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Chapter (2)

Valves
2.1 Introduction to valves:
2.1.0 Introduction
• Valves are the components in a fluid flow or
pressure system that regulates:

either the flow

or the pressure of the fluid.


2.1.0 Introduction
• This duty may involve:

□stopping and starting flow,

□controlling flow rate,

□diverting flow,

□preventing back flow,

□controlling pressure, or relieving pressure.


2.1.0 Introduction
• These duties are performed by adjusting the
position of the closure member in the valve.

• This may be done either manually or


automatically.

• Manual operation also includes the operation


of the valve by means of a manually controlled
power operator.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
• A valve is a mechanical device that controls:

the flow of fluid

and pressure

Within:
a system

or process.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
• A valve controls system or process fluid flow
and pressure by performing any of the
following functions:

Stopping and starting fluid flow

Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow

Controlling the direction of fluid flow


2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
• A valve controls system or process fluid flow
and pressure by performing any of the
following functions:
Regulating downstream system or process
pressure
Relieving component or piping over
pressure
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
• There are many valve designs and types that
satisfy one or more of the functions identified
above.

• A multitude of valve types and designs safely


accommodate a wide variety of industrial
applications.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
• Regardless of type, all valves have the
following basic parts:

o the body,

o bonnet,

o trim (internal elements),

o actuator,

o and packing.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
• Regardless of type, all valves have the
following basic parts: the body, bonnet, trim
(internal elements), actuator, and packing.

• The basic parts of a valve are illustrated in


Figure 2.1.
The basic parts of a
valve are illustrated in
Figure 2.1.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• The body, sometimes called the shell, is the
primary pressure boundary of a valve.

• It serves as the principal element of a valve


assembly because it is the framework that
holds everything together.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• The body, the first pressure boundary of a
valve, resists fluid pressure loads from
connecting piping.

• It receives inlet and outlet piping through


threaded, bolted, or welded joints.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• Valve bodies are cast or forged into a variety
of shapes.
• Although a sphere or a cylinder would
theoretically be the most economical shape to
resist fluid pressure when a valve is open,
there are many other considerations.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• For example, many valves require a partition
across the valve body to support the seat
opening, which is the throttling orifice.

• With the valve closed, loading on the body is


difficult to determine.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• The valve end connections also distort loads
on a simple sphere and more complicated
shapes.

• Ease of manufacture, assembly, and costs are


additional important considerations.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• Hence, the basic form of a valve body
typically is not spherical, but ranges from
simple block shapes to highly complex shapes
in which the bonnet, a removable piece to
make assembly possible, forms part of the
pressure-resisting body.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Body
• Narrowing of the fluid passage (venturi effect)
is also a common method for reducing the
overall size and cost of a valve.

• In other instances, large ends are added to the


valve for connection into a larger line.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Bonnet
• The cover for the opening in the valve body is
the bonnet.
• In some designs, the body itself is split into
two sections that bolt together.
• Like valve bodies, bonnets
vary in design.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Bonnet
• Some bonnets function simply as valve covers,
while others support valve internals and
accessories such as the stem, disk, and actuator.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Bonnet
• The bonnet is the second

principal pressure

boundary of a valve.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Bonnet
• It is cast or forged of the same material as the
body and is connected to the body by:

– a threaded,

– bolted,

– or welded joint.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Bonnet
• In all cases, the attachment of the bonnet to the
body is considered a pressure boundary.

• This means that the weld joint or bolts that


connect the bonnet to the body are pressure-
retaining parts.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Bonnet
• Valve bonnets, although a necessity for most
valves, represent a cause for concern.
• Bonnets can complicate the manufacture of
valves, increase valve size, represent a
significant cost portion of valve cost, and are a
source for potential leakage.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Trim
• The internal elements of a valve are collectively
referred to as a valve's trim.

• The trim typically includes a disk, seat, stem,


and sleeves needed to guide the stem.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Trim
• A valve's performance is determined by:
– the disk and seat interface
– and the relation of the disk position to the
seat.
• Because of the trim, basic motions and flow
control are possible.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Trim
• In rotational motion trim designs, the disk
slides closely past the seat to produce a change
in flow opening.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Trim
• In linear motion trim designs, the disk lifts
perpendicularly away from the seat so that an
annular orifice appears.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• For a valve having a bonnet, the disk is the
third primary principal pressure boundary.

• The disk provides the capability for permitting


and prohibiting fluid flow.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• With the disk closed, full system pressure is
applied across the disk if the outlet side is
depressurized.

• For this reason, the disk is a pressure-retaining


part.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• Disks are typically forged and, in some
designs, hard-surfaced to provide good wear
characteristics.
• A fine surface finish of the seating area of a
disk is necessary for good sealing when the
valve is closed.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• Most valves are named, in part, according to
the design of their disks.

• The seat or seal rings provide the seating


surface for the disk.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• In some designs, the body is machined to serve
as the seating surface and seal rings are not
used.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• In other designs, forged seal rings are:

o threaded

o or welded

to the body to provide the seating surface.


2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• To improve the wear-resistance of the seal rings,
the surface is often hard-faced by welding and
then machining the contact surface of the seal
ring.
Hard facing: A surface preparation in which
an alloy is deposited on a metal surface
usually by weld overlay to increase resistance
to abrasion and or corrosion.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• A fine surface finish of the seating area is
necessary for good sealing when the valve is
closed.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Disk and Seat
• Seal rings are not usually considered pressure
boundary parts because the body has sufficient
wall thickness to withstand design pressure
without relying upon the thickness of the seal
rings.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• The stem, which connects the actuator and
disk, is responsible for positioning the disk.

• Stems are typically forged and connected to


the disk by threaded or welded joints.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• For valve designs requiring stem packing or
sealing to prevent leakage, a fine surface finish
of the stem in the area of the seal is necessary.

• Typically, a stem is not considered a pressure


boundary part.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• Connection of the disk to the stem can allow
some rocking or rotation to ease the positioning
of the disk on the seat.

• Alternately, the stem may be flexible enough


to let the disk position itself against the seat.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• However, constant fluttering or rotation of a
flexible or loosely connected disk can destroy
the disk or its connection to the stem.

• Two types of valve stems are rising stems and


nonrising stems.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• Illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, these two types
of stems are easily distinguished by
observation.

• For a rising stem valve, the stem will rise


above the actuator as the valve is opened.
Figure 2 Rising Stems
Figure 3 Nonrising Stems
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• This occurs because the stem is threaded and
mated with the bushing threads of a yoke that
is an integral part of, or is mounted to, the
bonnet.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Stem
• There is no upward stem movement from
outside the valve for a nonrising stem design.

• For the nonrising stem design, the valve disk


is threaded internally and mates with the
stem threads.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Actuator
• The actuator operates the stem and disk
assembly.
• An actuator may be a manually operated
handwheel, manual lever, motor operator,
solenoid operator, pneumatic operator, or
hydraulic ram.
A solenoid valve is
an electromechanically operated valve. The
valve is controlled by an electric current through
a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the
flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-
port valve, the outflow is switched between the
two outlet ports.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Actuator
• In some designs, the actuator is supported by
the bonnet.

