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Application &

Installation Guide

Electric Power Applications,


Engine & Generator Sizing

LEBE5294-09
Contents

Generator Set Rating Considerations....................................... 10


Rating Definitions .................................................................. 10
Engine/Generator Set Load Factor .................................. 10
Emergency Standby Power ............................................. 11
Standby Power .................................................................. 11
Prime Power ...................................................................... 11
Continuous Power ............................................................ 11
The International Standards Organization (ISO) ............ 11
Continuous Operating Power (COP) ............................... 11
Prime Running Power (PRP) ............................................ 12
Limited-Time Running Power (LTP) ................................ 12
Emergency Standby Power (ESP) ................................... 12
Load Management ................................................................ 12
Paralleled with or Isolated from the Utility less than
500 Hours per Year (Available for Limited Cat® Models
rated at Prime Power) ....................................................... 12
Standards ............................................................................... 13
Generator Rating Capability ............................................ 13
Generator Mapping Limits ............................................... 14
Site Conditions Impact on Genset Ratings ........................ 15
Random Wound vs Form Wound .................................... 15
Environmental Conditions ............................................... 16
Ambient Altitude and Temperature ................................ 17
Corrosive Atmospheres ................................................... 17
Humidity ............................................................................ 17
Transient Response .......................................................... 18
Sizing Criterion ................................................................. 19
Motor Starting ................................................................... 20
Block Load ......................................................................... 21
Transient Response Standards ............................................ 21
Engine Considerations ..................................................... 22
Engine Configuration ....................................................... 26
Air System ......................................................................... 26
Gas Engines ...................................................................... 26
Block Load and Transient Capability ............................... 27
System Interaction ............................................................ 27
Voltage Regulators ........................................................... 28
Digital Voltage Regulator ................................................. 29
Customer Requirements............................................................ 30
Power Demand ...................................................................... 30
On Site Power Requirement ............................................ 30
Load Management ............................................................ 30
Loads Profiles .................................................................... 30
Estimating Load Data ....................................................... 31
Categorizing Loads ........................................................... 32
VA/FT2 Load Estimating .................................................... 33
Load Steps ............................................................................. 34
Prioritization ...................................................................... 34
Load Shedding .................................................................. 34
Intermittent Loads ............................................................ 35
Additional Load Categories ............................................. 35
Load Management Strategies ......................................... 35
Peak Shaving ..................................................................... 35
Base Loading ..................................................................... 35
Zero Import/Zero Export .................................................. 36
Peak Sharing ..................................................................... 37
Co-generation ................................................................... 37
Load Duration Curves ....................................................... 37
Estimating Guidelines ...................................................... 38
Load Growth ..................................................................... 38
Demand Factor ...................................................................... 39
Diversity Factor ...................................................................... 40
Demand Factor and Diversity Factor in Sizing .................... 40
Frequency Dips ................................................................. 41
Block Load & Standards ................................................... 41
Starting Requirements .......................................................... 41
Load Acceptance ............................................................... 41
Ten-Second Start .............................................................. 42
Health Care Facilities & NFPA 99 ..................................... 42
Fuel Selection .................................................................... 43
Performance .......................................................................... 43
Emissions .......................................................................... 43
Correction Factors ............................................................ 45
Nominal vs. Not to Exceed .............................................. 45
Heat Balance ..................................................................... 45
Co-generation Usage ........................................................ 46
Load Analysis ............................................................................. 47
Lighting Loads ....................................................................... 48
Linear Lighting Loads ....................................................... 48
Lighting .............................................................................. 48
Incandescent Lighting ...................................................... 48
Tungsten Lamp Inrush ..................................................... 48
Non-Linear Lighting Loads .............................................. 49
Fluorescent Lamps ........................................................... 49
Gas Discharge Lamps ....................................................... 49
Motor Loads ........................................................................... 50
Induction Motors .............................................................. 50
Wound Rotor (Slip Ring) .................................................. 51
Slip Definition ................................................................... 52
Synchronous Motors ........................................................ 52
DC Motors ......................................................................... 53
Single-phase Motors ........................................................ 54
Three-Phase Motors ......................................................... 54
Motor Performance ............................................................... 55
Design Class ...................................................................... 55
Motor Starting ................................................................... 56
Starting Power Factor ....................................................... 59
Motor Starting Load ......................................................... 60
Motor Torque .................................................................... 60
Motor Voltage ................................................................... 64
Motor Starting Techniques ................................................... 65
Full Voltage Starting ......................................................... 65
Soft Starting — Cushioning Motor Starting
Under Load ........................................................................ 68
Reduced Voltage Starting ................................................ 68
Reduced Starting Methods .............................................. 70
Intermittent Starting ......................................................... 76
Motor Starting Troubleshooting Techniques ................. 76
Miscellaneous Loads ............................................................. 77
Adjustable (Variable) Speed Drives ................................ 77
Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Systems .................... 78
Welding Loads .................................................................. 79
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) .............................. 79
Regenerative Power ......................................................... 85
Transformers ..................................................................... 86
Critical Loads ..................................................................... 88
Helpful Load Application Tips ......................................... 88
Single-Phase Loads .......................................................... 92
Load Balancing ................................................................. 92
One-line Diagrams ............................................................ 94
Genset Selection Considerations.............................................. 99
Load Types ............................................................................. 99
Linear Loads ...................................................................... 99
Non-Linear Loads ........................................................... 100
Harmonic Content ............................................................... 101
Generator Considerations .................................................. 103
Generator System Protection ........................................ 103
Generator Heating .......................................................... 103
Generator Reactance Impact ......................................... 103
Waveform Distortion ...................................................... 104
Generator AVR and Excitation ....................................... 105
Determining Distortion ................................................... 106
Generator Pitch ............................................................... 106
2/3 Pitch ........................................................................... 106
Non-Linear Loads and 2/3 Pitch ..................................... 107
Paralleling and 2/3 Pitch ................................................. 107
Applications Requiring 2/3 Pitch ................................... 107
Other Generator Set Selection Considerations ............ 108
Voltage Range/Number of Leads .................................. 108
Genset Voltage Selection ............................................... 109
Multi-Engine Installations ................................................... 110
Paralleling ........................................................................ 110
Droop and Governors ..................................................... 113
Regulator Compensation ............................................... 114
Load Control .................................................................... 114
Load Order ...................................................................... 115
Unit Shutdown ................................................................ 115
Foreword
This section of the Application and Installation Guide generally describes
Electric Power Application, Engine and Generator Selection for Cat engines.
Additional engine systems, components and dynamics are addressed in
other sections of this Application and Installation Guide.
Engine-specific information and data are available from a variety of
sources. Refer to the Introduction section of this guide for additional
references.
Systems and components described in this guide may not be available
or applicable for every engine.
EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Electric Power Applications, Engine & Generator


Sizing
On-site engine/generator sets (gensets) are used in a variety of
applications. They are becoming more popular for load management
applications since the deregulation and privatization of the utility industry.
Some gensets are used strictly as “back-up” for emergencies and some
as the only power source.
Although computer programs can be used to assist in proper generator
sizing, an understanding of the formulas, calculations and non-numerical
factors is beneficial to determine proper generator sizing.
The following subjects must be considered and are specifically addressed
in this section.
• Engine Ratings
• Customer Applications
• Load Analysis
• Genset Selection Criteria
• Multi-Engine Installations

SECTION CONTENTS

Generator Set Rating • Starting Requirements


Considerations....................... 10
• Rating Definitions • Performance
Load Analysis ........................ 47
• Load Management
• Lighting Loads
• Standards
• Motor Loads
• Site Conditions Impact on
Genset Ratings • Motor Performance
• Transient Response • Motor Starting Techniques

• Transient Response • Miscellaneous Loads


Standards Genset Selection
Customer Requirements ....... 30 Considerations....................... 99
• Power Demand • Load Types
• Load Steps • Harmonic Content
• Demand Factor • Generator Considerations
• Diversity Factor • Multi-Engine Installations
• Demand & Diversity Factors
in Sizing

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Generator Set Rating Considerations


pf = power factor of connected
Rating Definitions load
A generator set (genset) consists of
an engine and a generator. However, ekW = electrical power (electrical
it is best to consider the engine and kW)
generator as a system. Individually, bkW = engine power (brake kW)
each has unique characteristics; but eff = generator efficiency
together these qualities have a
significant impact on the performance When kW is qualified as neither
and sizing of the genset system. electrical (ekW) nor brake (bkW), it
is important to clarify between the
Capabilities of both engine and two when performing calculations
generator are considered or product comparisons.
individually and collectively when
selecting generator sets. Engines Engine/Generator Set Load Factor
produce brake horsepower (or Load factor of a generator set is
kilowatts) while controlling speed or used as one criterion for rating a
frequency. Generators influence genset. It is calculated by finding
engine behavior, but are primarily the product of various loads:
responsible for changing engine Load Factor = % of time x % of load
power into kilovolt-amperes (kVA)
and electrical kilowatts (kW). They time at specific
also must satisfy high “magnetizing load
% of time =
current” draws (kVAR), or transient total operating
conditions from electrical time
equipment.
Normally, a generator set is specific load
% of load =
furnished with a generator which rated load
matches the engine output
capability. Engines are sized Extended idling time and the time
according to the actual power in kW when the generator set is not
required to meet the needs of the operating does not enter into the
facility. The generator, on the other calculation for load factor.
hand, must be capable of handling For example, assume a facility has
the maximum apparent power which a genset rated at 550 kW and runs it
is measured in kVA. The actual two hours a week. During those two
power can be identified in several hours, it runs at 400 kW for
ways. It can be calculated by adding 1.5 hours. Find the load factor.
the nameplate ratings of the
equipment to be powered by the The formulas reveal the following:
generator. If this is done, the % of 400 kW
efficiencies of the equipment must load = = 0.73
550 kW
also be considered. The actual
power can be determined by % of 90 min.
performing a load analysis on the time = = 0.75
120 min.
facility. This involves making a
survey of the power requirements Load Factor = 0.73 x 0.75 = 54.75%
over a period of time. This load factor would indicate
ekW = pf x kVA that the genset could be used as a
ekW + Fan standby rated genset because it
bkW = Demand meets the load factor and other
eff
kVA = kVA output of generator criteria of standby.

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Power rating definitions for Cat Continuous Power


generator sets are based on typical Unlimited hours of usage. Non-
load factor, hours of use per year, varying load factor is 70% to 100% of
peak demand and application use. the published Continuous Power.
Cat genset ratings for emergency Typical peak demand is 100% of
standby, standby, prime and continuous rating for 100% of
continuous power are listed. operating hours.
Emergency Standby Power Note: Operating at load factors
Typical usage of 50 hours per year above these rating definitions will
with a maximum of 200 hours per result in shorter oil change intervals
year with varying loads. Average and reduced hours to engine
variable load factor is 70% of ESP overhauls, resulting in higher
rating. No overload is available. Not generator and engine costs per
for maintained utility paralleling year. Refer to the Owning and
applications. Operating manual for package
specific service intervals and the
Standby Power impact of operating at higher load
Typical usage 200 hours per year, levels. Some ratings definitions are
with a maximum of 500 hours per not available for all models.
year with varying loads. Average
variable load factor is 70% of The International Standards
Standby rating. No overload is Organization (ISO)
available. Not for maintained utility ISO 8528-1 (2005) defines four
paralleling applications. types of duty:
Prime Power • Continuous Operating Power
Unlimited hours of usage. (COP)
Average variable load factor is 70% • Prime Running Power (PRP)
of the Prime power rating. 10%
overload limited to 1 in 12 hours but • Limited-Time running Power
not to exceed 25 hours per year. (LTP)
The 10% overload is available in • Emergency Standby Power
accordance with ISO 3046-1 (2002). (ESP)
Life to overhaul of the engine is
dependent on operation as outlined Continuous Operating Power (COP)
in ISO8528 (2005) and time spent Continuous operating power is the
operating above the rating power a generator set can operate
guidelines will reduce the hours to at a continuous load for an unlimited
engine overhaul. number of hours under stated
ambient conditions. Maintenance
according to the manufacturer
must be followed to reach these
standards.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Prime Running Power (PRP)


