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Understanding Behaviors Leading to Tardiness among Senior

High School Students of Saint Paul School of Professional


In partial fulfillment of Practical Research 1

A Research Proposal


Aguillon, Dhanna A. 11 – Galatians

Mendez, Justine Paul R. 11 – Galatians

Paula Marie A. Yu, RN, MAN

Research Professor


Chapter I: Introduction

Background of the Study ...........................................1

Significance of the Study ...........................................3

Literature Review .....................................................4

Theoretical Framework ..............................................14

Conceptual Framework .............................................16

Statement of the Problem ..........................................17

Chapter II: Methodology

Research Design .......................................................18

Research Participants ................................................18

Research Instrument .................................................18

Research Environment ...............................................19

Research Procedure ...................................................19

Definition of terms ....................................................20

Chapter III

Preliminary Suppositions and Implication ......................22

Bibliography ...........................................................23



Background of the Study

Being late is one of the issues that have been a problem of a

Senior High School student. In the circumstances, tardiness remains

uncontrolled. First, students with greater tardiness perform worse on

academic subjects as well as grades. Second, students whose

classmates are tardy more frequently also have lower test scores. One

of the major causes of lateness is going to bed late because it could

result in waking up late and insufficient rest for the lesson on the next

day. (Nakpodia and Dafiaghor, 2011).

Tardiness has its cause and effect and some of it are common

problems encountered by any school worldwide. Although this will now

depend on the culture of the country, thus having varying reasons how

tardiness will be viewed upon. Different cultures have different

standards concerning lateness. However, punctuality is not really a

serious matter for some cultures, compared with how punctuality is

being perceived in western cultures and developed countries (Breeze et

al., 2010).

Tardiness can be also triggered by several psychological and

emotional conditions. These conditions can undermine students’

motivation to get to class on time. Indeed, a hallmark symptom of

conditions such as depression includes a decreased motivation to

engage in normal daily activities. In addition, prescription medications

can interfere with motivation and may disrupt sleep patterns, which

may indirectly affect students’ ability to get to class in a timely manner

(Kuhlenschmidt and Layne, 1999).

Lack of responsibility has long been linked to tardiness with the

student. The school has implemented the confiscation of identification

device or ID if the student is late, focusing on the improvement of the

students to alleviate tardiness.

Saint Paul School of Professional Studies has specific policies

concerning student tardiness. Students sometimes have legitimate

reasons for showing up late, such as transportation problems and

doctor’s appointments. School administrators often consider such events

to be "excused absences." However, after reaching a predetermined

number of unexcused tardy arrivals, students may be put on a

structured disciplinary slip to address any further late arrivals.

Depending on their continued violations, students may be sent to

Students Affairs Office to give sanctions−community service or even


These sanctions implemented by the school are for the students

who reached the maximum number of tardy arrivals. The said

implementation aims to improve students’ behaviors.

The researcher will be conducting this study for the purpose of

understanding students that exhibits tardy behaviors. The researchers

also look forward to possible continued study on this topic aiming for an

action plan that will address these certain behaviors presented by the


Significance of the Study

The researcher anticipates conducting the study in benefit of the

following stakeholders;

 Students. The students will have a deeper understanding

about the behavior and factors that leads to tardiness which

can be used as a guide to avoid this certain issue.

 Parents. Being on time to school is preparation for the world

outside of school. When parents focus on punctuality, students

learn that not coming to a meeting or event on time is

disrespectful of other people’s time and that they miss out on

important information. (Ford, 2011). With this study, parents can

instill to the students that being tardy is not a good attribute and

will cause the students to miss out vital information.

 School Officials. It is substantial for officials, administrators and

instructors as essential part of this problem to recognize and

display solutions to this disturbing problem that could drive the

students’ drop-out, knowing that lateness could be reduced by

providing available clear and firm attendance guidelines for

students; free education counseling and discipline among students

and monitor factors that could be responsible to prevent students

from attending class regularly.

 Future Researchers. The future researchers will be able to

use the study for further investigation about the behaviors

leading to tardiness which will eventually help them fully

understand this study.

Review of Related Literature

In evaluating the harmful effects of missing in school time,

research has almost exclusively focused on absences, and almost no

attention has been paid to tardiness. Hence, this chapter will primarily

presents the different researches and other literatures form both foreign

and local researchers, which have significant bearings on the variables

included in the research. It focuses on several aspects that will help in

the development of this study. The study is generally focused on the

tardy behaviors exhibit by the students. The literatures of this study

came from books, journals, articles, electronic materials, and other

existing theses and critiques, foreign and local that is believed to be

useful in the advancement of awareness concerning the study.

