JP9801008
97080
.(U •• 
November 1 9 9 7
Motoaki OKAZAKI
45r.
(=F31911
m
JAERIResearch 97080
Motoaki OKAZAKI
i
JAERIResearch 97080
VolumeJunction ?£K X ( D)
Tf#
*fflv
31911
JAERIResearch 97080
Contents
1. Introduction 1
2. Classification of State Conditions for Numerical Solution Scheme 5
3. Equations for Numerical Solution with the VolumeJunction Model 7
3.1 Basic Equations 7
3.2 States Change Equations 8
3.3 Derivation of Momentum Equations for the Flow in the Volume 11
3.4 Constitutive Equations 13
4. Numerical Solution 14
4.1 Procedure of Numerical Calculations 14
4.2 Pressure, Void Fraction and Enthalpy 14
4.3 Temperatures 16
4.4 Time Step Control 18
4.5 Examination Method of Consistencies between Variables Obtained
by Numerical Calculation 19
5. Some Examples of Numerical Calculation Results 21
5.1 Nonequilibrium Conditions of Saturated Vapor and
Subcooled Water Twophase Flow (Case.l) 21
5.2 Nonequilibrium Condition of Superheated Vapor and Saturated
Water (Case.2) 22
5.3 Nonequilibrium Condition of Superheated Vapor and Subcooled
Water (Case.3) 23
6. Conclusion 25
References 25
Nomenclature 26
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1. # 1
3.2 'tkM1k?!£itO$: 8
3.3 Volume rti^^^t't'&ilJKlm^flf^ 11
3.4 WJ&^JE^; 13
4. UdiiJiSife 14
4.1 ifciitntJi^^fll 14
4.2 ELt), #4 Y&BLtfxy 9 }\s\* 14
.o um. 1% Lv)
4.4 ffjHJ5?IJ ir^ W g l i s ^ lo
5.2 iii^^tl&^P^O^^PflfZlffijjiL 22
5.3 i i ^ ^ ^ l i: "9""/^ — 'I'yfc^l^fflf—ffi"/^ 23
6. *S ^ 25
##Jcm 25
IB ^ ^ 26
IV
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1. Introduction
In the previous report^, the author showed the validity of basic equation based on
the rigorously derived phase change equation of each phase in saturated condition and
the validity of the simple explicit numerical method with the volumejunction model
by making some numerical calculation for each phase independently to show the
consistency between solutions for two different solution schemes and to show no
accumulation of error in mass and energy. To achieve the rigorous numerical
calculation, difference equations for numerical model were carefully derived so as to
preserve the physical meaning of the basic equations.
Specifically, momentum equations for the flow in the volume are newly derived to
keep the strict conservation of energy in the volume.
Basic equations of the partial differential form in this report for unsteady twophase
flow are quoted from the paper(2) the same as used in the previous report^.
We present the integrated analyzing method of general condition of twophase flow
of equilibrium through nonequilibrium state as described in the chapter 2.
The numbers of unknowns and equations for a special where both phases are non
equilibrium state are as follows.
In the partial differential equations :
Unknowns : ug,u(,P,a,Tg,Tt,wtg Total 7
Equations :2Mass conservation, 2Momentum balance,
2Total energy conservation equation,
Condensation equation due to temperature difference Total 7
In the volumejunction model:
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The basic equations for the numerical use with the volumejunction model are derived
in the same manner as described in Reference0 \
The outline , how the unknowns are solved in the analysis of nonequilibrium two
phase flow, is explained as follows.
The actual procedure of numerical calculation is described in the section 4.4.
Condensation equation due to temperature difference Mzc K —•
^2Jun. m o m e n t u m balance Wj , W
i 1 ^
"2Vol. momentum balance
volume MZCK is evaluated by using the empirical correlation with the condensation
conservation equation and the equation of the first law of thermodynamics of each
phase simultaneously. The junction flow rate is determined by the momentum balance
equation for the junction flow with the momentum change from volume to junction
and with the pressure difference between volumes. Volume flow rate is determined by
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the momentum balance equation in the volume which is derived by combining the first
phase in the volume, and the first law of thermodynamics of each phase in the junction
flow.