Prime running power is the Generator Set Ratings
maximum power a generator set ISO Cat
has during a variable power
sequence for an unlimited number ESP Emergency Standby Power
of hours under stated ambient
n/a Standby
conditions. Maintenance according
to the manufacturer must be LTP Load Management Guidelines
followed to reach these standards.
PRP Prime
Limited-Time Running Power (LTP)
Limited-time running power is the COP Continuous
maximum power that a generator Table 1
set delivers for up to 500 hours per
year under stated ambient * Equivalent to load management application when
paralleled with or isolated from the utility less than 500
conditions. Maintenance according hours per year (Prime Power)
to the manufacturer must be
followed to reach these standards. Load Management
Emergency Standby Power (ESP) Load management is the
Emergency standby power is the deliberate control of loads on a
maximum power available during a genset and/or utility to have the
variable load sequence in the event lowest possible electrical costs. In
of a utility power outage or under addition, Caterpillar has two broad
test conditions for up to 200 hours rating categories in terms of load
a year while maintaining per the management:
manufacturer’s specified intervals. • Isolated from a utility
The permissible average power
output over a 24 hour period shall • Paralleled with a utility
not exceed 70% of the ESP rating. Paralleled with or Isolated from the
Specifications are often stated in Utility less than 500 Hours per Year
ISO terms and standards. Table 1 (Available for Limited Cat Models
shows ISO genset ratings and rated at Prime Power)
correlating Cat genset ratings. Maximum power available for up
to 500 hours per year***
*** Limited-Time Running Power (LTP) in
accordance with ISO 8528, ISO 3046/1, AS2789,
DIN6271 and BS5514.
Output available without varying
load for less than 500 hours per year.
Maximum Load 100%
Factor =
Typical Hours Less than 500
per Year = hours
Typical Peak 100% of prime
Demand = rating.
Typical Peak sharing.
Application =

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Note: Load Management is a ISO 8528 has 12 sections. The first


limited run time application of a section describes applications,
Prime rated unit. Prime power units ratings and performance. The
operating at 100% load for <500 remaining sections are listed below,
hours per year will experience by section number.
shorter oil change intervals and 2. Specifies characteristics of
reduced hours to engine overhauls - engine.
up to a 50% decrease in the 3. Alternating current generators
published hour interval due to the 4. Control gear & switchgear
increase in fuel consumed. Refer to specifications
the Owning and Operating manual 5. Generating set specifications
for package specific service 6. Specifies test methods
intervals and the impact of 7. Technical declarations for
operating at higher load levels specification and design
Depending on how the genset will 8. Low power generator sets
be applied will determine the size 9. Requirements on
needed. For example, if for a given measurement and evaluation
load, the genset will only be used as of mechanical vibration
standby for a critical load only, then a 10. Standards for noise
smaller kW genset can be used, 11. Dynamic, uninterrupted
rather than one used for prime power supply systems
power. 12. Emergency power supply to
safety services
Standards
Cat generator sets are in Generator Rating Capability
accordance with The International Gensets are limited in their ratings
Standardization Organization (ISO) by the conditions and applications
and the Society for Automotive of both the generator and engine.
Engineers (SAE) standards. Each Generator ratings are typically
organization uses different techniques thermal limited. They are limited by
and tolerances for power ratings the amount of internal heat that is
and fuel consumption. created and then the amount of heat
ISO standard 3046-1 is specific to that is dissipated. A more precise
engines and ISO 8528 is followed definition is the increase in winding
for the generator set. temperature above the ambient
temperature. In other words, some
heat is retained within the unit,
raising the temperature of the
unit. The National Electrical
Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
generator ratings are based on the
generators “temperature rise” limit.
Outside the United States, the
International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) has limits on
temperature rise for generators;
these may be found in IEC 6034-22
(1996) and IEC 6034-1 (2004).

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Temperature rise is the increase For standby power, the F class has
in winding temperature above the a 130°C temperature rise limit or
ambient temperature. Ambient 180°C total temperature:
temperature is the temperature of 40°C + 10°C + 130°C
the cooling air as it enters the
ventilating openings of the The H class has a 150°C
machine. temperature rise or 200°C total
This temperature rise occurs temperature limit:
because of the flow of current in 40°C + 10°C + 150°C
the windings and internal losses
that occur in the machine during
operation. Voltage plays a key role in
generator rating and must be
The most common classes of considered. In some cases,
generators are the “F” and “H” generator voltage will not match
class. For all classes, NEMA the preferred operating voltage.
assumes operation at 40°C ambient A voltage regulator can provide
or lower. The temperature rise voltage adjustment capability,
limits also allow for a 10°C margin however, when “dialing down”
for hot-spots. A hot-spot is the spot generator voltage, the current will
in stator windings with the highest increase for a given rating. This will
temperature. increase generator heat and may
Table 2 shows temperature rise require generator derating. An
for F and H class generators at alternative to generator derating is
various ratings. to use a larger generator to
Genset maintain the standard rating.
Generator Temperature Package
Class Rise °C The standard set by NEMA
Rating
F 80 Continuous
allows a generator to be adjusted
H —
up or down by five percent (± 5%)
F 105 Prime as installed. Cat generators typically
H 125 Prime have a minimum 10% dial down
F 130 Standby capability; in some cases this may
H 150 Standby result in a derate. Some generators
are specifically designed as broad-
Table 2 range and may not require derating.
A check of the manufacturer’s data
For prime power, the F class has is recommended when using
a 105°C rise or total temperature generators at “off-design” voltage.
limit of 155°C (40°C ambient
temperature + 10°C hot-spot margin Generator Mapping Limits
+ 105°C temperature rise) or less. Figure 1 is a reactive capability
chart for a salient-pole generator.
The H class allows for a 125°C rise A load point within this area
or total temperature limit of 175°C defines the:
or less:
40°C + 10°C + 125°C • Active Power
• Reactive Power
• Apparent Power

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

• Current The durability and endurance of form


• Power Factor wound windings are typically better
• Excitation than random wound windings;
The heavy dark line, with points however, because of the complex
labeled m-n-p-s-q-u-t, indicates manufacturing process, form wound
absolute limits that are tolerated in generators are more expensive. For
a machine. Generators are rated low voltage applications, random
within these limits. (See the wound windings are an acceptable
Generator Section for additional option for most applications.
details.) Caterpillar recommends that the
dealer, consulting engineer and
customer carefully review all load and
application factors and select the
most suitable generator winding
protection type for each application.
There are four major factors that
influence the main stator construction
selection:
Type of generator set rating.
Standby load applications with
limited running time (emergency
power) and typically lower load
demand factors should utilize
random wound generators. Most
prime and continuous applications,
with known site factors and
environmental conditions, can also
consider using random wound
generators, especially when
optional space heaters, generator
winding protection, and generator
air filters are utilized. Reference
table 3 below. Applications with
harsh environments, high
harmonics and/or fast changing
Figure 1 loads, high transient loads, and high
non-linear loads should utilize form
wound generators.
Site Conditions Impact
Power rating. High power generator
on Genset Ratings sets (above 2.5MW) and critical power
Site conditions and power installations should utilize form wound
requirements will also play a key generators to ensure optimum
role in generator selection. Careful performance. Smaller generator sets at
consideration must be given to the lower power rating (under 1MW) are
environment that the package will commonly constructed as random
be operating in. (See Table 3.) wound generators. The applications in
Random Wound vs Form Wound the middle of the rating range (1MW to
Cat generators are available with 2.5MW) should be investigated
random wound main stator carefully to ensure the dealer
construction for low voltage (up to understands all aspects of the
600 volts) configurations and form application and selects product in
wound construction for low, medium accordance with this guide. When
(600 to 4160 volts), and high voltage selecting any generators, it is important
(above 4160 volts) configurations. to give consideration to other options
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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

such as generator winding protection Color chart guide for selecting the
on main stator windings, space heaters, generator winding type:
and over-sizing to satisfy application The winding description in each of the nine
requirements. boxes is the winding type Caterpillar
recommends. However, it is not practical to
Installation environment. place any actual values on the axis, it is
Generator sets installed in a harsh required the users make individual
environment, subject to abrasive decisions, and consider all other factors
when making a selection. Therefore the
(sand, salt, or dust) or corrosive color-coding is to guide the thought and
(salt or chemicals) air-borne deliberation process when making the
materials, as a priority, should be selection:
form wound construction. It is noted Green Winding is applicable and
that lower power generators are recommended in majority of cases.
Yellow Use extra caution when selecting
typically not available with form the winding type for this environment. The
wound construction. In cases where user must understand and research all
random wound construction is factors of the application, including factors
utilized in harsh environments, the not listed in the table 3 (including customer
optional space heaters and specifications/requirements), if applying a
random wound generator into these
generator winding protection on applications to avoid premature winding
main stator windings should be failures.
selected and applied.
Type of load. High harmonic Environmental Conditions
inducing and non-linear loads Various environment or site
adversely affect generator windings; conditions that impact an engine or
they may cause the winding’s end generator selection include altitude,
turns to destructively vibrate, temperature, physical harsh
leading to insulation cracking, and environments (defined as any or all
making the generators more of the following conditions:
susceptive to moisture failures. condensing humidity, salt, dust, and
sand), and electrical harsh
The form wound generators are environments (include for example
inherently more robust and suitable non-linear loads, high inrush
for these applications. Oversizing loading, and repetitive cycling of
generators is also a consideration loads).
and advised for random wound
generators exposed to this type of An engine rating is primarily
loading. limited by structural and thermal
limits. These limits include
maximum cylinder pressure during
combustion, turbocharger speed,
exhaust gas temperature and in
natural gas engines, fuel type.
Where an engine operates relative
to these limits will determine the
maximum altitude and ambient
temperature for a given rating.
When an engine exceeds the
maximum altitude or ambient
temperature, the engine must be
derated.
Altitude and temperature most
heavily influence engine ratings.
Table 3 The higher the altitude, the lower
the air density. Clean dense air is
needed for efficient combustion.
Likewise, an increase in
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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

temperature lowers air density. condensation. Space heaters should


Therefore, a derate of the engine be used to raise the temperature
must occur in high altitude and/or above the ambient temperature to
high temperature conditions in prevent condensation in high
order for the generator set to meet humidity areas.
performance expectations. Conductive or abrasive dust
Ambient Altitude and drawn in through the cooling fan
can be very harmful to the
Temperature generator. Examples of abrasive
Some generators operating at dust are: salt, cast iron dust, carbon
altitudes above 1000 meters (3281 dust, sand, powdered graphite, coke
feet) and/or temperatures above dust, lime dust, wood fiber, and
40 degrees C (104 degrees F) will quarry dust. When these foreign
incur a derate and/or temperature particles blow through the
rise reduction. Please contact the generator, they act as sandpaper
appropriate Application and scraping away the insulation. These
Installation Engineering workgroup abrasions can cause an electrical
in the Application Support Network/ short within the generator. An
Customer Solutions Quoter system accumulation of these materials in
for guidance on particular generator the crevices of the insulation system
derates due to ambient altitude and will act as an insulator or as a
temperature. moisture attractor. Filters which fit
over the unit’s intake air openings
Corrosive Atmospheres or enclosure ventilation openings
Salt and other corrosive elements can prevent damage. When using
can cause damage to the winding filters, it is important that they be
insulation which can lead to failure regularly changed so as not to
of the generator. Protection from impede airflow. The use of a
these elements is derived from the generator air filter will cause the
application of optional generator generator to derate due to higher
winding protection on main stator temperature rise resulting from
windings, where available. reduced cooling airflow. Differential
pressure switches may be available
Humidity as an option on many generator
Condensation resulting from sets. Protection from these
humidity will present a problem for elements is also derived from the
all generators unless they are fully application of optional generator
enclosed. Temperature rise of the winding protection on main stator
machine and the circulation of windings.
cooling air with sufficient load
operation will usually prevent

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Transient Response
Whenever a load is applied to or (kVAR) changes based upon the
removed from a generator set, the voltage regulator settings, the total
engine speed rpm, voltage and capacity and dynamic characteristics
frequency are temporarily changed of the generator set and the electrical
from its steady-state condition. This inertia of the other loads in the
temporary change is called transient system. On removal of load, the
response. When a significant load is engine speed increases momentarily
applied, the engine speed (generally referred to as overshoot),
temporarily reduces (generally then returns to its steady-state
referred to as frequency or voltage condition. The time required for the
dip) and then returns to its steady- generator set to return to its normal
state condition. The degree of this dip steady-state speed is called recovery
depends on the amount of active time. This is illustrated in Figure 2.
power (kW) and reactive power