First, we will give a definition of tardiness and present some

theories and facts about it. Next, we will discuss the various factors that

cause the students to come to school late, the psychological theories,

the observation of the teachers and the personal reasons of the

students. Lastly, the effects of tardiness to students, not just to its

personality and to other people, will be discussed.


One of the most recurring and the most “frustrating problem” that

the schools are having with their students nowadays is tardiness (Sprick

and Daniels, 2007). It creates problems, not just to the students but

also to the teachers (Cowan Avenue Elementary School Community,

2007, para 1).Literally, the term “tardiness” encompasses a situation

where an individual is late in happening or arriving (Oxford Advanced

Learners Dictionary, 2010).

Lauby (2009) puts it as a term used to describe “people not

showing up on time” and Breeze et al. (2010) contributed by saying

that, lateness is synonymous with “tardiness”, which implies being slow

to act or slow to respond, thus not meeting up with proper or usual

timing. Therefore, the term “class tardiness” has been viewed as

students coming late, not attending lecture on time, missing out initial

time from the first period and mainly not being present in the time set.

Factors Causes Tardiness

Based on the review conducted by (Bataineh, 2014), A review of

Factors Associated with Student’s Lateness Behavior and Dealing


1. Poor organization

Is the most common reason for lateness, students wait until the

last minute, and then do not allow themselves enough time to travel.

2. Going late to bed.

The individual involved in watching films and home videos till late

night, this could result in waking up late, as could be deduced from

the literal meaning of the saying “early to bed early to rise”

(Nakpodia & Dafiaghor, 2011)

3. Family background

The habit of lateness could be learned from family members. For

instance, the person who sees the father always going late to work

could also either learn the habit, thus go to lecture late also. This is

supported by Peretomode (2001) and Egbule (2004), when they

elaborated the concept of nature-nature as it affects an individual’s

habits. Moreover, it could be due to lack of parental supervision,

domestic violence, poverty, and differing attitudes toward education

(U.S. Department of Justice, 2001).

4. Cultural background

Different cultures have different standards concerning lateness.

However, punctuality is not really a serious matter for some cultures,

compared with how punctuality is being perceived in western cultures

and developed countries (Breeze et al., 2010).

5. College factors

These include college climate issues, such as class size and

attitudes of lecturers, other students, and administrators and inflexibility

in meeting the diverse cultural and learning styles of the students. (U.S.

Department of Justice, 2001).

6. Illnesses

In general, College students have poorly taking care of its health

and may exposed to variety source of mental illnesses, for instance,

depression and schizophrenia (Kuhlenschmidt and Layne, 1999).

7. There is no consequence of being late

The consequences associated with a behavior help in determine

whether or not that behavior will be repeated. If the consequences are

negative, the behavior is less likely to reoccur. This applies to coming

late to class. If instructors neglect to react to or penalize lateness, or do

so inconsistently, the behavior is likely to be continued. (Eberly Center

for Teaching Excellence, ECTE, n.d).

8. Fatigue

It is common to university students to experiences different kind

of academic stressor as time pressures increases. Students may be

working multiple jobs or night shifts in addition to studying. For some,

“pulling an all-nighter” is almost a rite of passage, with attendant

potential loss of alertness and interpersonal sensitivity (American

Psychiatric Association, 1994)

9. Emotional Challenges

Several psychological and emotional conditions can undermine

students’ motivation to get to class on time. Indeed, a hallmark

symptom of conditions such as depression includes a decreased

motivation to engage in normal daily activities. In addition, prescription

medications can interfere with motivation and may disrupt sleep

patterns, which may indirectly affect students’ ability to get to class in a

timely manner (Kuhlenschmidt and Layne, 1999).

10. Challenge the instructor’s authority

In some cases, students come to class late to test the instructor

or challenge its authority. Some students may also seek to challenge

the authority of particular categories of instructors, such as instructors

who are young, female, minority, or non-English speakers (ECTE, n.d).

11. Economic influences

These include high mobility rates, poverty, employed students,

single-parent homes, parents who hold multiple jobs, and a lack of

affordable transportation for their family members (U.S. Department of

Justice, 2001).

12. Maturity

College students still have much to learn about taking on adult

responsibilities and balancing requirements. Under stress, some

students are likely to revert to childlike ways of coping. (Kuhlenschmidt

and Layne, 1999).

13. Routine

In general, too much routine produces boredom. Instructor can

avoid routine by using some instructional methods during a class

session and across a semester (Kuhlenschmidt and Layne, 1999).

14. Beginning of class not important

Students do not realize that the first minutes of class are

important, since this is when instructors share important administrative

information, present the day’s agenda, frame the content of the lecture

or discussion (ECTE, n.d).

