.0,0.703,0.30,0.06
RESULTS,25.0,0.403,0.30,0.06
RESULTS,30.0,0.325,0.30,0.06
RESULTS,50.0,0.199,0.60,0.09
RESULTS,70.0,0.136,0.60,0.09
RESULTS,100.0,0.097,0.60,0.09
RESULTS,130.0,0.074,1.00,0.09
RESULTS,150.0,0.065,1.00,0.09
SOIL-TYPE,LIMITED-LAYE
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0,0
LAYER,BOTTOM,0
OPTIMIZATION
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT

ENDPROGRAM

Printout 3.1 RESAP Input File RS_LIMIT.F05

3.5.2 Overview of A Typical RESAP Input File


This section gives a module-by-module overview of a RESAP input file. Even without a detailed
knowledge of the command syntax used to create an input file, its basic structure is easy to see in
Printout 3.1. By going carefully through this input file and reading the corresponding entries in this
section, you will have a good understanding of each of the main parts of a RESAP input file. Printout 3.1
also provides you with examples of the syntax of RESAP commands.

The commands in Printout 3.1 are grouped into modules, reflecting the hierarchical nature of the SES
Input Command Language.

You do not have to specify all the listed commands. However, we will issue all the usual most pertinent
commands.

RESAP Page 3-6


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

The Program Command RESAP is a mandatory item in all RESAP input files.

The TEXT commands are comment lines that are used to describe the case being analyzed. They are
echoed in the program’s output. A maximum of 10 TEXT lines can be entered. All lines beginning with
an exclamation mark are comments which are ignored by the program.

TEXT, MODULE, THIS IS A FIRST COMMENT LINE. IT IS


TEXT, MODULE, ALWAYS A GOOD IDEA TO INCLUDE COMMENTS
TEXT, MODULE, WHICH WILL APPEAR IN YOUR PRINTOUT.

In the OPTIONS module, a run-id SUBSTATION SITE # 1 is assigned and the METRIC system of units
is chosen. The run identification string is used to label every page of the output file and every plot
produced by RESAP or SIRPS. A maximum of 20 characters can be entered for RUN_ID.

RUN_ID, SUBSTATION SITE # 1


UNITS, METRIC

Note that "_" (underscore) character in the RUN_ID can be replaced with a "-" (dash) or a (^) space
character. This is possible because SICL has been designed to accept all three characters as equivalent.

The SOIL-TYPE module includes commands to specify the structure of the soil model desired. The
LIMITED-LAY qualifier indicates to RESAP that a two-layer soil model should be used to fit the
measured data. It is also possible to specify a multilayer soil model by using the SOIL-
TYPE,MULTILAYER module command. In the LIMITED-LAYER case, the LAYER commands are
optional, since this qualifier imposes by default a two-layer model. However, the LAYER commands are
required if you select the MULTILAYER option because the number of layers in the model corresponds
to the number of command LAYER appearing in the input file. If you specify values for the layer
resistivities and thicknesses with the LAYER command, these are used by RESAP as the starting point
in its resistivity interpretation algorithm. If no initial values are provided or if one or several values are
zero or invalid, RESAP will determine its own starting values.

In this input file, for illustration purpose, the LAYER commands are issued which will force RESAP
program to use a two-layer soil model in the LIMITED-LAYER settings of SOIL-TYPE.

The MEASUREMENTS module is used to specify either the apparent soil resistances or resisitivities
measured in the field. Which type of measurement is being specified is controlled by the APPARENT-
RES and RESISTIVITY qualifiers of the MEASUREMENTS module command. The RESULTS
command is used to specify the following data:
• Apparent Resistance or Resistivity: The apparent resistance or resistivity measured at each
probe spacing.
• Cpin Depth: The depth to which the current injection electrodes were driven into the earth.
This value influences the interpretation of soil resistivities at short electrode spacings.
• Ppin Depth: The depth to which the potential probes were driven into the earth. This value
also influences the interpretation of soil resistivities at short electrode spacings.
• Spacing Between Probes: The distance between adjacent measurement probes.

RESAP Page 3-7


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

Each instance of the RESULTS command corresponds to the apparent resistance or resistivity measured
at a particular electrode separation.

The measurement data listed in Table 3.2 is entered using the RESULTS command.

RESULTS,0.3.,155.0,0.09,0.06
: :
: :
R,150.0,0.065,1.00,0.09

Only the first and last entries are indicated above.