Some numerical calculations for the nonequilibrium twophase flow specified by
cases in the chapter 2 are made for the purpose to verify that the proposed numerical
method works correctly by presenting the consistency between solutions and no
accumulation of error in mass and energy in the calculation proceeding.
The thermodynamic state of each phase in the volume is obtained in two different
solution schemes as follows.
At first, we have already obtained the state values of P, a ,Tg,T l using the
equations of mass conservation and the first law of thermodynamics simultaneously as
mentioned above. Then, using only the mass conservation equation of gas or liquid
phase and void fractions, the density of gas p gor liquid p t is determined. Further,
using only the equation of the first law of thermodynamics of gas or liquid phase and
pressure increment AP, the specific enthalpy of gas hgor liquid h t is determined.
On the other hand, from the steam table as a function of P and hg or h t , density pgST
and temperature TgPU of gas or p t CT and T t ?v of liquid are obtained. Saturated
temperature Ts of pressure P is also obtained. Thus, we can compare Ps, p i with pgST ,
p 4 ST a n d Tg, Te w i t h TgPU, Ttpu .
Moreover, after substituting the mass increment obtained from the mass
conservation equation and kinetic energy increment from momentum balance equation
for the volume flow of gas phase into the total energy conservation equation of gas
phase, the specific internal energy change of the gas phase is calculated. The specific
internal energy of gas e^ is therefore calculated by integration and converted to
specific enthalpy using the relation hgST=egE+P/ p g. The specific enthalpy of liquid
h i ST is also calculated in the same way as the gas phase. Thus, we can compare hg, h t
obtained from the relational expression of thermodynamical state change, with hgST,
h t ST obtained from total energy conservation equation. The numerical calculation is
advanced using pv p t obtained from mass conservation equation and h g ,h t from the
relational expression of thermodynamical state change, for the initial values of a next
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(a) A D (i)
IQG=1 IQG = 1
xs
IQL=1 (i) 5\ IQL=1 Note
I : IQG and IQL are flags
for state of gas and
1\ \\
(c A&) (e) liquid.
(b) B C
X/
1 : saturated
IQG=1 IQG = 1 1 : nonequilibrium
IQL=1 IQL=1
r
(d)
This diagram shows the possible changes in the flow from each of state A,B,C,D in
volume to the downstream volume inlet. So, lines C—*D and A—>B are omitted since
they are possible only when negative external heat is added to the liquid. Line A—*C is
also omitted which is possible only when negative external heat is added to the vapor.
All cases of state changes shown in Fig.l are arranged in the coding program
considering flow direction and the pressure change.
State flag of each phase IQG, IQL is determined for the new time step after pressure
change AP in a volume is estimated, as follows.
•IQG=1 (saturated vapor)
1 For old IQG=1, if AP<0 and MtC>0 occur.
2 For old IQG=1, if h g ^h g s occurs for any of AP>0, AP<0.
• IQL=1 (saturated water)
1 For old IQL=1, if MtE>0 occur for any of AP>0, AP<0.
2 For old IQL=  1 , if h, ^ hls occurs for any of AP>0, AP<0 .
• IQG=— 1 (superheated vapor)
1 If AP>0 occurs for any of old IQG.
2 If AP<0 and MlC<0 occur for any of old IQG.
3 For old I Q G =  1 , if h g ^h g s occurs for any of AP>0, APO.
• IQL= — 1 (subcooled water)
1 If AP>0 and MtE<0 occur for any of old IQL.
2 For old IQL=1, if AP<0 and MtE<0 occurs.
3 For old IQL=1, if h,^h l s occur for any of AP>0 , APO.
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j +MZCK h + ^
(3)
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ZE
(4)
.,m I. AP
# , \ q m \ (8)
Where, the heat added to the junction flow of each phase is defined in the section 1(1),
as follows.
(W, ^ X { . i n ^ Q n r q ^ l ^
These are the same as Eqs (17) and (18) of previous report^. So, the phase change
rates M ^ . , and M zcJA are evaluated in the same way.
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Where
=  (ugJ ~ v,j
(11)
The enthalpy of each phase at the inlet of vol.K, h&Ki and h1Ki can be obtained
from Eqs.(7) and (8), respectively, by integrating with pressure from Pj to PK.
