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be 220 Degrees C.

Ventilated Dry type

transformers have a UL recognized
HARMONICS; HOW THEY AFFECT THE insulation system that is rated 220
DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF "K" FACTOR Increased harmonics will increase the eddy
TRANSFORMERS current loss of the windings and this will
by JEROME M. FRANK P.E. IEEE FELLOW appreciably decrease the life expectancy of
OLSUN ELECTRICS CORPORATION the transformer. As pointed out in one of the
papers in the Bibliography, the Arhenius
The design and development of solid state Rule of Thumb reduces the life in half for
switching devices has made a very important every 8 to 10 Degrees C that the temperature
contribution to our ability to handle and is increased.
process data as well as our ability to more That is one of the main reasons that
efficiently control electrical equipment. New lower temperature rises of 115C and 80C were
items must now be taken into consideration suggested in the Energy Consideration paper
in the design, development and application in the Bibliography. Overloading as well as
of electrical equipment. Harmonics are factors that must be taken
When 60 hertz current flows through i n t o consideration in a transformer
a conductor, it is relatively uniformly a p p l i c a t i o n .
distributed thruout the cross section of the Changes in design have greatly
conductor and its heating effect on the increased the harmonic content of present
conductor can be readily calculated. day loads. In fact, there are very few loads
A s the frequency increases, "skin today that do not produce harmonics.
effect" causes the current to flow towards the The computer manufacturers
outer edges of the conductor and the current formerly built what was known as a "Linear
distribution in the conductor is no longer Power Supply." This device had a heavy 60
uniform. T o reduce this heating effect, Hertz input transformer, and was large and
smaller insulated conductors in parallel were expensive t o manufacture. T h e various
used rather than one larger conductor to computer manufacturers
provide as much surface skin as possible device to eliminate the 60
resulting in a lower resistance to the higher Transformer, made it lighter and
frequency currents as the higher frequency less expensive and added a high frequency
currents tended t o flow towards the skin output transformer. This, they called a
rather than to the center of the conductor. Mode Switching Power Supply. The ~ i a l y and
This principle was known and used in the very important disadvantage was that t
design of 400 hertz conductors in airport harmonics produced by the rapid mo
lighting design. These 400 hertz cables s w i t c h i n g power supply were ver
consisted of multiple insulated conductors appreciably increased , pr
rather than one larger conductor. harmonic, which has c a m
A transformer has a core loss which is transformer and neutral problems. ~ ~ ~ ~ r t
on 24 hours of the day as long as the a r e now under way by computer
transformer is energized. It has a conductor manufacturers to reduce this harmonic
loss at 60 hertz that varies with t h e content in t h e future generations of
transformer loading. In addition, it has eddy computers but a large number of computers
losses in the conductor as well as stray losses have been built in the meantime with these
that are caused by the flux linking the frame higher harmonic currents.
parts. These losses and the cooling ducts in The new generation of Solid State
the windings determine the temperature Ballasts for lighting applications have been
rise of the transformer windings. If the described as being greatly improved with
transformer is designed for a temperature appreciable increase in efficiency.
rise of 150 Degrees Centigrade by resistance , slight drawback, an increase in harmonic
with a 40 Degree C ambient and a 30 Degree C content. The almost negligible arm^^^^
differential between the average rise by content of incandescent lighting has been
resistance of the winding and its hot spot, largely supplanted by the improvement in
the ultimate temperature of the winding will the better and more economical lighting of