• In other designs, a yoke mounted to the bonnet


supports the actuator.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Actuator
• Except for certain hydraulically controlled
valves, actuators are outside of the pressure
boundary.

• Yokes, when used, are always outside of the


pressure boundary.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Packing
• Most valves use some form of packing to
prevent leakage from the space between the
stem and the bonnet.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Packing
• Packing is commonly a fibrous material (such
as flax) or another compound (such as teflon)
that forms a seal between the internal parts of a
valve and the outside where the stem extends
through the body.
2.1.1 What Is A Valve?
Valve Packing
• Valve packing must be properly compressed to
prevent fluid loss and damage to the valve's stem.
• If a valve's packing is too loose, the valve will
leak, which is a safety hazard.
• If the packing is too tight, it will impair the
movement and possibly damage the stem.
2.1.2 What Is A safety relief Valve?
2.1.2 What Is A safety relief Valve?
• Pressure relief valve is a generic term applied
to relief valves, safety valves, and safety relief
valves. A pressure relief valve is designed to
automatically reclose and prevent the flow of
fluid.
2.1.2 What Is A safety relief Valve?
• A relief valve is a spring-loaded pressure relief
valve actuated by the static pressure upstream
of the valve. The valve opens normally in
proportion to the pressure increase over the
opening pressure. A relief valve is used
primarily with incompressible fluids.
2.1.2 What Is A safety relief Valve?
• A safety valve is a spring-loaded pressure
relief valve actuated by the static pressure
upstream of the valve and characterized by
rapid opening or pop action. A safety valve is
normally used with compressible fluids.
2.1.2 What Is A safety relief Valve?
• A safety relief valve is a spring-loaded
pressure relief valve that may be used as either
a safety or relief valve, depending on the
application.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• Process plants consist of hundreds, or even
thousands, of control loops all networked
together to produce a product to be offered for
sale.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• Each of these control loops is designed to keep
some important process variable such as
pressure, flow, level, temperature, etc. within a

required operating range to ensure the


quality of the end product.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• Each of these loops receives and internally
creates disturbances that detrimentally affect
the process variable, and interaction from other
loops in the network provides disturbances that
influence the process variable.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• To reduce the effect of these load disturbances,
sensors and transmitters collect information
about the process variable and its relationship
to some desired set point.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• A controller then processes this information
and decides what must be done to get the
process variable back to where it should be
after a load disturbance occurs.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• When all the measuring, comparing, and
calculating are done, some type of final control
element must implement the strategy selected
by the controller.

• The most common final control element in the


process control industries is the control valve.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• The control valve manipulates a flowing fluid,
such as gas, steam, water, or chemical compounds,
to compensate for the load disturbance and keep
the regulated process variable as close as possible
to the desired set point.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• Many people who talk about control valves or
valves are really referring to a control valve
assembly.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• The control valve assembly typically consists
of the valve body, the internal trim parts, an
actuator to provide the motive power to operate
the valve, and a variety of additional valve
accessories, which can include positioners,
transducers, and supply pressure regulators,
manual operators, snubbers, or limit switches.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• Other chapters of this handbook supply more
detail about each of these control valve
assembly components.
• Whether it is called a valve, control valve or a
control valve assembly, is not as important as
recognizing that the control valve is a critical
part of the control loop.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• It is not accurate to say that the control valve is
the most important part of the loop.

• It is useful to think of a control loop as an


instrumentation chain.
2.1.3 What Is A Control Valve?
• Like any other chain, the whole chain is only
as good as its weakest link.

• It is important to ensure that the control valve


is not the weakest link.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• The flow coefficient, Cv, or its metric
equivalent, Kv, has been adopted universally
as a comparative value for measuring the
capacity of control valves.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• Cv is defined as the number of US
gallons/minute at 60°F that will flow through a
control valve at a specified opening when a
pressure differential of 1 pound per square
inch is applied.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• The metric equivalent of Cv is Kv, which is
defined as the amount of water that will flow
in m3/hr with a 1 bar pressure drop. Converting
between the two coefficients is simply based
on the relationship:

Cv = 2.1.16 Kv
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• In its simplest form for a liquid the flow rate
provided by any particular Cv is given by the
basic sizing equation:

Q = Cv√ (Δ P / SG)
– Where SG is the specific gravity of the fluid
referenced to water at 60°F and Q is the flow in
US Gallons per minute.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• Hence a valve with a specified opening giving
Cv =1 will pass 1 US gallon of water (at 60°F)
per minute if 1 psi pressure difference exists
between the upstream and downstream points
each side of the valve.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• For the same pressure conditions if we
increase the opening of the valve to create

Cv =10 it will pass 10 US gallons/minute


provide the pressure difference across the
valve remains at 1 psi.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• In metric terms:

Q = (1/2.1.16). Cv √ (Δ P/SG)

• Where Q is in m3/hr and Δ P is in bars and

SG =1 for water at 15°C.


2.1.4 CV valve definition
• Hence the same a valve with a specified
opening giving Cv =1 will pass 0.862 m3/hr of
water (at 15°C) if 1 bar pressure difference
exists between the upstream and downstream
points each side of the valve.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• These simplified equations allow us to see the
principles of valve sizing.

• It should be clear that if we know the pressure


conditions and the SG of the fluid and we have
the Cv of the valve at the chosen opening we
can predict the amount of flow that will pass.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• Unfortunately it is not always as simple as this
because there are many factors which will
modify the Cv values for the valve and there
are limits to the flow velocities and pressure
drops that the valve can handle before we
reach limiting conditions.
2.1.4 CV valve definition
• The most significant limitations that we need
to understand at this point in the training are
those associated with choked flow or critical
flow as it also known.

• Here is brief outline of the meaning and causes


of choked flow.
2.1.4 CV valve definition

Basic flow versus pressure drop relationship for a


control valve
2.2 Types of valves:
2.2.1 Definition
• The term valve is defined as the apparatus
designed to act upon the flow or the state of a
fluid without increasing the energy of this
fluid.
• The closure mechanism normally used and
applicable to each design is different
depending upon the service requirements.
2.2.2 Classification
• Valves are classified according to their use:
 flow control,

pressure control,

and directional control.

• Some valves have multiple functions that fall


into more than one classification.
2.2.3 The function of valves
A. Isolation.

B. Regulation.

C. Non-Return.

D. Special purpose.
Isolation. Regulation Non- Return
2.1. Gate valve. 2.1. Globe valve. 2.1. Check valve.
2. Ball valve 2. Needle valve.
2.2. Plug valve. 2.2. Butterfly
2.4. Piston valve. valve.
5. Diaphragm 2.4. Diaphragm
Valve. valve.
6. Butterfly 5. Piston valve.
valve. 6. Pinch valve.
7. Pinch valve.

Valves are classified based on their function


2.2.4 Valves are classified based on end
connection as: -
A. Screwed ends.

B. Socket ends.

C. Flanged ends.

D. Butt weld ends.


Socket weld

Screwed
Butt weld

Flanged
2.2.5 Manual Valves

2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES


• Closure is affected by sliding a gate,
commonly defined as a wedge between two
parallel or oblique seat rings, positioned
perpendicular to the flow.
2.2.5 Manual Valves

2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES


• Friction losses expressed as pressure drop are
low. Normally a gate valve is either used under
full flow or complete shut-off conditions, it
should never be used for regulation purposes.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES

Valve body
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Valve Trim
• The internal elements of a valve are
collectively referred to as a valve's trim.