15. Logistical reasons

Student may find it difficult to make it to class on time because of

the physical distance between classes (ECTE, n.d).

16. Students’ expectations about the instructor’s

Some instructors are bothered if students arrives the class a few

minutes late; others are not. There is also a wide variation in

departmental cultures, some of which may tolerate lateness more than

others. Because of this variability, students’ expectations regarding

being on time may be substantially different from those of a particular

instructor. Moreover, students may have an incorrect set of

expectations regarding lateness in certain kinds of courses, such as

courses that meet in the evening, are large, meet for 3 to 4 hours or

more, or have relatively informal formats (e.g., studios, labs) (ECTE,


17. Student variables

College students, lack of social skills, mental health problems, lack

of understanding of attendance laws and poor physical health (U.S.

Department of Justice, 2001).

18. Instructors late

Instructors who arrive late to classes set a bad example for the

students. When students see their instructor come to class late,

students may think that it is entirely okay to be tardy (Coleman, 2013).

Effects of Tardiness

According to the article published by (Pancare, 2016), “Effects of

Tardiness on Your Child's Education”

Disrupted Routines

One of the most important aspects of school is that it is organized,

scheduled and predictable. Students depend on the structure of the day.

Students know where to be and when. Students know the main purpose

for being in school is to learn and that routines are in place precisely to

help focus on the learning. When students are repeatedly tardy, these

routines are disrupted. Children who are often late have trouble settling

in and mastering routines. Tardiness can throw off their whole morning

or even their day, especially if the late commute to school was stressful.

Social Criticism

The social experience has a powerful impact on a child's feelings

about school and its ability to be academically successful. When a child

continuously shows up late to class, other students are distracted.

Attention is drawn away from the teacher or assignment and toward the

child who has just arrived. Over time, classmates may begin to criticize

this child, affecting how it feels about itself in school. During

adolescence, children are especially conscious of fitting in and being

accepted by peers. If the child is repeatedly tardy, this child may

become a target or outcast over time, and negative peer interactions

can hurt its ability to concentrate on learning. According to the

Encyclopedia of Children's Health, children with steady friendships

throughout the school year enjoy school more, and children who can

make new friends tend to perform better academically.

Low Achievement

PerformWell, a nonprofit policy research and educational

organization, reports that frequent tardiness is associated with lower

grades and lower scores on standardized tests. It is also linked to low

graduation rates. In addition, students who are routinely late at the

elementary and middle school levels are more likely to fail in high school

-- or even drop out. In many classrooms, particularly at the elementary

level, morning routines are critical to daily lessons. Warm-up activities

may introduce topics that will be learned later in the day, or review

work offers students an opportunity to review previously learned skills.


Part of students’ education is learning to be responsible. The

school experience teaches students how to meet expectations. Students

learn to follow schedules, obey rules, complete assignments and keep

track of the materials. Learning responsibility in school is a precursor to

functioning in the working world, as noted by (William Kirby, 2010)

Dayton Daily News article "School Attendance Tied to Academic

Success." Attendance is one of the ways children can meet its

obligations. In many cases, a child's attendance depends on the

parents' ability to help the child to be on time. Parents can teach the

kids organizational techniques that will help to get out of the house

faster, such as packing its bags and laying out its clothes the night

before school. But parents who drive its children must also remember to

be punctual and responsible. After all, they are the primary role model.

Theoretical Framework

This chapter presents and discusses theories that are applicable to

our study. These theories help explain the concept behind the research

and establish the relationship of the study’s variables.

John B. Watsons coined the term “Behaviorism” which basically

revolves around the principle that human behavior is but a response to

external stimuli. Behaviorism helps people understand and explain the

nature of any human behavior. It is rooted on what the developers of

this movement called as the “stimulus-response model”. Concepts of

Behaviorism may be applied to the thought that a student’s tardiness is

always just a response to an external factor. According to the

development of Behaviorism by Watson, any human act or behavior can

be explained without having to study internal and mental processes and

consciousness. All human behavior, furthermore, is caused by external

stimuli. Basing from this theory a student tends to get tardy because it

is provoked by an instructor who doesn’t do any action like giving

punishment to those students who are frequently tardy that result in

thinking of a student that it is okay to get tardy because there is no

consequence in its behavior.