3.2.3 State change in the volume
Enthalpy change of each phase in the volume can be expressed by using the first
law of thermodynamics with consideration of heat added to each phase as defined in
the section 2. l(2) of this chapter.
r^AJ (12)
r^fAi) (13)
Where
AO°
(14)
The equation of phase change rate in each phase can be derived in the same way as
presented in the previous report^.
1(
\ J (17)
Where,
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(forIQG =
(for IQG =I orIQL = \)
{for IQL = 1,
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"g.K
(0
. .•, 11
1
J l
~ '='. ^ Z Jji
(19)
_
2 »,
\ I • • \ 1 \MzCJ\ ~^Sjf \2
U + M
I)K \ <C +MZC)K UgK + j  =
U
[UgJ UlK)
U l.K
[
2 «,.*
+•
y
"' j "I.K
AW,
/I
(20)
"l.K
Where
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B,=t i
v°
\O)
(21)
W.
\(0
W 12,
Note ;
ig : number of vapor became saturated injunction flow
i, : number of liquid became saturated injunction flow
ij : smaller number between ig and i
3.4 Constitutive equations.
The equations of the frictional force of wall and interphase are used by the same
ones presented in the previous report^.
Further, condensation equation of vapor to water, induced by the temperature
difference is introduced as follows.
V (22)
Where, interphase area per unit volume Agl is calculated assuming flow pattern is
annular and the interphase heat transfer coefficient H is approximately 10 kW/m2K, in
this report. Condensation rate in Vol. K is
M JLsL. (23)
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4 Numerical solution
4.1 Procedure of numerical calculations
Numerical procedure to explicitly obtain solutions as an initial value problem is
briefly summed up as follows.
(1) Using the flow rates given at the junctions as the initial values, A a, AP, M^,
Mtc, Ahg, Ah in the volumes after time increment At are calculated by using the
solutions of simultaneous equations described in the section 2 in this chapter and
state change equations in the section 3.2. Subsequently, equilibrium or non
equilibrium condition of each phase is determined as indicated in Fig. 1.
(2) On the other hand, using the thermodynamic states in the volumes and the
flow rates at junctions as initial values AW gJ andAW;, andAWgK and AW, K are
calculated by using Eqs.(5) and (6), and Eqs.(19) and (20) respectively.
(3) New time step values are determined by adding the increments to the old time
step values in the volume and at the junction.
(4) New time increment At is determined by the rates of states changes in volumes.
This method is described in detail in the section 4.4.
4.2 Pressure, void fraction and enthalpy
Changes of pressure and void fraction in the volume are derived as follows.
By the total differentiation of mass which is calculated by using void fraction and
density in the volume, we get
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(*'•)
~{1) I'S J, forIQG = l
for IQL=  1
for IQG = I
(26)
for IQL  1
cP)h cp
Where
1 /**
[p. M*y
/V
 2 C
10
(28)
y6
C7={hgshg\+C5
For the calculation of these terms, it is necessary to calculate terms in the equations
of state change in junction flow and in the volume described in the section 3.2
beforehand. Substituting Eq.(27) into the termAp a of the right hand side of Eq.(24)
and substituting Eqs.(l) and (2) into the left hand side of Eq.(24), and after rearranging,
we get
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V
(31)
y6
yl2=RHSCGMZCJC+yu
y6
The solutions of simultaneous equations (29) and (30) are gotten as follows.
A/3 = —(SX7
SXY\
•yp, + SX8 •r*}
pe W (32)
SXY
then
T =f(Mg, M,, Hg, H,)
Where (a=g,l).
Then g (34)
° dMg * dM, ' dHg dH,
dP
dM, VdPjh dM, ' dMs \dP)u dMs
dP)h\dHa [dh
dP
dP
dP 1 c
dHg VDPg{dhg)p
dP IP,
(36)
dH, VDp,{dhl)p
dK _~K
dMa M
dh 1
dH. M.,
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T/31
(37)
9h)~ c
C
P
K aX (39)
At\ 2JK At 2 At
Substituting Eqs.(38) and (39) into energy conservation equations (3) and (4), we
can get AEaas a function of AWa and AM^ The term AWa is obtained from Eqs.(12) and
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(13) and the term AMa is from Eqs.(l) and (2) using Eqs.(19) and (20) of this report
and using Eq.(20)~Eq.(23) of the previous report^. The internal energy Ea is obtained
by integration of every increment AEa and the specific internal energy is determined by
using eaE=E a /M a. The specific enthalpy is therefore obtained using the relation
HaST=eaE+P/pir
Thus, we can compare hg and h t obtained from the relational expressions of
thermodynamic state change, with hgST and h l S T obtained from total energy
conservation equations respectively.