You will note that, once you have specified a command unambiguously, specifying one character (R) of
the command is enough for SICL to guess the command correctly. In general, your commands need to
have as many letters as necessary to remove any ambiguity between two commands. As well, it is
possible in the default SICL environment to skip some intermediate commands such as
MEASUREMENTS.

The COMPUTATIONS module can be used for different purposes in the case of the LIMITED-LAYER
soil type versus the case of MULTILAYER soil model. When the MULTILAYER soil model is
specified, the LOCK and UNLOCK commands can be used to control which parameters of the initial
guess entered for the soil model structure the user wishes to hold fixed. When the LIMITED-LAYER
soil model are specified, the TRAVERSE command in the COMPUTATIONS module can be used to
specify the points (their number and separation) where the apparent soil resistivity should be evaluated
based on the computed soil structure to provide a comparison to the measured data.

The COMPUTATIONS module also allows you to choose or generate different filters. By default,
RESAP chooses STANDARD filter that is sufficient for most of practical cases. The HIGH- PRECISIon
filter is rarely used and it will greatly increase the computation time. Generating new filters is seldom
needed unless RESAP encounters a missing or corrupted filter database file.

The OPTIMIZATION module allows you to specify the minimization algorithms and to control the
iterative minimization process. This module can usually be omitted since the program automatically
selects appropriate optimization options. In this case, for illustration purpose, we use the Levenberg-
Marquardt method as the minimization algorithm. This is specified under METHODOLOGY. There are
only three parameters you should modify when the RMS error between the computed data and measured
data is not satisfied. They are

• ACCURACY: This parameter sets the desired RMS error (default value is 0.025 (2.5%)).

• ITERATIONS: This parameter sets the total number of iterations (default value is 500).

• STEPSIZE: This parameter specifies the minimum change of RMS error below which the
optimization process will stop. The program will conduct a convergence test by computing the
average RMS error change over the past 25 iterations. The minimization will stop if the averaged
RMS error change is less than the value specified by STEPSIZE command. Decreasing the

RESAP Page 3-8


Chapter 3 RESAP Command Input Files

STEPSIZE usually improves the fit of the computed soil model to the measured data, but increases
the computation time. The default value of STEPSIZE is 0.0001 (0.01%).

RESAP will terminate the iterative minimization process whenever the desired ACCURACY is reached,
or the minimization STEPSIZE is smaller than the threshold value, or the total number of ITERATIONS
is reached.

RESAP Page 3-9


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

4 SAMPLE RUNS

4.1 LIMITED LAYER RESAP RUN


The RESAP input file in Printout 3.1 is ready to be submitted to the RESAP program. The measured
resistivity points (dots) and the resulting computed apparent resistivity curve (line) are shown in Figure
4.1.

Figure 4.1 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Limited-Layer (Two-Layer) Soil
Model.

The 2-layer soil model determined by RESAP is as follows:

===========< R E S A P ( SYSTEM INFORMATION SUMMARY ) >===========

Run ID......................................: SUBSTATION SITE # 1


System of Units ............................: Meters
Soil Type Selected..........................: Multi-Layer Horizontal
RMS error between measured and calculated...: 15.5946 in percent
resistivities (Note RMS=SQRT(average(Di**2)).

<--- LAYER CHARACTERISTICS --> Reflection Resistivity


Layer Resistivity Thickness Coefficient Contrast
Number (ohm-m) (Meters) (p.u.) Ratio
====== ============== ============== ============ ============
1 infinite infinite 0.0 1.0
2 364.5703 .6672840 -1.0000 .36457E-17
3 63.76699 infinite -.70226 .17491

RESAP Page 4-1


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

4.2 MULTILAYER EXAMPLES


The following describes a general approach when using a multilayer soil model.

Step 1. Start the first run to let RESAP predict the best soil model possible. Plot the measured apparent
resistivity curve against the computed curve and determine whether or not the predicted soil
structure is suitable for the measurement. Based on the shape of the curve (extrema and
inflection points), determine the number of layers Ndesired corresponding to the desired soil
model and compare Ndesired with the number of layers Npredicted which is obtained from the
RESAP predicted soil model.

Many factors can play role in determining Ndesired. These factors are mainly users’ personal experience in
soil resistivity analysis, measurement errors, site geological information and weather conditions during
the measurement, etc.

Step 2.If necessary (Ndesired ≠ Npredicted, and/or the fit is no good), refine the soil model by
providing/locking appropriate initial guesses to the soil model and/or adjusting data points
which are obviously due to measurement errors to obtain the best fit between the measured and
computed resistivity curve.