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

The human eye is sensitive to slight


lighting fluctuations. Even a decrease
of 1/2 volt on a 110 volt incandescent
bulb is noticeable. A one volt dip, if
repeated, becomes objectionable.
Figure 3 shows the range of
observable and objectionable voltage
dips, assuming direct illumination
and medium-sized bulbs.
If indirect lighting is used with no
incandescent bulbs below 100 watts,
Figure 2 these values may be broadened.
This is also true if all lighting is
Sizing Criterion fluorescent rather than incandescent.
Three primary criteria need to be Reciprocating compressors
provided to accurately size a seriously affect lighting quality.
generator set: Torque pulsations vary motor
• The acceptable percent of current, causing sufficient voltage
voltage & frequency dip fluctuation to flicker lights.
Unfortunately, this is a frequency to
• The acceptable duration of which eyes are extremely sensitive.
the voltage & frequency dip
recovery time A commonly accepted figure for
• The percent of a load step and current variation limits for motor-
type of load to be connected driven reciprocating compressors is
66% of full rated motor current.
The larger the voltage dip a This limits horsepower rating of
generator set can tolerate, the compressor motors to about 6% of
smaller and perhaps more generator kVA rating, which is in the
economical the generator set can be. limit of objectionable light flicker. For
A 30% maximum voltage dip is a example, a 30 hp motor may be used
typical limit for industrial motor on systems having not less than
control centers. Sensitive loads may 500 kVA of generator capacity in
be written in spec for much lower operation (30 is 6% of 500).
voltage dips. UPS, variable speed
drives, and medical equipment are all
examples of loads which need small
voltage dips.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Figure 3

Typical voltage dip limitations are Motor Starting


found in Table 4 for various facilities. The genset’s ability to start large
motors without large frequency or
voltage dips depends on the entire
Typical Voltage Dip Limitations system. System factors include:
Facility Application
Permissible
Voltage • Available engine power
Dip • Capacity of the generator
Hospital, hotel
motel,
Lighting load,
large Power
2%
Infrequent • Energy stored in the rotating
apartments, load, large inertia of the genset
libraries, Flickering highly
schools, and
stores.
objectionable. • Acceleration of the motor and
Movie Theaters Lighting load, 3% its load (motor
(sound tone
requires
large Flickering
objectionable.
Infrequent characteristics)
constant
frequency. • Electrical components
Neon flashers between the genset and
erratic)
Bars and Power load, 5% - 10%
motor.
resorts. large Some Infrequent A properly sized generator will
flicker
acceptable support the high starting kVA (skVA)
Shops,
factories, mills,
Power load,
large Some
3% - 5%
Frequent
required and sustain adequate
laundries. flicker output voltage for the motor so it
Mines, oil field,
acceptable
Power load, 25% - 30%
can produce the needed torque to
quarries, large Flicker Frequent accelerate its load to rated speed.
asphalt, plants. acceptable.
Greater voltage fluctuations permitted with emergency After the initial voltage dip, it is
power systems. important that the generator restore
Table 4 voltage to at least 90% to develop
adequate torque to accelerate its
load to rated speed. Full voltage

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

starting causes the largest voltage Block Load


dip. For this reason, public utilities A block load refers to the
will not always allow full voltage percentage of rated power at rated
starting of large motors. Details on power factor instantaneously added
motor starting are later discussed in to the genset. When block loads are
the “load analysis” section of this large, sometimes they should be
guide. accepted in smaller portions in
Transient response of a genset is various steps. Step loading is very
a description of the maximum common when load acceptance
voltage and frequency change on performance criteria are required.
application of a load and the time to For example, if a genset is rated
recover to nominal voltage and 1000 ekW at 0.8 pf and a 250 ekW
frequency conditions. Typically, the load at 0.8 pf is applied to the
maximum allowable voltage dip is genset, a block load of 25% [(power
30%. The maximum frequency applied/rated power) x 100%] is
dip is about 25% but modern applied.
equipment is restricting this to
tighter margins. Transient Response Standards
There are standards in various
It is not always necessary to have countries; and industries that
the quickest transient response require generator sets to be capable
possible; only the best response for of accepting and recovering a full
the application’s need. Gensets all load step. However, many do not
perform differently by the design of specify frequency and volt
the engine, governing, and voltage deviations. ISO 8528 has set
regulation systems. Transient transient response standards. Four
response characterizations must be performance classes are designated
compared to the equipment that will in ISO 8528-1-7 to describe a genset
be used at the facility; this will in terms of voltage and frequency.
ensure the genset is sized to the The chart below lists the
loads that will be applied. performance class and their criteria
Refer to the Motor Loads and and application examples. The
Motor Performance Sections on performance class relevant for the
Pages 50 & 55 for more information. application must be followed to be
within the standard and achieve
maximum performance.

G1 Required for applications where the General purpose


connected loads are such that only basic applications Lighting
parameters of voltage & frequency need & electrical loads
to be specified.
G2 Required for applications where the Lighting systems,
demand on voltage is very much the pumps, fans and
same as for the commercial power hoists
system. When load changes, temporary
deviations in voltage and frequency are
acceptable.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

G3 Required for applications where the Telecommunications


connected equipment may make severe equipment
demands on voltage and frequency and
waveforms.
G4 Required for applications where the Data-processing &
demands on voltage, frequency, and Computer equipment
waveform are extremely severe.

Table 5 shows the acceptance Engine Considerations


(dip) and rejection (overshoot)
parameters identified by ISO 8528-5. Brake Mean Effective Pressure
Class G4 is reserved for limits that (BMEP)
are unique and must be agreed When sizing a genset, comparing
upon by the manufacturer and engines may be necessary to
customer. ISO 8528-5 also sets determine optimal performance,
limits on recovery times for each especially when motor starting.
class and identifies how recovery Both torque and horsepower are
time is measured. necessary measures but are not
helpful when comparing engines of
Agreed between Manufacturer different sizes and designs. Instead,
and Customer (AMC) engines can be compared by
Class Class Class Class referring to their brake mean
G1 G2 G3 G4 effective pressure (BMEP).
Frequency %
–15 –10 –7 AMC The “mean effective pressure”
Acceptance is an average of the pressure that
Frequency %
18 12 10 AMC would need to be present in the
Rejection
engine’s cylinder for the power and
Voltage % torque to be produced. BMEP refers
–25 –20 –15 AMC
Acceptance
to the brake MEP or the useful work
Voltage %
Rejection 35 25 20 AMC done at the engine flywheel.
Time BMEP is an indicator of how much
5 5 3 AMC
Seconds engine torque is available. The
Table 5 BMEP can indicate if the pressure
within the cylinder is within the
SAE Standard J1349 specifies optimal performance parameter.
inlet air and fuel supply test BMEP is a relative number that is
conditions. It also gives a method only used as a standard to compare
for correcting observed power to engines of different designs or
reference conditions and a method sizes. It can be expressed in psi,
for determining net full load engine kPa or bar.
power with a dynamometer to
engines.

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

BMEP Load Step a turbocharged-aftercooled (TA)


Two engines of different sizes are engine, and a 1:1 Volt/Hz voltage
working similarly if they operate at regulator. Figure 4 shows how the
the same BMEP. parameters vary as a function of
A BMEP load is described in the engine speed; Figure 5 presents the
following figures and text. same events versus time.
Step-by-Step Events — Load Note: Reading through this topic,
Applied prior to reviewing the figures, will
Figure 4 and Figure 5 illustrate aid in understanding the content.
full load addition to a genset with

Figure 4

1. Point 1 is the beginning of the 2. Speed falls and the governor


event. The genset is stable at increases fuel flow, increasing
no-load, BMEP is zero, and engine output BMEP. As speed
speed is at high idle. Full load error and time increase, the
is applied instantaneously. faster the governor increases
BMEP.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

3. At point 3, the engine reaches constant for an instant at the


an equivalence ratio of 1.0, maximum speed dip.
and power temporarily reaches 8. Since the speed error is still
a maximum. The time is so large, the rack is still wide
short that little turbocharger open. Engine BMEP continues
acceleration has occurred. to increase, exceeding the
4. As the governor continues to BMEP demanded by the load.
increase fuel flow towards the The excess BMEP permits the
rack stop, the additional fuel genset to accelerate, increasing
results in overfueling, smoke speed towards rated. Power is
and loss of power. still air limited.
5. At point 5, the governor 9. At point 9, engine BMEP
reaches the rack stop and reaches its maximum level at
overfueling no longer the engine lug curve, although
increases. speed is still below rated.
6. The turbocharger accelerates, Power is now fuel limited.
increasing airflow and engine 10. The engine continues to
power using some of the accelerate, with BMEP limited
excess fuel. Since the by the rack stop, as the load
turbocharger is so much line rises to meet it.
slower than the governor, Acceleration slows because the
power increases much more excess BMEP is decreasing.
slowly. 11. Speed reaches rated, and the
7. At point 7, engine output governor reduces fuel input
BMEP finally matches the load until engine BMEP output
demanded by the generator. exactly matches the load
Since power and load are exactly BMEP demand. Speed becomes
equal, there is no acceleration constant again at the new load.
or deceleration, and speed is

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Figure 5

Since only governor action is turbocharged engine can produce


required, the engine can reach point more power than a similar
3 in about 0.2 seconds. The BEMP displacement naturally aspirated
of TA engines can reach, engine, its capability to accept block
approximately, 140 psi without loads does not necessarily increase.
requiring turbocharger response. The ISO (International Standards
Thereafter, turbocharger Organization) Standard on
acceleration will allow engine BMEP Generator Sets has considered this
to increase, roughly, 20 to 60 BMEP phenomenon and the data in Figure
per second; predicted turbocharger 6, from ISO 8528-5, is the result.
response is modified for engine
underspeed error, overfueling,
altitude, cold start and air
impingement. Given the 20 to 60
BMEP per second increase, the
example requires approximately
1.5 seconds to reach point 7, and
approximately 4 seconds to reach
point 9.
As engines of a given Figure 6
displacement are designed for
higher and higher outputs, their Explanation of Figure 6
capability to accept block loads Using Figure 6, the number of
does not increase. Although a load steps needed for desired

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

power can be determined. First, find the air entering the cylinders. A
the BMEP of the engine at rated turbocharger can increase pressure
speed; BMEP levels are shown for which will increase density. Density
each rating in the performance data of the air can also be increased by
of the TMI. cooling the hot, compressed air
If the percentage of block load is with a heat exchanger called an
under the first load step curve, the aftercooler. A separate water
block load can be accomplished in supply, jacket water, or radiator
one step. airflow can be used for this cooling.
If the percentage of the block load The configuration of the air
is greater than the first load step systems can also have an effect
curve but smaller than the second on the transient response. A
load step curve, it will take two load turbocharger equipped with a
steps to reach desired power. wastegate allows a larger
turbocharger to be used but limits
If the percentage of block load is the turbo boost pressure under
greater than the first two load step normal operating conditions. The
curves but less than the third load engine runs faster and therefore
step curve, it will take three load increases airflow without
steps to reach desired power. overspeeding. Another example is
Load blocks and response to the ability to decrease the transient
block loading is one of many response by increasing the number
considerations when sizing a of turbochargers. This would allow
generator set. Many turbocharged the engine to run at the same BMEP
and aftercooled four-stroke diesel but have a different transient
engines will not accept 100% block response. Inlet air pressure in a
load in one step. Always investigate turbocharger affects the air density
to ensure the selected generator set as well. A smaller nozzle in the
will meet application requirements. turbine housing of a turbocharger
increases air velocity which causes
Engine Configuration the turbocharger to operate at a
The way an engine is configured higher speed, thus, increasing boost
can affect the size of genset needed. and airflow. An engine equipped
Air System with water-cooled exhaust
The load acceptance behavior of manifolds will transfer less heat to
an engine also depends on the type the turbo-charger, making it less
of air supply to the combustion efficient during short periods of
system. Maximum engine power acceleration.
may be airflow restricted. Power
can only be increased if airflow and Gas Engines
fuel rate are increased. Engine Cat gas engines are naturally
airflow is determined by aspirated (NA) or turbocharged-
aftercooled (TA). Atmospheric
displacement of the engine, engine conditions affect the way an NA
speed, and engine inlet air density. engine can draw air into its system.
More dense air allows the generator An NA engine’s load capability is
set to perform more efficiently; thus directly affected by altitude and
a quicker response to varying loads. ambient temperature. TA engines
For a given displacement, or given have a turbocharger which
size of engine, more speed compresses air which increases its
produces more airflow. The best temperature. A separate aftercooler
way to increase airflow at speeds is used so that air density and
which are compatible with 60 Hz or detonation margin is increased.
50 Hz is to increase the density of TA engines can be derated so that