• The trim typically includes a disk, seat, stem,


and sleeves needed to guide the stem.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Valve Trim
• A valve's performance is determined by the
disk and seat interface and the relation of the
disk position to the seat.

• Because of the trim, basic motions and flow


control are possible.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Valve Trim
• In rotational motion trim designs, the disk
slides closely past the seat to produce a change
in flow opening.

• In linear motion trim designs, the disk lifts


perpendicularly away from the seat so that an
annular orifice appears.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES

Stem
• The stem, which connects the actuator and
disk, is responsible for positioning the disk.

• Stems are typically forged and connected to


the disk by threaded or welded joints.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES

Stem
• For valve designs requiring stem packing or
sealing to prevent leakage, a fine surface finish
of the stem in the area of the seal is necessary.

• Typically, a stem is not considered a


pressure boundary part.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES

Stem
• Connection of the disk to the stem can allow
some rocking or rotation to ease the
positioning of the disk on the seat.

• Alternately, the stem may be flexible enough


to let the disk position itself against the seat.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Stem
• However, constant fluttering or rotation of a
flexible or loosely connected disk can destroy
the disk or its connection to the stem.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Stem
• Two types of valve stems are rising stems and
nonrising stems. Illustrated in Figures, these
two types of stems are easily distinguished by
observation.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Stem
• For a rising stem valve, the stem will rise
above the actuator as the valve is opened.

• This occurs because the stem is threaded and


mated with the bushing threads of a yoke that
is an integral part of, or is mounted to, the
bonnet.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
Stem
• There is no upward stem movement from
outside the valve for a nonrising stem design.

• For the nonrising stem design, the valve disk is


threaded internally and mates with the stem
threads.
rising stem
nonrising stem
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
• A gate valve can be used for a wide variety of
fluids and provides a tight seal when closed.
The major disadvantages to the use of a gate
valve are:
 It is not suitable for throttling applications.

 It is prone to vibration in the partially open


state.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES
• A gate valve can be used for a wide variety of
fluids and provides a tight seal when closed.
The major disadvantages to the use of a gate
valve are: (cont.)
 It is more subject to seat and disk wear
than a globe valve.

 Repairs, such as lapping and grinding, are


generally more difficult to accomplish.
2.2.5.1 GATE VALVES

Gate Valve
2.2.5.2 Globe valves

• Globe valves are closing-down valves in which


the closure member is moved squarely on and
off the seat.

• It is customary to refer to the closure member


as a disc, irrespective of its shape.
2.2.5.2 Globe valves
• By this mode of disc travel, the seat opening
varies in direct proportion to the travel of the
disc.

• This proportional relationship between valve


opening and disc travel is ideally suited for
duties involving regulation of flow rate.
2.2.5.2 Globe valves
• In addition, the seating load of globe valves
can be positively controlled by a screwed stem,
and the disc moves with little or no friction
onto the seat, depending on the design of seat
and disc.
2.2.5.2 Globe valves
• The sealing capacity of these valves is
therefore potentially high.

• On the debit side, the seatings may trap solids,


which travel in the flowing fluid.
2.2.5.2 Globe valves
• Interruption of the flow is effected by means of
a disc, moving perpendicular to its seat and
along the direction of liquid flow, giving an
“S”effect, resulting in high pressure drop.

• A globe valve allows flow adjustments from


complete shut-off to precision throttling.
2.2.5.2 Globe valves
• Most economic for throttling flow

• Can be hand-controlled

• Provides “tight” shutoff

• Not suitable for scraping or rodding

• Too costly for on/off block operations


2.2.5.2 Globe valves

Globe valve
2.2.5.2 Globe valves
2.2.5.3 Check valves

• The prime function of a check valve is to protect


mechanical equipment in a piping system by
preventing reversal of flow by the fluid.
2.2.5.3 Check valves
• This is particularly important in the case of
pumps and compressors, where back flow
could damage the internals of the equipment
and cause an unnecessary shutdown of the
system and in severe cases the complete plant.
2.2.5.3 Check valves
• Generally speaking check valves have no
requirement for operators, and so the valve is
operated automatically by flow reversal;
however, in very special circumstances this
uni-directional facility has to be overridden.
2.2.5.3 Check valves
• Check valves are automatic valves that open
with forward flow and close against reverse
flow.
2.2.5.3 Check valves
• This mode of flow regulation is required to:
□ prevent return flow,

□ to maintain prime after the pump has stopped,

□ to enable reciprocating pumps and compressors to


function,

□ and to prevent rotary pumps and compressors from


driving standby units in reverse.
2.2.5.3 Check valves
• Check valves may also be required in lines
feeding a secondary system in which the
pressure can rise above that of the primary
system.
2.2.5.3 Check valves

• In brief as the name implies the valve is


designed to allow flow in one direction only,
thereby preventing flow reversal.
2.2.5.3 Check valves
• Prevents flow reversal

• Does not completely shut off reverse flow

• Available in all sizes, ratings, materials

• Valve type selection determined by:


 Size limitations
 Cost
 Availability
 Service
2.2.5.3 Check valves

Swing Check Valve


2.2.5.3 Check valves

Ball Check Valve


2.2.5.3 Check valves

Lift Check Valve


2.2.5.3 Check valves
2.2.5.3 Check valves
2.2.5.3 Check valves

Wafer Check Valve


2.2.5.3 Check valves

Wafer Check Valve


2.2.5.4 Butterfly Valves
2.2.5.4 Butterfly Valves
• Butterfly valves are rotary valves in which a
disc-shaped closure member is rotated through
90◦, or approximately, to open or close the
flow passage.
2.2.5.4 Butterfly Valves
• The original butterfly valve is the simple
pipeline damper that is not intended for tight
shut-off. This valve is still an important
member of the butterfly valve family.
2.2.5.4 Butterfly Valves
Butterfly Valves:
 Provide tight shutoff with rubber seats
 Relatively easy to operate, even with large
pressure differentials across the valves
 Require relatively little space for installation
 Can usually replace seats in place
 Relatively light weight
2.2.5.4 Butterfly Valves
2.2.5.5 Ball Valve
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Ball valves are a species of plug valves having
a ball-shaped closure member.

• The seat matching the ball is circular so that


the seating stress is circumferentially uniform.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Most ball valves are also equipped with soft
seats that conform readily to the surface of the
ball.

• Thus, from the point of sealing, the concept of


the ball valve is excellent.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• The flow-control characteristic that arises from
a round port moving across a circular seat and
from the double pressure drop across the two
seats is very good.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• However, if the valve is left partially open for
an extended period under conditions of a high
pressure drop across the ball, the soft seat will
tend to flow around the edge of the ball orifice
and possibly lock the ball in that position.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Ball valves for manual control are therefore
best suited for stopping and starting flow and
moderate throttling.

• If flow control is automatic, the ball is


continuously on the move, thus keeping this
failure from normally occurring.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Because the ball moves across the seats with a
wiping motion, ball valves will handle fluids
with solids in suspension.