We have also noticed that for some rare cases it is necessary to give an extra layer (than it is supposedly
needed) to obtain the best fit. This is because the extra freedom due to the extra layers will help the
minimization. Chapter 2 of the How To… Engineering Guide entitled “NCC-SES Gas Insulated
Substation Grounding Analysis” shows a detailed example for analyzing a difficult case.

In the remaining part of this section, we will list three examples that correspond to three-layer, four-layer
and five-layer soil models, mainly to give you an idea about how to select the number of layers based on
the general shape of the apparent resistivity curve. Keep in mind that in practice it is always a good idea
to find the simplest soil model possible in order to reduce the computation time. Chapter 10 of the 2000
CDEGS Users’ Group Handbook provides further details about how to select the number of layers
based on the general shape of the apparent resistivity curve.

4.2.1 A THREE-LAYER SOIL MODEL


Printout 4.1 shows the input file for a three-layer soil model. The results are displayed in Figure 4.2.
Note that one of measurement data at 500 ft spacing was discarded due to measurement error.

RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,A THREE-LAYER SOIL MODEL
TEXT,MODULE,WENNER ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION
OPTIONS
RUN-ID,MULTILAYER-3
UNITS,BRITISH
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0,0
LAYER,CENTRAL,0,0

RESAP Page 4-2


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

LAYER,BOTTOM,0
ENDMODULE
MEASUREMENTS,RESISTIVITY
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,1.0, 287, 0.33,0.083
RESULTS,1.5, 290, 0.33,0.083
RESULTS,2.25, 322, 0.33,0.083
RESULTS,5.0, 462, 0.33,0.083
RESULTS,7.5, 548, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,10.0, 604, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,15.0, 659, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,22.5, 754, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,50.0, 660, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,75.0, 758, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,100.0, 780, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,150.0, 585, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,225.0, 450, 1.0,0.5
! RESULTS,500.0, 618, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,750.0, 315, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,1000.0, 265, 1.0,0.5
RESULTS,1500.0, 258, 1.0,0.5
OPTIMIZATION
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
ENDPROGRAM

Printout 4.1 RESAP Input File RS_MULT3.F05

Figure 4.2 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Three-Layer Soil Model.

RESAP Page 4-3


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

The three-layer soil model determined by RESAP is as follows:

===========< R E S A P ( SYSTEM INFORMATION SUMMARY ) >===========

Run ID......................................: MULTILAYER-3


System of Units ............................: British
Soil Type Selected..........................: Multi-Layer Horizontal
RMS error between measured and calculated...: 5.85252 in percent
resistivities (Note RMS=SQRT(average(Di**2)).

<--- LAYER CHARACTERISTICS --> Reflection Resistivity


Layer Resistivity Thickness Coefficient Contrast
Number (ohm-m) ( Feet ) (p.u.) Ratio
====== ============== ============== ============ ============
1 infinite infinite 0.0 1.0
2 273.8638 2.317178 -1.0000 .27386E-17
3 792.3849 114.4890 .48630 2.8934
4 269.4607 infinite -.49247 .34006

4.2.2 A FOUR-LAYER SOIL MODEL


Printout 4.2 shows the input file for a four-layer soil model. The results are displayed in Figure 4.3.

RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,A FOUR-LAYER SOIL MODEL
TEXT,MODULE,GENERAL ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION
OPTIONS
RUN-ID,MULTILAYER-4
UNITS,BRITISH
ENDMODULE
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP
LAYER,CENTRAL
LAYER,CENTRAL
LAYER,BOTTOM
ENDMODULE
MEASUREMENTS
METHOD,GENERAL
RESULTS, 1.00, 81.05, 0.33, 0.33, 1.2, 2.0
RESULTS, 1.50, 62.89, 0.33, 0.33, 2.0, 3.0
RESULTS, 2.00, 55.00, 0.50, 0.33, 3.0, 4.0
RESULTS, 3.00, 45.56, 0.50, 0.33, 4.0, 5.0
RESULTS, 5.00, 37.33, 0.83, 0.50, 5.0, 6.0
RESULTS, 7.00, 29.22, 0.83, 0.50, 10., 13.0
RESULTS, 10.00, 22.67, 0.83, 0.50, 14., 14.0
RESULTS, 15.00, 16.43, 1.00, 0.83, 16., 16.0
RESULTS, 20.00, 14.83, 1.00, 0.83, 24., 17.0
RESULTS, 30.00, 10.61, 1.00, 0.83, 34., 18.0
RESULTS, 50.00, 5.73, 1.00, 0.83, 57., 30.0
RESULTS, 70.00, 3.85, 1.00, 1.00, 80., 50.0
RESULTS, 100.00, 2.15, 1.00, 1.00, 120., 130.
RESULTS, 150.00, 1.65, 2.00, 1.00, 171., 160.