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

they will not experience premature System Interaction


detonation. The generator and voltage
Block Load and Transient Capability regulator are responsible for
The block load capability or voltage deviation and recovery. The
transient response of the gas engine power produced by the generator is
genset package is less than its controlled by excitation of the rotor.
diesel engine counterpart. Most of The voltage regulator controls
this difference is directly attributed excitation (DC current).
to the inherently different fuel Increased load draws more
systems of the two engines. When current from the generator, which
the governor calls for more power, causes the generator voltage to
a diesel engine reacts by adding drop. As a response, the regulator
fuel directly into the cylinder. This increases rotating field excitation
method permits the diesel engine to which increases its flux. This
accept 100% block loads with increase of flux brings the stator
acceptable voltage dips and voltage back up. Thus, the
frequency changes. When the generator can produce the higher
governor on a gas engine calls for current and power demand at the
more power, the throttle opens and same voltage.
a larger flow of air/fuel mixture starts As discussed earlier in this
moving through the after-cooler section, maximum generator power
core, air intake manifold, and then is limited by temperature. Heat is
into the cylinder. This time delay produced in the winding by current
detracts from the gas engines flow and magnetic flux changes.
capability for accepting large block Temperatures above certain
loads. parameters cause the generator to
Considerable effort has been exceed its design limit. The best
made to improve the transient method for increasing generator
electrical performance of the power without excessive heat is
G3516B and G3516C generator sets. to make the generator bigger;
The G3516B uses transient more copper (windings) can carry
richening. Transient richening is more current without raising the
factory-programmed to the control temperature; more iron
software that improves block load (laminations) can handle more flux
pick up. There is also a bypass line without increasing temperature.
from the aftercooler to the inlet of When a load is added, the
the turbocharger which is equipped generator voltage drops as
with an electronic valve. This magnetic flux changes in the iron
system is called the turbocharger and air gap. A bigger generator has
bypass which, in conjunction with more iron, so the flux deviation and
factory-programmed software, voltage deviation from a given kW
allows block unloads to be is less.
accomplished without turbocharger The sum of the time constants of
surge (rapid speed change of the the voltage regulator, exciter, main
turbocharger). These two systems rotor and main stator determine the
enable the G3516B gensets for voltage response and recovery;
island operation. The G3516B typically, this is less than one
gensets are able to accept 10% second, with additional time for the
transient load steps. The gensets regulator to stabilize.
are able to reject transient load
steps up to 25% of rated power
from any given load point.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Voltage Regulators The “Volts per Hertz” (1:1 Volts/Hz)


The voltage regulator is a key regulator was designed to impose a
component in determining the decreasing torque on the engine
amount of voltage/frequency during frequency dips. The Volts/Hz
deviation and recovery time. schedules voltage proportionally to
There are several different types speed.
of regulators: If the speed dips 15%, the Volts/Hz
• Constant regulator will cause the voltage to
dip by 15%. This will reduce current
• Volts/Hertz flow into the load by 15%. The kW
• 2 Volts/Hertz absorbed by the load is then 0.85
(85% of volts) multiplied by 0.85
• Digital Voltage Regulator (85% of current), or 72.25% of rated
(adjustable Volts/Hz) power. The engine only has to
A constant voltage regulator produce 72.25% of rated hp.
attempts to maintain rated voltage Mathematically, the formula for this
as the load is applied. Since the concept is:
generator is maintaining rated 0.85 volts x 0.85 current = 0.7225
voltage, it is maintaining applied power = 0.85 speed x 0.85 torque
load (ekW). We previously
highlighted the relationship Technology has allowed an
between ekW and bkW. increase in engine ratings. This
increase creates the possibility of
bkW = Speed x Torque/lambda more severe transient loading. In
Therefore, when a constant some cases a Volts/Hz regulator
voltage regulator is used, it imposes cannot prevent excessive frequency
increasing torque on the engine dip because of large load changes;
during frequency dips. Since most the torque has increased so much
genset engines are not designed the deceleration on load is extreme.
for increasing torque, significant Caterpillar has developed a 2
amounts of frequency dip can Volts/Hz regulator to address this
occur. situation.
Engine speed rpm decreases as The 2 Volts/Hz regulator
any load is imposed on a limited decreases voltage at twice the rate
bus (generator). This causes of frequency dip. At 15% engine
frequency/voltage to dip speed, the voltage would dip to 30%
accordingly. Greater loads applied (2 x 15%) and the load would be
to the genset will impose a greater reduced to 70%. The kW absorbed
percentage of dip; greater loads will by the load is then 0.70 (70% of
also require more time for the volts) multiplied by 0.70 (70% of
engine to recover. current) or 49% of rated hp.

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

If the genset is large enough to improve performance by allowing


carry the running load the 2 Volts/Hz regulation characteristics to be
regulator may help in motor modified that were previously not
starting. A reduced motor starter modifiable. This allows the engine
may not be required with the generator set to function in a more
2 Volts/Hz regulator when starting efficient manner and to provide
large motors depending on system improved performance to the
design and applied load steps. customer.
However, the entire connected The digital voltage regulator can
system would have reduced be software configured to optimize
voltage, not just the motor. the transient response of any Cat
Digital Voltage Regulator generator set package by changing
The digital voltage regulator is a the underfrequency characteristics
microprocessor-based voltage as well as the control loop gains.
regulator. Its main purpose is to The microprocessor-based design
regulate output voltage of an engine allows for unmatched flexibility in
generator set. It is designed to diverse applications.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Customer Requirements

selection of an appropriately sized


Power Demand engine. This load curve is also
On Site Power Requirement useful in programming units for
Before selecting an engine model economical operation.
and rating, a load analysis needs to
be performed. This section will
consider the factors which affect
generator sizing including load
management needs, voltage and
frequency dip limitations, motor
starting considerations, start-up
needs and all required standards.
Load Management
Load management is the
deliberate control of loads on a
genset and/or utility to have the
lowest possible electrical costs.
Assessing the customer’s load
profiles is a key component to Figure 7
establishing their load management Daily typical peaks for various
profile and ultimately the size of industries can be graphed based on
genset needed to operate within typical loads as shown in Figure 8.
that profile.
Loads Profiles
The duration and nature of a load
must be established to select and
operate a genset system at
maximum efficiency. To analyze a
load, a family of load profile charts Figure 8
is necessary. Chronological and
duration load profiles best serve Duration curves, as shown in
this purpose. Figure 9, rearrange chronological
curves and summarize daily load.
Note: Unless the load is known to Such curves are developed for a
be steady, this average cannot be week, month, season or year. The
used to establish the engine and daily chart represents the average
generator requirements because the kilowatt load for each day, while the
average will always be lower than twelve-month chart, shown in
the maximum kW demand. Figure 10, represents the average
The purpose of the monthly kilowatt load for each month.
average number is to be able to
graph a complete year and
determine any seasonal variations.
A daily chronological load curve,
illustrated in Figure 7, shows load
demand throughout the day. A
chronological curve establishes the
peak daily demand and an energy
usage profile which can aid in the

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

For existing loads that are served


by a utility, power bills or power
consumption records will provide
the needed data for a twelve-month
period. The average kW load can be
determined by the following
equation:
Average kW Total kW used in Month
Load for = Total Monthly Hours of
Month Operation

Figure 9

Figure 10

Estimating Load Data various facilities. While these


Obviously, historical load data numbers will have variations
does not exist for a plant or facility depending on site conditions, they
not yet constructed. Table 6 are reliable and helpful in making
estimates the average load of preliminary feasibility studies for
installation.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Categorizing Loads Power loads involve loads other


When developing a load estimate, than lighting. Examples are motors,
it is helpful to categorize lighting furnaces and rectifiers. Unlike
and power loads. These loads are lighting loads, power loads vary
distinctly different. based on a variety of factors; these
Lighting loads are relatively including start and stop times,
constant. They are most often percentage of output and the
expressed as load density in volt- associated power factor.
amperes (VA) per square foot In addition to categorizing the
(VA/FT2). In a commercial building, loads, lighting and power loads are
lighting loads typically range from also estimated separately. The loads
1.0 VA/FT2 in a storage area to are later combined to determine the
15.0 VA/FT2 or more in an office approximate total load.
area.

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Load and Power Consumption Estimating Data


Power Usage
Facility Watts/sq ft kWh/ft2/yr
Schools 4-5 average (43.06-53.82 W/m2 11 to 17
Class Rooms (Total) (1.02 to 1.58
Locker Rooms, Auditoriums, 5-6 (53.87-64.58) kWh/m2/yr)
Halls and Corridors 2-3 (21.53-32.29)
20 Watts per running foot
(65.62 W/m)
Shopping Centers 5 average (Total) 28 to 34
Stores, Large Department and 5-6 (53.87-64.58) (2.6-3.2)
Specialty Stores 500 Watts per running foot
Show Windows (1640.5 W/m)
Office Buildings 5-6 average 28 to 34
Private and General Offices 4 (43.06) (2.6-3.2)
Professional Offices 6-7 (64.58-75.35)
Dentist, Drafting Rooms, etc. 7 (75.35)
Hotels and Motels 3-4 average (32.29-43.06) (Total) 12 to 17 (1.1-
Lounge 2 (21.53) 1.58)
Rooms 3 (32.29)
Dining Rooms 4 (43.06)
Exhibition Halls, Shops, Lobby, 3 (32.29)
Kitchen
Hospitals 1.5 to 2.5 kW per bed average 8500 to 11400
Lobby, Wards, Cafeterias 3 Watts/sq ft (32.29 W/m2) kWh per bed
Private Rooms, Operating Rooms 5 Watts/sq ft (53.82 W/m2) per year
Operating Tables: Major 3000 Watts each
Surgeries 1500 Watts each
Minor Surgeries
Apartment Houses 2-3 kW per unit (Total) 11 to 17
Lobby 2 Watts/sq ft (21.53 W/m2) (1.20 to 1.58)
Apartments 3 Watts/sq ft (32.29 W/m2)
Small Appliances 1.5 kW/unit
Table 6

VA/FT2 Load Estimating Load Example


For estimating purposes, power Calculate the load for a
loads and lighting loads can be 10,000 square foot office with
measured in VA/FT2. However, a electric air conditioning.
detailed analysis requires individual Solution
measurement of power loads to The left-hand column of Table 7
ensure accuracy. indicates the maximum lighting
A simple table, based on VA/FT2, is load in an office building is 4.0
used to obtain a rough estimate of a VA/FT2. Therefore, the lighting load
load as expressed in total kVA equates to:
generated; Table 7 shows such a 4.0 VA/FT2 x 10,000 (square feet) =
table. 40,000 VA

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Volt Amperes Per Square Foot (VA/FT2)


Load Type
Facility Type Air-
Miscellaneous Air-Conditioning
Lighting Conditioning
Power (Electrical) (Non-Electrical)
Office Building 2.5 - 4.0 2.0 4.0 - 7.0 1.5 - 3.2
Hospital 2-3 1.0 5.7 2.0 - 3.2
School 2.0 - 4.0 1.5 3.5 - 5.0 1.5 - 2.2
Table 7

Reading the table from left to is important to know the operating


right: sequence and what else is running
2.0 VA/FT2 is required for when loads are connected.
miscellaneous power loads: Prioritization
2.0 VA/FT2 x 10,000 (square feet) = Prioritization is the process by
20,000 VA which the customer identifies what
electrical loads are needed and in
7.0 A/FT2 is required for electrical what priority. The highest priority
air conditioning loads: loads would be in the first step;
even if all the gensets are not ready
7.0 VA/FT2 x 10,000 (square feet) = for load. The first genset ready to
70,000 VA
accept the load would take the first
priority loads. The next step would
Add the individual loads to go to the next highest prioritized
determine the combined load: load. This process will repeat until
40,000 + 20,000 + 70,000 = 130,000 VA all loads are applied.
Smaller load steps equate to
smaller transients, which result in a
When using the table, it is smoother transition. For example, a
important to remember that the medical center might prioritize
table does not account for power lifesaving equipment as their
losses caused by the resistance number one need. That equipment
found in wires and cables. A power (or special outlets for that
loss of up to 6% would be factored equipment) would be the first
into the VA total when estimating a supplied with electricity from the
facility with extensive wiring. first available genset. Lights may be
identified as the second most
Load Steps important need and handled by the
Load steps refer to the amount of second load step.
load that will be placed on a genset
at one time. A genset may accept When starting generator sets
load in one load step, or may without a preferred load order, it is
spread it out over several load suggested that the largest loads are
steps. The customer can identify the started first. The largest transient
needs of the environment and then will occur before the system is
a proper method of starting can be heavily loaded. These large loads
applied. BMEP load step analysis, will have the least effect on the rest
described earlier in this guide, is of the system.
one system for developing a Load Shedding
starting method. Load shedding refers to the
Most loads do not draw power in method by which needs are
a steady-state fashion; therefore, it prioritized after the gensets are