Further, conservation of mass and energy in the calculation of flow behavior from
volume to volume is examined as follows.
The mass and energy in the test pipe are changing due to inflow to and outflow from
the test pipe. However, the total ones contained in the test pipe and (integrated values
of outflow) —(integrated values of inflow) should be conserved at any time.
If the thermodynamic states obtained in the two different ways mentioned above
coincide with each other, and conservation of mass and energy of each phase is
confirmed through the examinations above, it will prove that the numerical calculation
method for general condition of unsteady twophase flow with nonequilibrium states
is correct in evaluating the thermodynamic states.
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1
B.J. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B.V.
Fig.2 Control volume for nonequilibrium twophase flow.
For the initial condition, slight superheated vapor of 2.0MPa 488.3K (saturated
temperature is 485.57K) and subcooled water of 463.2K are uniformly filled with void
fraction ao=O. 95 in the test pipe. At the start of calculation, subcooled water with
specific enthalpy 807.5kJ/kg (corresponds to 2.0MPa, 462.5K) is supplied to liquid
phase of Vol.1 by the flow rate of lOkg/s from Boundary Junction 1 with the pressure
of Boundary Volume, 1.5MPa. Then, unsteady nonequilibrium twophase flow of
subcooled water and saturated vapor takes place in the test pipe with pressure
decreasing due to vapor and water discharge.
Calculated results are shown in Fig.3~Fig.ll. Pressure behaviors in Fig.3 show
that decreasing pressure originated in Vol.8 is propagated upstream. Cold water
injected into Vol. 1 decrease the pressure at the part less than the downstream pressure
after 0.01 sec. Vapor velocities at junctions decrease rapidly as shown in Fig. 6 due to a
reversed pressure profile along the flow. But liquid velocities at junctions continue to
increase a little while as shown in Fig. 7 due to larger momentum in the liquid flow
than in the vapor flow. Especially the velocity Vy (2) continues to increase even after
0.02 sec. This is because the constant liquid flow rate from Boundary Junction is given
at the inlet junction to Volume 1. The velocity V,j(l) is determined by using the flow
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area of the downstream volume. The V u (l) is about 50 m/s for the initial condition,
which causes the increasing flow rate in the downstream even after the occurrence of
reversed pressure profile along the flow at 0.01 sec. The similar changes of velocities
in volumes are shown in Figs.8 and 9, too.
Temperatures of vapor are shown in Fig.4 in terms of Tg, Tgpu and Ts. It shows that
superheated vapor becomes saturated soon after the transient calculation starts due to
pressure decrease. Temperatures of liquid are shown in Fig.5 in terms of T, and T, PU
which indicate the slight temperature rise by 0.2 ~ 0.3k due to condensation of
saturated vapor.
Agreements of Tg and TgPU are very exact and after vapor became saturated,
agreements of Tg and T s are also very exact. Agreements of T t and T, PU are very
exact showing that liquid is always subcooled. Specific enthalpies of each phase in
some volumes are shown Fig. 10 in terms of hg and hgST, and in Fig. 11 in terms of h {
and htST respectively. Agreements of hg and hgST, and of h< and h / S T are very exact
respectively. Densities of each phase in some volumes are shown in Fig. 12 in terms of
p gand pg ST, and in Fig. 13 in terms of p t and p t ST respectively.
Agreements of p gand PgsT> and of p t and p t ST are very exact respectively.
Conservation of mass and energy of each phase is shown in Figs. 14 and 15 in terms
of TOTMG, TOTML, TOTM, TOTEG, TOTEL and TOTE. These figures show very
strict conservation of total mass and total energy at any time, respectively. Numerical
results show that each value of TOTM and TOTE are 0.458747kg and 516.232kJ,
respectively at the start of calculation and they are 0.458747kg and 516.235kJ,
respectively at the end of calculation.