RESAP Page 4-4


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

RESULTS, 200.00, 1.65, 2.00, 1.00, 260., 170.


RESULTS, 300.00, 1.23, 2.00, 1.00, 326., 230.
OPTIMIZATION
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
ENDPROGRAM

Printout 4.2 RESAP Input File RS_MULT4.F05

Figure 4.3 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Four-Layer Soil Model.

The four-layer soil model determined by RESAP is as follows:

===========< R E S A P ( SYSTEM INFORMATION SUMMARY ) >===========

Run ID......................................: MULTILAYER-4


System of Units ............................: British
Soil Type Selected..........................: Multi-Layer Horizontal
RMS error between measured and calculated...: 3.37999 in percent
resistivities (Note RMS=SQRT(average(Di**2)).

RESAP Page 4-5


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

<--- LAYER CHARACTERISTICS --> Reflection Resistivity


Layer Resistivity Thickness Coefficient Contrast
Number (ohm-m) ( Feet ) (p.u.) Ratio
====== ============== ============== ============ ============
1 infinite infinite 0.0 1.0
2 206.2624 2.806843 -1.0000 .20626E-17
3 3239.253 2.179909 .88027 15.705
4 67.99847 7.562907 -.95888 .20992E-01
5 582.0868 infinite .79080 8.5603

4.2.3 A FIVE-LAYER SOIL MODEL


Printout 4.3 shows the input file for a five-layer soil model. The results are displayed in Figure 4.4.

RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,A FIVE-LAYER SOIL MODEL
TEXT,MODULE,WENNER ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION
OPTIONS
RUN-ID,MULTILAYER-5
UNITS,METRIC
ENDMODULE
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP
LAYER,CENTRAL
LAYER,CENTRAL
LAYER,CENTRAL
LAYER,BOTTOM
ENDMODULE
MEASUREMENTS
RESULTS, 1.00, 78.95, 0.33, 0.33
RESULTS, 1.50, 42.98, 0.33, 0.33
RESULTS, 2.00, 26.96, 0.33, 0.33
RESULTS, 3.00, 15.30, 0.33, 0.33
RESULTS, 5.00, 8.00, 0.33, 0.33
RESULTS, 7.00, 5.75, 0.67, 0.33
RESULTS, 10.00, 4.20, 0.67, 0.67
RESULTS, 15.00, 3.25, 0.67, 0.67
RESULTS, 20.00, 2.57, 1.00, 0.67
RESULTS, 30.00, 1.70, 1.50, 1.00
RESULTS, 50.00, 0.86, 1.50, 1.00
RESULTS, 70.00, 0.64, 1.50, 1.00
RESULTS, 100.00, 0.52, 2.00, 1.00
RESULTS, 150.00, 0.45, 2.00, 1.00
RESULTS, 200.00, 0.42, 2.00, 1.00
RESULTS, 300.00, 0.36, 2.00, 1.00
OPTIMIZATION
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
ENDPROGRAM

Printout 4.3 RESAP Input File RS_MULT5.F05

RESAP Page 4-6


Chapter 4 Sample Runs

Figure 4.4 Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for A Five-Layer Soil Model.

The five-layer soil model determined by RESAP is as follows:

=========< R E S I S T I V I T Y ( SYSTEM INFORMATION SUMMARY ) >=========

Run ID......................................: MULTILAYER-5


System of Units ............................: Meters
Soil Type Selected..........................: Multi-Layer Horizontal
RMS error between measured and calculated...: 2.47225 in percent
Resistivities (Note RMS=SQRT(average(Di**2)).

<--- LAYER CHARACTERISTICS --> Reflection Resistivity


Layer Resistivity Thickness Coefficient Contrast
Number (ohm-m) (Meters) (p.u.) Ratio
====== ============== ============== ============ ============
1 infinite infinite 0.0 1.0
2 607.0311 1.036814 -1.0000 0.60703E-17
3 209.3736 5.322458 -0.48708 0.34491
4 418.4548 20.55278 0.33302 1.9986
5 122.1613 36.73716 -0.54807 0.29193
6 1559.047 infinite 0.85467 12.762

RESAP Page 4-7


Appendix A Structure and Organization of Commands

APPENDIX A

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDS

A.1 FOREWORD
The command mode allows easy, self-documenting data entry for the user. Each command name has
been designed to identify the RESAP data it specifies.

