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IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric

Energy Storage Equipment and Systems


for Electric Power Systems Applications

Sponsored by the
IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Dispersed
Generation, and Energy Storage

IEEE IEEE Std 2030.3™-2016


3 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5997
USA
IEEE Std 2030.3™-2016

IEEE Standard Test Procedures


for Electric Energy Storage
Equipment and Systems for Electric
Power Systems Applications

Sponsor

IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics,


Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage

Approved 30 June 2016

IEEE-SA Standards Board


Abstract: Applications of electric energy storage equipment and systems (ESS) for electric power
systems (EPSs) are covered. Testing items and procedures, including type test, production test,
installation evaluation, commissioning test at site, and periodic test, are provided in order to verify
whether ESS applied in EPSs meet the safety and reliability requirements of the EPS. Grid opera-
tors, ESS manufactures, and ESS operators are for whom this standard is established.

Keywords: commissioning test, electric energy storage equipment, electric energy storage
systems, electric power systems, IEEE 2030.3™, installation evaluation, periodic test, production
test, test procedure, type test

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.


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Copyright © 2016 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.


All rights reserved. Published 30 September 2016. Printed in the United States of America.

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Incorporated.

PDF: ISBN 978-1-5044-2114-0 STD20986


Print: ISBN 978-1-5044-2115-7 STDPD20986

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Participants

At the time this draft standard was completed, the working group of Test Procedures for Equipment
Interconnecting Electric Energy Storage with Electric Power Systems had the following membership:

Yiming Hou, Chair


Xi Xiao, Secretary

Chengwei Dai Huishi Liang Xiaojun Wang


Yi Han Haitao Liu Ming Wu
Jinghan He Zhipeng Lv Zhenggang Yin
Yu Ji Wenyuan Ma Hui Yu
Rui Li Zanxiang Nie Dongxia Zhang
Yang Li Jian Su
Caihao Liang Xisheng Tang

The following members of the entity balloting committee voted on this standard. Balloters may have voted for
approval, disapproval, or abstention.

Beijing Jiaotong University Institute of Electrical Engineering Southwest Jiaotong University


Beijing Sifang Automation Co., Ltd Chinese Academy of Sciences State Grid Corporation of China
BII Group Holdings Ltd. North China Electric Power (SGCC)
China Datang Corporation University Tianjin University
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd Rockwell Automation Tsinghua University

When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this standard on 30 June 2016, it had the following membership:

Jean-Philippe Faure, Chair


Ted Burse, Vice Chair
John D. Kulick, Past Chair
Konstantinos Karachalios, Secretary

Chuck Adams Michael Janezic Yingli Wen


Masayuki Ariyoshi Joseph L. Koepfinger* Howard Wolfman
Stephen Dukes Hung Ling Don Wright
Jianbin Fan Kevin Lu Yu Yuan
J. Travis Griffith Annette D. Reilly Daidi Zhong
Gary Hoffman Gary Robinson
Ronald W. Hotchkiss Mehmet Ulema

*Member Emeritus

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
Introduction

This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 2030.3–2016, IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage
Equipment and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications.

Energy storage equipment and systems (ESS) that connect to an electric power system (EPS) shall meet the
requirements specified in related IEEE standards. Standardized test procedures are necessary to establish and
verify compliance with those requirements. These test procedures need to provide both repeatable results,
at independent test locations, and have flexibility to accommodate the variety of storage technologies and
applications.

This guide is comprised of 10 clauses and two annexes. The main content includes type tests, production tests,
installation evaluations, commissioning tests at site, and periodic tests.

Despite the fact that ESS applied in an EPS are at discharging state (acting as power sources) or at charging
state (acting as load), ESS shall comply with the planning and operation requirements of the grid. This stan-
dard aims to provide the test items and procedures for the ESS applied in EPSs to verify whether the relevant
characteristic parameters of the integrated ESS are in accordance with the technical requirements of the EPSs.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
Contents

Overview�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10
1.1  Scope�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10
1.2  Purpose����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11

2.  Normative references�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11

3.  Definitions������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12
3.1  Definitions������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12
3.2  Acronyms and abbreviations�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12

4.  General������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13
4.1  Testing items��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13
4.2 Application����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13

5.  General technical requirements����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15


5.1  Accuracy of the test result������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15
5.2  Test environment�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15
5.3  Accuracy and calibration of the instruments for test��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15
5.4  Equipment information���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15
5.5  Test report������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16
5.6  Technical requirement of the test system�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16

6.  Type tests��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16


6.1  Temperature stability test�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17
6.2  State of charge (SOC) test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18
6.3  Conversion efficiency test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 21
6.4  Response time test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 26
6.5  Ramp-rate test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 28
6.6  Synchronization test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
6.7  Reconnection after abnormal condition test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30
6.8  Harmonics test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 35
6.9  Flicker test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 36
6.10  Voltage unbalance test���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 36
6.11  Open-phase test�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38
6.12  Overcurrent test�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39
6.13  DC injection test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39
6.14  Response to abnormal voltage condition������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 39
6.15  Response to abnormal frequency condition�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47
6.16  Unintentional islanding test�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 50
6.17  Low-voltage ride through test (LVRT test)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51
6.18  Interconnection integrity test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 54
6.19  Test record���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55

7.  Production test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55


7.1  Insulation test of paralleling equipment���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55
7.2  Synchronization test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56
7.3  Continuous operation test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56
7.4  Reconnection after abnormal condition test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56
7.5  Response to abnormal voltage condition test�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57
7.6  Response to abnormal frequency condition test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58
7.7  Overcurrent test���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58
7.8  Unintentional islanding test���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58
7.9  Low-voltage ride through test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59

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7.10  Test record���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59

8.  Installation evaluation������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59


8.1  Operation environment conditions����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59
8.2  Grounding������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 60
8.3  Isolation device���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60
8.4  Monitoring����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60
8.5  Fault response������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60
8.6  Coordination with EPS reclosing�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60

9.  Commissioning test����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60


9.1  General requirements������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60
9.2  Calibration and inspection������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 61
9.3  Supplemented type test and production test at site������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 61
9.4  Insulation test of paralleling equipment���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 61
9.5  Synchronization test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62
9.6  Unintentional islanding test���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62
9.7  Stop charging/discharging test������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 62
9.8  Parameters adjustment������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 63

10.  Periodic test��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 63

Annex A (informative) Test signals��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64

Annex B (informative) Quality factor calculation method���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 69

Annex C (informative) Bibliography������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70

9
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Standard Test Procedures
for Electric Energy Storage
Equipment and Systems for Electric
Power Systems Applications

IMPORTANT NOTICE: IEEE Standards documents are not intended to ensure safety, security, health, or
environmental protection, or ensure against interference with or from other devices or networks. Imple-
menters of IEEE Standards documents are responsible for determining and complying with all appropriate
safety, security, environmental, health, and interference protection practices and all applicable laws and
regulations.

This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These
notices and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document and may be found under the
heading “Important Notice” or “Important Notices and Disclaimers Concerning IEEE Documents.” They
can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/disclaimers.html.

Overview
1.1 Scope
The test items and procedures of electric energy storage equipment and systems (ESS) for electric power sys-
tem (EPS) applications, including type test, production test, installation evaluation, commissioning test at site,
and periodic tests are as follows:

—— Type tests covering all necessary test items of ESS applied in EPSs
—— Production tests, including quality inspection and test of ESS before shipment
—— Installation evaluation shall be carried out after field installation of ESS
—— Commissioning tests shall be carried out on site when the field installation of ESS are complete and
before they are officially put into operation
—— Periodic tests shall be periodically carried out after ESS are officially applied in the EPS.

ESS can either be a single piece of equipment with all functions or an integrated set of equipment with specific
functions. A single piece of equipment shall go through type tests, production tests, installation evaluation, and
commissioning tests as a whole. Each piece of an integrated set of equipment shall go through type tests and

10
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

production tests based on its specific function, and then the whole set of equipment shall go through the instal-
lation evaluation and commissioning tests after field assembly and integration of the equipment.

1.2 Purpose
Despite of the fact that ESS applied in EPS are at the discharging state (acting as power sources) or at charging
state (acting as load), they shall comply with the planning and operation requirements of the grid. This stan-
dard aims to provide the test items and test procedures for ESS applied in EPSs to verify whether the relevant
characteristic parameters of the integrated ESS are in accordance with the technical requirements of the EPS,
as follows:

—— The type test is the first step for the integration test of ESS, generally used to verify the design principle
and the design rating of the product, and reflect the operation condition of the product.
—— Production tests include the quality inspection and test of the ESS before shipment, which is used to
verify whether the manufacturing quality and deviation meet the specific requirements.
—— Installation evaluation is the inspection and evaluation of the outer connection of ESS, grounding,
isolation, electrical connection correctness, etc. This shall be carried out after field installation of ESS.
—— Commissioning tests shall be carried out on site when field installations of ESS are complete and be-
fore they are officially put into operation. These tests aim to verify whether the technical indexes of
ESS are in accordance with the operation requirements after delivery and installation.
—— Periodic tests aim to inspect operation safety and reliability of ESS, which shall be periodically carried
out after ESS have been officially applied in EPSs.

The measured and analyzed results of each test obtained by applying the standard shall be repeatable, trace-
able, and independent from the test environment and location. The test results can provide meaningful refer-
ences for manufacturers, users, ESS operators, and grid operators in order to evaluate the performance and
quality of ESS applied in EPSs.

2.  Normative references


The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document (i.e., they must
be understood and used, so each referenced document is cited in text and its relationship to this document is
explained). For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

ANSI C37.06, American National Standard for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical
Current Basis—Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities.1,2

IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4–2: Testing and measurement techniques—
Electrostatic discharge immunity test.3

IEC 61000-4-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4–3: Testing and measurement techniques—Ra-
diated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test.

1
IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA
(http://standards.ieee.org/).
2
The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3
IEC publications are available from the Sales Department of the International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, PO Box
131, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland (http://www.iec.ch/). IEC publications are also available in the United States from the Sales
Department, American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA (http://www.ansi.org).

11
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

IEC 61000-4-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4–4: Testing and measurement techniques—
Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test.

IEC 61000-4-5, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4–5: Testing and measurement techniques—
Surge immunity test.

IEC 61000-4-6, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4–6: Testing and measurement techniques—Im-
munity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields.

IEEE Std 1547™, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems.

IEEE Std 1547.1™, IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed
Resources with Electric Power Systems.

IEEE Std C37.09™, IEEE Standard Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Sym-
metrical Current Basis.

3.  Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. The IEEE Standards Dictionary
Online could be consulted for any undefined terms of this document. 4

3.1  Definitions

energy storage equipment and systems (ESS): The energy storage systems in this standard include energy
storage equipment and any units connected with the energy storage equipment,for instance,the power conver-
sion units, the energy management units, and related monitoring and control systems.

simulated electric power system (EPS): An emulator imitates the expected electrical powers from a utility
power source. Where appropriate, an actual EPS can replace the simulated EPS.

3.2  Acronyms and abbreviations

BMS battery management system


ESS energy storage equipment and systems
EPS electric power system
EUT equipment under test
LVRT low-voltage ride through
PCC point of common coupling
PCS power conversion system
SOC state of charge
SOCmax maximum working load state specified by manufacturer
SOCmin minimum working load state specified by manufacturer
TRD total rated-current distortion

4
IEEE Standards Dictionary Online subscription is available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/dictionary.jsp.

12
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Vmax maximum dc working voltage specified by manufacturer


Vmin minimum dc working voltage specified by manufacturer
Vnom for ac, means nominal working voltage appointed by manufacturer; for dc, means average of
Vmax and Vmin

4. General
4.1  Testing items
Test methods of ESS working in conjunction with EPSs shall include type tests, production tests, installation
evaluations, commissioning tests, and periodic tests. Test items are shown in Table 1. ESS can either be a sin-
gle piece of equipment with all functions or a set of equipment units with each individual unit having a specific
function. In the latter case, each piece of equipment shall go through corresponding tests individually accord-
ing to its specific function. The test overview is shown in Figure 1.

Table 1—ESS test items


Production Commissioning Periodic
No. Test items Type tests
tests tests tests
1 Temperature stability √      
2 State of charge (SOC) √     √
3 Conversion efficiency √      
4 Response time √     √
5 Ramp-rate √     √
6 Synchronization √ √ √  
7 Reconnection after abnormal condition √ √    
8 Harmonics √     √
9 Flicker √      
10 Voltage unbalance √      
11 Open phase √      
12 Overcurrent √ √    
13 DC injection √      
14 Response to abnormal voltage condition √ √   √
15 Response to abnormal frequency condition √ √   √
16 Unintentional islanding √ √ √  
17 Low-voltage ride through (LVRT) √ √    
18 Interconnection integrity √      
19 Continuous operation √ √    
20 Stop charging/discharging √   √  

4.2 Application
For power-grid operation, test results based on this standard could be used to evaluate whether the relevant
characteristic parameters of ESS are in accordance with the planning and operation requirements of the EPS.
If the ESS are at discharging state, energy delivers from the ESS to the EPS. Hence, grid operators shall focus
on the supporting capability of ESS, such as synchronization, active power ramping, response to abnormal
condition, etc. When ESS are at charging state, grid operators shall pay more attention to the influences that

13
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure 1—Test overview

could be caused by an ESS and may affect the grid, such as power quality, response to abnormal condition of
the grid, etc.

For the interests of ESS manufacturers, this standard provides test items and test procedures to evaluate the
performance and quality of ESS, such as temperature stability tests, reliability tests of the equipment, state
of charge (SOC) tests, conversion efficiency tests, and active power ramping capability tests, etc. These test
results can provide reference and basis for ESS manufacturers in order to improve the performance and quality
of products.

For ESS operators, this standard provides the procedures to verify the specific performance indices [e.g., unin-
tentional islanding protection and low-voltage ride through (LVRT)] and grid-connected operation character-
istics (e.g., power quantity, energy conversion efficiency, ramping rate) under charging and discharging states.
These test results could be used as references for the ESS operator to improve their operation.