5.2 Nonequilibrium condition of superheated vapor and saturated water. (Case.2)
Noding of test pipe for numerical calculation is identical with Fig.2 in this case, too.
For the initial condition, saturated twophase fluids of 2.0MPa are filled with void
fraction a<f=0.95 in the test pipe. At the start of calculation superheated vapor with
specific enthalpy 3,025.0kJ/kg (corresponds to 2.0MPa, 573.2K) is supplied to vapor
phase of Vol. 1 by the flow rate of 2kg/s from Boundary Junction 1 with the pressure
of Boundary Volume is 2.0MPa. Then, unsteady nonequilibrium twophase flow of
superheated vapor and saturated water takes place in the test pipe.
Calculated results are shown in Fig.16~Fig.28. Pressure behavior in Fig. 16 show
that increasing pressure originated in Vol. 1 due to injection of superheated vapor is
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propagated downstream. Then discharge flow from Vol.8 starts and it causes pressure
decrease of Vol.8 being propagated upstream. Temperatures of each phase in Vol. 4
are shown in terms of Tg, TgPU and Ts in Fig. 17, and in terms of Tt, T /PU and Ts in
Fig. 18, respectively. Vapor is going to be superheated and the liquid becomes a
subcooled state caused by the first pressure increase. After that, pressure decreases
rapidly and liquid becomes saturated. However vapor temperatures increase due to the
inflow of superheated vapor from Boundary Junction. Agreements of Tg and TgPU, and
of T, and T / P U are very exact respectively. Agreements of T, and T s are also very
exact, after liquid became saturated. Vapor velocities at Junctions become uniform
throughout the test pipe at 0.05sec. However liquid velocities at Junctions decrease a
little as shown in Figs. 19 and 20 because interfacial frictional force per unit volume of
liquid decreases a little due to the increase of void fraction. Vapor velocities in
volumes change similarly to those of junctions as shown in Fig.21. Liquid velocities in
volumes are also similar to these of junctions except the velocity in Vol.1. As for the
liquid in Vol. 1, the acceleration force is given by only condensed vapor in Vol. 1, since
the pressure difference between upstream volume is zero. So, the velocity in Vol.1
VIV(1) increases very slowly as shown in Fig.22. Specific enthalpies of each phase in
some volumes are shown in Fig.23 in terms of hg and hgST, and in Fig.24 in terms of h,
and h, ST respectively. Agreements of hg and hgST, and of h, and h<ST are very exact
respectively. Densities of each phase in some volumes are shown in Fig.25 in terms of
Pgand PgsT> and m Fig. 26 in terms of p t and p e ST respectively. Agreements of p^and
p gST , and of p t and p (ST are very exact respectively.
Conservation of mass and energy of each phase is shown in Figs.27 and 28
respectively. These figures show very strict conservation of total mass and total energy
at any time respectively. Numerical results show that each value of TOTM and TOTE
are 0.4479755kg and 382.2645U, respectively at the start of calculation and they are
0.447976kg and 382.397U, respectively at the end of calculation.
5.3 Nonequilibrium condition of superheated vapor and subcooled water, (case.3)
To realize a nonequilibrium condition of this type, two kind of Boundary Junction
are provided for the former test pipe with a Boundary Volume as shown in Fig. 29.
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Vapor 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Water 10
2
B.J 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B.V
Fig. 29 Control volume for superheated vapor and subcooled water twophase flow.
For the initial condition, slightly superheated vapor of 2.0MPa, 488.3K and subcooled
water 371.5K are uniformly filled with void fraction a<f=0.95 in the test pipe. At the
start of calculation, superheated vapor with specific enthalpy 2,820kJ/kg (corresponds
to 2.0MPa, 493.2K) is supplied to the vapor phase of Vol.1 by the flow rate of 3.2kg/s
from Boundary Junction 1 and subcoled water with specific enthalpy 2,110kJ/kg
(corresponds to 2.0MPa, 323.2K) is supplied to liquid phase of Vol.1 by the flow rate
of lOkg/s from Boundary Junction 2. Pressure of Boundary Volume is 1.5MPa in this
case. Then, unsteady nonequilibrium twophase flow of superheated vapor and
subcooled water take place in the test pipe.