The command mode has two principal command types, i.e., Standard (or utility) commands, and
Specification (or engineering specification) commands. The Standard commands along with the
Specification commands constitute the RESAP Command Language, which is used to communicate
with the RESAP program. The Specification commands are occasionally referred to as "nonstandard
commands" or simply, "commands", when no confusion is possible.

Each option is invoked using commands (English words, verbs and composites) consisting of a string of
ASCII characters. It is important that the syntactic rules and conventions governing the RESAP
command language be well understood.

A.2 COMMAND FORMAT AND SYNTAX


Each data line expected by RESAP has the following format:

Command, qualifier_1, ..., qualifier_n, variable_1, ..., variable_m

"Command" and "qualifier_i" are strings of characters, while "variable_i" can be a string of characters,
an integer or a real value. There may be zero, one or several qualifiers and/or variables associated with
the command.

A blank data line is recognized as a "null" command. The following typical data lines are equivalent to a
"null" command:

,b,,bbb,,,bbb (b is a blank)

,,,,b,bb

The comma "," is the data line delimiter. Leading blanks are ignored. Note that blanks embedded
between two strings of nonblank characters are significant. However, such blanks are interchangeable
with the dash "-" and underline "_" characters. For example, the command "RUN-IDENTIFIcation" may
also be entered as "RUN IDENTIFIcation" or "RUN_IDENTIFIcation" because RESAP considers the
underline and dash characters inside of a command to be equivalent to the blank character.

RESAP Page A-1


Appendix A Structure and Organization of Commands

Command qualifiers and variables are optional in the sense that if no qualifier or value is given then
default qualifiers and values will automatically be selected.

A.3 SHORTHAND FORMS


In the RESAP command language, you may use the full names, or short-forms of them. Accepted or
admissible short-forms use the first four or more characters in the corresponding RESAP command. Any
short-form from 4 to 12 characters must match the first of leading portion of a command. Characters in
the 13th position onward, if any, in a command name, or a short-form are cosmetic. They are ignored.
Finally, short-forms for commands must be a substring of the command name.

A.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS


RESAP recognizes Standard and Specification commands. Specification commands are structured in a
hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands consists of the program name.

The five layers (or levels) of Specification commands are as follows:

Highest I-Program command (Main Command)


Hierarchy
(highest II-Module commands (Access commands)
layer
or level) III-Option commands (Key commands)
|
| IV-Group commands (Block commands)
|
Lowest V-Data commands Hierarchy

Appendix B shows the commands and their structure as supported by the RESAP software package.
Two commands at adjacent layers are said to be connected (or linked) if one must be given or specified
before the other. Specification of lower level command requires the specification of a command in the
command level immediately above it. Command levels cannot be skipped. Commands on different
branches of the hierarchy can share the same names while their function and syntax as a rule will differ.

A.5 STANDARD COMMANDS


Standard commands are used by RESAP to carry out standard actions which are usually common to all
CDEGS modules.

Standard commands are those which govern the general operation of RESAP. They may be issued at any
time during the input session. The syntax of a Standard command is:

Keyword, Qualifier_1, Qualifier_2,..., Qualifier_n, value_1, Value_2,...

RESAP Page A-2


Appendix A Structure and Organization of Commands

where the keyword is the actual name of the command, and the qualifiers (of which there may be none,
one, or many) describe which of the command's options are desired. Both the keyword and the qualifiers
must be entered in uppercase if the lowercase option is disabled. Commas are used to separate qualifiers
from the keyword and from each other. If a command which has qualifiers is entered without a qualifier,
then RESAP makes a default choice of its own; i.e., the specification of qualifiers is optional. In some
cases, numerical values may be required to fully specify a standard command.

Standard commands and their synonyms may be abbreviated, just as Specification commands may.

A.6 SPECIFICATION COMMANDS


Specification commands are structured in a hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands
consists of a module name. As soon as one of these is specified, all subsequent lower-level
(Specification) commands issued are assumed to belong to that module.

The user may specify some commands as many times as necessary. Depending on the command,
repetitions will have a "cumulative" or a "substitutive" effect. Cumulative means that new data
associated with that command is added to the existing set.

The hierarchy of Specification commands can be found in Appendix B of this manual.

An index of all RESAP commands and detailed information on each command and related topics can be
found in the CDEGS Help Reference. The on-line help facility of SICL and SMILS also provides this
information.

RESAP Page A-3


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RESAP Page U-1