Table 2 shows the relevant test items for different related parties, including the grid operator, ESS manufactur-
ers, and ESS operators.

Table 2—Test items for relevant shareholders


No. Test items Grid operators ESS manufacturers ESS operators
1 Temperature stability   √ √
2 SOC √ √ √
3 Conversion efficiency   √ √
4 Response time √    
5 Ramp-rate √    
6 Synchronization √    
7 Reconnection after abnormal condition √    
8 Harmonics √   √
Table continues

14
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 2—Test items for relevant shareholders (continued)


No. Test items Grid operators ESS manufacturers ESS operators
9 Flicker √   √
10 Voltage unbalance √   √
11 Open phase √   √
12 Overcurrent √ √ √
13 DC injection √   √
14 Response to abnormal voltage condition √    
15 Response to abnormal frequency condition √    
16 Unintentional islanding √ √ √
17 LVRT √ √ √
18 Interconnection integrity √   √
19 Continuous operation test   √ √
20 Stop charging/discharging √    

5.  General technical requirements


5.1  Accuracy of the test result
The test results according upon this standard shall be effective to verify the performance of the tested ESS as
requested by the manufacturers and within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy.

5.2  Test environment


The test environment shall be maintained within an acceptable range of environmental conditions specified by
the manufacturer. If the environment conditions are out of the specified range, the test shall be terminated and
restart after the adjustment of the test environment.

5.3  Accuracy and calibration of the instruments for test


The instruments used for testing ESS shall be calibrated periodically and these calibrations shall be traceable.
The acccuracy of instruments used in the test shall be capable and appropriate for performing the tests.

5.4  Equipment information


ESS manufacturers shall provide technical documents for every relevant device and equipment and connec-
tion requirements necessary to conduct the tests. Special requirements shall be stated, such as the concerns of
shielded cables or special cables, maximum cable length, the use of filters, and the correct bonding to function-
al earth (grounding). Manufacturers shall provide additional devices or equipment necessary for conducting
the tests.

If ESS consist of several equipment units, each unit shall have relevant technical documents, for instance,
qualification, safety certificates, type test reports, and production tests reports.

The tested ESS shall have product codes and nameplates.

15
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

5.5  Test report


The test results shall be documented in a test report. The report shall specifically and unambiguously present
all relevant information from the tests (e.g., load conditions, conductor type, routing, functional description,
and acceptance criteria).

In the test report, the performed test procedures shall be described in detail and any modifications or exemp-
tions shall be justified. The test report shall include all critical information for rerunning the test, and repro-
duce the same results, when the test follows the indications of this standard.

5.6  Technical requirement of the test system


5.6.1  Technical conditions of a simulated EPS

When using the simulated EPS, the following requirements shall be satisfied:

a) The simulated EPS source shall be capable of confirming the manufacturer’s stated performance.
b) The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the simulated EPS shall be less than 50% of that required by
the quality standard of local power systems.
c) During the tests, the steady-state voltage of the simulated EPS source shall not exceed ±1% of the
normal voltage.
d) Voltage deviation shall be less than ±3% of the nominal voltage.
e) Frequency deviation value shall be less than ±0.01Hz.
f) For multiphase simulated area EPSs that provide a neutral connection, the phase-to-neutral voltages
shall be balanced within ±3% of the nominal value and the phase displacement shall be within ±3°.
g) For multiphase simulated area EPSs without a neutral connection, the phase-to-phase voltage balance
shall be ±3% of the amplitude of the nominal value.
h) The simulated EPS shall be capable of adjusting ±3% of nominal voltage within one cycle.
i) The simulated EPS shall be capable of adjusting ±0.1% of rated frequency within one cycle.

5.6.2  Measurement system requirements

Each measurement shall have an uncertainty of no more than 0.5 times the specified accuracies of the tested
ESS. The equipment used for measuring shall be capable of confirming the product performance stated by the
manufacturer.

6.  Type tests


The type test is mainly used to verify the design principle and ratings of the ESS. If the ESS consist of several
different equipment units, the corresponding type test shall be carried out for each unit according to its specific
function.

If any critical characteristics of the ESS are changed and could influence the performance of the ESS, the type
test shall be re-performed. These characteristics could be related to design, manufacturing processes, compo-
nents, materials and firmware.

16
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

6.1  Temperature stability test


6.1.1 Purpose

The purpose of the test is to verify whether the ESS applied in the EPS is capable of fully functioning within
a specified temperature range, and relevant parameters shall be within an accuracy range as stated by the
manufacturer.

The test consists of two sections: the storage temperature test and the operation temperature test. The storage
temperature test verifies that the ESS shall be stored without damage under the temperature condition stated by
the manufacturer. The operational temperature test verifies whether the ESS are capable of functioning under
the operational temperature conditions specified by manufacturers and its performance shall be achieved close
to an accuracy stated by the manufacturer.

When the results obtained from both tests have met the storage and operational requirements specified by the
manufacturer respectively, the subsequent type tests can be carried out.

6.1.2  Storage temperature test

The test shall be carried out under the temperature condition stated by the manufacturer.

When the tested ESS are at power-off state, they shall be placed for at least 72 h at the maximum, normal and
minimum temperature conditions as stated by the manufacturer. If the normal temperature is not stated, the
weighted average of the maximum and minimum temperatures could be used. Then, place the tested ESS un-
der room-temperature conditions. The tested ESS shall be able to function normally when they resume to room
temperature.

If the tested ESS are composed of several equipment units, each unit shall go through the storage temperature
test respectively. If every equipment unit satisfies the requirements, the ESS could be considered as meeting
the requirements as a whole.

To ensure the equipment reach the required temperature, the temperature shall be stable at room temperature.
Usually, temperature becomes stable after 2.5 h at minimum. When the deviations of three successive tem-
perature readings of 30 min intervals are within 1 °C, the temperature is considered stable.

6.1.3  Operation temperature test

In order to ensure that the tested ESS have reached the desired temperature, the temperature values shall be
recorded every 30 min. The temperature is considered stable when the deviations of three successive tempera-
ture readings are within 1 °C. For the lowest operating temperature, the tested ESS should remain powered off
until the temperature is stable. Test temperature and function shall be selected as follows:

a) Selection of test temperature: The ESS shall be tested at the minimum, normal (if the normal tem-
perature is not stated, the weighted average of the maximum and minimum temperatures shall be
used.) and maximum temperature stated by the manufacturer, respectively. If non-linear phenomena
are found during the test, additional tests under selected points between minimum and maximum tem-
perature shall be performed.
b) Selection of test function: The trip and reset parameters shall be measured within the test tempera-
ture range stated by the manufacturer, including voltage, current, power, phase angle, frequency, and
time parameter. It is not necessary to test all functions of the ESS, only those likely to be affected by
temperature. The tested ESS shall be able to properly perform the protection function stated by the
manufacturer.
c) Every function or parameter selected in step b) shall be tested three times at every test temperature
point selected in step a).

17
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

6.2  State of charge (SOC) test


The purpose of the test is to measure the actual storage capacity of the energy storage battery pack and evaluate
the accuracy of charging quantity indicated by the battery management system (BMS).

The procedure for Test 1, the fully charging/discharging test, is as follows:

a) Connect the measuring devices to the point of common coupling (PCC) between the tested ESS and
the EPS or simulated EPS
b) The tested ESS shall discharge to the minimum SOC stated by the manufacturer
c) Based on the charging condition and steps stated by the manufacturer, record the charging quantity in
Table 3 until the maximum SOC stated by the manufacturer has been reached
d) Based on the discharging condition and steps stated by the manufacturer, record the discharging quan-
tity in Table 3 until the minimum SOC stated by the manufacturer has been reached

NOTE—The charging quantity may not be equal to the discharging quantity, because of the conversion losses during the
charging and discharging processes.

a) Calculate the differences of the charging quantity and the discharging quantity and record the value in
the Table 3

NOTE—The charging quantity should be slightly higher than the discharging quantity. Otherwise, the measuring instru-
ments and methods used should be reconsidered.

a) Repeat steps c) to e) for at least eight times. Using Table 3 to calculate the average value of the charging
quantity C c , the average value of the discharge quantity C d and the difference between the two D .
The following percentage values also need to be calculated:
1) Charging quantity deviation:
8

C c − Cstated c_i∑C
×100% C c = i =1
Cstated 8
2) Cstated :the capacity stated by the manufactures
3) Discharging quantity deviation Dd :
8

Cd − Cstated ∑ Cd _ i
Dd = ×100% Cd = i =1
Cstated 8
D
4) Charging and discharging quantity deviation D: D = ×100%
Cstated
8

∑D i
D = i =1

8
8

∑(D
i =1
c_i − Dd _ i )
=
8
The procedure for Test 2, the proportionally charging/discharging test, is as follows:

18
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

a) Charge the battery pack at a rated charging current stated by the manufacturer, until the SOC reach
setting points in turn (typical setting points are 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%; e.g., SOC n = 10% , then
SOC n+1 = 25% ; SOC n = 25% , then SOC n+1 = 50% )
b) Measure and record the charging quantity absorbed by the battery pack from SOC n to the next
SOC n+1
c) Discharge the battery pack at rated discharging current stated by the manufacturer, until the SOC
reach setting points in turn (such as 90%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 10%);
d) Measure and record the discharging quantity released by the battery pack from SOC n+1 to the next
adjacent SOC n
e) Repeat step a) to step d) four times, and record the test results in Table 4 and Table 5, take the average
value of measurement results of charging quantity between adjacent SOC points, and record it as the
average measurement value of charging quantity C m
f) Calculate CC (calculation value of charging quantity): CC = (SOCn+1 − SOCn )Cn , where Cn is the
nominal capacity specified by the manufacture

g) Calculate the difference between C m and Cc , which shall meet the accuracy requirement stated by
the manufacturer.

Use Table 3, Table 4, and Table 5 to record the charging quantity of the tested ESS.

Table 3—Charging quantity record table


Test Number Actual measured charging quantity

Charging quantity, Cc _1  

1 Discharging quantity, Cd _1  

Deviation, D1 = Cc _ 1 − Cd _ 1  

Charging quantity, Cc _ 2  

2 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 2  

Deviation, D2 = Cc _ 2 − Cd _ 2  

Charging quantity, Cc _ 3  

3 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 3  

Deviation, D3 = Cc _ 3 − Cd _ 3  

Charging quantity, Cc _ 4  

4 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 4  

Deviation, D4 = Cc _ 4 − Cd _ 4  

Charging quantity, Cc _ 5  

5 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 5  

Deviation, D5 = Cc _ 5 − Cd _ 5  

Table continues

19
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 3—Charging quantity record table (continued)


Test Number Actual measured charging quantity

Charging quantity, Cc _ 6  

6 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 6  

Deviation, D6 = Cc _ 6 − Cd _ 6  

Charging quantity, Cc _ 7  

7 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 7  

Deviation, D7 = Cc _ 7 − Cd _ 7  

Charging quantity, Cc _ 8  

8 Discharging quantity, Cd _ 8  

Deviation, D8 = Cc _ 8 − Cd _ 8  

Average charging
8

quantity
C c = ∑ Cc _ i  
i =1

Average discharg-
8

ing quantity
C d = ∑ Cd _ i  
i =1

8
Average charging/
discharging quan- ∑D i
 
tity deviation D= i =1

Table 4—Charging quantity test record table


SOC interval 10%~25% 25%~50% 50%~75% 75%~90%
1        
Measure-
ment value 2        
of charging 3        
quantity
4        
Average measurement value of
       
charging quantity Cm
Calculation value of charging (25% −10%) ×Cn (50% − 25%) ×Cn (75% − 50%) ×Cn (90% − 75%) ×Cn
quantity Cc        

Deviation ( Cm - Cc )        

Table 5—Discharging quantity test record table


SOC Interval 90%~75% 75%~50% 50%~25% 25%~10%
1        
Measurement 2        
value of discharg-
ing quantity 3        
4        
Table continues

20
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 5—Discharging quantity test record table (continued)


SOC Interval 90%~75% 75%~50% 50%~25% 25%~10%
Average measurement value of
       
discharging quantity Cm
Calculation value of discharging (90% − 75%) ×Cn (75% − 50%) ×Cn (50% − 25%) ×Cn (25% −10%) ×Cn
quantity Cc        

Deviation ( Cm - Cc )        

Charging quantity C of the battery is defined as:

C = ∫ Idt ( Ah)

where:

I is the charging/discharging current, with unit A


t is the charging/discharging time correspondently, with unit h

6.3  Conversion efficiency test


6.3.1  PCS conversion efficiency test

The power conversion system (PCS) is an important part of ESS in a power system, which can realize ac and
dc conversion between the ESS and the ac grid bidirectionally. The purpose of this test is to test energy conver-
sion efficiency of the PCS.

Test 1 (PCS test in inverter mode) sets the PCS of the tested ESS in inverter mode as follows:

a) Connect the PCS as an inverter according to the instruction and specification provided by the manu-
facturer (see Figure 2)

Figure 2—PCS in inverter mode

b) Set the input and output voltage of the PCS to nominal value and the frequency of the power supply at
the ac side to nominal value. Adjust the input power supply until the output power of the PCS reaches
the rated level. Operate the PCS for at least 30 min at rated output power
c) Adjust the input and output voltage of the PCS to the displayed value in Row A of Table 6
d) Adjust the input power of the PCS to 100% as shown in Table 6
e) When the temperature of the PCS is stable, record the environment temperature and the tested ESS
temperature, and measure and record three groups of input voltage (U dc ), input current ( I dc ), output
voltage, and output power ( Po ), respectively
f) Calculate the input power according to the formula Pin = U dc I dc

21
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

g) When measuring the output power in a three-phase three-wire system, choose any one of the three
wiring methods shown in Figure 3. Output power Po is the algebraic sum of the two power meter
readings.

Figure 3—Three-phase three-wire wiring methods

For three-phase four-wire systems, connect the three power meters as shown in Figure 4. The output
power Po is the sum of the three power meter readings.