• However, abrasive solids will damage the seats


and the ball surface.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Long, tough fibrous material may also present
a problem, as the fibers tend to wrap around
the ball.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• To economize in the valve construction, most
ball valves have a reduced bore with a venturi-
shaped flow passage of about three-quarters
the nominal valve size.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• The pressure drop across the reduced-bore ball
valve is thereby so small that the cost of a full-
bore ball valve is not normally justified.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• However, there are applications when a full-
bore ball valve is required, as for example,
when the pipeline has to be scraped.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves

Ball Valve
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Advantages
• A ball valve is generally the least expensive of
any valve configuration and has low maintenance
costs.

• In addition to quick, quarter turn on-off operation,


ball valves are compact, require no lubrication,
and give tight sealing with low torque.
2.2.5.5 Ball valves
• Disadvantages
• Conventional ball valves have relatively poor
throttling characteristics.

• In a throttling position, the partially exposed


seat rapidly erodes because of the impingement
of high velocity flow.
2.2.5.6 Plug Valve
2.2.5.6 Plug valves
• Plug valves are rotary valves in which a plug-
shaped closure member is rotated through
increments of 90◦ to engage or disengage a
porthole or holes in the plug with the ports in
the valve body.
• The shape of the plug may thereby be
cylindrical, or tapered.
2.2.5.6 Plug valves
• The shape of the port is commonly rectangular in
parallel plugs, and truncated triangular shapes in
taper plugs.

• These shapes permit a slimmer valve construction


of reduced weight, but at the expense of some
pressure drop.
2.2.5.6 Plug valves
• Full area round-bore ports are normally used only
if the pipeline has to be scraped or the nature of
the fluid demands a full area round bore.

• However, some plug valves are made only with


round-bore because of the method of sealing
employed.
2.2.5.6 Plug valves
• A plug valve is a rotational motion valve used
to stop or start fluid flow.

• The name is derived from the shape of the


disk, which resembles a plug.
2.2.5.6 Plug valves
• The body of a plug valve is machined to
receive the tapered or cylindrical plug.

• The disk is a solid plug with a bored passage at


a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the
plug.
2.2.5.6 Plug valves

Plug Valve
2.2.5.6 Plug valves

Part section through a flanged plug valve


2.2.6 Safety Relief Valves
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves
DEFINETIONS:
Pressure relief valve is a generic term applied to
relief valves, safety valves, and safety relief
valves. A pressure relief valve is designed to
automatically reclose and prevent the flow of
fluid.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
A relief valve is a spring-loaded pressure relief
valve actuated by the static pressure upstream of
the valve. The valve opens normally in
proportion to the pressure increase over the
opening pressure. A relief valve is used primarily
with incompressible fluids.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves
DEFINETIONS:
A safety relief valve is a spring-loaded
pressure relief valve that may be used as either
a safety or relief valve, depending on the
application.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
A safety valve is a spring-loaded pressure
relief valve actuated by the static pressure
upstream of the valve and characterized by
rapid opening or pop action. A safety valve is
normally used with compressible fluids.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
A conventional pressure relief valve is a spring-
loaded pressure relief valve whose performance
characteristics are directly affected by changes
in the back pressure on the valve.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
Back pressure is the pressure that exists at the
outlet of a pressure relief device as a result of
the pressure in the discharge system. Back
pressure can be either constant or variable.
Back pressure is the sum of the superimposed
and built-up back pressures.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
The set pressure is the inlet gauge pressure at
which the pressure relief valve is set to open
under service conditions.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
The operating pressure is the pressure to which
the vessel is usually subjected in service.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

DEFINETIONS:
The design pressure of a vessel is at least the
most severe condition of coincident
temperature and gauge pressure expected
during operation.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

WHY IS IT NEEDED ?
 Primary function : protection of
personnel and property.
 Satisfy requirements of applicable codes
and regulations.
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves
Most common causes of overpressure
 Blocked discharge
• Pumps and compressors
• Chemical reaction
• Flow from an high pressure source
• Heat input from associated equipment
• Ambient heat transfer
 Exposure to external flames

 Thermal expansion
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

 BLOCKED DISCHARGE
PRD

Pressure
Vessel
OUTLET BLOCK
VALVE CLOSED

FULL INPUT FLOW

(FROM COMPRESSOR
OR PUMP)
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

 EXTERNAL FIRE
PRD

STORAGE OR
PROCESS VESSEL
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

 THERMAL EXPANSION

PRD

LIQUID FULL PIPE OR PRESSURE VESSEL


2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves
VALVE INSTALLATION
 Prefer top installation to set
PRV on compressible fluid as
much as possible.

Gas
NO !!
Liquid
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves
VALVE INSTALLATION
 Prefer top installation to set PRV on
compressible fluid as much as possible.
OUTLET

OUTLET

INLET

INLET
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves
VALVE ENVIRONMENT
 Avoid pressure drops to
avoid malfunctioning
hazard:
 Long piping
 Wrong piping diameter
 Horizontal or sinuous
installation
 Wrong penetration
 Isolation valve
increasing pressure drop
2.2.6 Safe-ty Relief Valves

CAP
ADJUSTING SCREW
ADJ. SCR. LOCKNUT
BELLOWS SPINDLE (or STEM)
SPRING

GUIDE
DISC HOLDER
DISC
ADJUSTING RING
ADJ. RING SCREW
BODY
NOZZLE
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
• Valve actuators are selected based upon a
number of factors including torque necessary
to operate the valve and the need for automatic
actuation.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
• Types of actuators include manual hand wheel,
manual lever, electrical motor, pneumatic,
solenoid, hydraulic piston, and self-actuated.

• All actuators except manual hand wheel and


lever are adaptable to automatic actuation.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators

• Manual actuators are capable of placing the


valve in any position but do not permit
automatic operation.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators

• The most common type mechanical actuator is


the hand wheel.

• This type includes hand wheels fixed to the


stem, hammer hand wheels, and hand wheels
connected to the stem through gears.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Hand wheels Fixed to Stem
• As illustrated in Figure 2.3.1, hand wheels
fixed to the stem provide only the mechanical
advantage of the wheel. When these valves are
exposed to high operating temperatures, valve
binding makes operation difficult.
Figure 2.3.1 Fixed Hand wheel
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Hammer Hand wheel
• As illustrated in Figure 2.3.2, the hammer hand
wheel moves freely through a portion of its
turn and then hits against a lug on a secondary
wheel.
Figure 2.3.2 Hammer Hand wheel
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Hammer Hand wheel
• The secondary wheel is attached to the valve
stem. With this arrangement, the valve can be
pounded shut for tight closure or pounded
open if it is stuck shut.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Gears
• If additional mechanical advantage is
necessary for a manually-operated valve, the
valve bonnet is fitted with manually-operated
gear heads as illustrated in Figure 2.3.3.
Figure 2.3.3 Manual Gear Head
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Gears
• A special wrench or hand wheel attached to the
pinion shaft permits one individual to operate
the valve when two individuals might be
needed without the gear advantage.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Gears
• Because several turns of the pinion are
necessary to produce one turn of the valve
stem, the operating time of large valves is
exceptionally long.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Manual, Fixed, and Hammer Actuators
Gears
• The use of portable air motors connected to the
pinion shaft decreases the valve operating
time.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Electric Motor Actuators
• Electric motors permit manual, semi-automatic,
and automatic operation of the valve.