0-7803-5148-6-5196 $4.00 0 9996 IEEE 204

arc also des
They give a procedure for derating a encountered and most troublesome. of the
~ ~ exposed ~ to non-linear ~ ~
loads. h a r m o~n i c s . ~ r ~ e
However. when you derate for use with a A transformer has a c o r e loss
you are violating the old (consisting of an eddy current and hysterisis
os& listing and in doing so, loss in the iron) , an 1 squared R loss in the
y s a also violate the National Electric Code, windings and an eddy current and stray loss
which ~ e q - e a i ~Ui s listed devices to be used in the winding conductors. A DC current
withdin their l:sting. flows uniformly through the entire cross
Mlben transformers are derated, the section of a conductor. As the f r e ~ u ~ n c y
namep'aale 1s usualEy not changed and the increases, due to skin effect, the eddy
ncxi pcrson coming along does not know that current component increases and it is very
the t r a n s f o r m e r was derated due to difficult to separate the eddy from the stray
e is likely to consider that the in the conductor. The M factor of the load,
is lightly loaded and will determined from the C57.110 calculation,
increase the load up towards the KVA on the multiplies the eddy current loss of the
n ameplare. 'The derated transformer still has windings. When it is used to multiply the
c o r e loss of t h e original combined eddy and stray loss, since they are
VA rating and it is a core loss, difficult to separate, you have increase
necessary, for the reduced factor of safety of the application.
e core loss is on continuously, it Eddy current losses in transformers
ecessary expense. . can be reduced by using multiple insulated
Another important fact is that a conductors rather than a single larger
properly designed K rated transformer is conductor. Strip windings often are used.
wed at a lower flux density than a non K The purpose is to get as much skin as
transfDrmer, due to the fact that the possible. Qther techniques include
~ ~ in the ~ secondary
r winding ~
~ interleaving
~ nwindings ~ and
~ transposing
causes a 3rd harmonic current to circulate in conductors.
Ita winding, increasing the The windings of all transformers have
the core. Unless additional resistances, inductances and capacitances.
d to the core, the core loss While the voltage received from the utility
e to the third harmonic flux has less than 1% voltage distortion, the
he delta primary winding. . output voltage of the transformer becomes
As a consequence, there is the possibility increasingly distorted especially as non-
er line voltage which occurs at linear currents flow through the windings
drive the core into saturation, a to the load. The greater the impedance, the
esirable effect. T h e additional greater t h e voltage distortion. Voltage
col-e material in a K rated transformer will distortion, measured with a non-linear load
make the transformer quieter. A good grade bank, was found to be appreciably dependent
6, is also desirable. on the t r a n s f o r m e r design and the
transformer has an transformer impedance.
that is grounded between T h e transformer impedances, thru
secondary windings that which all currents f l o w , will cause
barrier between 480 and secondary voltage distortion. This is
ion, the shield gives some especially true, if the currents are non-
c~mrnon and transverse mode noise sinusoidal.
attenuation, although there are no A s mentioned earlier, a distorted
IEEE standards to my knowledge, for voltage to an induction motor will cause non-
ring the degree of high frequency linear currents to flow in the motor
~",ojse attenuation. windings , adding to the motor's heating .
second problem with C57-110, and otors fed by a balanced sinusoidal voltage
e for revision, is the example on drawn a reasonably sinusoidal current.
which should include a third It is desirable to keep the impedance
2s i t is one of the naost frequently of the transformer, in my opinion, as low as
possible, but still large enough that the
primary protection will take the unit off the utility system , there is no reason why Dry
line in the event of a fault. Coordination Type Transformers should not be specified to
must be maintained with the protection have a 95 KV Basic Insulation Level, the same
devices. The lower the impedance, the as the Oil Filled units. They should also have,
higher the short circuit current and vice in addition, solid state arrestors mounted at
versa. It is good practice to specify the the terminals of the transformer. If the
minimum impedance the application can arrestors are more than 5 feet from the
stand. terminals, the arrestor does very little good
Since on a new design, the load profile as far as helping to protect the transformer's
may not be known, it is my recommendation windings from the transients caused by
that K-13, UL1561 listed transformers be lightning, your vacuum devices or your
used on Low Voltage transformer neighbors vacuum devices. As pointed out in
applications and K-4 on UL 1562 listed one of the papers in the Bibliography,
Medium Voltage Units. If on Low Voltage transformer designers must also take into
Transformers, the cost of down time is very consideration the rise in the primary
high or dependability very important, than winding voltage for a few micro-seconds due
K-30 would be my recommendation for low to the distributed reactance and capacitance
voltage and K-13 f o r medium voltage of the winding. The iimpressed voltage upon
transformers. energization can double in magnitude for a
Medium Voltage Transformers have a few micro-seconds although it is usually in
greater load diversity and that is the reason the order of 30 to 35 % increase in the
for the K-4 recommendation. primary applied voltage. On 5 KV units
In addition to Harmonics there are specify 60 BIL the sarne as for liquid filled
several other factors to be taken into units.
consideration on Medium Voltage In summary, dry type and liquid filled
Transformers. transformers can be designed to give many
It used to be that only lightning was years of satisfactory operation even when
the primary cause of transformer failures. exposed to the ever increasing non-linear
Today, there are devices that replace the load load environment. They can have all of the
break switches previously used, and these desirable features, like copper or aluminum
devices are known as vacuum switches and windings, lower than normal full load
even more troublesome a r e vacuum temperature rises and indoor or outdoor
contactors, which operate more frequently. enclosures. As more installations are
When a load break switch was opened completed and harmonic measurements
the L Di/Dt in the transformer winding was taken, we will be in a better position to
partially dissipated in the resulting arc in specify appropriate K factor transformers
the switch. for non-linear load applications.
The vacuum breaker and/or contactor
opens the circuit in a few microseconds and References
the L Di/Dt does not have the opportunity to
dissipate , As a result there is a transient rise Unde rs tan d i n g Trans f IDrm e r In su 1at i on
in voltage in the transformer primary Jerome M. Frank, Electrical Construction and
winding that can cause a dielectric failure Maintenance, April, 1970.
unless the winding is properly designed to
withstand it. "Specifying Transformer Insulation" by
UL1562 requires a Transient Voltage Jerome M. Frank, Midwest Electrical News,
Analysis Test to determine the maximum July, 1970.
voltage rise when a transient hits the
primary winding. "Understanding Electrical Insulation Life"
Dry Type Transformers have a BIL of by Jerome M. Frank, M a c h i n e Design
60 KV at 15000 volts per IEEE and ANSI October, 1970.
Standards. Liquid transformers have a 95 KV
Basic Impulse Rating. Since Oil and Dry type
Transformers are connected to the same