Calculated results are shown in Fig.30~Fig.43. Pressure behaviors in Figs. 301,
2 shows that increasing pressure originated in Vol. 1 due to injection of superheated
vapor and subcooled water is propagated downstream. On the other hand, decreasing
pressure originated in Vol.8 due to the flowing out to Boundary Volume is propagated
upstream. Vapor temperature in Vol.4 is shown in Fig.31 in terms of Tg and Ts which
indicate the appearance of superheated vapor from saturated state after 0.03sec. The
temperature of each phase in Vol. 1,4,8 are shown in Fig.32 in terms of Tg and TgPU ,
and in Fig.33 in terms of T, and T /PU respectively. These temperatures show that
vapor phase changes to superheated from saturated and liquid phase is kept subcooled.
Agreements of Tg and TgPU , and of T, and T<PU are very exact respectively. Each
flow of vapor and liquid in the test pipe starts at the inlet and outlet simultaneously
and is propagated downstream and upstream respectively. Uniform flow at junctions
are attained at about 0.04sec as shown in Figs.34 and 35. The flow in volumes are
about the same as junction flow as shown in Fig.36 and 37. Specific enthalpies of each
phase in some volumes are shown in Fig.38 in terms of hg and hgST, and in Fig.39 in
terms of h, and h, ST respectively. Agreements of hg and hgST, and of h, and h, ST and
are very exact respectively. Densities of each phase in some volumes are shown in
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6. Conclusion
( 1 ) General basic expressions of unsteady nonequilibrium twophase flow for
numerical calculation by the volumejunction model are presented.
( 2 ) Numerical method to explicitly obtain solutions for various kinds of non
equilibrium conditions in the volume and in the junction flow are presented
( 3 ) Verification calculations for the validity of numerical method are made for
each type of nonequilibrium conditions in the volume. The results show that
each thermodynamic states of enthalpy, density and temperature of each
phase which are obtained in the two different solution schemes coincide with
each other and no accumulation of error in mass and energy was found.
It will prove that numerical calculation method for general condition of
unsteady twophase flow with nonequilibrium states functioned correctly in
evaluating the thermodynamic state.
References
1. M. OKAZAKI, "Simple and Rational Numerical Method of twophase Flow by the
Use of VolumeJunction model,(I) Verification Calculation for Saturated
Condition, "
2. M. OKAZAKI, "Development of twophase Flow Analysis Code by 2V2T Model,
(I) Derivation of Basic Equations," J. Nucl. Sci. Technol, 23[5], pp43345O (1986)
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[NOMENCLATURE]
A Flow area
c. Isobaric specific heat capacity
Isochoric specific heat capacity
Hydraulic diameter
E Internal energy
e Specific internal energy
AF Frictional force acting on the fluid in a volume
8 Gravitational acceleration
h Specific enthalpy
"gsr > "1ST Specific enthalpies of vapor and liquid which are given from
steam table by pressure and temperature of each phase, respectively.
IQG, IQL State flag in Volume. l=saturated, l=superheated or subcooled
L Length of Volume
M Mass
MtE l Evaporation rate due to pressure decreasing in a volume
M.tC Condensation rate due to pressure decreasing in a volume
M.ZE Evaporation rate due to pressure decreasing in a junction flow
M.zc Condensation rate due to pressure decreasing in a junction flow
Pressure
a cond
Heat transfer rate due to condensation of vapor to liquid by
temperature difference.
External heat added to a unit mass of gas in a volume
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table by
pressure and enthalpy of each phase, respectively.
T Temperature
t Time
TOTML Total mass of liquid including discharged one
TOTMG Total mass of gas including discharged one
TOTM (TOTML+TOTMG)/2
TOTEL Total internal energy of liquid including discharged one
TOTEG Total internal energy of gas including discharged one
TOTE (TOTEL+TOTEG)/2
u velocity
v Specific volume
V Volume
W Mass flow rate
w Phase change rate in a unit length of flow
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a : Void fraction
P • Coefficient of thermal expansion
K Isothermal compressibility
V '• Fraction of interphase friction heat distributed to gas phase
(subscript)
P Density
Pgsr>PisT Densities of vapor and liquid which are given from stream table by
pressure and enthalpy of each phase, respectively.