• Motors are used mostly for open-close


functions, although they are adaptable to
positioning the valve to any point opening as
illustrated in Figure 2.3.2.4.
Figure 2.3.4 Electric Motor Actuator
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Electric Motor Actuators
• The motor is usually a, reversible, high speed
type connected through a gear train to reduce
the motor speed and thereby increase the
torque at the stem.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Electric Motor Actuators
• Direction of motor rotation determines
direction of disk motion.

• The electrical actuation can be semi-automatic,


as when the motor is started by a control
system.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Electric Motor Actuators
• A hand wheel, which can be engaged to the gear
train, provides for manual operating of the valve.

• Limit switches are normally provided to stop the


motor automatically at full open and full closed
valve positions.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Electric Motor Actuators
• Limit switches are operated either physically
by position of the valve or torsionally by
torque of the motor.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Pneumatic Actuators
• Pneumatic actuators as illustrated in Figure
2.3.5 provide for automatic or semiautomatic
valve operation.
Figure 2.3.5
Pneumatic
Actuator
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Pneumatic Actuators
• These actuators translate an air signal into
valve stem motion by air pressure acting on a
diaphragm or piston connected to the stem.

• Pneumatic actuators are used in throttle valves


for open-close positioning where fast action is
required.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Pneumatic Actuators
• When air pressure closes the valve and spring
action opens the valve, the actuator is termed
direct acting.

• When air pressure opens the valve and spring


action closes the valve, the actuator is termed
reverse acting.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Pneumatic Actuators
• Duplex actuators have air supplied to both
sides of the diaphragm.

• The differential pressure across the diaphragm


positions the valve stem.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Pneumatic Actuators
• Automatic operation is provided when the air
signals are automatically controlled by
circuitry.

• Semi-automatic operation is provided by


manual switches in the circuitry to the air
control valves.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Self-Actuated Valves
• Self-actuated valves use the system fluid to
position the valve.

• Relief valves, safety valves, check valves, and


steam traps are examples of self-actuated
valves.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Self-Actuated Valves
• All of these valves use some characteristic of
the system fluid to actuate the valve.

• No source of power outside the system fluid


energy is necessary for operation of these
valves.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• Solenoid actuated valves provide for automatic
open-close valve positioning as illustrated in
Figure 2.3.6.
Figure 2.3.6
Solenoid
Actuated
Valve
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• Most solenoid actuated valves also have a
manual override that permits manual
positioning of the valve for as long as the
override is manually positioned.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• Solenoids position the valve by attracting a
magnetic slug attached to the valve stem.

• In single solenoid valves, spring pressure acts


against the motion of the slug when power is
applied to the solenoid.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• These valves can be arranged such that power
to the solenoid either opens or closes the valve.
When power to the solenoid is removed, the
spring returns the valve to the opposite
position.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• Two solenoids can be used to provide for both
opening and closing by applying power to the
appropriate solenoid.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• Single solenoid valves are termed fail open or
fail closed depending on the position of the
valve with the solenoid de-energized.

• Fail open solenoid valves are opened by spring


pressure and closed by energizing the solenoid.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• Fail closed solenoid valves are closed by
spring pressure and opened by energizing the
solenoid.

• Double solenoid valves typically fail "as is."


That is, the valve position does not change
when both solenoids are de-energized.
2.3Valves actuators:
2.3.1 Introduction
Solenoid Actuated Valves
• One application of solenoid valves is in air
systems such as those used to supply air to
pneumatic valve actuators.

• The solenoid valves are used to control the air


supply to the pneumatic actuator and thus the
position of the pneumatic actuated valve.
2.4 Valves Problems and
Troubleshooting
2.4.1 Pressure Drop
2.4.1 Pressure Drop
• Pressure drop is the difference in upstream
and downstream pressures of the fluid flowing
through the valve.
2.4.1 Pressure Drop
• The flow of a gaseous controlled fluid through
the valve increases as the pressure drop
increases until reaching a critical point.

• This is the critical pressure drop.


2.4.1 Pressure Drop
• Any increase in pressure drop beyond the
critical pressure drop is dissipated as noise and
cavitation rather than increasing flow.

• The noise and cavitation can destroy the valve


and adjacent piping components.
2.4.1 Pressure Drop
• A valve with a significant pressure drop at low
flow rates should not be used to throttle near
the seat for extended periods of time.
• The allowable pressure drop cannot exceed the
Body‟s ANSI pressure rating.
• The valve's pressure drop is reduced to the
point of avoiding damaging cavitation.
Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves Expressed as Equivalent Length of Tube
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• 2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• When a liquid passes through a partially closed
valve, the static pressure in the region of
increasing velocity and in the wake of the
closure member drops and may reach the
vapor pressure of the liquid.
• 2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The liquid in the low-pressure region then
begins to vaporize and form vapor-filled
cavities, which grow around minute gas
bubbles and impurities carried by the liquid.
• 2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• When the liquid again reaches a region of high
static pressure, the vapor bubbles collapse
suddenly or implode.

• This process is called cavitation.


2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The impinging of the opposing liquid particles
of the collapsing vapor bubble produces locally
high but short-lived pressures.
• If the implosions occur at or near the boundaries
of the valve body or the pipe wall, the pressure
intensities can match the tensile strength of
these parts.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The rapid stress reversals on the surface and the
pressure shocks in the pores of the boundary
surface lead finally to local fatigue failures that
cause the boundary surface to roughen until,
eventually, quite large cavities form.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The cavitation performance of a valve is
typical for a particular valve type, and it is
customarily defined by a cavitation index,
which indicates the degree of cavitation or the
tendency of the valve to cavitate.
• This parameter is presented in the literature in
various forms.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The following is a convenient index used by
the United States Bureau of Reclamation.

• Where:
– C = cavitation index
– Pv = vapor pressure relative to atmospheric
pressure (negative)
– Pd = pressure in pipe 12 pipe diameters
downstream of the valve seat
– Pu = pressure in pipe 3 pipe diameters upstream of
the valve seat
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• Figure blew displays the incipient cavitation
characteristics of butterfly, gate, globe, and
ball valves, based on water as the flow
medium.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The characteristics have been compiled by the
Sydney MetropolitanWater Sewerage and
Drainage Board, and are based on laboratory
observations and published data.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• Because temperature entrained air, impurities,
model tolerances, and the observer‟s judgment
influence the test results, the graphs can serve
only as a guide.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves

Incipient Cavitation Characteristics of Various “In-Line” Valves.


2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves

Incipient Cavitation Characteristics of Various “In-Line” Valves.


2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves

Incipient Cavitation Characteristics of Various “In-Line” Valves.


2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves

Incipient Cavitation Characteristics of Various “In-Line” Valves.


2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves

Incipient Cavitation Characteristics of Various “In-Line” Valves.


2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• The development of cavitation can be minimized
by letting the pressure drop occur in stages.