Figure 4—Three-phase four-wire wiring method

Repeat Steps d) to e) at the input power levels of 75%, 50%, 25%, respectively, and record the results
correspondingly
h) To test Condition B to C in Table 6, repeat Step c) to f); the test shall be carried out from maximum
power to minimum power
i) For every power value under every test condition, calculate the average input power (average value of
P + Pin 2 + Pin 3
three groups of measurement data) P in = in1 , the average output power (average value
3
P + Po 2 + Po 3 Po
of three groups of measurement data) P o = o1 , and the efficiency η = , and record
3 P in
these values in Table 6

The average efficiency of the inverter at every power point can be calculated as follows:

ηinv ,1 +ηinv ,5 +ηinv ,9


ηinverter ,100% =
3

22
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

ηinv , 2 +ηinv , 6 +ηinv ,10


ηinverter ,75% =
3

ηinv , 3 +ηinv , 7 +ηinv ,11


ηinverter , 50% =
3

ηinv , 4 +ηinv , 8 +ηinv ,12


ηinverter , 25% =
3

Table 6—PCS inversion efficiency record table


Ambient temperature   EUT temperature  
DC input power level of inverter
Test Vdc Vac
100% 75% 50% 25%

Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1


Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2
A Vnom Vnom
Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3
ηinv,1 ηinv,2 ηinv,3 ηinv,4

Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1


Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2
B Vmax Vnom
Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3
ηinv,5 ηinv,6 ηinv,7 ηinv,8

Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1


Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2
C Vmin Vnom
Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3
ηinv,9 ηinv,10 ηinv,11 ηinv,12

ηinverter ηinverter ,100% ηinverter , 75% ηinverter , 50% ηinverter , 25%

Test 2 (PCS test in converter mode) sets the PCS of the tested ESS in converter mode as follows:

a) Connect the PCS as converter according to the instruction and specification provided by the manufac-
turer (see Figure 5)

Figure 5—PCS in converter mode

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

b) Set the input and output voltage to nominal value, the frequency of the power supply at the ac side to
nominal value, and adjust the input power supply until the PCS output reaches the rated power. Oper-
ate the PCS for at least 30 min at rated power
c) Adjust the input and output voltage of the PCS to the displayed value in Row A of Table 7
d) Adjust the input power of the PCS to 100%, as shown in Table 7
e) When the PCS temperature is stable, record the environment temperature and the tested ESS tempera-
ture, and measure and record three groups of input voltage, input power ( Pin ), output voltage (U dc ),
and output current ( I dc ), respectively
Calculate the output power according to formula Po = U dc I dc .
When measuring the input power for a three-phase three-wire system, any one of the wiring methods
shown in Figure 3 can be chosen. The input power Pin is to the algebraic sum of the two power meter
readings. For a three-phase four-wire system, connect the three power meters as shown in Figure 4.
The input power Pin is to the algebraic sum of the three power meter readings
f) Repeat Steps d) to e) at the input power levels of 75%, 50%, and 25%, respectively, and record the
results correspondingly
g) To test Conditions B to C in Table 7, repeat Steps c) to f). The test shall be carried out from maximum
power to minimum power
h) For every power value under every test condition, calculate the average input power (average value of
P + Pin2 + Pin3
three groups of measurement data) P in = in1 , the average output power (average value
3
P + Po 2 + Po 3 Po
of three groups of measurement data) P o = o1 , and the efficiency η = , and record
3 P in
these values in Table 7.

The average efficiency of the converter at every power point is shown as follows:

ηcon ,1 +ηcon ,5 +ηcon ,9


ηconverter ,100% =
3

ηcon , 2 +ηcon , 6 +ηcon ,10


ηconverter ,75% =
3

ηcon , 3 +ηcon , 7 +ηcon ,11


ηconverter , 50% =
3

ηcon , 4 +ηcon , 8 +ηcon ,12


ηconverter , 25% =
3

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 7—PCS rectification efficiency record table


Ambient temperature   EUT temperature  
AC input power level of converter
Test Vdc Vac
100% 75% 50% 25%

Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1


Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2
A Vnom Vnom
Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3
ηcon,1 ηcon,2 ηcon,3 ηcon,4

Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1


Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2
B Vmax Vnom
Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3
ηcon,5 ηcon,6 ηcon,7 ηcon,8

Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1 Pin1 Po1


Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2 Pin2 Po2
C Vmin Vnom
Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3 Pin3 Po3
ηcon,9 ηcon,10 ηcon,11 ηcon,12

ηconverter ηconverter ,100% ηconverter , 75% ηconverter , 50% ηconverter , 25%

6.3.2  Circulation efficiency test of ESS

The purpose of this test is to test the circulation efficiency of ESS (including the energy storage equipment and
the PCS). Circulation efficiency refers to the ratio between discharging quantity and charging quantity during
a single charging and discharging circulation process, and this could be used to evaluate the energy loss and
economy during charging and discharging process of the ESS.

The circulation efficiency test of ESS is as follows:

a) Charge and discharge the tested ESS according to the temperature condition and the test procedure
stated by the manufacturer
b) Charge and discharge repeatedly three times according to the test procedure. Measure and record
the charging quantity and discharging quantity, respectively. Calculate the difference between the
charging quantity (input) and the discharging quantity (output) of the three circulations, respectively,
and then calculate the average of these three values, which shall not be higher than 1% of the nominal
capacity. If the battery pack cannot reach 100% coulomb efficiency under such circulation conditions,
it is not necessary to do additional testing, but the charging unbalance shall be documented in Table 8.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 8—Charging/discharging quantity record table


Quantity of charging/discharging (Ah)
 
Echarge = Charging quantity Edischarge = Discharging quantity Difference = Echarge - Edischarge

1 Echarge1 Edischarge1 D1

2 Echarge2 Edischarge2 D2

3 Echarge3 Edischarge3 D3
  E charge E discharge D

Echarge1 + Echarge2 + Echarge3


Echarge =
3

Edischarge1 + Edischarge2 + Edischarge


Edischarge =
3

D1 + D2 + D3
D=
3
where

Edischarge is∫P discharge (t ) dt


Echarge is ∫ P charge (t ) dt

a) Measure ac output energy Edischarge during the discharging period and ac input energy Echarge during
the charging period. Calculation formula of circulation efficiency is shown as follows:
Edischarge
Circulation efficiency = ×100%
Echarge
Circulation efficiency can be influenced by the environment temperature, charging, and discharging methods,
etc.

6.4  Response time test


6.4.1  Discharging response-time test

The purpose of this test is to test the discharging response time of ESS in the EPS. Discharging response time
refers to the time that output power of ESS rises up to the rated power after the discharging order is received
and could be used to evaluate the discharge response ability.

The procedure for the discharging response-time test is as follows:

a) Set the tested ESS to achieve SOC1 as stated by the manufacturer and keep it in active standby
NOTE— SOC1 = SOCmin + ( SOCmax − SOCmin ) ×80%

b) Set the data acquisition system in the tested ESS with acquisition interval. The acquisition interval
shall be less than the ratio between the full rated power and discharging slope climbing rate. The

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

setting of the acquisition interval shall ensure that at least one test point can be obtained during the
discharging process from active standby to full rated power
c) The local or remote control terminal sends out the communication test signal. Record this moment as
t0 . After the tested ESS receives the test signal, it will generate a feedback signal, record the moment
that the local or remote control terminal receives the feedback signal as trec , and calculate the commu-
nication latency time ∆tRL trough the following formula:
∆tCL = 12 (trec − t0 ) = t1 ,

where

t1 is the moment that the terminal receives the test signal


d) Send out the discharging signal at full (rated) power to the tested ESS. Record the time as t3 (Figure 6)
when the output power reaches and stabilizes at the rated power with deviation within ±2%.

Figure 6—Schematic figure of discharging response time test

Discharging response time t R shall be calculated according to following formula:


t R = t3 − t1
e) Set the tested ESS to SOC2 stated by the manufacturer and keep it in active standby, repeat b) to d).
NOTE— SOC2 = SOCmin + ( SOCmax − SOCmin ) × 20%

6.4.2  Charging response-time test

The purpose of this test is to test the charging response time of the ESS in the EPS. Charging response time
refers to the time that the intput power of the ESS rises up to rated power after receiving the charging signal, so
as to evaluate the charging response ability.

Send the charging signal to the tested ESS and test it at SOC1 and SOC2 according to the procedure described
in 6.4.1, respectively.

SOC1 = SOCmin + ( SOCmax − SOCmin ) ×80%

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

SOC2 = SOCmin + ( SOCmax − SOCmin ) × 20%

6.5  Ramp-rate test


The purpose of this test is to test the maximum changing/discharging rate of power absorbed or released by
ESS. Due to the differences between charging and discharging characteristics of battery packs, the charging
and discharging process shall be tested respectively.

The ramp-rate test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the measuring device to the PCC of the tested ESS (i.e., the electrical connection point be-
tween the tested ESS and the grid or simulated EPS)
b) Start the tested ESS and keep it in active standby
c) Send out the signal of the communication time-delay test, which could be from the local or remote
control terminals, and record this instant as a starting time t0 . When the tested ESS receives the com-
munication time-delay signal, it will generate a feedback signal. Record the moment when the local or
remote control terminal receives the feedback signal as trec . The communication latency time ∆tCL
shall be calculated as follows:
∆tCL = 12 (trec − t0 ) = t1
d) Test the discharging ramp-rate of the tested ESS. Perform local or remote active power control on the
tested ESS and record the increasing process of active power when the tested ESS releases energy to
the EPS, as shown in Figure 7.
1) Set the tested ESS to 50% discharging state and start the test after at least 5 min of stable opera-
tion of the tested ESS. Locally or remotely send out the active power control signal to the tested
ESS and discharge the tested ESS at full (rated) power Pn of the PCS
2) Monitor the actual output power P of the tested ESS and record the moment that the tested ESS
start discharging (shown in Figure 7 as power generated) as t2 and calculate the response delay
by ∆tSD = t2 − ∆tCL
3) Keep monitoring the actual output power P and record the moment when the tested ESS stabi-
lizes at the rated power Pn with deviation within ±2% as t3 and document the corresponding sta-
ble state Pm . The ramp time ∆t RT of the actual output power of the tested ESS can be calculated
by ∆t RT = t3 − ∆tCL − ∆tSD
Pm
Calculate the discharging power ramp-rate of the tested ESS: ξ =
∆t RT
e) Test the charging ramp-rate. Perform local or remote active power control to the tested ESS, and re-
cord the increasing process of active power when the tested ESS absorbs energy from the EPS or the
simulated EPS;
1) Set the tested ESS to 50% charging state and start the test after at least 5 min of stable operation of
the tested ESS. Locally or remotely send out the active power control signal to the tested ESS and
charge it at rated power Pn of the PCS
2) Monitor the actual input power P of the tested ESS and record the moment that the actual input
power start changing as t 2 and calculate the response delay by ∆t SD = t 2 −∆t CL
3) Keep monitoring the actual input power P and record the moment when the tested ESS stabiliz-
es at the rated power Pn with deviation within ±2% as t3' and document the corresponding stable

28
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure 7—Discharging ramp-rate test

state Pm' . The ramp time of actual input power of the tested ESS can be calculated by:
∆t ' RT = t '3 − ∆tCL − ∆tSD
P 'm
4) Calculate the charging power ramp-rate of the tested ESS as follows: ξ ' =
∆t ' RT
The output power shown in Figure 7 is linearly changed with time, while the actual ramp process can be
non-linearly changed.

6.6  Synchronization test


The purposed test is to verify whether the ESS has the capability to synchronize with the EPS.

There are two test methods. The first method is that the synchronization function becomes active only when
the synchronization parameters (frequency, phase angle difference and voltage) are within the permissible
range; the test can be performed with three variations, as follows:

a) Synchronization control function test using simulated sources;


b) Synchronization control function test using actual generator equipment;
c) Synchronization control function test for equipment with no synchronizing disable capability.

The second test method is to test the amplitude of the synchronization start-up current.

6.6.1  Synchronization control function test using simulated sources (Method 1, Variation 1)

The purpose of this test is to verify that the ESS has the ability to synchronize with the EPS by operating the
paralleling switchgear (such as breaker or solid state switch) only when frequency, voltage, and phase differ-
ence are within permissible range. This procedure is applicable to ESS with synchronization functions, which
can be realized in the laboratory through simulated EPS.

This test shall follow the regulations of 5.4.1 in IEEE 1547.1–2005.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

6.6.2  Synchronization control function test using actual generator equipment (Method 1,
Variation 2)

The purpose of this test is to verify that the ESS is able to synchronize with the EPS accurately and reliably
through the synchronization switchgear (such as a breaker).

This test is also applicable to ESS that are connected to the EPS and capable of re-synchronization with the
EPS after isolated operation.

This test shall follow the regulations of 5.4.2 in IEEE 1547.1–2005.

6.6.3  Synchronization control function test for equipment with no synchronizing disable
capability (Method 1, Variation 3)

The purpose of this test is to verify the capability of the ESS to synchronize with the EPS through synchroniza-
tion switchgear (such as a breaker) when voltage, frequency, and phase angle difference are within permissible
range. The procedure is designed for equipment that automatically synchronizes when a reference voltage
source is available, maintains synchronization prior to connect with the area EPS, and does not include a
means to disable the synchronizing function.

This test shall follow the regulations of 5.4.3 in IEEE 1547.1–2005.

6.6.4  Start-up current test (Method 2)

The purpose of this test is to test the maximum start-up (inrush) current generated by the inverter that is syn-
chronized when the EPS side voltage is available as reference. This test result and start-up parameters of the
tested ESS are used to verify whether the ESS meet the requirements of synchronization or flicker.

This test shall follow the regulations of 5.4.4 in IEEE 1547.1–2005.

6.7  Reconnection after abnormal condition test


6.7.1 Purpose

The purpose of this test is to test the reconnection function of ESS. The ESS shall reconnect to the EPS with
suitable time delay after disconnection with the EPS caused by EPS abnormality. Due to the different charac-
teristics (voltage and current) of ESS during the charging and discharging process, this test shall be performed
at charging and discharging state respectively. This test shall be carried out together with overvoltage, under-
voltage, underfrequency, and overfrequency tests.