Another theory that supports this experiment is the theory of

Burrhus Frederic skinner who believed that the best way to understand

behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences that

is known as Operant Conditioning meaning roughly changing of

behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired

response. The work of Skinner was rooted in a view that classical

conditioning was far too simplistic to be a complete explanation of

complex human behavior. Skinner believed that the best way to

understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its


Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts

to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative

reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an

association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner,


It can be applied in this experiment especially in the tardy

behaviors of the students since by this theory it can instill to the minds

of the students that being tardy can cause multiple consequences in its

academic performance.

Conceptual Framework

Understanding Behaviors
Leading to Tardiness among
Senior High School Students of
Saint Paul School of Professional

Dependent Variable
Independent Variable

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

Statement of the Problem

Generally, the main focus of the study is to understand the

behaviors leading to tardiness exhibited by the senior high school

students of Saint Paul School of Professional Studies.

Specifically this would attempt to find answer to the following


1. What is the profile of the students in terms of?

A. age

B. gender

C .course/strand

2. What are the factors for student’s tardiness?

3 .How can tardiness affect the students’ academic performance?



Research Design
This study is a case study under qualitative research, which will

use an interview schedule as the basic tool to determine views and

opinions of the respondents. Respondents will provide primary data

relevant to the assessment of the perceived impact of tardiness among

senior high students of Saint Paul School of Professional Studies.

Research Participants

In this study, participants will be chosen through fishbowl method.

There will be seventy (70) participants to participate in the study. Five

(5) students will represent from each section. The researchers will use

random sampling. After the participants answer the questionnaire,

respondents will be receiving an incentive in exchange for its time. Each

of the selected students will receive snacks; iced tea and muffins.

Research Instrument

The researcher designed a questionnaire as one of the data

collection instrument for this study. The primary senior high students of

SPSPS will be answering the questionnaire. The questionnaire is aiming

for relevant information concerning Senior High School tardiness of

Saint Paul School of Professional Studies. Questions are related to

lateness of senior high students.

Research Environment

This study will be conducted in Saint Paul School of Professional

Studies. This institution is located in Barangay Campetic, Palo which is

the first class municipality in the province of Leyte, Philippines.

Research Procedure

Upon recruitment, the researchers will be handling out letter to

inform that the respondents will be going to answer or participate in the

study. If respondents will agree, the researchers will ask the

respondents to sign the letters. The selected students will randomly be

assigned to different treatments through random fishbowl method. The

researchers will let the students pick one strip of paper. Five students in

every section who can pick the numbers 3, 16, 28, 32 and 12 are the

ones who will answer the said questionnaire. The researchers will

arrange the room with a setup of having 6 chairs. One chair will be for

the administrator and 5 chairs will be for the respondents. The

administrator will read the instructions on how to answer the

questionnaire. After reading, the researchers will give enough time to

the participants to answer the questionnaire briefly. After this, the

participants will be given incentives in a form of snacks for answering

the researcher’s questionnaire.

Definition of Terms


Arriving or doing something at the expected or planned time.

Punctuality is the characteristic of being able to complete a required

task or fulfill an obligation before or previously designated time.


Encompasses a situation where an individual is late in happening

or arriving.


Sanction is the act of inflicting a consequence or penalty on

someone as a result of their wrong doing, or the consequence or penalty



A hallmark is a distinctive characteristic of something or someone.

That can mean a literal symbol on the bottom of a piece of pottery, or

just a rock star's signature hair style.


Depression is the act of pressing down on something.


Violation is the act that disregards an agreement or a right.


Behavior is the way a person acts toward other people.


Substantial is having a material or factual existence.


Factors are anything that contributes causally to a result.


Experiment is the act of conducting a controlled test or



Attendance is the act of being present at a meeting or event.


Preliminary Suppositions and Implications

The findings of this study would likely be a key in acquiring

a greater understanding about the tardy behaviors being exhibit by the

senior high school students of Saint Paul School of Professional Studies,

for instance students will be aware about the factors that contribute to

the tardy behaviors and the possible negative effects of these factors to

its performance in school. Giving enough attention to these tardy

behaviors can save the students from the negative bearings that this

issue could possibly cause. School officials and the parents of the

students who are inclined in this issue will have a greater understanding

about the behaviors that the students display and will help to assess the


Furthermore the results of this study can be used as a tool to

build awareness to the future researchers and concerned people to

alleviate this certain issue.


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Kuhlenschmidt, S., & Layne, L. (1999). Strategies for Dealing with

Diffirent Behavior. New Direction for Teaching and Learning, 45-


Nakpodia, E. D., & Dafiaghor, F. K. (2011, April). Lateness: A major

problem confronting school. International Journal of Science and

Technology Education Research, 2, 58 - 61.

Pancare, R. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2018, from How to Adult:


Weade, B. (2018, March). School and work tardiness in high school

students in rural Wisconsin.