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

started. During periods of high Peak Shaving


demand, some loads may be less Figure 11 shows how a utility
important to the facility than other customer can qualify for a
loads. These can be “shed”, or not discounted rate by not allowing the
powered, so the electricity can be power demand to be above 500 kW.
used for predetermined, essential Any power generated over 500 kW
loads. is supplied by the customer’s
For example: In a factory, all generator. Thus, the customer
welding equipment and other “shaves” the peaks from the utilities’
machines may be operated, at responsibility. Peak shaving can be
capacity, at the same time, between very demanding on an engine; it
10 am and 12 noon and then again must be able to start quickly and
between 1 pm and 3 pm. During automatically parallel to the utility.
these times, the load to lights in the The response time of the engine is
lunchroom and parking lot would be crucial because of the load
shed because they are less of a fluctuations.
priority.
Intermittent Loads
Equipment, such as furnaces and
elevators, use power intermittently
and are considered intermittent loads.
All loads that follow an intermittent
load must consider the intermittent
load as part of its total. This increases
skVA requirements and a larger
generator may be needed to account
for intermittent loads.
Additional Load Categories Figure 11
There are no official guidelines for
categorizing loads. Architects, Base Loading
consultants, customers and The least demanding power
contractors will determine management type on an engine is
categories for loads based on each base loading. The generator
project. operates at a constant load and the
For example: Loads on a project utility imports power when the load
may be divided into lighting, exceeds the generator output. The
heating and cooling loads. On user can also export power to the
another project, the loads may be utility if the load is below the output
categorized as normal, emergency of the generator. Figure 12 shows a
and uninterruptible loads. The loads base loading system and indicates
on a third project may be labeled as when power would be imported or
base, intermediate and peak exported. Since overloads are
shaving loads. handled by the utility and the
generator set is operating at a
Load Management Strategies constant load, size and engine
Power utilities sometimes offer response time are not as crucial as
their customers power discounts in peak shaving.
if their loads do not fluctuate or
exceed a certain limit. The most
common are peak shaving, base
loading and zero import/zero export
control.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Zero Import/Zero Export


The load management type in
which the customer supplies all the
electrical needs to the facility, while
still paralleling with the utility is
called Zero Import/Zero Export
control. Refer to Figure 13. If the
power requirements fluctuate
widely, a series of generator sets
can be used and brought on-line as
required. Since the customer
remains paralleled to the utility, the
Figure 12 demands made on the engines for
this type are similar to base loading.
Reliability is the chief concern for
these customers. Utilities will often
invoke demand charge penalties
each time they are called upon to
supply power.

Figure 13

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Concepts of Peak Shaving vs. Peak Sharing


Peak Shaving Peak Sharing
Customer sheds load or generates power to Customer generates power to help utility
reduce own demand peak reduce its peak
Practice is generally discouraged by utility Practice encouraged by many utilities with
companies generating capacity shortfalls
Customer benefits at utility’s expense in lost Because the utility benefits, it can afford
sales to reward the customer
Customer savings accrue from reduced Savings accrue from interruptible rates or
demand charges credits per kW of customer’s on-site
generating capacity

Concept is feasible only where customer Concept is viable even for customers with
experiences severe demand “spikes” and relatively flat load profiles
high demand charges

Customer decides when to run generators Utility dictates operation when utility
cannot meet all of its customers’ demands
If generators are installed for the sole purpose of taking advantage of peak-shaving
incentives, the customer gains the additional benefit of acquiring backup protection
against utility outages

Figure 14

Peak Sharing
In a typical peak sharing
arrangement, the customer installs
and operates generators of specified
capacity when directed to do so by
the utility company. Under many
peak sharing contracts, utilities
compensate the customer for each
time they operate their onsite
generators. The differences between
peak shaving and peak sharing are
outlined in Figure 14.
Co-generation
Co-generation is the term used to
describe the load management Figure 15
system that produces electricity for
lighting and equipment operations As shown in Figure 15, loads are
while at the same time it utilizes the arranged into descending order of
waste heat produced in the exhaust magnitude based on the percentage
for heating, cooling, or generation of of the total load. Generator sets
process steam. Co-generation plants powering the base load operate for
can operate independently of the the duration of a 24-hour period.
utility or in parallel so the cogenerator Generator sets powering the
can purchase from or sell power to intermediate load are activated for a
the utility. limited period when the load
Load Duration Curves increases to a specified level.
Load duration curves can also
represent loads.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Generator sets earmarked to inclined conveyors, and welders can


power the peak load are used to also be estimated using the
help power 100% of the load for a information in this chart.
short period.
Load Growth
Knowing the type of load The customers’ future needs are
management that is most to be taken into account when sizing
economical to a facility can help the generator set. If the customer
determine the size of genset needed anticipates growth in their
based on the load factor and application due to increased volume
application. or expanded needs, oversizing the
Estimating Guidelines engine or leaving room for another
Many guidelines can be used for generator to be installed at a later
estimating the varied types of loads. date is reasonable and helpful to the
For example: In Table 8, the brake customer. The projected load
horsepower hour (BHP) of an air growth for any application should
compressor, rated at 125 psi, can be never be less than 10%. Table 9
found by multiplying the rated cubic shows typical load growth over a
feet per minute (CFM) of the period of 10 years for various
compressor by 0.275. Fans, blowers, applications.

Typical Load Sizing Guidelines


Air Compressors Fans & Blowers Inclined Conveyors Welders
(15° to 20°)
90 psi rating: CFM x in H2O Ft. Vertical Lift x Tons/Hr Light Duty:
0.225 CFM = BHP BHP = BHP = 3 to 20 kW
100 psi rating: 6,346 x EFF. 500
0.25 CFM = BHP
125 psi compressor: Heavy Duty:
0.275 CFM = BHP 20 to 100 kW

Table 8

Load Growth Over 10 Years


Bank Medical Center
30 – 50% 30 – 50%
Church School
30 – 50% 30 – 50%
Hospital Warehouse
30 – 50% 30 – 50%
Table 9

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Demand Factor Example:


As mentioned, the load What is the demand factor of the
requirements must be defined as system shown in Figure 16?
accurately as possible to determine
the best size of genset needed. The Solution:
“maximum demand” or “demand To calculate the numerator add
factor” is the highest demand which the individual kW loads:
is placed on the supply within a 20 + 15 + 65 = 100 Operating kW
specified period of time. After the Load
total connected load has been
found, it is important to know how
much of the maximum load will For the denominator add the hp
actually be used at a given time. ratings for each motor:
Another way to describe demand 50 + 20 + 100 = 170 hp Total
factor is the mathematical ratio of Connected Load
the operating load divided by the
connected load.
The conversion factor for hp to kW
Total Operating is 0.7457 or 0.746. Therefore, total
kW X 100 = Demand connected load is multiplied by
Total Connected Factor 0.746 to get 126.82 kW, or 127 kW:
kW
0.746 x 170 = 126.82 = 127 kW)

To find demand factor use the


formula:
Total Operating
kW X 100 = Demand
Total Connected Factor
kW
Figure 16
100 kW
X 100 = 79%
Figure 16 also illustrates demand 127 kW
factor. On this system, three
motors, rated at 50 hp, 20 hp and
100 hp each, are connected to a
generator set.
If the 50 hp motor were operated
at 100% capacity, its total connected
electrical load would be 37.3 kW.
However, the 50 hp motor is only
expected to produce 54% of its total
capacity. Hence, the operating
electrical load is 20 kW. Operating at
100% capacity, the maximum load
of the 20 hp motor on the system is
15 kW, which is also the same as its
connected load. The operating load
of the 100 hp motor, operating at
87% of its total capacity, is 65 kW.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Shown in Table 10 is a range of Figure 17 can be used to illustrate


common demand factors. diversity factor. It is important to
Range of Common Demand Factors know how much of the entire
system’s maximum load present at
Total Connected
Apparatus
Load
a given time. As shown in Figure 17,
Motors for pumps, individual loads are connected to
compressors, load centers. The load centers have
20 to 60 Percent 20 kW, 15 kW and 65 kW loads each,
elevators, blowers,
etc … for a total connected load of 100
Motors for semi- kW. The 100 kW total connected
continuous
operations, such as 50 to 80 Percent
load is routed to an 80 kW meter.
process plants and To determine the diversity factor
foundries of the system shown, 20 kW, 15 kW
Arc welders 30 to 60 Percent and 65 kW are combined to get a
Resistance welders 10 to 40 Percent total connected load of 100 kW. To
Heaters, ovens, 80 to 100 Percent find the diversity factor use the
furnaces formula to solve:
Table 10 Total Max.
Demand kW X 100 = Diversity
Diversity Factor Total Incoming Factor
Diversity factor is the value placed kW
on a small collection of loads. The
value for the whole system itself, 100 kW X 100 =
which is comprised of smaller 80 kW 125%
collections of loads, is called the
diversity factor. Specifically,
diversity factor is the mathematical Typical diversity factors include:
ratio of a system’s individual • Lighting feeders:
maximum demands divided by the 1.10 to 1.50%
maximum demand of the system
as a whole. The formula used to • Power & light feeders:
calculate diversity factor is total 1.50 to 2.00% or higher
maximum demand divided by total
incoming kW times 100. Demand Factor and Diversity
Factor in Sizing
Total Max. Demand and diversity factors are
Demand kW X 100 = Diversity advantageous when sizing
Total Incoming Factor generator sets to the load.
kW However, the connected loads
should be interlocked so that they
cannot all be impressed upon the
generator set at the same time. If
the loads are not interlocked, the
generator set rating could be
exceeded. Despite this precaution,

Figure 17

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

you must always assume that total In summary, all loads need to be
time-current characteristics of all analyzed so that the correct size
motors and other loads starting at generator can be matched to the
the same time will not exceed the load. When sizing a generator for an
short-term generator set rating. application, the steady state load
Figure 18 illustrates how demand and maximum transient load need
and diversity factors are used in to be considered.
generator set sizing. Frequency Dips
Frequency dips are related to the
size of load being connected. Twenty
to 25% maximum frequency dip is
the standard limit. A frequency dip
above 35% may cause the engine
difficulty in recovering. Frequency
dips are normally more tightly
controlled than voltage dips
because they are typically
connected to more sensitive
electrical equipment.
Block Load & Standards
The NFPA (National Fire
Protection Association) standard
110 requires that a generator set
Figure 18 must be capable of picking up a
100% block load. It does not specify
frequency and volt deviations.
In Figure 18, connected loads of ISO 8528 (2005) also has transient
300 kVA, 100 kVA and 500 kVA are response standards that are
shown. After calculating demand discussed in the Engine Ratings
factors for each of the same loads, section of this guide. The
the corresponding demand loads performance class relevant for the
are 240, 100 and 350, respectively. application must be followed to be
When combined, the total demand within the standard and achieve
load on the system is 690 kVA. maximum performance.
When the diversity factor is 1.0, the
total 690 kVA is divided by 1.0 to get Starting Requirements
690 kVA. To meet this load, a The time it takes to initiate a
generator set rated at a standard genset startup and when it is ready
size of 750 kVA is needed. to accept load is defined as its
However, a different diversity starting requirement. Starting
factor on the same system will require-ments will vary depending
change the total kVA needed. If the on the application. A typical starting
diversity factor is 1.4, for example, requirement is 10 to 30 seconds.
690 kVA divided by 1.4 equals Load Acceptance
492 kVA. Hence, a generator set Load Acceptance is the point at
rated at 500 kVA would satisfy the which breaker closure is initiated.
load.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

This is considered to be 90% of Any variation in these conditions


rated frequency. Figure 19 will affect the start time.
graphically shows a packaged Natural Gas Engines
genset’s typical starting Special engine conditioning is
performance. required for a natural gas engine to
start in 10 seconds. Ten-second
starting is only possible on specific
gas engines. Consult the factory for
specific engine model starting
requirements.
Starting condition requirements
for natural gas engines are the
same as diesel engine starting
requirements, except for one detail:
The solenoid gas valve must be
located as closely as possible to the
carburetor or “A” regulator,
depending on the fuel train consists.
Figure 19 A maximum distance of 0.61 m (2 ft)
is desired.
Ten-Second Start A customer’s starting time
Ten-second start refers to the requirements should be determined
ability of a non-paralleled generator before sizing the genset. A quick
set to start, accelerate to rated starting application requires
speed and be ready to accept load consideration of altitude,
within 10 seconds after receiving a temperature and other factors that
signal to start. affect the engine starting to find the
For 10-second starting, the best solution.
following conditions must exist: Refer to Emergency & Fast
1. Cranking batteries must be Starting in the Starting Systems
adequately sized and fully Application and Installation Guide
charged. for more information.
Note: there is a difference for Health Care Facilities & NFPA 99
battery versus ambient The standard NFPA 99 is written
temperature sizing. Also, in specifically for health care facilities.
cases where air starting is used,
the air system must supply the 3-4.1.1.8 states the following: “The
required air volume and generator set(s) shall have sufficient
maintain a 100 psi (689.5 kPa) capacity to pick up the load and meet
minimum pressure. the minimum frequency and voltage
stability requirements of the
2. Combustion air must be a emergency system within 10 seconds
minimum of 21°C (70°F). after loss of normal power.”
3. A jacket water heater to Customers requiring this
maintain a minimum of 32°C capability can achieve it by using
(90°F) jacket water temperature. the correct generator system. Select
4. A readily available supply of an appropriate genset according to
clean fuel. this standard for all health care
5. The generator rotating inertia facilities in the United States.
must not exceed that of the
standard Cat Generator.