6.7.2  Reconnection after overvoltage test

The purpose of this test is to verify the reconnection function of the ESS with suitable time delay after discon-
nection caused by overvoltage of EPS.

6.7.2.1  Procedure 1: for ESS at charging state

The procedure for the reconnection test after overvoltage of ESS at charging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.
b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition for the tested
ESS.
c) Charge the tested ESS at rated power and keep it in stable operation for twice the reconnection time.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

d) Gradually adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to 105% of the disconnection overvoltage stated by
the manufacturer (if the disconnection overvoltage stated by the manufacturer is adjustable, take the
minimum value), the tested ESS shall disconnect from the simulated EPS.
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the voltage of the simulated EPS at a
level as set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time, the
tested ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually lower the voltage of the simulated EPS to the permissible range and record the time from
the voltage of the simulated EPS resume to nominal working voltage until the ESS reconnect. This
time shall be within the permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS stated by the manufac-
turer. If the voltage of the simulated EPS cannot be adjusted to the nominal working voltage stated by
the ESS manufacturer, keep the voltage in Step d) for twice the reconnection time. During this period
the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.2.2  Procedure 2: for ESS at discharging state

The procedure for the reconnection of ESS after the overvoltage test at discharging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer
b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition for the tested
ESS
c) Discharge the tested ESS at the rated power and keep it in stable operation for twice the reconnection
time
d) Gradually adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to 105% of the disconnection overvoltage stated by
the manufacturer (if the disconnection overvoltage stated by the manufacturer is adjustable, take the
minimum value), the tested ESS shall disconnect from the simulated EPS
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the voltage of the simulated EPS at the
level set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time the tested
ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually lower the voltage of the simulated EPS to a permissible range and record the time from the
voltage of the simulated EPS resume to nominal working voltage until the ESS reconnect. This time
shall be within permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS stated by the manufacturer. If
the voltage of the simulated EPS cannot be adjust to the nominal working voltage stated by the ESS
manufacturer, keep the voltage in step d) for twice the reconnection time. During this period the tested
ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.3  Reconnection after undervoltage test

The purpose of this test is to verify the reconnection function of the ESS with suitable time delay after discon-
nection caused by undervoltage of simulated EPS.

6.7.3.1  Procedure 1: for ESS at charging state

The procedure for reconnection function of ESS after undervoltage test at charging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.
b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition of the tested
ESS.

31
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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

c) Charge the tested ESS at rated power and keep the ESS in stable operation for twice the reconnection
time.
d) Gradually adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to 95% of the disconnection undervoltage stated by
the manufacturer (if the disconnection undervoltage stated by the manufacturer is adjustable, take the
maximum value), the tested ESS shall be disconnected from the simulated EPS.
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the voltage of the simulated EPS at the
level set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time the tested
ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually increase the voltage of the simulated EPS to the permissible range and record the time from
the voltage of the simulated EPS resumes to the nominal working voltage until the ESS reconnects.
This time shall be within the permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS as stated by the
manufacturer. If the voltage of the simulated EPS cannot be adjust to the nominal working condition
of the tested ESS, then keep the voltage of step d) for twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS.
During this period the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.3.2  Procedure 2: ESS at discharging state

The procedure for reconnection of ESS after undervoltage test at discharging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.
b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested
ESS.
c) Discharge the tested ESS at rated power and keep the ESS in stable operation for twice the reconnec-
tion time.
d) Gradually adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to 95% of the disconnection undervoltage stated by
the manufacturer (if the disconnection undervoltage stated by the manufacturer is adjustable, take the
maximum value) , the tested ESS shall be disconnected from the simulated EPS;
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the voltage of the simulated EPS at
the level set in Step d), for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time, the
tested ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually raise the voltage of the simulated EPS to permissible range and record the time from the
voltage of the simulated EPS resume to nominal working voltage until the ESS reconnects. This time
shall be within permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS stated by the manufacturer. If
the voltage of the simulated EPS cannot be adjusted to the nominal working condition of the tested
ESS, keep the voltage of Step d) for twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this period
the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.4  Reconnection after overfrequency test

The purpose of this test is to verify ESS capability of reconnecting to the EPS with suitable time delay after
disconnection caused by overfrequency of the EPS.

6.7.4.1  Procedure 1: ESS at charging state

The procedure for reconnection of ESS after overfrequency test at charging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.

32
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition for the tested
ESS.
c) Charge the tested ESS at rated power and keep it in stable operation for twice the reconnection time.
d) Gradually adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to 105% of the disconnection overfrequency stat-
ed by the manufacturer (if the disconnection overfrequency stated by the manufacturer is adjustable,
take the minimum value) , the tested ESS shall disconnect from the simulated EPS.
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the frequency of the simulated EPS at
the level set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time, the
tested ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually lower the frequency of the simulated EPS to a permissible range and record the time from
the frequency of the simulated EPS resumes to the nominal working frequency until the ESS recon-
nects. This time shall be within the permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS as stated by
the manufacturer. If the frequency of the simulated EPS cannot be adjusted to the nominal working
frequency stated by the ESS manufacturer, then keep the frequency in Step d) for twice the reconnec-
tion time. During this period the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.4.2  Procedure 2: ESS at discharging state

The procedure for reconnection of ESS after overfrequency test at discharging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.
b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition for the tested
ESS.
c) Discharge the tested ESS at rated power and keep it in stable operation for twice the reconnection time.
d) Gradually adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to 105% of the disconnection overfrequency stat-
ed by the manufacturer (if the disconnection overfrequency stated by the manufacturer is adjustable,
take the minimum value) , the tested ESS shall disconnect from the simulated EPS;
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the frequency of the simulated EPS at
the level set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time the
tested ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually lower the frequency of the simulated EPS to permissible range and record the time from the
frequency of the simulated EPS resume to nominal working frequency until the ESS reconnect. This
time shall be within the permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS stated by the manufac-
turer. If the frequency of the simulated EPS cannot be adjust to the nominal working frequency stated
by the ESS manufacturer, keep the frequency in Step d) for twice the reconnection time. During this
period the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.5  Reconnection after underfrequency test

The purpose of this test is to verify ESS capability of reconnecting to the EPS with suitable time delay after
disconnection caused by underfrequency of the EPS.

6.7.5.1  Procedure 1: ESS at charging state

The procedure for reconnection of the ESS after underfrequency test at charging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.

33
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to nominal working condition of the tested ESS.
c) Charge the tested ESS at rated power and keep the ESS in stable operation for twice the reconnection
time.
d) Gradually adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to 95% of the disconnection underfrequency stat-
ed by the manufacturer (if the disconnection underfrequency stated by the manufacturer is adjustable,
take the maximum value) , the tested ESS shall be disconnected from the simulated EPS.
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the frequency of the simulated EPS at
the level set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time the
tested ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually increase the frequency of the simulated EPS to permissible range and record the time from
the frequency of the simulated EPS resume to nominal working frequency until the ESS reconnect.
This time shall be within permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS stated by the manu-
facturer. If the frequency of the simulated EPS cannot be adjust to the nominal working condition of
the tested ESS, keep the frequency of Step d) for twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During
this period the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.5.2  Procedure 2: ESS at discharging state

The procedure for reconnection of ESS after underfrequency test at discharging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided by
the manufacturer.
b) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to nominal working condition of the tested ESS.
c) Discharge the tested ESS at the rated power and keep the ESS in stable operation for twice the recon-
nection time
d) Gradually adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to 95% of the disconnection underfrequency as
stated by the manufacturer (if the disconnection underfrequency stated by the manufacturer is adjust-
able, take the maximum value) , the tested ESS shall be disconnected from the simulated EPS;
e) When the tested ESS disconnects from the simulated EPS, keep the frequency of the simulated EPS at
the level set in Step d) for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested ESS. During this time the
tested ESS shall not be reconnected.
f) Gradually increase the frequency of the simulated EPS to permissible range, record the time for the
frequency of the simulated EPS resuming to the nominal working frequency until the ESS is recon-
nected. This time shall be within permissible reconnection time range of the tested ESS stated by the
manufacturer. If the frequency of the simulated EPS cannot be adjust to the nominal working condi-
tion of the tested ESS, then keep the frequency of Step d) for twice the reconnection time of the tested
ESS. During this period the tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS.

6.7.6  Resetting function test of the reconnection time counter

The purpose of this test is to verify that the reconnection time counter in the ESS is able to automatically reset
when the EPS resumes to the permissible range of the working conditions for the ESS.

The procedure for the resetting function test of the reconnection time counter is as follows:

a) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition for the tested
ESS.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

b) Set the time counter to the reconnection time stated by the manufacturer. Charge the tested ESS at rat-
ed power and keep the ESS in stable operation for at least twice the reconnection time;
c) Adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to a value higher than the nominal range until the ESS dis-
connects from the simulated EPS. Resume the voltage to nominal range, once the voltage reaches the
nominal range, the countdown shall automatically start;
d) During the countdown, gradually adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to a value of 105% discon-
nection voltage as stated by the manufacturer and keep this value for at least the reconnection time
plus twice the accuracy of the timer. Then, gradually lower the voltage of the simulated EPS back to
nominal operation voltage, once the voltage reaches the nominal range, and the counter shall restart
automatically.
e) Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS to the nominal range.
f) Discharge the tested ESS at rated power and keep the ESS in stable operation for twice the reconnec-
tion time.
g) Adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to a value higher than the nominal range until the ESS dis-
connect from the simulated EPS. Resume the voltage to nominal range. Once the voltage reaches the
nominal range, the countdown shall automatically start.
h) During the countdown, gradually adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to a value of 95% disconnect
voltage as stated by the manufacturer and keep this value for at least as a total of the reconnection time
plus twice the accuracy of the timer. Then, gradually raise the voltage of the simulated EPS back to
nominal voltage range and the counter shall restart automatically.

6.8  Harmonics test


6.8.1  Purpose of the harmonics test

The purpose of this test is to measure the individual current harmonics and total rated-current distortion (TRD)
of the ESS applied in the EPS. Due to the different characteristics (voltage and current) of ESS during charging
and discharging process, this test shall be performed at charging and discharging state respectively. If the ESS
is connected to the EPS via isolation transformer, the test shall be performed at the connection point between
the isolation transformer and the EPS or simulated EPS.

6.8.2  Harmonic test procedures

6.8.2.1  Procedure 1: ESS at discharging state

The procedure for ESS at discharging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or simulated EPS according to the instructions provided by the
manufacturer.
b) Set the parameters of EPS or simulated EPS to nominal working condition for the tested ESS and keep
it in stable operation for at least 5 min.
c) Discharge the tested ESS at 33% of the rated current.
d) For each phase current, measure the individual current harmonics and TRD for each phase up to 50
harmonics. The measurement period shall not be shorter than 5 min and the measurement window
shall be within 10 to 50 cycles. The sample points for each period shall not be less than 256. When
there is fluctuation in the harmonic spectrum during the test, the test shall use an measuring period
with sufficient length and the average value of the measurement results.
e) Measure the individual current harmonics and TRD of the tested ESS discharging at 66% and 100% of
the rated current respectively.

35
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

6.8.2.2  Procedure 2: ESS at charging state

The procedure for ESS at charging state is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or simulated EPS according to the instructions provided by the
manufacturer.
b) Set the parameters of EPS or simulated EPS to nominal working condition for the tested ESS, and
keep it in stable operation for at least 5 min.
c) Charge the tested ESS at 33% of the rated current.
d) For each phase current, measure the individual current harmonics and TRD for each phase up to 50
harmonics. The measurement period shall not be shorter than 5 min and the measurement window
shall be within 10 to 50 cycles. The sample points for each period shall not be less than 256. When
there is fluctuation in the harmonic spectrum during the test, the test shall use a measuring period with
sufficient length and the average value of the measurement results.
e) Measure the individual current harmonics and TRD of the tested ESS charging at 66% and 100% of
the rated current respectively.

The measuring device shall be able to measure and process data, to present the average value of the harmonic
content during one or several measurement periods. The short circuit current of the simulated EPS connected
with the tested ESS shall not be less than 20 times of the rated output fundamental current of the tested ESS.

Harmonics generated by the simulated EPS or a simulated EPS shall not be calculated in this test.

6.9  Flicker test


The purpose of this test is to evaluate voltage fluctuation and flicker of the EPS caused by the connection of
the tested ESS. The voltage fluctuation and flicker can be influenced by many factors, such as grid structure
and location of the connected ESS, therefore, there is no common method to evaluate whether a given ESS can
meet the requirement of flicker. In 6.6.4, a start-up current method is described for the synchronization test.
The results of the start-up current test can be used together with information such as the impedance of the local
line information to determine the flicker caused by the connection of ESS.

6.10  Voltage unbalance test


6.10.1  Purpose of the voltage unbalance test

The purpose of this test is to measure the unbalance of three-phase voltages of the EPS caused by the connec-
tion of ESS. Due to the different characteristics (voltage and current) of ESS during the charging and discharg-
ing process, this test shall be performed at charging and discharging states respectively.

6.10.2  Voltage unbalance test procedures

6.10.2.1  Procedure 1: voltage unbalance test of ESS at discharging state

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or simulated EPS according to the instructions provided by the
manufacturer. The output power of the tested ESS shall maintain stable throughout the test.
b) Discharge the tested ESS at 33% of the rated power and keep it in stable operation for 5 min.
c) The measurement interval for each unbalance test of the three-phase, negative-sequence voltage shall
be 1 min and the recording period shall be 150 cycles. The measurement times shall meet the require-

36
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

ments of mathematic statistics, usually no less than 100 times. The result shall be calculated according
to the following formula:

1 m 2
εI = ∑εk
m k =1
where

ε k is the value of the three phase voltage unbalance measured by the k in 150 cycles
m is the sampling time in 150 cycles. The sampling interval shall be equally distributed
d) Rank the measurement results from maximum to minimum, neglect the first 5% of the results, record
the maximum value in the remained results in Table 9 as the maximum value of 95% possibility and
also record the maximum value of all measurement values in Table 9 for reference.
e) Repeat Step c) to d) under 66% and 90% of the rated discharging power respectively.