• The injection of compressed air immediately


downstream of the valve minimizes the formation
of vapor bubbles by raising the ambient pressure.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• On the debit side, the entrained air will interfere
with the reading of any downstream
instrumentation.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• A sudden enlargement of the flow passage just
downstream of the valve seat can protect the
boundaries of valve body and pipe from
cavitation damage.
2.4.2 Cavitation in Valves
• A chamber with the diameter of 2,1.5 times the
pipe diameter and a length of 8 times the pipe
diameter including the exit taper has proved
satisfactory for needle valves used in
waterworks.
2.4.3 Flow Choking
2.4.3 Flow Choking
• The liquid flow rate will increase as the
pressure drop increases.

• However, when cavitation vapor bubbles form


in the vena contracta, the vapor bubbles will
increasingly restrict the flow of liquid until the
flow is fully choked with vapor.
2.4.3 Flow Choking
• This condition is known as "choked flow" or
"critical flow".

• When the flow is fully choked, the flow rate


does not increase when the pressure drop is
increased.
2.4.3 Flow Choking
• Graph 2 shows these flow relationships. The
flow curve begins in the chart's lower left
corner with fully liquid flow.
2.4.3 Flow Choking
• The relationship of flow to √ P1 - P2 is linear
until cavitation begins to form at the point of
incipient cavitation.
• As more cavitation forms, the more the flow
curve bends until it is horizontal and fully
choked with the flow not increasing with
additional pressure drop.
2.4.4 High Velocities
2.4.4 High Velocities
• High liquid flow velocities in valve bodies can
cause metal erosion even though there may be
no cavitation or flashing.

• Liquid flow velocity in valve bodies should be


limited to the velocities shown in Table 20 to
avoid flow erosion.
2.4.4 High Velocities
• The body's flow velocity, for liquid flow, can
be calculated.

• The body flow velocity at the smallest flow


passage, usually the body inlet or outlet,
should not exceed the velocities in Table 20.
2.4.4 High Velocities
2.4.5 Water Hammer
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• When a valve is being opened or closed to
change the flow rate, the change in kinetic
energy of the flowing fluid column introduces
a transient change in the static pressure in the
pipe.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• In the case of a liquid, this transient change in
the static pressure is sometimes accompanied
by a shaking of the pipe and a hammering
sound—thus the name water hammer.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• The transient pressure change does not occur
instantaneously along the entire pipeline but
progressively from the point at which the
change of flow has been initiated.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• If, for example, a valve at the end of a pipeline
is closed instantaneously, only the liquid
elements at the valve feel the valve closure
immediately.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• The kinetic energy stored in the liquid
elements then compresses these elements and
expands the adjoining pipe walls.

• The other portion of the liquid column


continues to flow at its original velocity until
reaching the liquid column which is at rest.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• The speed at which the compression zone
extends towards the inlet end of the pipeline is
uniform and equals the velocity of sound in the
liquid within the pipe.
• When the compression zone has reached the
inlet pipe end, all liquid is at rest, but at a
pressure above the normal static pressure.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• The unbalanced pressure now creates a flow in
the opposite direction and relieves the rise in
the static pressure and the expansion of the
pipe wall.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• When this pressure drop has reached the valve,
the whole liquid column is again under normal
static pressure, but continues to discharge
towards the inlet pipe end so that a wave of
subnormal pressure is created, starting at the
valve.
2.4.5 Water Hammer
• When this pressure wave has made the round
trip, the normal pressure and the original
direction of flow are restored.

• Now the cycle starts again and repeats itself


until the kinetic energy of the liquid column is
dissipated in friction and other losses.
2.4.6 Noise problems
2.4.6 Noise problems
• The letting down of gas by valves from a high
to a low pressure can produce a troublesome
and, in extreme cases, unbearable noise.
• A major portion of the noise arises from the
turbulence generated by the high velocity jet
shearing the relatively still medium
downstream of the valve.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• A silencer found successful in combating this
noise is the perforated diffuser, in which the
gas is made to flow through numerous small
orifices.

• The diffuser may consist of a perforated flat


plate, cone, or bucket.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• The diffuser attenuates the low and mid
frequencies of the valve noise, but also
regenerates a high frequency noise in the
perforations, which, however, is more readily
attenuated by the passage through the pipe and
the air than the lower frequencies.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• A second beneficial effect of the diffuser is to
distribute the flow more evenly, over the cross
section of the pipe.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• Ingard has shown that the normalized acoustic
resistance of a perforated flat plate mounted
across the pipe is directly proportional to both
the Mach number of the flow through the
perforations and the factor

Where:
σ = open area ratio of the perforated plate.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• Although this cannot be directly related to
noise attenuation, it would appear that the
Mach number should be as large as possible,
and σ as small as possible.

• For practical purposes, a maximum Mach


number of 0.9 is suggested.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• If the available pressure drop across the
diffuser is limited, a Mach number with a
lower value may have to be chosen.

• Practical values for the open area ratio may be


taken as between 0.1 and 0.3.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• Practical values lower than 0.1 may result in
an excessively large diffuser, while values
higher than 0.3 may result in too low an
attenuation.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• The peak frequency of the jet noise is also
inversely proportional to the diameter of the
jet.

• Therefore, from the point of noise attenuation,


the diameter of the perforations should be as
small as possible.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• To avoid the nozzles from becoming blocked,
nozzles with a minimum diameter of 5 mm are
frequently used.
2.4.6 Noise problems
• If the flow velocity in the pipe downstream of
the silencer is high, the boundary layer
turbulence along the pipe may generate a noise
comparable with the attenuated valve noise.
• Experience suggests that this will not be a
problem if the Mach number of the flow in the
pipe is kept below about 0.3.
2.5 Valve
maintenance and
repair.
2.5.0 Introduction
• This chapter is to establish recommended
practice as well as general advice and guidance
in the maintenance of mechanical equipment.

• Maintenance recommendations are based on


industry standards and experience in reclamation
facilities.
2.5.0 Introduction
• Other sources of information must be consulted
(e.g., manufacturer's recommendations, unusual
operating conditions, personal experience with
the equipment, etc.) in conjunction with these
maintenance recommendations.

Note:1
2.5.0 Introduction
• What is Maintenance?
• Maintenance is any activity carried out on an
asset in order to ensure that the asset continues
to perform its intended functions, or to repair the
equipment.
• Note that modifications are not maintenance,
even though they may be carried out by
maintenance personnel.

Note:2
2.5.0 Introduction
• What is Maintenance?
• Maintenance is the art of keeping equipment's:

available,

reliable

and cost optimized.


2.5.0 Introduction
• Maintenance Objectives
1. To keep the maintenance cost per production
item produced as low as possible.

2. To keep the quality of the product very high.

3. To keep the downtime for critical equipment


as low as possible.
2.5.0 Introduction
• Maintenance Objectives
4. To keep maintenance cost as low as possible
for non-critical equipment.

5. To provide and maintain adequate facilities.

6. To provide effective and trained supervision.


2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Loosen the body/bonnet joint stud/nuts and
remove from body, loosen the eye bolt nuts,
rotate the hand wheel in clockwise direction.
Wedge will come down to closed position.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Further rotate the hand wheel in same
direction, bonnet assembly will rise in upward
direction.