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Sizing a genset requires Heavy Fuels


knowledge of the customer’s loads Heavy fuels are the by-products
and load management strategies as from the refining process of oil. It is
well as their requirements for extremely viscous and the fuel
transient response, emissions and quality is low. However, this fuel is
starting. All these requirements very inexpensive. For industries
need to be determined before which burn large amounts of fuel,
the genset size and rating are heavy fuels are a choice to consider
established. because of their economic
advantages. Heavy fuels are not a
Fuel Selection good choice for standby applications.
Fuel selection can impact the
performance of a genset and, Performance
depending on availability, reduce
electricity costs for a genset user. Emissions
Natural gas, diesel and heavy fuels Standards on engine emissions
are common choices. are constantly evolving.
Note: Detailed information on Special engine configurations
gaseous fuels and diesel fuels is allow operation with lower exhaust
available in respective Application & emissions. Gaseous exhaust
Installation Guides. emissions of diesel engines are the
lowest of modern internal
Natural Gas combustion engines. Engine
Natural gas engines are emissions are measured using a
appropriate for base loading, Horiba or Beckman gas analyzer,
continuous operations. Natural gas with equipment and data
does not respond well to transients measurement techniques
so it would not be a good choice for conforming to U.S. Code of Federal
loads with fluctuations. Natural gas Regulations, Title 40, Part 53 or 86.
can be less expensive, depending
on availability, and it has superior Caterpillar has developed a
emissions. correlation between smoke and
particulate concentration which can
Diesel be used to estimate particulate
Diesel fuel is suited for large load emissions.
fluctuations. Fuel normally
recommended for diesel generator Black Smoke
sets is No. 2 furnace oil or No. 2D Black smoke is the soot portion
diesel fuel. When this fuel is used of particulates and is caused by
for heating, common storage tanks incomplete combustion. Black
for boilers and generator sets are smoke is not considered an exhaust
practical. In addition to reducing emission; rather it is a compilation
installation costs, this arrangement of exhaust emissions with
reduces fuel costs by quantity particulate matter being the largest
purchases and minimizes fuel contributor. Due to the fuel
deterioration. Diesel is an excellent composition, gas engines typically
choice for base loading and standby do not have significant particulate
applications. matter emission and do not emit
black smoke.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

White Smoke Nitrogen dioxide emissions in


White smoke is caused by parts per million by volume can be
vaporized, unburned fuel passing approximated from the mass
through the engine. Like black emission rate and exhaust flow:
smoke, white smoke is not NOx Mass
considered a defined exhaust NOx Concentration Emissions
emission. Typically, white smoke = 629 x Exhaust Mass
will only be present during startup Flow
and will fade as the engine jacket
water warms as the engine is
loaded. Jacket water heaters help Where:
reduce white smoke at startup. NOx Parts Per Million
The sulfur present in the fuel Concentratio
n
=
oxidizes to form sulfur dioxide. The
emission of sulfur dioxide depends NOx Mass = g/hr of equivalent
on the amount of sulfur in the fuel Emissions NO2
and the fuel consumption of the Exhaust
engine. Sulfur dioxide emissions Flow = Kg/hr
can be calculated using the
following formula:
SO2 = (00.01998) (BSFC) (% Sulfur Caterpillar offers standard (STD)
In Fuel) engines for areas where emission
levels allow. A catalytic converter
Where: can also be added for places where
SO2 = Emissions in g/kW- emission standards are more
hr rigorous. Low Emission (LE) engines
BSFC = Brake Specific Fuel are for areas where emissions are of
Consumption primary concern. The LE engines
use lean burn technology. Lean
% Sulfur = A percentage by burn means that excess air is forced
In Fuel weight into the cylinder to cool the
combustion process. This process
Nitrogen oxides are formed when reduces the NOx in the exhaust. LE
the combustion air oxygen and engines can sustain higher loads
nitrogen molecules combine. Nitric without detonating. Because of this,
oxide gradually oxidizes to become LE engines have a higher rating
the more harmful, nitrogen dioxide than STD engines, given the same
in the atmosphere. Nitrogen dioxide compression ratio and separate
is a poisonous gas which, when circuit aftercooler temperature.
combined with hydrocarbons in the Some measures that improve
form of sunlight, creates smog. emissions levels will affect other
areas for sizing considerations.
Either kW are reduced or the
response rate value may be higher
in some instances. Of course, this
can affect engine ratings and the
performance of the engine.

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Correction Factors
Emission levels are affected by the
Diesel Natural Gas
engine rating, speed, turbocharger, Emission
timing, fuel and ambient conditions. g/bhp-h Catalytic Low
NA TA T Converter Emission
Higher ambient temperature and Nitrogen Oxide
12.0 15.0 19.0 1.2 2.0
higher altitudes increase nitrogen (NOx)
dioxide and particulate emissions. Carbon
Monoxide 3.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.7
When engines are tested in the lab, (CO)
they are tested to specific standards Hydrocarbons 0.4 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.35
(NMHC)
outlined in ISO 8178-1 in regards to
temperature, barometric pressure Table 11
and fuel density. The nominal level
of emissions data is derived under Note: Depending on configuration
these conditions. The specific and rating, many engines emit
conditions can be accessed through considerably less emissions.
TMI. Specific emission data is available
from the specific product TMI.
Nominal vs. Not to Exceed
Engine emissions information is Heat Balance
typically published in one of two Before a cooling system is
formats. The first is nominal, which designed, the designer must
is what emissions levels would be understand how much heat is being
expected from a nominal engine; rejected through each of the cooling
while the second level is not to circuits. The following guide will
exceed, which is the maximum help interpret and apply the heat
emissions output expected for an rejection data.
engine. It is important to Heat balance is a term used to
understand these levels when describe the following:
comparing competitive information
and when providing information to The heat input into the engine
engineering consultants and end equals the sum of the heat and work
users. outputs.
“Not to Exceed” data includes a An example of this relationship is
“Tolerance Factor” to account for shown in the following equation:
paralleling and instrumentation and Work Output
facility variations. If the “Not to
Exceed” value is exceeded during + Total Exhaust
field measurements, it is likely that Heat
the test equipment is at fault or + Radiation
that the engine has a problem. + Jacket Water
Cat engines, at rated speed, will + Oil Cooler
not exceed the values specified in + Aftercooler
Table 11.
= Total Heat
Input

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

In every calculation using engine • Should a genset be offered


data, there is a tolerance band or a that is long on heat capability
deviation from norm. Heat balance and short on electrical
tolerances must be applied when capability with the intent that
sizing cooling system components. the additional electricity
The tolerances recommended by needed be purchased from
Caterpillar vary depending on the a utility?
engine mode and are published in
TMI. • How about a genset that is
long on electrical capability
Additional information on this and short on heat?
subject can be found in the Cooling
Systems Application & Installation • Will that option save the
Guide. customer money if a cooling
system is used seasonally or
Co-generation Usage year round?
On a standard engine, the heat
balance is not relevant to the • What are the prices for
customer in terms of performance. heating and electrical fuel
However, if the customer requires from the utility?
co-generation capability, it becomes
crucial in their application. Btu’s • What types of load
must be matched, not just to the management options are
customers overall need, but to their available to them?
specific application need. In addition, these items should be
Many factors about the customer’s considered with the customer’s
needs should be considered before current and future needs in mind
determining the best solution. before recommending a solution.
Assume the following situation: A
customer needs 45% Btu’s for heat,
45% for electricity and 10% is lost.
Before selecting any unit that meets
this criteria, additional questions
should be asked and might include
some of the following.

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Load Analysis In electric power generation,


Load analysis is the process electrical energy produced or
of considering size, starting consumed is expressed in kilowatt-
characteristics and intended usage hours (kW-Hrs). A single kW-Hr of
of electrical loads and their energy is one kW of electrical power
collective impact on a generator set used for one hour.
power source. kW-Hrs = kW x Hrs
At times, it may be necessary to
conduct a detailed analysis, through Loads have different electrical
discussion and observation, with characteristics. When developing a
the user, customer, or consulting/ load analysis, it is helpful to
specifying engineer to determine categorize loads into groups with
the exact nature of the loads. common characteristics. There are
Determining the electrical load no rigid standards for categorizing
of a facility is the first and most loads. Architects, consultants,
important step in supplying a customers and generator set
generator set. The generator set suppliers will determine or speak of
supplier is looked upon as the categories for loads based on the
expert when it comes to choosing needs of the project involved.
the right generator set to power the For example, loads may be
load. As a supplier of high-quality categorized as normal loads and
Cat generator sets, it is important to emergency loads or perhaps critical
understand electrical loads and loads and non-critical loads. There
possess a working knowledge of may be further division of the
basic load analysis. emergency or critical loads into
An electrical load is a device that additional categories of life-support
uses electricity; lights, motors, or uninterruptible loads. On a
heaters, welders and different project, the loads may be
communications equipment are just labeled as base, intermediate and
a few examples of electrical loads. peak shaving loads.
It is important to understand the Load analysis should define those
relationship between energy and loads that are considered linear
power when discussing electrical (draw current in a sine waveform)
loads. Power is a rate of doing work. and non-linear (draw current in
It is a product of force and motion. pulses or non-sine waveform).
Electrical power is the product of Further definition of linear & non-
electromotive force (volts) and linear loads is included in the Load
current flow (amps). It is expressed Type Section on Page 99.
in watts or kilowatts. Energy is work. Proper selection of a generator set
It is the product of power and time. as a power source frequently
Energy = Power x Time requires detail within these
categories of linear or non-linear. In
addition, loads can be separated as
lighting loads, motor loads, and
miscellaneous loads. A generator
set is a limited power source,
sometimes referred to as a “limited
bus”. The limited bus does not have
the reserve capability of a utility
grid. It is necessary to analyze and
categorize generator set loads to

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

assure proper consideration of their Lighting


power demand characteristics. Lighting loads are typically
The loads discussed in this considered a constant load for
chapter are going to be categorized sizing purposes; even though
by type and if they are linear or non- individual light circuits or lamp
linear. Primarily we are going to usage can be very diverse. Lighting
separate the load as lighting loads, is often expressed in volt-amperes
motor loads, and miscellaneous (VA) or kilovolt-amperes (kVA)
loads that have unique because it is primarily a resistive
characteristics. load with a near unity (1.0) power
factor (pf). Therefore, if a lighting
Typical Electrical Loads load is given in kVA, it is usually
Lighting assumed to be of an equal kW
Incandescent lamps, fluorescent value. There are several types of
lamps, high-intensity discharge
(HID) and arc. lighting.
Heating Incandescent Lighting
Resistor ovens, convection ovens,
dielectric heating, induction An incandescent lamp has a
heating, arc furnaces. filament, which is heated to
Welding incandescence by an electric
Resistance welding, arc welding, current. This is a very simple and
and induction welding. commonplace electrical load.
Motors Incandescent lamps are rated by
DC, induction and synchronous.
Miscellaneous voltage and wattage requirements.
Rectifiers, solid-state controllers The power factor is 1.0, so
and communications. incandescent bulbs can operate on
Table 12 either alternating or direct current.
These loads are often rated in watts.
Lighting Loads For example, ten 100-watt light
bulbs would be a 1000 watt or
Linear Lighting Loads 1 kW load. Current drawn by a lamp
Linear loads are loads that draw is found by dividing its wattage
current in a sinusoidal waveform as rating by a specified input voltage:
shown in Figure 20. There are many A = W/ V
examples of linear loads, but
lighting is the most common. Incandescents draw high inrush
currents and are suitable in
applications which require flashing
or dimming, with operation over
wide voltage ranges. Any voltage
fluctuation can affect the lamp
brightness while extreme voltage
fluctuations shorten filament life.