6.10.2.2  Procedure 2: voltage unbalance test of ESS at charging state

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or simulated EPS according to the instructions provided by the
manufacturer. The input power of the tested ESS shall maintain stable throughout the test.
b) Charge the tested ESS at 33% of the rated power and keep it in stable operation for 5 min.
c) The measuring interval for each unbalance test of the three-phase negative-sequence voltage shall be
1 min and the recording period shall be 150 cycles. The measuring times shall meet the requirements
of mathematic statistics, usually no less than 100 times. The result shall be calculated according to the
following equation:

1 m 2
εI = ∑εk
m k =1
where

ε k is the value of the three phase voltage unbalance measured by the k times in 150 cycles
m is the sampling time in 150 cycles. The sampling interval shall be equally distributed
d) Rank the measurement results from maximum to minimum, neglect the first 5% of the results, record
the maximum value in the remained results in Table 9 as the maximum value of 95% possibility, and
also record the maximum value of all measurement values in Table 9 for reference.
e) Repeat Steps c) to d) under 66% and 90% of the rated charging power respectively.

6.10.3  Data process

The maximum value of 95% possibility can be selected according to the following methods: rank the mea-
sured value from maximum to minimum, neglect the first 5% value, and take the maximum value from the
remaining measured value.

Testing results shall be recorded in Table 9.

37
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 9—Results of voltage unbalance testing


33% rated power 66% rated power 90% rated power
Maximum Maximum Maximum
  value Maximum value Maximum value Maximum
of 95% value of 95% value of 95% value
possibility possibility possibility
Three-phase Discharg-
           
voltage un- ing state
balance (%) Charging state            

6.11  Open-phase test


6.11.1  Open-phase test purpose

The purpose of this test is to evaluate the protection characteristics of the ESS applied in the EPS when it is
under open-phase operation. Due to the different characteristics (voltage and current) of ESS during charging
and discharging process, this test shall be performed at charging and discharging state respectively. If the
ESS is connected to the EPS via an isolation transformer, the test shall be performed at the connection point
between the isolation transformer and the EPS or simulated EPS. The ferromagnetic resonance issue during
open-phase operation shall also be considered.

6.11.2  Open-phase test procedures

6.11.2.1  Procedure 1: open-phase test of ESS at discharging state

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or simulated EPS in a manner that each of the non-grounding phase
can be controlled through independent switch according to the instructions provided by manufacturer.
b) Set the parameters of the tested ESS and EPS or simulated EPS to nominal working conditions and
keep it in stable operation for at least 5 min.
c) Disconnect the Phase A switch and record the moment as t0 when the tested ESS reaches the larger of
the following two values:
1) 5% of rated current
2) Minimum output current of the tested ESS
d) When the tested ESS disconnects from the EPS or simulated EPS, record the moment as t1 . The trip
time of open-phase operation protection ∆t shall be calculated via; ∆t = t1 − t0 .

e) Repeat Steps c) to d) four times. Take the average value of the five results and record as t
f) Repeat Steps c) to e) for other phases and record the test results in Table 10.

6.11.2.2  Procedure 2: open-phase test of ESS at charging state

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or simulated EPS in a manner that each of the non-grounding phase
can be controlled through independent switch according to the instruction provided by manufacturer;
b) Set the parameters of the tested ESS and EPS or simulated EPS to nominal working condition and
keep it in stable operation for at least 5 minutes;
c) When the tested ESS reaches the bigger one of the following two value, disconnect phase A switch and
record the moment as t0 :

38
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

1) 5% of rated current
2) Minimum input current of the tested ESS
d) Record the moment as t1 , when the tested ESS disconnect from the EPS or the simulated EPS. The trip
time of open-phase operation protection ∆t shall be calculated via ∆t = t1 − t0 ;

e) Repeat Steps c) to d) four times. Take the average value of the five results and record as t
f) Repeat Step c) to e) for other phases and record the test results in Table 11.
Testing results shall be recorded in Table 10 and Table 11 accordingly.

6.12  Overcurrent test


The purpose of this test is to evaluate the overcurrent tolerance and protection characteristics of the ESS. Due
to the different characteristics (voltage and current) of ESS during charging and discharging processes, this
test shall be performed at the charging and discharging state respectively.

The overcurrent test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS to the EPS or the simulated EPS and then connect the measurement instrument
to the connection point of the tested ESS and the EPS or simulated EPS.
b) Set the tested ESS at charging state. Select the values of 102%, 104%, 106%, 108% and 110% of the
maximum charging current as stated by the manufacturer as the typical overcurrent values. For each
overcurrent value, gradually raise the input current of the tested ESS to the selected typical overcur-
rent value. Measure the time from the input current reaches the selected value to the ESS protection
trip as the continuous working time. Draw an overcurrent characteristic curve of the tested ESS based
on the selected typical overcurrent values and the corresponding continuous working time, as shown
in Figure 8. Check whether this curve is consistent with the data or curve as stated by the manufacturer.
c) Set the tested ESS at discharging state. Select the values of 102%, 104%, 106%, 108% and 110% of the
maximum discharging current stated by the manufacturer as the typical overcurrent values. For each
overcurrent value, gradually raise the output current of the tested ESS to the selected typical overcur-
rent value. Measure the time from the output current reaches the selected value to the ESS protection
trip as the continuous working time. Draw an overcurrent characteristic curve of the tested ESS based
on the selected typical overcurrent values and the corresponding continuous working time, as shown
in Figure 9. Check whether this curve is consistent with the data or curve stated by the manufacturer.

6.13  DC injection test


The purpose of this test is to verify whether the tested ESS meet the requirement of dc injection quantity spec-
ified by the manufacturer. If the ESS at discharging state connects to the EPS without an isolation transformer,
the dc component from the ESS will cause harmful influence to the transformer, breaker, and meter in the EPS.

This test shall follow the regulations of 5.6 in IEEE 1547.1–2005.

6.14  Response to abnormal voltage condition


When the ESS applied in the EPS is at discharging state, it acts as a power resource for the EPS. If overvoltage
occurs in the EPS, the ESS shall cease to supply power or disconnect from the EPS according to the overvolt-
age amplitude. If the undervoltage occurs in the EPS, the ESS shall disconnect from the EPS according to the
undervoltage amplitude.

39
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
Table 10—Test record of the open-phase operation test at discharging state
1 2 3 4 5 Average value
 
t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t
Disconnect phase A                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Disconnect phase B                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Disconnect phase C                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

40
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016

Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.


and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
Table 11—Test record of the open-phase operation test at charging state
1 2 3 4 5 Average value
 
t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t0 t1 ∆t t
Disconnect phase A                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Disconnect phase B                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Disconnect phase C                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

41
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016

Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.


and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure 8—Overcurrent characteristic curve of ESS at charging state

Figure 9—Overcurrent characteristic curve of the ESS at discharging state

When the ESS applied in the EPS is at charging state, it acts as a power load for the EPS. If overvoltage occurs
in the EPS, the ESS shall disconnect from the EPS according to the overvoltage amplitude. If the undervoltage
occurs, the EPS shall cease to charge or disconnect according to the undervoltage amplitude required by rele-
vant regulations.

42
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

6.14.1  Overvoltage test

6.14.1.1  Purpose of the overvoltage test

The purpose of this test is to determine the corresponding voltage amplitude and trip time of the ESS (dis-
charging and charging respectively) when the ESS stops discharging or disconnects from the EPS under over-
voltage conditions.

6.14.1.2  Procedure of the trip-amplitude test

The ramp function (defined in IEEE 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.1.

The procedure of the overvoltage trip-amplitude test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instructions and specifications provided by the manufacturer.
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested ESS.
c) Test the overvoltage trip-amplitude when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS to the nominal working condition. If the overvoltage setting
is adjustable, set it to the minimum but not less than the sum of the maximum value of the permis-
sible EPS voltage range or less than two times of the accuracy as stated by the manufacturer.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) For single-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to the starting point Vb and
maintain it for tb time defined in A.1. At the end of this period, initiate the ramp using the proce-
dure specified in A.1. For multiple-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of one phase to the start-
ing point Vb , then initiate the ramp using the procedure specified in A.1,and make sure that re-
maining phase-voltages are at nominal values.
4) Monitor the voltage of the connection point of the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and record
the corresponding voltage amplitude when the tested ESS stops discharging or disconnects from
the EPS.
5) Repeat Step 3) to 4) two times.
6) For multiple-phase equipment, repeat Steps 3) to 5) for each phase individually and repeat Steps
3) to 5) for three phases simultaneously. If the difference between the test results of simultaneous
multiple-phase and the test results of the individual single phase is larger than the accuracy stated
by the manufacturer, additional tests shall be performed to verify that the tested ESS could re-
spond to the amplitude changes in terms of phase-to-neutral instead of phase-to-phase.
7) If the trip-amplitude is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 6) at the midpoint and maximum point of the
adjustable range respectively.
d) Test the overvoltage trip amplitude when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS to the nominal working condition. If the overvoltage setting
is adjustable, set it to the minimum but no less than the sum of the maximum value of the permis-
sible EPS voltage range and two times of the accuracy stated by the manufacturer.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) For single-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to the starting point Vb and
maintain it for tb time as defined in A.1. At the end of this period, initiate the ramp using the pro-
cedure specified in A.1. For multiple-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of one phase to the
starting point Vb , then initiate the ramp using the procedure specified in A.1, and ensure that the
remaining phase-voltages are at the nominal value.

43
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

4) Monitor the voltage of the connection point of the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and record
the corresponding voltage amplitude when the tested ESS stops discharging or disconnects from
the EPS.
5) Repeat Step 3) to 4) two times.
6) For multiple-phase equipment, repeat Steps 3) to 5) for each phase individually and repeat Steps
3) to 5) for three phases simultaneously. If the difference between the simultaneous multi-
ple-phase test result and the individual single-phase test results are larger than the accuracy stated
by the manufacturer, additional tests shall be performed to verify that the tested ESS is respond-
ing to the amplitude changes of phase-to-neutral instead of phase-to-phase.
7) If the trip amplitude is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 6) at the midpoint and maximum point of the
adjustable range respectively.

6.14.1.3  Procedure of the trip time test

The step function (defined in IEEE 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.2.

The procedure of the overvoltage trip time test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instructions and specifications provided by the manufacturer.
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to nominal working conditions of the tested ESS.
c) Test the overvoltage trip time when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS to the nominal working condition. If the overvoltage trip
time setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum overvoltage trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the voltage of the simulated EPS within 10% overvoltage tripping point setting of the tested
ESS and maintain it for the period th as specified in A.2. At the end of the period, raise the volt-
age of the simulated EPS step by step to the overvoltage trip value of the tested ESS, as shown in
A.2. Maintain this voltage and record the corresponding trip time when the tested ESS stops dis-
charging or disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this test may be performed
on one phase only.
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.
5) If the overvoltage trip time is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 4) at the midpoint and maximum point
of trip-time settings respectively.
d) Test the overvoltage trip time when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the overvoltage trip time
setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the voltage of the simulated EPS within 10% overvoltage trip point setting of the tested ESS
and maintain it for the period th as specified in A.2. At the end of the period, raise the simulated
EPS voltage step by step to the overvoltage trip point setting of the tested ESS, as shown in A.2.
Maintain this voltage, and record the corresponding trip time when the tested ESS stops charging
or disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this test may be performed on one
phase only.
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.

44
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

5) If the overvoltage trip time is adjustable, repeat steps 3) to 4) at the midpoint and maximum point
of trip time settings respectively.

6.14.2  Undervoltage test

6.14.2.1  Purpose of the undervoltage test

The purpose of this test is to determine the corresponding voltage amplitude and trip time of the ESS (dis-
charging and charging respectively) when the ESS stops discharging or disconnects from the EPS under un-
dervoltage conditions.

6.14.2.2  Procedure of the trip-amplitude test

The ramp function (defined in IEEE 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.1.

The procedure of the undervoltage trip-amplitude test is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instructions and specifications provided by the manufacturer.
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested ESS.
c) Test the undervoltage trip-amplitude when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS to the nominal working condition. If the undervoltage set-
ting is adjustable, set it to the maximum, while no larger than the sum of the minimum value of
the permissible EPS voltage range and two times of the accuracy stated by the manufacturer.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) For single-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to the starting point Vb and
maintain it for tb time defined in A.1. At the end of this period, initiate the ramp using the proce-
dure specified in A.1. For multiple-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of one phase to the start-
ing point Vb , then initiate the ramp using the procedure specified in A.1, and make sure that re-
maining phase-voltages are at nominal values.
4) Monitor the voltage of the connection point of the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and record
the corresponding voltage amplitude when the tested ESS stops discharging or disconnects from
the EPS.
5) Repeat Steps 3) to 4) two times.
6) For multiple-phase equipment, repeat Steps 3) to 5) for each phase individually and repeat Steps
3) to 5) for three phases simultaneously. If the difference between the simultaneous multi-
ple-phase test results and the individual single-phase test are larger than the accuracy stated by
the manufacturer, additional tests shall be performed to verify that the tested ESS is responding to
the amplitude changes of phase-to-neutral instead of phase-to-phase.
7) If the trip-amplitude is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 6) at the midpoint and maximum point of the
adjustable range, respectively.
d) Test the undervoltage trip amplitude when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS to the nominal working condition. If the undervoltage set-
ting is adjustable, set it to the maximum, while no larger than the sum of the minimum value of
the permissible EPS voltage range and two times of the accuracy stated by the manufacturer.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) For single-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to the starting point Vb and
maintain it for tb time defined in A.1. At the end of this period, initiate the ramp using the proce-

45
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

dure specified in A.1. For multiple-phase equipment, adjust the voltage of one phase to the start-
ing point Vb , and then initiate the ramp using the procedure specified in A.1, and make sure that
remaining phase-voltages are at nominal values.
4) Monitor the voltage of the connection point of the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and record
the corresponding voltage amplitude when the tested ESS stops discharging or disconnects from
the EPS.
5) Repeat Steps 3) to 4) two times.
6) For multiple-phase equipment, repeat Steps 3) to 5) for each phase individually and repeat Steps
3) to 5) for three phases simultaneously. If the difference between the simultaneous multi-
ple-phase test result and the individual single-phase tests are larger than the accuracy stated by
the manufacturer, additional tests shall be performed to verify that the tested ESS is responding to
the amplitude changes of phase-to-neutral instead of phase-to-phase.
7) If the trip-amplitude is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 6) at the midpoint and maximum point of the
adjustable range, respectively.

