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VOLCANOLOGY: Basic Volcanology, Eruption Processes and Products, Volcanic Facies, and Related Mineralization By:
VOLCANOLOGY: Basic Volcanology,
Eruption Processes and Products,
Volcanic Facies, and Related
Mineralization
By: Sutikno Bronto
Geological Agency, Bandung
CONTENT  BASIC VOLCANOLOGY  GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS  VOLCANIC CYCLES & FACIES
CONTENT
 BASIC VOLCANOLOGY
 GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS
 VOLCANIC CYCLES & FACIES
 PALEO VOLCANOES
 VOLCANO AND RELATED MINERALIZATIONS
BASIC VOLCANOLOGY – Terminology – Types of Volcano – Volcanic Eruption
BASIC VOLCANOLOGY
– Terminology
– Types of Volcano
– Volcanic Eruption

Etymology

The word volcano is thought to derive from Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn originates from Vulcan, the name of a god of fire in Roman mythology. The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled vulcanology.

Sicily City
Sicily City

Vulcano island

Volcano  a place at the surface of the earth where magmatic material from the
Volcano
a
place at the surface of the earth where
magmatic material from the depth erupts or
has erupted in the past, usually forming a
mountain, more or less conical in shape with
a
crater in the top (Schieferdecker, 1959)
Volcano is both the place or opening from
which molten rock or gas, and generally
both, issues from the earth’s interior onto
the surface, and the hill or mountain built up
around the opening by accumulation of the
rock material (MacDonald, 1972)
Terminology  Volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet’s surface or crust which
Terminology
 Volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a
planet’s surface or crust which allows hot
magma, ash and gases to escapes from
below the surface (Google: Volcano))
 place or opening : crater (Ø < 2 km) or
caldera (Ø > 2 km)
 molten rock: magma (below) & lava (at
planet’s surface)
 Setiap tempat keluarnya magma ke
permukaan bumi (solar system) adalah
gunung api (Bronto, 2006)
Volcano Molten rock 1815 Tambora Caldera, Sumbawa (Ø: 9 km) Anak Krakatau crater, Sunda Strait
Volcano
Molten rock
1815 Tambora Caldera, Sumbawa (Ø: 9 km)
Anak Krakatau crater,
Sunda Strait (Ø: ca. 0.3 km)
2006) Volcano Molten rock 1815 Tambora Caldera, Sumbawa (Ø: 9 km) Anak Krakatau crater, Sunda Strait

Typesof Volcano (Simkin et al., 1981)

Typesof Volcano (Simkin et al., 1981) G. Sindoro Semeru composite volcano G. Sumbing 3.151 m 3.371
G. Sindoro Semeru composite volcano G. Sumbing 3.151 m 3.371 m +3.676 m Compound Volcanoes
G. Sindoro
Semeru composite volcano
G. Sumbing
3.151 m
3.371 m
+3.676 m
Compound Volcanoes
+ 3.726 m
+ 3.726 m

Somma type of Rinjani Caldera with Barujari volcano in the center

Ijen volcanic complex G. Raung (+3.332 m)
Ijen volcanic complex
G. Raung
(+3.332 m)

Ijen Caldera

(+2.386 m)

Bedali Maar Volcano
Bedali Maar Volcano
Dry Maar
Dry Maar
Maar crater rim Cinder cone Setu Patok Maar, 7 km South Cirebon
Maar crater rim
Cinder cone
Setu Patok Maar,
7 km South Cirebon
Anak Krakatau Cinder cone (Pyroclastic cone)
Anak Krakatau
Cinder cone
(Pyroclastic cone)

Herðubreið, one of the tuyas in Iceland

2007 Kelut Lava dome
2007 Kelut
Lava dome
Kubah lava andesit G. Merapi 13 Mei 2006
Kubah lava andesit G. Merapi
13 Mei 2006
Kubah lava andesit G. Merapi 1990
Kubah lava andesit G. Merapi 1990

Kubah lava dasit Mt. Unzen, Jepang

Lava dome Kubah lava andesit G. Merapi 13 Mei 2006 Kubah lava andesit G. Merapi 1990
Kubah lava G. Kelut 16 Nov. 2007
Kubah lava G. Kelut 16 Nov. 2007
Kubah lava G. Kelut 16 Nov. 2007 Kubah Lava Merapi, 1992 1 1 2 1.Izu-Oshima 1986,