Figure 20

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Tungsten Lamp Inrush


Tungsten filament lamps are
resistance devices. The resistance of
a tungsten filament increases
rapidly with an increase in
temperature. At room temperature,
with the lamp “off”, resistance is
low. However, the filament
temperature increases rapidly when
the lamp is turned “on” and,
consequently, the resistance
increases as the lamp assumes
normal operating temperature. This
is called tungsten lamp inrush.
Tungsten lamp inrush current can Figure 21
be up to 17 times greater than the
normal current but the surge lasts
only a few cycles. Switches must be Fluorescent Lamps
designed to handle such surges. Fluorescent lamps are also rated
by voltage and wattage. Due to the
When using a generator power use of a ballast transformer, these
source, this phenomenon is lamps have power factors slightly
generally inconsequential. However, lower (0.95 to 0.97) than
very large blocks of tungsten incandescent lamps. When
lighting load may cause a incandescent or fluorescent type
momentary voltage dip transient lights operate from step-down
to occur. transformers, power factor
Non-Linear Lighting Loads contribution of the transformer
Non-linear loads are AC loads in must be considered.
which the current is not Uncompensated fixtures can show
proportional to the voltage. Non- power factors as low as 0.5 lagging.
linear loads create harmonics, or
additional sine waves, that are a Gas Discharge Lamps
multiple of the generated frequency Gas discharge lamps are
in the current waveform; Figure 21 fluorescent, high-pressure sodium or
illustrates harmonics. This will similar lamps which use a gas-filled
influence the generator size. chamber in combination with a low
Harmonics are discussed in detail in energy, high voltage sustained
the Generator Systems Application electric arc. Gas discharge lamps are
& Installation Guide (LEBW4993). rated by voltage and wattage.
The high voltage required by a gas
discharge lamp is obtained by using
ballast transformers and electronic
ballasts.
Ballast transformers with saturating
reactors are used to provide high
voltage and control lamp current.
Current produced by this type of
ballast is high in third harmonic
content due to the saturating reactors.
Electronic ballasts use electronic
circuits to generate and control the
lamp current.

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

Like fluorescent lamps, gas Pre-loads on motors do not vary


discharge lamps have power factors maximum starting currents, but do
slightly lower (0.95 to 0.97) than determine time required for motors
incandescent lamps. Gas discharge to achieve rated speed and current
lamps may be sensitive to transient and to drop back to normal running
voltage dip. Certain types of gas value. If motors are excessively
discharge lamps may extinguish loaded, they may not start or may
during a severe transient voltage run at a reduced speed. Both
dip and delays in re-illumination starting and running current are
may be experienced. Lamp considered when analyzing total
manufacturers or suppliers should kVA requirement.
be contacted for characteristics. AC electric motors represent
This is not typical of fluorescent inductive loads with lagging power
lamps. As a rule, avoid heavy SCR factors between 0.5 and 0.95,
loads, large block switching loads depending on size, type and loading.
and large motor skVA loads on gas
discharge lighting circuits. With few exceptions, there are two
basic types of AC motors:
Motor Loads • Induction Motors
When sizing a genset, it is
important to identify the types of • Synchronous Motors
motors being used because of the
various starting characteristics. Induction Motors
Starting characteristics may drive Induction motors, shown in
the need for a larger or smaller Figure 22, are the most common
generator. motors in use today. Induction
motors have a stationary armature
As compared to a utility buss feed, connected to the power source. The
an on-site genset is a limited source rotor winding, with rotating shaft, is
of horsepower, from the engine, excited by voltage induced from the
and kVA from the generator. Thus, a magnetic field developed by the
genset must be large enough to stationary armature windings.
start as well as run connected motor Voltage, induced in the rotor, results
loads. in current flow within the rotor
Motors convert electrical energy winding. This current creates
into mechanical motion. They can another magnetic field around the
present severe demands on the rotor conductors. Rotation of the
power source during starting and rotor results from the interaction of
acceleration to rated speed. Current rotor and armature magnetic fields
demand can range from four to ten as the armature magnetic field
times normal full load current rotates around the stationary
during this period. That above armature with the progression of
normal current demand is called AC current flowing in the armature
starting kVA (skVA) and often has windings.
great influence on generator The two types of induction
selection. motors are the squirrel cage and the
Starting an electric motor can create wound rotor.
voltage dips in excess of 40% if the
genset is not properly sized. This can
create serious effects on the existing
loads such as the dimming or
extinguishment of lights or stoppage
of motors due to insufficient voltage.
The starting of motors be discussed
later in this section.
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Over
C 2.00 1.90
1.40
Not Not
D 2.75 specified specified
Table 13

Wound Rotor (Slip Ring)


A wound rotor motor is a special
induction motor which features a
rotor that is wound with coils.
Windings are placed in slots around
the rotor periphery and connected
to slip rings. The slip ring brushes
are then connected to external
Figure 22 resistors. Changing the rotor circuit
resistance will change the induced
Squirrel Cage rotor circuit current and vary
The squirrel cage motor is the the motor’s speed/torque
most widely used of all motors in characteristics. High rotor resistance
industry. Most three-phase motors provides a high starting torque with
are squirrel cage type. When a low starting current. A wound rotor
constant speed drive with no induction motor normally has five
continuous low-speed running is to seven steps of resistance in the
required, a squirrel cage motor is rotor circuit.
used.
Wound rotor motors are used for
The name is derived from starting large rotating mass or
construction of the rotor circuit. high inertia loads with a long
Solid conductor bars are arranged acceleration time. They provide a
around the rotor periphery with smooth start with minimized motor
their ends short-circuited. If this heating during the acceleration
conductor assembly were removed period. Usually the motors are
from the steel core, it would started near unity (1.0) power factor.
resemble the appearance of a Starting current is limited to 130%
circular small animal cage. of rated operating current. Because
Squirrel cage induction motors are these motors have no code letter,
manufactured with design variants exact operating performance must
for specific performance features be obtained from the motor
such as starting torque, speed/torque nameplate or the manufacturer.
characteristic and locked rotor Typical applications are large
amps. Squirrel cage motors are pumps, long conveyers, large
divided into four designs; A, B, C diameter fans and large rotating
and D. Descriptions of these classes drum devices.
are discussed in the Motor The characteristics of current
Performance section of this guide. are shown in Figure 23, as they
Table 13 lists the specifications for correspond to steps in resistance.
each class of motor. Also shown are percentages of total
rated resistance in the rotor circuit.
Squirrel Cage Motor Torques in Per Unit
of Full-Load Torque With 100% or maximum resistance
when the motor is started at zero
Locked- speed, the initial inrush line current
Class Rotor Breakdown Pull-Up
is in the range of 100% full load
A 1.40 Over 2.00 1.00 current. If all rings were shorted at
B 1.40 2.00 1.00 start up, as in a squirrel cage motor,
there is zero resistance and starting
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current would be approximately Synchronous speed is established


460% of full load current. This by the supply frequency and
would present a much more severe configuration of the stator winding
starting condition. Normal into a number of magnetic poles.
operation of this motor is with all In general, as the load of an
resistance shorted. induction motor increases, its speed
decreases below synchronous
speed.
Example
A six pole induction motor runs at
almost 1200 r/min at no load and
1140 r/min at full-load when
supplied with power from a
60 Hz 3-phase line. What is the
percent slip at full-load?
Solution
Slip at Full Synchronous Speed – Full
Load (%) = Load Speed
Synchronous Speed

120(f) 120(60)
Synchronous = 1200
= # =
Speed 6 rpm
Figure 23 Poles

Slip Definition 1200 –


= 5%
Speed of an induction motor is 1140
Slip
almost constant from no-load to full 1200
load in relationship to the supply
frequency. Ideally, if there were no Synchronous Motors
resistance to rotor rotation, the rotor’s Synchronous motors, like
magnetic field would follow exactly in induction motors, demand large
synchronism with the armature’s skVA when starting.
magnetic field. However, in induction Typically, synchronous motors
motors, the armature’s rotating are practical only in sizes above
magnetic field must cut through the 40 horsepower in which heavy
rotor conductors to create the torque. loads are in constant operation.
In other words, an induction motor Synchronous motors maintain
must run at less than synchronous constant speed, synchronized
speed in order to produce a driving with power line frequency.
torque. Slip is a reduction of speed
with increased load. Synchronous motors have two
The amount of slip varies with features that distinguish them from
motor design. A slip of induction motors.
approximately 3% at full-load is • Synchronous motors run at
common with an induction motor. exactly synchronous speed.
Slip is the difference between the • The rotor of a synchronous
speed of the rotor and the speed of motor is separately excited
the stator rotating magnetic field. with DC while running at
The equation used to calculate synchronous speed; this
percentage of slip at full-load is: allows operating power factor
Slip at Full Synchronous Speed – Full to be varied.
Load (%) Load Speed
=
Synchronous Speed

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Characteristics of synchronous DC Motors


motors vary from motor to motor. DC motors are used in
This variability requires that applications requiring speed
performance characteristics be control, heavy load starting or
obtained from the motor where other system elements
manufacturer as this information require a DC power source. Full load
may not appear on the nameplate. efficiencies vary from 86 to 92%.
Note: A variation of the induction DC motors have no power factor;
motor, known as the synchronous however, when driven through a
reluctance motor, is available for silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) by
applications such as synchronized an AC generator, the AC does have
conveyor systems. These motors a power factor. Use the following
run without slip at exactly formula to determine DC loads on
synchronous speed, regardless of an AC generator:
load, but should not be confused
DC DC kW x1000 AC amps = DC amps
with true synchronous motors. amps= DC volts x 0.816
Power factor is not adjustable and
is, in fact, poorer than for standard AC volts x AC amps x 1.732
induction motors, locked rotor and AC kVA =
1000
full load currents are also higher
than for standard squirrel cage DC kW
motors. Modern synchronous Power
Factor = AC
reluctance motors require no kVA
external source of de-excitation.
They are offered in numerous Example
versions, including gear motor Find the amount of single-phase
styles. power which can be safely drawn
from a three-phase, 125/216 volt,
four-wire generator set, rated to
deliver 100 kW at 0.8 pf. The coil
current rating of the generator set is
334 amperes. Assume the single-
phase load is connected from one
line-to-neutral and has an operating
power factor of 0.9 lagging. In
addition, assume that the generator
set is supplying a three-phase load
of 50 kW at a 0.8 pf.