c Continuous phase
g Gas phase
I Liquid phase
gs Saturated state of gas
Is Saturated state of liquid
s Saturated
t Time
Z Spacial
Wg Effect of wall to gas
Wl Effect of wall to liquid
gl Gas phase affected by liquid phase
Ig Liquid phase affected by gas phase
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2.10
o  P(l)
 P(2)
a,m 1.85 +  P ( 3 )
X P(4)
1.60
CD
1.35
1 inl i i i i i i i i
0
0.0 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020
Time (s)
Fig.31 Pressure behavior of saturated vapor and subcooled twophase flow (case. 1)
2.10 1 1 I
CD P(5)
CO
Q 1.85 A— P(6)
\ \ \
\ \ \ + " P(7)
 \ X   P(8)
a, 1.60
2
1.35
•\ I Q ! I I I I I I I I I i i i i I i i i i
0.0 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020
Time (s)
Fig. 32 Pressure behavior of saturated vapor and subcooled twophase flow (case. 1)
500 rT i t i r
O  T,(l) X — J ( ! ) T
X — T IPU (1) 
JO  T gPU (5) 
CU 480
Q.
E
0)
&
i 470
46^!
0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020
Time (s)
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500
CD T,(l) x—
A ~ T,(5) z T$(5)
490 +  Tt(8) Y T,(8)
03
X  T1FU(1)
O  TIPU(5)
CD 480
Q.
•?•— T 1PU (8)
CD V_. M
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30
JAERIResearch 97080
120
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f s ,
90
.* +vv(5):
o 60
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£3.U 1 1 1 1
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31
JAERIResearch 97080
s
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32
JAERIResearch 97080
0.80 I 1 i 1 1 i 1 i 1 I I 1
TOTML
£ 0.60
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Fig. 14 Total mass of vapor and liquid including discharged one. (case. 1)
x105
8.0 1—i—i—i r
.sr
gas and
7.0
••—
TOTEL
o 6.0 ? o Q
energy
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TOTEG
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0.0 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020
Time (s)
Fig. 15 Total energy of vapor and liquid including discharged one. (case. 1)
33
JAERIResearch 97080
2.40
Fig. 161 Pressure behavior of superheated vapor and saturated water twophase flow (case.2)
2.40
2.25
Q) 2.10
CO
!
1.80' ! '• ' 1 1
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Time (s)
Fig. 162 Pressure behavior of superheated vapor and saturated water twophase flow (case.2)

i i i i  i T" ! i
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/
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Time (s)
34
JAERIResearch 97080
§
I
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Time (s)
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t
80
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3 60
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Time (s)
35
JAERIResearch 97080
100
CO
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36
JAERIResearch 97080
12.0 i i 1 1 ( 1
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37
JAERIResearch 97080
0.80 i i i i

en  TOTML

cr 0.60

•o
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Fig.27 Total mass of vapor and liquid including discharged one. (case.2)
8.0 i i 1 j
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TOTEL~] 
to
CC _
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Fig.28 Total energy of vapor and liquid including discharged one. (case.2)
2.50
2.
to
 P(l)
P(2)
5£  P(3)
CO
m P(4)
Fig.301 Pressure behavior of superheated vapor and subcooled water twophase flow (case.3)
38
JAERIResearch 97080
2.50, , , , i
2.25
co
0.
03 2.00
CO
CD
Fig.302 Pressure behavior of superheated vapor and subcooled water twophase flow (case.3)
1 t i 1 i i i i i t
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A  T ,(4) O— T gPU (4)
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475
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JAERIResearch 97080
400
&
300
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Time (s)
"7n 200 i 1 1 1 i t t i
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Time (s)
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JAERIResearch 97080
160 ( I I I
t /*\ X

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CD
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41
JAERIResearch 97080
x105
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42
JAERI Research 97080
1.00 1 1 1 1 t t i t
TOTML
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gas and liq. (kg
i
a a
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Fig.42 Total mass of vapor and liquid including discharged one. (case.3)
O— TOTEL
A — TOTEG
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0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100
Time (s)
Fig.43 Total energy of vapor and liquid including discharged one. (case.3)
43
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ft ?  yi/ m . H min. h, d 10" X E
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