6.14.2.3  Procedure of the trip time test

The step function (defined in IEEE 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.2.

The procedure of the undervoltage trip time test is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instructions and specifications provided by the manufacturer.
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to nominal working conditions of the tested ESS.
c) Test the undervoltage trip time when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS to the nominal working condition. If the undervoltage trip
time setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum undervoltage trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the voltage of the simulated EPS to within 10% of the undervoltage tripping point value set-
ting of the tested ESS; and maintain it for the period th as specified in A.2. At the end of the peri-
od, raise the voltage of the simulated EPS step by step to the undervoltage trip value of the tested
ESS, as shown in A.2. Maintain this voltage and record the corresponding trip time when the
tested ESS stops discharging or disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this
test may be performed on one phase only.
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.
5) If the undervoltage trip time is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 4) at the midpoint and maximum
point of the trip time settings respectively.
d) Test the undervoltage trip time when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the undervoltage trip time
setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the voltage of the simulated EPS to within 10% of the undervoltage trip point value setting of
the tested ESS; and maintain it for the period th as specified in A.2. At the end of the period, raise
the voltage of the simulated EPS step by step to the undervoltage trip point setting of the tested
ESS, as shown in A.2. Maintain this voltage and record the corresponding trip time when the
tested ESS stops charging or disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this test
may be performed on one phase only.

46
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

4) Repeat Step 3) two times.


5) If the undervoltage trip time is adjustable, repeat Step 3) to 4) at the midpoint and maximum point
of trip time settings respectively.

6.15  Response to abnormal frequency condition


When the ESS applied in the EPS is at discharging state, it acts as a power resource for the EPS. If overfre-
quency occurs in the EPS, the ESS shall stop supplying power or disconnect from the EPS according to the
overfrequency amplitude. If the underfrequency occurs in the EPS, the ESS shall disconnect from the EPS
according to the underfrequency amplitude.

When the ESS applied in the EPS is at charging state, it acts as a power load for the EPS. If overfrequency
occurs in the EPS, the ESS shall disconnect from the EPS according to the overfrequency amplitude. If the un-
derfrequency occurs, the ESS shall stop charging or disconnect from the EPS according to the underfrequency
amplitude or relevant regulation requirements.

6.15.1  Overfrequency test

6.15.1.1  Purpose of the overfrequency test

The purpose of this test is to determine the corresponding frequency amplitude and trip time of the ESS (dis-
charging and charging, respectively) when the ESS stops discharging or disconnect from the EPS under over-
frequency conditions.

6.15.1.2  Procedure of the trip-amplitude test

The ramp function (defined in IEEE 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.1.

The procedure of the overfrequency trip-amplitude test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instructions and specifications provided by the manufacturer.
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested ESS.
c) Test the overfrequency trip-amplitude when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the overfrequency trip am-
plitude setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip amplitude setting, while no less than the
sum of the maximum normal EPS frequency and twice the accuracy stated by the manufacturer.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to the starting point Fb defined in A.1, and maintain it
for the period tb specified in A.1. At the end of the period, initiate the ramp using the procedure
specified in A.1.
4) Monitor the power of the connection line between the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and re-
cord the corresponding frequency amplitude when the ESS stops discharging or disconnects
from the EPS.
5) Repeat Steps 3) to 4) two times.
6) If the trip amplitude setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 5) at the midpoint and maximum
point of the adjustable range respectively.
d) Test the overfrequency trip amplitude when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the overfrequency trip am-
plitude setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip amplitude setting, while no less than the
sum of the maximum normal EPS frequency and twice the accuracy stated by the manufacturer.
2) Record the parameters of the test power source and the tested ESS.
3) Adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to the starting point Fb defined in A.1, and maintain it
for the period tb specified in A.1. At the end of the period, initiate the ramp using the procedure
specified in A.1.
4) Monitor the power of the connection line between the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and re-
cord the corresponding frequency amplitude when the ESS disconnects from the EPS.
5) Repeat Steps 3) to 4) two times.
6) If the trip amplitude setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 5) at the midpoint and maximum
point of the adjustable range, respectively.

6.15.1.3  Procedure of the trip time test

The step function (defined in IEEE 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.2 for details.

The procedure of the overfrequency trip time test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instruction and specification provided by the manufacturer.
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested ESS.
c) Test the overfrequency trip time when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the overfrequency trip time
setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the frequency of the test power source within 10% overfrequency trip setting point value of
the tested ESS and maintain it for the period th specified in A.2. At the end of the period, gradual-
ly raise the simulated EPS frequency to the overfrequency trip point of the ESS, using the proce-
dure specified in A.2. Maintain this frequency, and record the corresponding trip time when the
tested ESS stops discharging or disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this
test may be performed on one phase only;
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.
5) If the overfrequency trip time setting is adjustable, repeat step 3) to 4) at midpoint and maximum
point of trip time respectively.
d) Test the overfrequency trip time when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the overfrequency trip time
setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the frequency of the simulated EPS to within 10% of the overfrequency trip setting point val-
ue of the tested ESS; and maintain it for the period th specified in A.2. At the end of the period,
gradually raise the simulated EPS frequency to the overfrequency trip point of the ESS, using the
procedure specified in A.2. Maintain this frequency and record the corresponding trip time when
the tested ESS disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this test may be per-
formed on one phase only;
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

5) If the overfrequency trip time setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 4) at the midpoint and max-
imum point of trip time respectively.

6.15.2  Underfrequency test

6.15.2.1  Purpose of the underfrequency test

The purpose of this test is to determine the corresponding frequency amplitude and trip time of the ESS (dis-
charging and charging, respectively) when the ESS stops discharging or disconnect from the EPS under under-
freqency conditions.

6.15.2.2  Procedure of the trip-amplitude test

The ramp function (defined in IEEE Std 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.1 and the procedure of
the underfrequency trip-amplitude test includes the following steps:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instruction and specification provided by the manufacturer
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested ESS
c) Test the underfrequency trip-amplitude when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working condition. If the underfrequency trip
amplitude setting is adjustable, set it to the maximum trip amplitude setting but no larger than the
sum of the minimum normal EPS frequency and twice the accuracy stated by the manufacturer
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS
3) Adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to the starting point Fb defined in A.1, and maintain it
for the period tb specified in A.1. At the end of the period, initiate the ramp using the procedure
specified in A.1
4) Monitor the power of the connection line between the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and re-
cord the corresponding frequency amplitude when the ESS disconnects from the EPS
5) Repeat Steps 3) to 4) two times
6) If the trip amplitude setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 5) at the midpoint and maximum
point of the adjustable range respectively
d) Test the underfrequency trip amplitude when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working conditions. If the underfrequency trip
amplitude setting is adjustable, set it to the maximum trip amplitude setting, but no larger than the
sum of the minimum normal EPS frequency and twice the accuracy stated by the manufacturer
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS
3) Adjust the frequency of the simulated EPS to the starting point Fb defined in A.1, and maintain it
for the period tb specified in A.1. At the end of the period, initiate the ramp using the procedure
specified in A.1
4) Monitor the power of the connection line between the tested ESS and the simulated EPS and re-
cord the corresponding frequency amplitude when the ESS stops charging or disconnects from
the EPS
5) Repeat Steps 3) to 4) two times.
6) If the trip amplitude setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 5) at the midpoint and maximum
point of the adjustable range respectively.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

6.15.2.3  Procedure of the trip time test

The step function (defined in IEEE Std 1547.1) used in this procedure is defined in A.2 and the procedure of
the underfrequency trip time test includes the following steps:

a) Connect the tested ESS according to the instruction and specification provided by the manufacturer
b) Set all parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the tested ESS
c) Test the underfrequency trip time when the tested ESS is at discharging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working conditions. If the underfrequency trip
time setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the frequency of the simulated EPS to within 10% of the underfrequency trip setting point
value of the tested ESS; and maintain it for the period th specified in A.2. At the end of the period,
gradually raise the simulated EPS frequency to the underfrequency trip point of the ESS, using
the procedure specified in A.2. Maintain this frequency and record the corresponding trip time
when the tested ESS disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment, this test may be
performed on one phase only.
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.
5) If the underfrequency trip time setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 4) at the midpoint and
maximum point of trip time respectively.
d) Test the underfrequency trip time when the tested ESS is at charging state as follows:
1) Set the parameters of the tested ESS at nominal working conditions. If the underfrequency trip
time setting is adjustable, set it to the minimum trip time setting.
2) Record the parameters of the simulated EPS and the tested ESS.
3) Set the frequency of the simulated EPS to within 10% of the underfrequency trip setting point
value of the tested ESS and maintain it for the period th specified in A.2. At the end of the period,
gradually raise the simulated EPS frequency to the underfrequency trip point of the ESS using
the procedure specified in A.2. Maintain this frequency and record the corresponding trip time
when the tested ESS stops charging or disconnects from the EPS. For multiple-phase equipment,
this test may be performed on phase only.
4) Repeat Step 3) two times.
5) If the underfrequency trip time setting is adjustable, repeat Steps 3) to 4) at the midpoint and
maximum point of the trip time respectively.

6.16  Unintentional islanding test


The purpose of this test is to verify the unintentional islanding protection characteristic of the ESS at discharg-
ing state applied in the EPS.

The test circuit shall be configured as in Figure 10. For a single-phase or star (Y) connection ESS, Figure 10 is
to be applied between each phase to neutral, and for a delta-connection ESS, the configuration shown in Fig-
ure 10 is to be applied between each phase, as follows:

a) Set the tested ESS at discharging state, adjust the islanding protection parameters according to the
specification provided by the manufacturer, and set its output power to 33% rated power.

50
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure 10—Circuit for unintentional islanding protection test

b) Set the parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working conditions of the ESS and adjust the
load to provide a quality factor Q f of 1.0 ± 0.05 (for the calculation method, see Annex B).
c) Close Switches S1, S2, and S3 and adjust the output power of the tested ESS to the set level.
d) Adjust the load until the fundamental current through Switch S3 of each phase is less than 2% of the
rated current of the tested ESS.
e) Open Switch S3 of each phase and record the tripping time of S3 as t0 , record the time when the dis-
charging current of the tested ESS is lower than 3% of the rated current as t1 , and the time when the
voltage of the tested ESS is lower than 5% of the rated voltage as t2 . Then, the tripping time of the
unintentional islanding protection shall be calculated as t = max {(t1 − t0 ) , (t2 − t0 )} .
f) Repeat the test with reactive load adjusted in 1% increments from 95% to 105% of the initial balanced
reactive load value [the load under the condition of Step b)]. If the trip time increases at the 95% or
105% points, additional 1% increments shall be taken until the trip time stops increasing.
g) After reviewing the results of the previous step, the test points of the three longest trip times shall
take two additional tests. If the three longest trip times occur at nonconsecutive 1% load setting incre-
ments, an additional two tests shall be performed on all test points in between.
h) Repeat Steps b) through g) with the tested ESS adjusted to 66% and 100% of rated output power
respectively.
i) For multiple-phase ESS, the unintentional islanding protection test shall be performed on each phase
to neutral, and phase-to-phase, respectively.

6.17  Low-voltage ride through test (LVRT test)


The purpose of this test is to verify the LVRT capability of the ESS at discharging state in the EPS.

The LVRT test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS, LVRT detection device, and other relevant devices according to Figure 11.
b) Set the tested ESS at rated parameters, start testing after 10 min stable operation.
c) Adjust the output power of the tested ESS to 10%~30% of the rated power.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure 11—Configuration of LVRT test

d) Adjust the LVRT detection device for three-phase voltage drop test.
e) Select seven points evenly between U L1 and U L2 in which U L1 shall be the minimum voltage drop
point for LVRT. U L2 shall be the minimum nominal working voltage value stated by the manufactur-
er, as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12—LVRT curve

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

f) Test two times on each drop point and record the trip time. Draw the LVRT curve as shown Figure 12
based on the smaller value of the trip time of each test point. T1 is the trip time of drop voltage U L1 .
The upper area of the curve represents that the tested ESS is able to continuously operate at discharg-
ing state with connection to the EPS, while the lower area represents that the tested ESS disconnects
from the EPS.
g) Adjust the LVRT detection device and repeat Steps e) to f) to perform phase-to-phase (AB, BC, CA)
voltage drop test.
h) Set the output power of the tested ESS higher than 90% of rated power and repeat Steps d) to g).

If the tested ESS is connected to the EPS via a transformer, the test point shall be placed between the trans-
former and the EPS.

Testing results shall be recorded in Table 12, and the LVRT curve shall be drawn based on this.

Table 12—Record of the LVRT test


Output
power of the Fault type Test Parameters U L1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U L2
tested ESS
Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
Three phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
Drop time(ms)              
Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
AB phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
10%–30% of rat- Drop time(ms)              
ed output power Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
BC phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
Drop time(ms)              
Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
CA phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
Drop time(ms)              
Table continues

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Table 12—Record of the LVRT test (continued)


Output
power of the Fault type Test Parameters U L1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U L2
tested ESS
Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
Three phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
Drop time(ms)              
Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
AB phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) ))
> 90% of rated Drop time(ms)              
output power Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
BC phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
Drop time(ms)              
Voltage drop (
             
1 U / U n (%) )
CA phases Drop time(ms)              
voltage drop Voltage drop (
             
2 U / U n (%) )
Drop time(ms)              

6.18  Interconnection integrity test


6.18.1  Electromagnetic interference protection function test

The purpose of this test is to verify whether the ESS applied in the EPS has anti-electromagnetic interfer-
ence capability, which shall prevent any change or malfunction of ESS when experiencing electromagnetic
interference.

