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STUDENT ARTHUR R.

COSTA: COMPUTER VISION ASSIGNMENT – SEPTEMBER 5, 2018 1

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Demonstrative Project 1
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004 Arthur Reichert Costa - 16/0024277 Departamento de Ciência da
005 arreico@gmail.com Comptutação
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Universidade de Brasília
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Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte
Brasília-DF, CEP 70910-900, Brazil,
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Abstract
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013 In this project a software tool capable of marking all pixels in an image, video frames
014 or video stream from a camera less than 13 shades apart from another pixel chosen by
015 the user in the color space was developed, according to four requirements stipulated.
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018 1 Introduction
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020 The work here presented aims to demonstrate the possibilities of image manipulation soft-
021 ware and the developments already accomplished by others to make the writing process of
022 such software as straightforward as possible. In order to attain this, there were four require-
023 ments specifying the behaviour of the software that was implemented, aiming to demonstrate
024 basic operations often performed while working with image processing and machine vision.
025 At last but not least, it is important to mention OpenCV, and open source software library
026 heavily used in the present work to achieve the goals set by the requirements.
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1.1 Requirements
030 The software was required to:
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032 • 1) Be capable of opening an image file and allow the user to click on any pixel of
033 the image and be informed of its coordinates and RGB values (or intensity, if it is a
034 grayscale image) on the console.
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036 • 2) Upon selection of a pixel by the user, the software must check the image and mark
037 red all pixels which are less than 13 shades apart from the selected pixel in the color
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040 • 3) Display a video and do the same operations described in requirements 1 and 2 to all
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043 • 4) perform the same operations required on item 3 to the stream of a webcam.
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c 2018. The copyright of this document resides with its authors.
045 It may be distributed unchanged freely in print or electronic forms.
2 STUDENT ARTHUR R. COSTA: COMPUTER VISION ASSIGNMENT – SEPTEMBER 5, 2018

1.2 OpenCV 046


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2 Methodology 048
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Aiming to carry out the tasks proposed in the requirements, the code for the software was 050
written in C++ (due to the previous familiarity of the author with it) using classes and code 051
from the OpenCV library. The first requirement was to open an image and be able to identify 052
the position and color coordinates of every pixel within it that the user selected. 053
To perform this, OpenCV already has functions and classes to store, read and manipulate 054
images. The most used class to store an image is the Mat, whose objects can actually be 055
used to store any matrix, however it is particularly handful when it comes to storing images. 056
Reading an image from a file and assigning it to a Mat object is as simple as using: 057
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Mat imagem; 059
imagem=imread("image file source", 1); 060
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Identifying the position and color of a pixel on an image upon clicking on it (satisfying 062
the second requirement) is also painless, since upon creating a namedWindow object and
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displaying an image in it, one can set a callback function that is executed every time a mouse
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action occurs. Scanning the image looking for pixels at a specified range from a previously
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chosen one in the color space is a bit lengthier than the previous tasks, but pretty much
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elementary, since it is very simple and straightforward. The OpenCV library even has a
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class specifically designed for that, the MatIterator , which provides iterator objects with
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which one can sweep an image going through each pixel effortlessly. Being able to scan
every pixel in a matrix, to calculate the distance in the RGB color space between two given 069
pixels P1=(R1, G1, B1) and P2=(R2, G2, B2) the standard definition of distance from linear 070
algebra can be used, that is, the norm of the difference between two vectors, which is just 071
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q
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(R1 − R2)2 + (G1 − G2)2 + (B1 − B2)2 (1)
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The third and fourth requirements are very similar to the first and second, except the
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above described procedure has to be performed for every frame of a video file or camera
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stream. Again, the OpenCV library got us covered, providing us with the VideoCapture
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class, through which one can capture images from a webcam stream or a video file and put
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them in Mat objects, reducing the third and fourth requirements to the same procedures done
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in the first and second.
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3 Results 084
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The software developed to satisfy the goals of this work has a very crude interface: upon
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calling the program, one or two parameters must be passed in the program’s call in the
terminal, the first is the operation mode, and accepts the values 1, 3 and 4, and the second, 087
when needed, is the name of a video or image file to be opened. I operation mode 1, the 088
program performs the actions described in requirements 1 and 2, whilst in operation modes 089
3 and 4 the program executes the operations and interactions specified in requirements 3 and 090
4. Some images of it in action: 091
STUDENT ARTHUR R. COSTA: COMPUTER VISION ASSIGNMENT – SEPTEMBER 5, 2018 3

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103 Figure 1: Program marking wih red all pixels within a range of 13 from a selected pixel in
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Figure 2: Program marking wih red all pixels within a range of 13 from a selected pixel in
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color space from a video
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134 Figure 3: Program marking wih red all pixels within a range of 13 from a selected pixel in
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4 STUDENT ARTHUR R. COSTA: COMPUTER VISION ASSIGNMENT – SEPTEMBER 5, 2018

4 Conclusions 138
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The implementation of the software to comply with the requirements proposed was pretty 140
straightforward, using the classes and methods provided by the OpenCV library, since the 141
tasks were very simple. However, even using such a simple software as a tool and playing 142
with many images in it, one can notice a few interesting things. The author itself, for ex- 143
ample, tested many pictures with areas seemingly uniform in color, however, due to light 144
conditions and the very tight range adopted (13 out of 255 shades for each coordinate), the 145
software showed that such areas were not as uniform as previously thought, marking only a
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small section of the area that the author thought was uniform.
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References 149
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1. https://docs.opencv.org/3.0-beta/doc/tutorials/core/how_to_151
scan_images/how_to_scan_images.html#howtoscanimagesopencv, 152
accessed at August 31st , 2018, by opencv.org 153
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2. urlhttps://www.opencv-srf.com/2017/12/play-video-from-file-or-camera.html, accessed
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at August 31st , 2018, by Shermal Fernando
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