Methods to Determine K Factor" by Jerome M.
"Increasing Insulation Life 'I Frank
by Jerome M. Frank, IEEE PSE 04-346 October 1994
Electrical Consultant, March, 1971.
Underwriters Laboratory UL 1561
"Watch Out for Energy Losses in
Transformers" by Jerome M. Frank Underwriters Laboratory
Electrical Construction and Maintenance UL 1562 "Transformers, Distribution, Dry
August 1975 Type- Over 600 Volts December 1988

"Transients and Harmonics" by C.R. Luebke ANSI/IEEE C57-110 1986 Recommended

and Jerry Frank Practice for Establishing Transformer
Square D company November 1985 Capability when Supplying Non-Sinusoidal
Load Currents
"Transients and Harmonics" by Jerome M.
Frank and C.R.Luebke
IEEE CN2272-3 1986

"Transformer Listings" by Jerome M. Frank

Electrical Construction and Maintenance
January 1988

"Maximum Insulation Stresses Under

Transient Voltages in HV B a r r e l - T y p e
Winding of Distribution and Power
T r a n s f o rm e rs "
by Alexander Mazur, Isodoro Kerszenbaum
and Jerome Frank IEEE Transactions IAS
May/June 1988 IEEE Prize Paper

"S pecify ing D ry Ty p e D i st r ib u t i on

Transformers for Solid State Applications" by
I. Kerszenbaum, A. Mazur, M. Mistry
and J. Frank IEEE Prize Paper

"Nonlinear Loads and Transformers ...there is

another solution by Jerome M. Frank
Electrical Construction and Maintenance
May 1990

H a r m o nic
I' Currents an d T r an s f o rm e r
Loading" by Joseph F. McPartland, Warren
Lewis and Jerome Frank
Electrical Design and Installation NOV/DEC

"New Transformer Technology" by Jerome

Winter issue NETA World 1992-1993

"The How and Why of K-Factor Transformers

by Jerry Frank
Intertec Publishing April 1993