The control, automation, communication, and protection components of the ESS shall be tested as follows:

a) Electrostatic discharge immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations and methods of
IEC61000-4-2
b) Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations
and methods of IEC61000-4-3
c) Fast transient/burst immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations and methods of IEC61000-4-4

The converter shall be tested as follows:

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

a) Electrostatic discharge immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations and methods of
IEC61000-4-2
b) Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations
and methods in IEC61000-4-3
c) Fast transient/burst immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations and methods of IEC61000-4-4
d) Surge (impact) immunity test: this test shall follow the regulations and methods in IEC61000-4-5
e) Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields test: this test shall follow the
regulations and methods of IEC61000-4-6

6.18.2  Surge withstand performance test

This test shall follow the regulation of 5.5.2 in IEEE Std 1547.1–2005.

6.18.3  Insulation test of paralleling device

This test is suitable for ESS at or below 1 kV. ESS above 1kV shall meet requirements stated in Table 4 of
ANSI C37.06 and follow the test procedure specified in 4.4.3.3 of IEEE Std C37.09.

These tests verify whether the paralleling devices of the ESS are able to tolerate the 220% of the sum of the ac
voltage with root-mean-square value of 1000 V plus nominal voltage (U nominal ), as shown in the following
formula, under nominal operation temperature, without breaking down. Tolerance voltage, U tolerance , can be
calculated as following:

U tolerance = 220% (1000 + U nominal )

This test shall follow the regulation of 5.5.3 in IEEE Std 1547.1–2005.

6.19  Test record


All relevant information of the test shall be documented, including the test environment, load condition, type
and process of conductor, and function description, as well as a detailed description of the implementing pro-
cess, operation condition, and change and exemption of the test. The test record shall have sufficient critical
operation information to repeat the test process and results.

7.  Production test


The ESS applied in an EPS shall go through a production test before delivery. If the ESS is composed of dif-
ferent equipment, corresponding tests shall be performed on each piece of equipment based on its specific
function.

7.1  Insulation test of paralleling equipment


The following test is suitable for ESS at or below 1 kV. ESS above 1kV shall meet the requirements stated in
Table 4 of ANSI C37.06 and following the test procedure specified in 4.4.3.3 of IEEE Std C37.09.

This test is to verify whether the paralleling devices of the ESS are able to tolerate the 220% of the sum of the
ac voltage with a rms value of 1000 V plus nominal voltage (U nominal ), as shown in the following formula, un-

55
Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

der nominal operation temperature, without breaking down. Tolerance voltage, U tolerance , can be calculated as
following:

U tolerance = 220% (1000 + U nominal )

This test shall follow the regulations of 5.5.3 in IEEE Std 1547.1–2005.

7.2  Synchronization test


The purpose of this test is to verify whether the ESS has the capability to synchronize with the EPS. The ESS
shall be able to perform the closing operation only when the frequency, phase angle difference, and voltage are
within the permissible range, and shall not cause overvoltage or flickering to the EPS.

This test shall follow the regulations of 6.3 in IEEE Std 1547.1-2005.

7.3  Continuous operation test


The purpose of this test is to verify that after 72-h continuous operation under nominal working environment
stated by the manufacturer, the ESS remain intact without abnormal conditions and all technical parameters
and performance index are within the range stated by the manufacturer.

The test shall be performed under the nominal operation environment, including the maximum and minimum
temperature stated by the manufacturer.

After 72-h continuous operation of the tested ESS under conditions within the permitted range of operation en-
vironment, including the extreme and normal condition, place the tested ESS under normal room temperature
to test the ESS’s ability to respond to abnormal conditions and protection characteristics, including:

a) Reconnection after abnormal conditions test (refer to 7.4 for details)


b) Response to abnormal voltage condition test (refer to 7.5 for details)
c) Response to abnormal frequency condition test (refer to 7.6 for details)
d) Overcurrent test (refer to 7.7 for details)
e) Unintentional islanding test (refer to 7.8 for details)
f) LVRT test (refer to 7.9 for details)

Every function of the tested ESS shall meet the performance described by the manufacturer.

7.4  Reconnection after abnormal condition test


The purpose of this test is to verify the reconnection function of the ESS in the EPS.

7.4.1  Reconnection after abnormal condition test at ESS discharging state

The procedure for testing the ESS at discharging state is as follows:

—— Connect the tested ESS with the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided
by the manufacturer.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

—— Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS within normal scope. Set the tested ESS discharge
at rated power for at least twice the reconnection time.
—— Increase the voltage of the simulated EPS gradually to 105% of the overvoltage disconnection voltage
stated by the manufacturer. Verify whether the tested ESS is disconnected from the simulated EPS.
—— Set the voltage of the simulated EPS higher than the reconnection voltage plus 150% of accuracy stat-
ed by the manufacturer at least. Keep the voltage for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested
ESS. The tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS within this time.
—— Adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to the permissible reconnection voltage range of the tested
ESS. Record the time since the voltage resume to normal range to the reconnection of the tested ESS.
Calculate the difference between this time and the permissible reconnection time of the tested ESS
stated by the manufacturer.
—— Raise the voltage of the simulated EPS until the tested ESS disconnect from the simulated EPS, and
then resume the voltage to normal range. The time between the two voltage adjustments shall be less
than the permissible reconnection time of the tested ESS. Then raise the voltage again to 105% of dis-
connection voltage stated by the ESS manufacturer. During the whole process the tested ESS shall not
reconnect.

7.4.2  Reconnection after abnormal condition test at ESS discharging state

The procedure for testing the ESS at charging state is as follows:

—— Connect the tested ESS with the simulated EPS according to the instructions and parameters provided
by the manufacturer.
—— Set the voltage and frequency of the simulated EPS within normal scope. Set the tested ESS charge at
rated power, for at least twice the reconnection time.
—— Increase the voltage of the simulated EPS gradually to 105% of the overvoltage disconnection voltage
stated by the manufacturer. Verify whether the tested ESS is disconnected from the simulated EPS.
—— Set the voltage of the simulated EPS higher than the reconnection voltage plus 150% of accuracy stat-
ed by the manufacturer at least. Keep the voltage for at least twice the reconnection time of the tested
ESS. The tested ESS shall not reconnect to the simulated EPS within this time.
—— Adjust the voltage of the simulated EPS to the permissible reconnection voltage range of the tested
ESS, record the time since the voltage resumed to normal range to the reconnection of the tested ESS.
Calculate the difference between this time and the permissible reconnection time of the tested ESS
stated by the manufacturer.
—— Raise the voltage of the simulated EPS until the tested ESS disconnect from the simulated EPS, and
then resume the voltage to normal range. The time between the two voltage adjustments shall be less
than the permissible reconnection time of the tested ESS. Then raise the voltage again to 105% of dis-
connection voltage stated by the ESS manufacturer. During the whole process the tested ESS shall not
reconnect.

7.5  Response to abnormal voltage condition test


The purpose of this test is to verify the response characteristic of the ESS when voltage abnormal occurs in
EPS. The trip amplitude and trip time shall be set according to the instruction and specification provided by the
manufacturer.

This test shall be performed according to the procedure specified in 6.14.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

7.6  Response to abnormal frequency condition test


The purpose of this test is to verify the response characteristic of the ESS when frequency abnormal occurs in
EPS. The trip amplitude and trip time shall be set according to the instruction and specification provided by the
manufacturer.

This test shall be performed according to the procedure specified in 6.15.

7.7  Overcurrent test


The purpose of this test is to evaluate the overcurrent tolerance and protection characteristics of the ESS. The
procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the measurement instrument with the PCC of the tested ESS and the EPS or simulated EPS.
b) Set the tested ESS to the discharging state manually or remotely. Select two values from the typical
overcurrent amplitude provided by the manufacturer. Adjust the ESS output current to the selected
value quickly and measure the time from when the output current reaches the selected value to the
protection trips. This time shall be in accordance with the data provided by the manufacturer. Repeat
this step with another selected value.
c) Set the tested ESS to the charging state manually or remotely. Select two values from the typical over-
current amplitude provided by the manufacturer. Adjust the ESS input current to the selected value
quickly and measure the time from when the input current reaches the selected value to the protection
trips. This time shall be in accordance with the data provided by the manufacturer. Repeat this step
with another selected value.

7.8  Unintentional islanding test


The purpose of this test is to verify the unintentional islanding protection characteristic of the ESS applied in
the EPS. The procedure is as follows:

The circuit of the test shall be configured as shown in Figure 10. In the case of single-phase and star (Y) con-
nections, the connection is between the phase line and neutral line. In the case of delta connections, the con-
nection is between phases.

a) Set the tested ESS at discharging state, adjust the islanding protection parameters according to the
specification provided by the manufacturer, and set its output power to 33% rated power.
b) Set the parameters of the simulated EPS to the nominal working condition of the ESS, adjust the load
to provide a quality factor Q f of 1.0 ± 0.05 (for the calculation method, see Appendix B).
c) Close switches S1, S2, and S3, and adjust the output power of the tested ESS to the set level.
d) Adjust the load until the fundamental current through S3 of each phase is less than 2% of the rated
current of the tested ESS.
e) Open S3 of each phase and record the tripping time of S3 as t0 , record the time when the discharging
current of the tested ESS is lower than 3% of the rated current as t1 and the time when the voltage of the
tested ESS is lower than 5% of the rated voltage as t2 . Then the tripping time of the unintentional is-
landing protection shall be calculated as t = max {(t1 − t0 ) , (t2 − t0 )}
f) Repeat the test with reactive load adjusted in 1% increments from 95% to 105% of the initial balanced
reactive load value [the load under the condition of Step b)]. If the trip time increases at the 95% or
105% points, additional 1% increments shall be taken until the trip time stops increasing.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

g) After reviewing the results of the previous step, the test points of the three longest trip time shall take
two additional tests. If the three longest trip times occur at nonconsecutive 1% load setting incre-
ments, an additional two tests shall be performed on all test points in between.
h) Repeat Steps b) through g) with the tested ESS adjusted to 66% and 100% of rated output power
respectively.
i) For multiple-phase ESS, the unintentional islanding protection test shall be performed on each phase-
to-neutral, and phase-to-phase, respectively.

7.9  Low-voltage ride through test


The purpose of this test is to verify the LVRT capability of the ESS at discharging state in EPS.

The low-voltage ride through test procedure is as follows:

a) Connect the tested ESS, LVRT detection device, and other relevant devices according to Figure 11.
b) Set the tested ESS at rated parameters and start testing after 10 min of stable operation
c) Adjust the output power of the tested ESS to 10%~30% of the rated power.
d) Adjust the LVRT detection device for a three-phase voltage drop test.
e) Select seven drop points evenly between U L1 and U L2 in which U L1 shall be the minimum voltage
drop point for LVRT. U L2 shall be the minimum nominal working voltage value stated by the manu-
facturer, as shown in Figure 12.
f) Test two times on each drop point, and record the trip time. Draw the LVRT curve as shown in Figure
12 based on the smaller value of the trip time of each test point. T1 is the trip time of drop voltage U L1
. The upper area of the curve shows that the tested ESS is able to continuously operate at discharging
state with connection to the EPS, while the lower area shows that the tested ESS disconnects from the
EPS.
g) Adjust the LVRT detection device and repeat Steps e) to f) to perform phase-to-phase (AB, BC, CA)
voltage drop tests
h) Set the output power of the tested ESS higher than 90% of rated power and repeat Steps d) to g).

If the ESS is connected to the EPS via transformer, the test point shall be placed between the transformer and
the EPS.

Testing results shall be recorded in Table 12, and the LVRT curve shall be drawn based on this.

7.10  Test record


The production test documentation shall include the manufacturer’s name, model number, serial number,
functional software and firmware versions (if applicable), test date, test settings, accuracy stated by the manu-
facturer, and test results. This information shall be provided with the product.

8.  Installation evaluation


8.1  Operation environment conditions
General installation requirements for certain types of batteries should conform with IEEE Std 484 [B3] (vent-
ed lead-acid batteries), IEEE Std 1187 [B5] (VRLA batteries) or IEEE Std 1106 [B4] (vented nickel-cadmium

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

batteries). For other types, the installation procedure and battery working conditions should be in accordance
with the manufacturers’ recommendation.

8.2 Grounding
The grounding scheme of the ESS interconnection part shall meet the requirements of 4.1.2 in IEEE Std 1547-
2003. The grounding of the ESS shall not cause overvoltage of equipment in the area EPS and shall not disrupt
the coordination of the grounding fault protection in the area EPS.

In case of using the ESS as commercial emergency and standby power resource, the grounding scheme shall
meet the requirements of Clause 7 in IEEE Std 446-1995 [B2].

8.3  Isolation device


The isolation device of the ESS shall meet the requirements of 4.1.7 in IEEE Std 1547-2003. The isolation
device shall be installed between the ESS and the area EPS with obvious disconnection point, and capable of
disconnecting and interlocking.

8.4 Monitoring
Onsite evaluation of ESS monitoring shall be performed on ESS of 250 kVA or above and on ESS with a sin-
gle PCC connecting power source larger than 250 kVA in accordance with 4.1.6 in IEEE Std 1547-2003. The
monitoring shall include the connection status, active and reactive power output, and the voltage at the point
of ESS connection.

8.5  Fault response


ESS fault response shall meet the requirements of 4.2.1 in IEEE Std 1547-2003.

8.6  Coordination with EPS reclosing


Coordination with EPS reclosing shall meet the requirements of 4.2.2 in IEEE Std 1547-2003.