Kubah Lava Merapi, 1992

Kubah lava G. Kelut 16 Nov. 2007 Kubah Lava Merapi, 1992 1 1 2 1.Izu-Oshima 1986,
1 1 2
1
1
2

1.Izu-Oshima 1986, Japan 2.Laki fissure row, Iceland

Linier/fissure/lateral eruption:

VOLCANIC ERUPTION  Volcanic eruption: a process of issuing/ascending magma from the planet’s interior to
VOLCANIC ERUPTION
 Volcanic eruption: a process of
issuing/ascending magma from the
planet’s interior to the surface
 Effusive eruption (VEI = 0)
 Explosive eruption (VEI = 1 – 8)
Indeks Letusan Gunung Api (Volcanic Explosivity Index, Newhall & Self, 1982 )
Indeks Letusan Gunung Api
(Volcanic Explosivity Index, Newhall & Self, 1982 )
VEI and ejecta volume correlation Christopher G. Newhall, Steve Self (1982). "The volcanic explosivity index
VEI and ejecta
volume correlation
Christopher G. Newhall,
Steve Self (1982). "The
volcanic explosivity index
(VEI): An estimate of
explosive magnitude for
historical volcanism".
Journal of Geophysical
Research (87): 1231–1238.
Ben G. Mason, David M.
Pyle, and Clive
Oppenheimer (2004). "The
size and frequency of the
largest explosive eruptions
on Earth" (PDF). Bulletin of
Volcanology 66 (8): 735–
748. DOI:10.1007/s00445-
004-0355-9 Diakses pada
14 Juli 2006.
Effusive eruptions: 1 A main lava channel 1.Hawaiian lava flow 2.Oshima-Oshima 3.Api Siau, Sangihe Islnd.
Effusive eruptions:
1
A main lava
channel
1.Hawaiian lava flow
2.Oshima-Oshima
3.Api Siau, Sangihe Islnd.
Overflows
3
2

Anak Krakatau from north side

1993 lava flows 1996 lava flow +315 m asl
1993 lava flows
1996 lava flow
+315 m asl
Guntur lava flows Garut, West Java Pillow lavas as a product of submarine volcanic extrusion
Guntur lava flows
Garut, West Java
Pillow lavas as a
product of submarine
volcanic extrusion
(Effusive eruptions;
Photo: NOOA)
Strombolian Eruption Type Paricutin, 1946 Anak Krakatau Etna, October 2002
Strombolian Eruption Type
Paricutin, 1946
Anak Krakatau
Etna, October 2002
Tipe Erupsi Vulkano (Vulcanian EruptionType) Tavurvur Volcano, Papua New Guinea  Lokasi tipe di G.
Tipe Erupsi Vulkano
(Vulcanian EruptionType)
Tavurvur Volcano, Papua New Guinea
 Lokasi tipe di G. Vulcano
(Eolian Islands, Italy) pada
1888-90.
 Ciri-ciri: eksplosif, masa aktif
pendek, membentuk cendawan
pekat yang kaya piroklastika
berukuran butir abu, bom &
blok gn.api.
Letusan G. Krakatau, 17 Nov 1992
 Berasosiasi dengan magma
andesit-dasit kental.
Tipe Erupsi Vulkano (Vulcanian EruptionType) Tavurvur Volcano, Papua New Guinea Krakatau, 17 Nov 1992
Tipe Erupsi Vulkano
(Vulcanian EruptionType)
Tavurvur Volcano, Papua New Guinea
Krakatau, 17 Nov 1992

Plinian Eruption Type of an Alaskan volcano (Redoubt)

Tavurvur Volcano, Papua New Guinea Krakatau, 17 Nov 1992 Plinian Eruption Type of an Alaskan volcano
Plume Gas thrust (100-600 m/s)
Plume
Gas thrust
(100-600 m/s)
Plume Gas thrust (100-600 m/s) Plinian Eruption Type of Mt. Pinatubo Philippines, 1991 Krakatau 1883 (VEI

Plinian Eruption Type of Mt. Pinatubo Philippines, 1991

Krakatau 1883 (VEI 6) Mt. St. Helens, 1980 (VEI 5) VEI 8, G. Vesuvius (79
Krakatau 1883 (VEI 6)
Mt. St. Helens, 1980 (VEI 5)
VEI 8, G. Vesuvius (79 M), Italy
Redoubt 1990, Alaska (VEI 7)

Eruption Types based on degree of Explosiveness &

height of eruption column

M), Italy Redoubt 1990, Alaska (VEI 7) Eruption Types based on degree of Explosiveness & height