• Continue the same till spindle comes out of


threaded portion of yoke sleeve.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Lift the bonnet assembly to separate it from
body.

• Hold the spindle portion above body with left


hand and pull it upward by hammering gently
on topside of body surface beyond gasket area.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• The spindle along with wedge will come out of
body.

• Observe the condition of seat portion and


interior portion of body.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Clean body interior portion and seat surface
thoroughly with suitable cleaning liquid check
up for any scratches on seat ring surfaces.

• Minor scratches should be removed by lapping


with emery paste with the help of body seat
lapping fixture.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• If the scratches are deep which cannot be
removed by lapping, further machining may be
required.

• Threaded seat rings are machined with „Right


Hand‟ threading and can be removed from
body with the help of lugs provided.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Where seat rings are seal welded to the body,
complete body should be loaded on machine
for further rectification.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Similarly minor scratches on wedge surface
should be removed by lapping with emery
paste.

• Deep scratches should be removed by


machining and lapping.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• In case wedge surface is heavily damaged the
entire seat surface should be machined and
machining and lapping should follow one
layer of hard facing weld deposition as per
body size.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Remove old gland packing from bonnet
stuffing box.

• Clean the bonnet surface from inside; lap the


degree surface of back seat bush with the help
of suitable fixture or by spindle itself.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Clean threaded portion of the spindle.

• Polish the non-threaded portion of spindle on


lathe machine or grind if possible.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Clean threaded portion of yoke sleeve and
apply grease with the help of grease gun
through grease nipple provided on the bonnet
top.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Change the body bonnet joint gasket and
assemble the valve.

• Put new gland packing of required size and


quality into the stuffing box with open end 180
with respect to each other.
2.5.1 Dismantling and Servicing Instructions
for Gate Valves:
• Tighten eyebolt nut equally on both sides.

• Lubricate the spindle-threading portion and


operate the valve 2/3 times.
2.5.2 Procedure for repairs to seat and
wedge/plug surface:
• In case the leakage persists, open the
body/bonnet joints and see if there is damage
on the wedge surface.

• To repair this type of damage following


procedure is to be adopted.
2.5.2 Procedure for repairs to seat and
wedge/plug surface:
• For repairs by deposition of 13% chrome by
arc welding the thickness of layer required is
2.1.6mm minimum. Welding Rod used: AWS
A5.9 E410
2.5.2 Procedure for repairs to seat and
wedge/plug surface:
• The surface should be covered uniformly with
complete metallurgical bond between the
surface to be deposited and alloy.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
• When the seat ring surface is made from alloys
other than 13% Chrome use the following
procedure for stelliting:
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
Hardness procedure:
• Expected between 38 to 42 Rc for seat Valve
seat are preheated to temp of 350 to 400
degrees Centigrade throughout the section of
the work piece and they are, then deposited
with stellited alloys on the specified seat area
using insert gas shielded plasma ARC process
with non consumable throated (tungsten) rods.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
Hardness procedure:
• The ARC is always directed towards the
deposited alloys to minimize dilution.

• Dilution observed is in the range of 5-8% for


deposits of 2.50-mm thick using current range
of 75-125 amperes.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
Hardness procedure:
• It has to be ensured that the complete surface
is covered uniformly and there is complete
metallurgical bond between the surface to be
deposited and the alloy.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
Hardness procedure:
• Subsequent to the deposition the part is put in
a dry lime bucket for slow cooling and also to
relieve the stress.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
Hardness procedure:
• The flow of the inert gas shield should be
adequate to avoid any oxide formation and
also to restore all hardenable agents and the
metallic constituents in the alloy that provide
higher temperature and wear resistance.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
Hardness procedure:
□MATERIAL SPECIFICATION:
Conforms with AWS A5.13 ErCoCr-A
• Hardness - Property of the material that
enables it to resist permanent deformation,
penetration, indentation etc.

• Size of indentations by various types of


indenters are the measure of hardness e.g.
Brinnel hardness test, Rockwell hardness test,
Vickers hardness (diamond pyramid) test.
• Brinell Hardness Test:

• Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a


hard steel or carbide sphere of a specified
diameter under a specified load into the
surface of a material and measuring the
diameter of the indentation left after the test.
• Brinell Hardness Test:

• The Brinell hardness number, or simply the


Brinell number, is obtained by dividing the
load used, in kilograms, by the actual surface
area of the indentation, in square millimeters.
The result is a pressure measurement, but the
units are rarely stated.
• Brinell Hardness Test:

Where:
BHN = the Brinell hardness number
F = the imposed load in kg
D = the diameter of the spherical indenter in mm
Di = diameter of the resulting indenter impression in mm
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
LAPPING AND FINISHING OPERATION:
• Only VALVEGRIND make silicon carbide
(extra coarse) lapping compound should be
used.
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
LAPPING AND FINISHING OPERATION:
• Before starting the lapping operation on the
surface of the seat/wedge, ensure that surface
is properly machined (∇∇∇ finishing), burns
are removed.
Ra is the universally recognized parameter of
roughness. It is the arithmetical mean of the
departures of the profile from the mean line.
AA and RMS
AA (arithmetic average) and RMS (root-mean-square)
are alternative methods by which the average roughness
value is computed.
The AA method uses the absolute values of the
deviations in the averaging procedure, while the RMS
method uses the squared values of
the deviations in the averaging process.
Roughness symbols according to standard DIN 3141

α. Surface not obtained by cutting or deformation


process (e.g. casting)
β. The same as in (α) but of better quality
γ. Surface obtained by cutting or deformation
processes. The quality increases with the
number of triangles.
VALVE LAPPING
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
LAPPING AND FINISHING OPERATION:
• Put the lapping compound on the surface of the
lapping area, and apply it on flat metallic plate
(lapping plate).
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
LAPPING AND FINISHING OPERATION:
• For proper finish, give the equal force to all
contact area, till the surface is smoothly lapped
(∇∇∇∇ finish).
2.5.3 Deposition of cobalt based alloys for
stelliting on the surface or seat/wedge:
LAPPING AND FINISHING OPERATION:
• Clean the surface and observe the proper
matching between the contact areas.

• Before re-assembly, ensure that the contact


area is properly matched.
2.5.4 Stem Repair:
• All the valve stems are to be repaired for the
following:
♦ Straightness,

♦ Damage to head and threads,

♦ Corrosion,

♦ Pitting and taper in the portion that slides


through the packing.
2.5.4 Stem Repair:
Straightness:
• Minimum clearance for the length of the stem
when measured from a straight edge laid
alongside the stem, while rotated 360.
• The stem should be press straightened if
necessary or should be regrounded on center
less grinder.
2.5.4 Stem Repair:
Threads and head:
• Thickness and smoothness of threads must
ensure smooth operation within the stem nut.

• The head must adequately engage the disc or


plug.
2.5.4 Stem Repair:
• Packing slide area:
• The area that passes through packing should be
free from pits and have smooth finish.

• Polishing or turning of the sliding surface


within pre-decided limits can achieve this.
2.5.4 Stem Repair:
• Packing slide area:
• Also the taper on the stem should be removed.