9.  Commissioning test


The commissioning test shall be performed after the ESS is installed and ready for operation. Additional type
tests shall be taken before the commissioning test, in case of any changes of software, hardware, or firmware.

9.1  General requirements


The commissioning test shall be performed after the ESS is installed and ready for operation by or supervised
by an individual qualified for protection device testing (e.g., a professional engineer, a technician certificated
by the manufacturer, or a licensed electrical engineer with protection device test experience).

A commissioning test report shall be produced that includes the results of all test items and a list of setting pa-
rameters of performed tests. Once the commission test is completed and accepted, it is not necessary to repeat
it.

The commissioning test shall be performed following a written procedure, which is generally provided by the
manufacturer or system integrator, and approved by the ESS owner and area EPS operator. The commission-
ing test shall include the following:

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

—— Calibration and inspection (see 9.2)


—— Supplemented type test and production test at site (see 9.3)
—— Insulation test of paralleling equipments (see 9.4)
—— Synchronization (see 9.5)
—— Unintentional islanding test (see 9.6)
—— Stop charging/discharging test (see 9.7)
—— Parameters adjustment (see 9.8)

9.2  Calibration and inspection


Calibration and inspection of the ESS shall be performed after field installation and include the following st
eps:

a) Record the applied parameters.


b) Carry out visual inspection of the grounding implementations of the ESS.
c) Carry out visual inspection and verify operability of the isolation device (if applicable).
d) Check the polarity of the field wiring, load wiring, and ratios of the current transformer and potential
transformer and verify the correctness and compliance to the design.
e) Verify the compliance of the field wiring of the tested ESS to its design drawings and requirements of
the manufacturer.
f) In case of three-phase ESS, verify the compliance of phase sequence between the tested ESS and area
EPS.
g) Carry out a function inspection of all monitoring provisions required by the area EPS operator.

9.3  Supplemented type test and production test at site


During the spot inspection, if it is found that type and production test regulated in Clause 6 and Clause 7 have
not been performed, these test shall be conducted following the procedures given in Clause 6 and Clause 7.

During spot installation of the ESS, if type test is required due to the changes in software, firmware, or hard-
ware, the test shall be conducted following the procedures given in Clause 6 and Clause 7.

9.4  Insulation test of paralleling equipment


The following tests are suitable for ESS at or below 1 kV. ESS above 1kV shall meet requirements stated in
Table 4 of ANSI C37.06 and follow the test procedure specified in 4.4.3.3 of IEEE Std C37.09.

This test is to verify whether the paralleling devices of the ESS are able to tolerate the 220% of the sum of the
ac voltage with rms value of 1000 V plus nominal voltage (U nominal ), as shown in the following formula, under
nominal operation temperature, without breaking down. Tolerance voltage U tolerance can be calculated as the
following:

U tolerance = 220%(1000 + U nominal )

This test shall follow the regulation of 6.18.3.

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

9.5  Synchronization test


The purpose of the synchronization test is to verify whether the ESS has the capability to synchronize with the
EPS. The procedure is as follows:

a) Install and adjust the tested ESS according to the requirements specified by the tested ESS
manufacturer.
b) Connect the measurement devices and monitor the closing command of the paralleling device, the
output of the tested ESS, the phase angle difference, the frequency difference, and the voltage differ-
ence between the tested ESS and the EPS.
c) Record the phase angle difference, frequency difference, and voltage difference between the tested
ESS and EPS at the moment of connection.
d) Verify whether the tested ESS is at normal operation after connecting to the EPS.

If the tested ESS is operating within the range specified by the manufacturer, the test results are acceptable.

9.6  Unintentional islanding test


If unintentional islanding test reports of the type test and production test can be provided, it is not necessary
to repeated them on site; otherwise, the unintentional islanding protection function test shall be performed
according to the regulation of 6.16.

9.7  Stop charging/discharging test


9.7.1  Stop charging test

The purpose of this test is to verify that the ESS ceases to absorb power from the EPS, including all phases,
when it receives a stop charging command and shall not re-start/reconnect within the required time delay.

The procedure for this test can be adjusted according to the agreement between the area EPS regulator and the
ESS installer. The procedure is as follows:

a) Set the tested ESS at charging state and at an input level convenient for measurement.
b) Disconnect the non-grounding phase of the tested ESS from the EPS via equipment other than the
interconnection component.
c) Verify that the above-mentioned phase ceases to absorb power from the EPS.
d) Reclose the phase which is disconnected in Step b) after suitable time.
e) The tested ESS shall not charge from the EPS within required re-starting/reconnection time delay.
f) To test other phases, repeat Steps b) to e).

9.7.2  Stop discharging test

The purpose of this test is to verify that the ESS ceases to energize the output terminals, which are connected
to the EPS, including all phases, when it receives stop discharging command, and shall not re-start/reconnect
within the required time delay.

The procedure for this test can be adjusted according to the agreement between the area EPS regulator and the
ESS installer. The procedure is as follows:

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

a) Set the tested ESS at discharging state and at an output level convenient for measurement.
b) Disconnect the non-grounding phase of the ESS from the EPS via equipment other than the intercon-
nection component.
c) Verify that the above-mentioned phase ceases to energize the output terminal connected to the EPS.
d) Reclose the phase that is disconnected in Step b) after suitable time.
e) The tested ESS shall not energize the output terminal within the required re-starting/reconnection time
delay.
f) To test other phases, repeat Steps b) to e).

9.8  Parameters adjustment


In case of parameter changes caused by changes of software, hardware, or application environment, corre-
sponding parameters shall be reset.

10.  Periodic test


A periodic function test shall be performed to verify that all interconnection-related protective functions and
associated batteries are functional after a certain time of operation. A written periodic test procedure shall be
agreed by the ESS owner and the EPS operator. The test interval shall be specified by the manufacturer, system
integrator, or ESS operator. Written test reports or a log for inspection shall be maintained.

Corresponding type tests on related components shall be performed in the case of the following conditions:

a) Change of ESS functional software or firmware


b) Modification, replacement, or repair on ESS hardware components causing changes in ESS
configuration

The periodic test includes: an SOC test, response time test, ramp-rate test, harmonics test, response to voltage
abnormal test, response to frequency abnormal test, etc.

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Annex A
(informative)

Test signals
The test signals in this Annex are generic functions that can be used for ramp or step tests to determine a par-
ticular set point. These are used in several of the tests in Clause 5, including undervoltage, overvoltage, under-
frequency, overfrequency, synchronization magnitude difference, synchronization frequency difference, and
synchronization phase difference tests. Note that the examples show positive ramp or step for high-magnitude
parameter excursions. The ramp or step will be negative for low-magnitude parameter excursions (e.g., under-
voltage, underfrequency).

A.1  Magnitude test (ramp function)—general


The test signal described in this subclause is used to characterize the accuracy of the magnitude setting for
relevant protection parameters.

Vary the PUT (e.g., voltage or frequency) according to the magnitude ramp function defined in this subclause.
Only the PUT shall be varied. Therefore, all other parameters shall be held at nominal values. The ramp shall
take the form of Equation (A.1).

p (t ) = m(t − t0 ) + Pb (A.1)

where

p is the PUT
m is the slope of the ramp function
t is the time of the response(s)
t0 is the time at the beginning of the event
Pb is the starting point of the ramp function (in units of the PUT) (he starting point Pb shall be within
10% of, but not exceed, the trip point magnitude.)

The slope m is defined by Equation (A.2). The slope m is positive for overvoltage and overfrequency testing
and negative for undervoltage and underfrequency testing

0.5× a
m= (A.2)
2× z
where

z is the time-delay setting (s) for the PUT plus the manufacturer’s stated detection time (s)
a is the manufacturer’s stated accuracy of the PUT

Figure A.1 illustrates detection and clearing time terms, which are defined after the figure.

adjustable time delay: The intentional time added to the detection time in order to provide the desired clear-
ing time. This may be adjustable from zero to several seconds.

clearing time: The sum of the detection time, the adjustable time delay, the interposing devices time (if used),
and the interrupting device time.

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure A.1—Illustrative example of detection and clearing time

detection time: The minimum length of time from the inception of the abnormal condition to the change in
state of the ICS’s output dedicated to controlling the interrupting device. This is often on the order of 8 to 16
ms. Syn: processing time.

interposing device time: The delay introduced in systems that include an auxiliary interface device, often an
electromechanical hinged-armature relay. This is often on the order of 8 to 16 ms.

interrupting device time: Typically, the solenoid-initiated (trip) movement of the spring-loaded mechanism
of the main current-carrying contacts of a circuit breaker plus any power arc interruption time (nonvacuum)
that is dependant on the time to the next current zero-crossing. Interrupting device time varies widely from one
half cycle to several cycles. For inverters, this would be the time needed to stop the bridge firing function and
to cease energy outflow, which may be essentially zero time.

trip time: The interval that begins at the leading zero-crossing of the first half cycle of the voltage waveform
in which the measured parameter (e.g., frequency, voltage, power) exceeds the trip limit and ends when the
equipment under test (EUT) responds as required. The trip time includes any time delay(s) used in conjunction
with the ICS’s protection functions. Depending on the EUT, the trip time can be a component of or equivalent
to the clearing time.

Figure A.2 is a graphical representation of a ramp function used for a high-magnitude parameter test of the
PUT (e.g., overvoltage, overfrequency). In the figure, p represents the magnitude of the PUT, t represents
time, PN is the nominal condition of the PUT, PT is the trip magnitude of the PUT, t0 is the start time of the
ramp, and ts is the start of the hold time th ( th is at least two times the time-delay setting of the PUT; this num-
ber may be adjusted to avoid conflict with other trip points.) for the test signal at starting point Pb .

An alternative method that is agreeable to the manufacturer and the testing agency may be used when the ramp
function conflicts with a design characteristic or settings of the EUT.

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Copyright © 2016 IEEE. All rights reserved.
IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure A.2—Graphical representation of magnitude test using ramp function for PUT

A.2  Time test (step function)—general


The test signal described in this subclause is used to characterize the accuracy of the time-delay setting for
relevant protection parameters.

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Vary the PUT according to the magnitude step function defined herein. Only the PUT shall be varied. There-
fore, all other parameters shall be held at nominal values. The time test signal shall take the form described in
Equation (A.3).

P(t ) = A×u (t − ti ) + Pb (A.3)

where

p is the magnitude of the PUT


t is time (s)
A is a scaling factor(The scaling factor A shall be chosen so that PU is at least 110% (90% for under
value tests) of PT. Exception: for frequency tests, the scaling factor A shall be chosen so that PU is at
least 101% (99% for under value tests) of PT)
u (t ) is the unit step function (u = 0 for t < 0 and u = 1 for t ≥ 0)
Pb is the starting point of the step function (in units of the PUT) (the starting point Pb shall be within
10% of, but not exceed, the trip point magnitude)

Figure A.3 is a graphical representation of the function used for a time test of the PUT. In the figure, p rep-
resents the magnitude of the PUT, t represents time, tt is the trip time, PN is the nominal condition for the
PUT, PT is the trip magnitude of the PUT, PU is the final value of the step function, ti is the start of the step
function, t0 is the start time used for calculating the trip time, tr is the rise time of the test signal from ( t0 - ti )
(The rise time tr shall be less than the larger of 1 cycle or 1% of the time-delay setting of the PUT.),and ts is
the start of the hold time th ( th is at least two times the time-delay setting of the PUT; this number may be ad-
justed to avoid conflict with other trip points) for the test signal at starting point Pb .

When the step function conflicts with a design characteristic or settings of the EUT, an alternative method that
is agreeable to the manufacturer and the testing agency may be used.

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Figure A.3—Graphical representation of time test using step function for PUT

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Annex B
(informative)

Quality factor calculation method


B.1  Quality factor
Quality factor Q f can be determined by referring to the following formula:

C
Qf = R
L

or

PqL + PqC
Qf =
P
where

Q f is the quality factor of the parallel RLC resonant load


R is the effective value of resistive load (Ω)
C is the effective value of capacitive load (F)
L is the effective value of inductive load (H)
PqL is the reactive power consumed by the inductive load in each phase (VARS)
PqC is the reactive power consumed by capacitive load in each phase (VARS)
P is the actual output power of each phase in the EUT (W)
f is the frequency

Both inductance and capacitance are calculated by the following formula:

V2
L=
2×π × f ×V 2

P ×Q f
C=
2×π × f ×V 2
where

L is the effective value of inductance load (H)


V is the nominal voltage between each RLC load (V) (in phase to phase load, V is the nominal line
voltage
in phase to ground load V is the nominal phase voltage)
P is the actual output power of each phase in the EUT (W)
Q f is the quality factor of the parallel RLC resonant load
C is the effective value of capacitive load (F)
f is the frequency

The reactive load reaches balance, so the resonant frequency f of the island is between tripping values of the
overfrequency and the underfrequency and should be as close as possible to the nominal frequency.

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IEEE Std 2030.3-2016
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment
and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

Annex C
(informative)

Bibliography
Bibliographical references are resources that provide additional or helpful material but do not need to be un-
derstood or used to implement this standard. Reference to these resources is made for informational use only.

[B1] CEC-400-2010-012 Appliance Efficiency Regulations.

[B2] IEEE Std 446™, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industri-
al and Commercial Applications (The IEEE Orange Book).5,6

[B3] IEEE  Std  484™, IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Vented
Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications.

[B4] IEEE Std 1106™, IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation, Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement
of Vented Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Stationary Applications.

[B5] IEEE Std 1187, IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Valve-Regulated
Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications.

[B6] IEEE  Std  1515™-2000, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electronic Power Subsystems: Parameter
Definitions, Test Conditions, and Test Methods.

[B7] IEEE 1679™-2010, IEEE Recommended Practice for the Characterization and Evaluation of Emerging
Energy Storage Technologies in Stationary Applications.

[B8] PNNL-22010, Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage
Systems.7

5
IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA
(http://standards.ieee.org/).
6
The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
7
Available from the National Technical Information Service at http://www.ntis.gov.

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