• If pits wear, taper or previous machining


results in a reduction of the stem outside
diameter beyond acceptable limit from original
size; the stem to be replaced by new one.
2.5.5 Important tips during the re-packing of
gland:
2.1. While removing the old packing avoid hooks
that can scratch the fine finishes of stem &
stuffing box. Soft materials such as brass or
hardwood dowels are better instruments.

2. Thoroughly clean stem & stuffing box while


replacing new rings.
2.5.5 Important tips during the re-packing of
gland:
3. Avoid handling the parts and new packing
set with bare hands after cleaning, otherwise
salt is introduced which can start corrosion.
2.5.5 Important tips during the re-packing of
gland:
4. It is generally acknowledged that the top
two rings of packing set are most effective
in sealing the stem. Therefore, if two rings
can be added to an in-service valve on back
seat, there is an excellent chance of stopping
leakage.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Gland Packing:
• The very frequent operation of the valve may
lead to slight leakages through gland packing.
• Tighten the eye bolt nuts equally on both sides
to stop the leakage.
• This sequence should be repeated a few more
times.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Gland Packing:
• After a period of time you may have to add
one or two more gland packing rings in the
stuffing box.
• To add the gland packing rotates the hand
wheel in anti-clockwise direction in full open
position.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Gland Packing:
• All gate and globe valves are provided with
back seating arrangement in full open position.

• Remove the eye bolt nuts, lift the gland bush


and gland flange in upward direction and add
the required nos. of gland packing.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Change of Gland Packing:
• When the valve is kept in service or in the
store for considerably long time, as the gland
packing is in compressed position for a long
time, it loses its compressibility and becomes
hard.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Change of Gland Packing:
• It does not hold the pressure even after further
tightening.

• At this stage there is no alternative than to


replace the old packing with a new one.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Change of Gland Packing:
• Old gland packing should be removed by using
angular scriber and replaced with new packing
of correct size having open ends placed 180
with each other.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Change of Gland Packing:
• If the valve is installed in running pipeline then
precautions must be taken during replacement
of gland packing under pressure.

• There should not be any leakage through gland


when valve is in back seat position.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Change of Gland Packing:
• In many cases back seat portion of spindle and
bush get damaged due to hard foreign particles
entering the pipeline and coming in contact
with seat surface and back seat area during
operation of valve.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Change of Gland Packing:
• It is not advisable to change the gland packing
if some leakage is observed in gland packing
when valve is in back seat position.

• In such cases valve should be dismantled and


back seat should be repaired.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Lapping Procedure:

2.1. Use a cast iron lapping block or


Pyrex lapping glass that is perfectly
flat.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Lapping Procedure:
2. Select the appropriate compound and place
a small amount on the lap. When lapping the
disc, use a light figure eight motion (As in
figure). Frequently lift the disc away from
the glass or block to get a new bite on the
compound.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Lapping Procedure:
3. Follow the same procedure when lapping
nozzles or screwed valve bodies except that
the lapping block should be placed on the
nozzle. Use the same figure eight motion,
frequently lifting the glass or block to get a
new bite on the compound.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Lapping Procedure:
4. Lap to a mirror finish. When done, make
sure all compound is completely removed
from the parts using a suitable solvent.
Handle the parts with care to avoid
scratching the seating surfaces.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Cleanliness and lubrication of spindle:
• The spindle above gland packing area is
always exposed to open atmosphere where a
lot of dust and adverse weather conditions can
damage the surface of spindle.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Cleanliness and lubrication of spindle:
• For smooth operation of valve, threaded
portion of spindle must be protected from dust
and proper lubrication must be provided
periodically.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
Cleanliness and lubrication of spindle:
• Grease should be applied by grease gun
through the grease nipples provided for
lubrication of yoke sleeve collar.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
General Care:
• Normal life of the valve is designed for years
together but there are some factors, which
reduce the life of valve considerably.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
General Care:
• Improper storage, contamination of hard
particles in the pipeline and lack of periodic
maintenance can cause reduction in valve life
considerably.
2.5.6 General Maintenance:
General Care:
• Improper storage, contamination of hard
particles in the pipeline and lack of periodic
maintenance can cause reduction in valve life
considerably.
2.5.7 Reconditioning of Valves:
• In this approach maintenance work is carried
out before actual repairs are required.

• This is to reduce probability of valve failures


and ensure availability during its service life.
2.5.7 Reconditioning of Valves:
• Preventive maintenance program for valve
may contain following points and necessary
actions are to be taken accordingly.

1- Periodic static inspection, for any visible


defects or failure such as packing or bonnet
leakage and stem condition.
2.5.7 Reconditioning of Valves:
2- Periodic valve stroking & lubrication of stem
threads, gears to prevent jamming and
corrosion every six month (lubricant to be used
castrol ap3 or equal)
2.5.7 Reconditioning of Valves:
3- Periodic packing change, to be made to ensure
the packing without leakage.
4- Periodic valve and actuator component
inspection, to find out degradation of the
components. This can be carried out when line
is under shut down or stand by line is
available.
2.5.7 Reconditioning of Valves:
5- Testing of torque and limit switches
periodically, to ensure their operation in motor
operated valves.
2.5.8 Important Tips to Improve Life Valves
Service
• In this approach maintenance work is carried
out before actual repairs are required. This is
to reduce probability of valve failures and
ensure availability during its service life.
2.5.8 Important Tips to Improve Life Valves
Service
• Preventive maintenance program for valve
may contain following points and necessary
actions are to be taken accordingly.
2.5.8 Important Tips to Improve Life Valves
Service
• Periodic static inspection, for any visible
defects or failure such as packing or bonnet
leakage and stem condition.
2.5.8 Important Tips to Improve Life Valves
Service
• Periodic valve stroking & lubrication of stem
threads, gears to prevent jamming and
corrosion every six month (lubricant to be used
Castrol ap3 or equal)
2.5.8 Important Tips to Improve Life Valves
Service
• Periodic packing change, to be made to ensure
the packing without leakage.

• Periodic valve and actuator component


inspection, to find out degradation of the
components. This can be carried out when line
is under shut down or stand by line is available.
2.5.8 Important Tips to Improve Life Valves
Service
• Testing of torque and limit switches
periodically, to ensure their operation in motor
operated valves.
2.5.9 Precautions to be taken
• Whenever gland packing is required to be
replaced under full working pressure, ensure
that back-seating arrangement is present and is
functioning properly.
2.5.9 Precautions to be taken
• While opening and closing of the valve please
check direction of turn for open and close
(operation in opposite direction may damage
the yoke sleeve).

• When body bonnet joints are unbolted do not


forget to put new gasket while refitting.
2.5.10 Storage Instructions
• All valves normally after inspection at our
works are thoroughly cleaned from inside.

• Valves with flanged ends are covered with


wooden disc or rubber cover so that no dust or
foreign particles enter inside.
2.5.10 Storage Instructions
• Smaller size screwed/butt weld valves have
p.v.c cover (push fit) and are packed in
polythene bags.

• Valves are to be stored in the warehouse or


covered shed to avoid damage due to sun or
rain.
2.5.10 Storage Instructions
• Ensure valves are kept on wooden planks
above floor so that it is not in contact with
water/mud.

• For long storage ensures that plastic covers are


provided and valves are fully covered.
End of Article