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Solution phase with the main stator winding


1. Find the current drawn from field. This results in a rotating field
each of the lines by the three- to start things moving. A centrifugal
phase load. switch disconnects the starter
3 V x I x pf winding as it achieves rated speed.
P=
1000 Single-phase motors are not
generally of great concern when
P x 1000 50 x1000 started by a generator which is
I= = 1.73 x 216 x = 167
3 V x pf amperes relatively larger in size. It is good
0.8
practice to divide multiple single-
2. Find the coil current capacity phase motor loads into equal blocks
remaining for the single-phase per phase. If blocks of single-phase
load. motors are spread equally over the
334 – 167 = 167 amperes three-phases and started as a
group, this motor load can be
3. Find the single-phase power considered as a single three-phase
available. motor of equal hp. The skVA may
V x I x pf 125 x 167 x be higher because the skVA per hp
0.9 = 18.8
P= = is typically higher for single-phase
kW
1000 1000
motors. The total kW load may also
be slightly higher because small
When DC motors are at maximum motors are frequently less efficient
rpm, the system power factor is also than large motors.
maximized.
If the single-phase motor load
According to the application cannot be distributed, it may be
requirements, motors can be necessary to verify the ability of the
designed to provide various speed generator to provide the skVA.
and torque characteristics. Modern Generally, with large blocks of
applications will usually involve the single-phase motors started from
use of packaged static component one phase, the available skVA of the
drive controls, commonly called generator will be 56% of the normal
SCR drives. SCR drives are three-phase skVA.
discussed in detail later in this
section. Three-Phase Motors
Three-phase motors are very
A major consideration when common in industry. They provide
sizing a generator is to look at the more output for physical size than
provision or inclusion of a suitable single-phase motors and have the
DC supply. There must be enough advantage of having a simple
kVA to power both the DC supply designed rotating magnetic field
and the load. that turns the rotor for starting. In a
Single-Phase Motors three-phase motor, there are three
Single-phase motors are common equally spaced voltage cycles
in fractional horsepower sizes. They feeding respective windings in the
may occasionally be used in sizes as stator. A rotating magnetic field is
high as ten horsepower. Single- produced which the rotor
phase motors do not have the immediately begins to follow.
benefit of rotating magnetic fields Therefore, no special starter
produced by spaced voltage cycles winding is required to begin
of a three-phase circuit. Therefore, a rotation.
separate starter winding is included
in the stator with provisions to
supply a magnetic field that is out of

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Motor Performance Design A motors have low rotor


Most three-phase motors are resistance and operate with small slip
squirrel cage type as mentioned at full load. A disadvantage of this
earlier. When rotor slot cross design is the low starting torque and
sections are changed, different high starting current. Because they
torque and speed characteristics achieve full speed rapidly and do not
result. How a motor and its load overheat during starting, these
impact a generator is highly machines are suitable for applications
dependent on the characteristics of in which they are required to start
the motor. with very low load torque.
Design Class Design B
Motors with various rotor designs The Design B motor is
are classified in the U.S. by the overwhelmingly the general-purpose
National Electrical Manufacturers motor of industry. Its combination of
Association (NEMA) as Design A, B, low starting current and normal
C or D. Figure 24 shows a typical torque and slip makes it an excellent
motor nameplate. choice for driving many types of
industrial loads.
Design B motors run at a slip of less
than 0.05 at full load with larger
machines running a very efficient
0.005. These motors are applicable for
systems requiring low or medium
torque.
Design C
Figure 24 Design C motors have high starting
torque, low starting current and low
In the following design descriptions, slip. The high breakaway torque
“slip” applies to the difference makes the Design C a good choice for
between motor full load speed and its hard-to-start loads.
synchronous speed Note that these These motors are designed to start
descriptions do not include at full load torque and run at slips of
synchronous reluctance motors. less than 0.05 at full load. Class C
For example, a four pole 60 Hz motors have higher starting torque
motor has a synchronous speed of per ampere of starting current than
1200 rpm, actual full load speed class “B” motors.
might be 1164 rpm, in which case Design D
the slip would be 3%. Each motor Design D motors have very high
design has its own unique starting torque, high slip and
characteristics. relatively low starting current. Design
Design A D permits high breakaway torque and
Design A motors are quite high running horsepower to be
comparable to Design B motors, concentrated in a relatively small
having normal torque, slip and frame size.
starting current. The most significant These motors are applicable when
difference is that starting currents are “soft” speed is required.
limited by NEMA for Design B and Intermittent drives requiring high
not for Design A. acceleration under high-impact
loads would use a Class D motor.
The breakdown torque of a Class D
motor runs at a slip of 0.5 or higher.

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This makes a Class D motor very Hard-to-start


loads in
Reciprocating
compressors
C
inefficient. Also, to keep the starting continuous or started loaded,
current low, rotor bars of high heat intermittent
service; some
conveyors started
under heavy load,
resistant material are used. The overload Banbury mixers,
losses of the rotor circuit necessitate capability required crushers without
flywheels,
building a large and therefore hammer and ball
expensive machine for the given mills, high-inertia
fans
power. This strategy has to be High breakaway Cranes, hoists, D
weighed against the advantage of the torque required;
intermittent or
elevators,
crushers and
soft speed characteristic which is reversing/plugging punch presses
needed in some applications to service; high-
inertia loads with
with flywheels,
large-diameter
determine if a Class D motor should long acceleration fans, reversing-
be used. time; heavy
fluctuating loads
type machine
tools
Characteristics of each design are
shown on the speed and torque
characteristic curves, in Figure 25. Table 14

Of these characteristics, torque is


most important to the original
designer in selection of a motor for
a specific application. The design
class of a motor is not normally
considered when sizing a genset
because of the greater importance
of the starting kVA requirement.
Starting kVA usually dictates the
size and selection of a generator set
which will provide more than
adequate power for the motor to
produce the required starting
torque. However, the use of
oversized generators, reduced
Figure 25 voltage motor starting and heavily
loaded motors may require special
Table 14 presents general consideration.
guidelines for selecting a motor Motor Starting
of the proper NEMA design letter. A motor’s starting characteristics
Desired or Recommended
have a major impact on system
Required
Typical
Applications
NEMA Design response to a motor start; this
Conditions Letter greatly influences the final package
Load requires only
normal starting
Centrifugal pumps
and compressors,
B or A selection. When a motor is started,
torque; continuous reciprocating it draws approximately six times
duty capability
with ability to
compressors
started unloaded,
its full load current. This current
handle minor fans with normal remains high until the motor
temporary
overloads
inertia,
palletizers,
reaches about 80% of speed. This
conveyors, lathes, high inrush of current causes a
milling machines,
saws, grinders,
voltage dip in the generator. A
sanders, drill motor produces mechanical torque
presses that is proportional to the applied
voltage. In cases where generator
voltage dips below rated voltage,
the motor is producing less than
proportional torque.

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The initial voltage dip associated Although unloaded motors


with motor starting is primarily a impose high inrush current (skVA)
function of the generator magnetic in generators while starting, kW
circuit. Use of a permanent magnet load on the engine is usually small.
excitor or other excitation support However, motors can draw more
systems will assist in preventing than rated kW during starting and
total excitation collapse in extreme acceleration to rated speed. Motors
voltage dip cases. It is important for connected directly to high inertia
the generator to restore voltage centrifugal devices or loaded
after initial voltage dip to accelerate reciprocating compressors cause
the motor to rated speed. The severe frequency excursions and
degree of motor loading affects lengthy motor run up. Comparing
recovery time. starting currents between loaded
and unloaded motors shows the
extended time loaded motors
demand high current; refer to Figure
26. The effect of loaded motors on
both engine and generator must be
determined; particularly if large
motors, such as large centrifugal
fans and pumps, have high inertia
loads and increase load during
acceleration.
An accurately sized genset will
support the high starting kVA (skVA)
Figure 26 requirements of the motor and
supply sufficient output voltage for
the motor so it can develop
adequate load to rated speed. The
generator set must have sufficient
starting kVA capacity to limit
momentary voltage drop. A 30%
voltage dip is generally acceptable,
depending on equipment already
on-line. Motor starting capability
data is available on specification
sheets and TMI for all Cat generator
sets.

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NEMA identifies motors in the Table 16 lists standard sizes for


U.S. with a code letter on the 50 Hz motors. The starting kVA
nameplate to indicate starting numbers should be used as a guide-
characteristics. Table 15 shows the line only. For the exact skVA of a
NEMA code and the starting skVA motor, consult the motor
per horsepower. Table 16 can serve manufacturer.
as a guideline for motors outside
the U.S. Motor Size kW Starting kVA
.37 N/A
Identifying Code Letters on AC Motors
.55 4.9
NEMA Code Letter Starting skVA/hp
.75 6.9
A 0.00 - 3.14
1.1 9.5
B 3.15 - 3.54
1.5 13.4
C 3.55 - 3.99
2.2 19.8
D 4.00 - 4.49
3 29.7
E 4.50 - 4.99
4 41.4
F 5.00 - 5.59
5.5 53.8
G 5.60 - 6.29
7.5 73.1
H 6.30 - 7.09
11 103
J 7.10 - 7.99
15 143
K 8.00 - 8.99
18.5 171
L 9.00 - 9.99
22 204
M 10.00 - 11.19
30 254
N 11.20 - 12.49
37 322
P 12.50 - 13.99
45 378
R 14.00 - 15.99
55 502
S 16.00 - 17.99
75 721
T 18.00 - 19.99
90 906
U 20.00 - 22.39
110 1049
V 22.40 -
132 1255
Table 15 160 1557
200 1940
250 2476
315 3113
356 3421

Table 16

The rated hp and as starting kVA


must be known to properly evaluate
the impact starting a motor will
have upon a specific system. When
sizing a genset, the acceptable level
of motor torque for starting must be
determined or the loads will
accelerate slowly or even fail to
reach full speed.

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Starting Power Factor Example


Generator sets are typically How much kW is needed when a
evaluated on the basis of their Code G 200 hp squirrel cage motor,
ability to start electric motors and at 6.0 kVA per hp, is started?
accelerate to full speed. Regardless
of whether the motor has load or Solution
not, starting it requires kVA far in skVA = kVA/hp x hp
excess of the motor’s normal 6.0 x 200 hp = 1,200
running kVA demand. Generator
heating is produced by the current Use Figure 27 to find the lagging
which is why generators are rated power factor of a 200 hp squirrel
for maximum kVA and not cage motor; the chart indicates
maximum kW. The ratio of kW/kVA 0.25 pf.
is the power factor. Motors exhibit skVA x Starting pf = kW
low power factors when starting. 1200 skVA x 0.25 = 300 kW
Normal industrial loads have a
power factor of 0.8. This is the value The chart in Figure 27 can also be
used for NEMA standard and used to compare how much kW is
Caterpillar ratings. required for one motor versus a
Load imposed on the engine group of motors.
during a motor start is calculated Example
by: How much power is needed when
kW = Starting kVA x Starting pf ten Code G squirrel cage motors
rated at 20 hp each are started?
Which requires more power — ten
Figure 27 shows the approximate 20 hp motors, or one 200 hp motor?
starting power factor of squirrel The motors are rated at 6.0 kVA per
cage motors. hp each.
Solution
First, find the total horsepower by
multiplying the number of motors
by the hp of each motor. Use the
total hp (200) in the following
equation:
skVA = kVA/hp x hp
6.0 kVA x 200 hp = 1,200 skVA
Next, use Figure 27 to find the
Figure 27 lagging starting power factor for a
20 hp motor; it is approximately
As shown, a 5 hp squirrel cage 0.46 pf.
motor has a lagging power factor of skVA x Starting pf = kW
approximately 0.6 pf while a 200 hp
squirrel cage motor has a lagging 1,200 x 0.46 = 552 kW
power factor of approximately It was determined in a previous
0.25 pf. example that a 200 hp motor
Figure 27 can be used to help required 300 kW. Therefore, ten 20
determine the total kW needed hp squirrel cage motors require 84
when a squirrel cage motor, or percent more kW than the
group of motors, is started. 200 hp squirrel cage motor during
starting. (300 kW vs. 552 kW)

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Motor Starting Load Motor Torque


The nameplate of a motor Motor torque is required to
provides important information in accelerate and drive the load.
regard to sizing. Torque is a turning force. It defines
The Motor Starting Codes identify the ability of the motor to twist the
the starting kVA (skVA) per hp. If the motor shaft.
nameplate does not list the motor Motor loads are established to
starting code, it is likely to list the determine if generator and engine
Locked Rotor Amps (LRA). The LRA have, respectively, adequate kVA
is a measurement of the initial and kW. Motor load is defined as
inrush of current when a motor is the torque required by load. This
started. torque, expressed in N•m (lb-ft), is
Motors, either loaded or unloaded, usually related to speed. Motor
draw several times rated full load load, in horsepower can be
current when starting. Satisfying expressed in the following
this inrush, places a large equations.
momentary kVA demand on the hp =
N•m x rpm
generator called the starting kVA 7350
(skVA). SkVA can be calculated from
locked rotor current. hp =
lb-ft
5250
skVA = (V x LRA x 1.732)/1000
The following torque
Motors generally exhibit low requirements must be established
starting power factors (0.2 to 0.5) (usually expressed as percent of
when starting. Load imposed on the running torque): Breakaway torque,
engine during starting is calculated accelerating torque, synchronous
by: torque and peak torque.
kW = Starting kVA x Starting pf Starting (Breakaway) Torque
Starting torque is the maximum
torque required to start rotation.
Example Stated differently, it is the torque
By using the following equation required to initially breakaway or
and the NEMA Code Chart in Table overcome friction to start the load
15, the skVA/hp can be determined. from a standstill. Shown in Figure
skVA = (skVA/hp) x hp 29 is the relationship between
starting current and torque. The
starting current starts at the locked-
rotor value as determined by the
NEMA code or locked rotor amps on
the nameplate. The current then
drops to its rated value as speed
and torque approaches normal.

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Sample • Locked-rotor torque (also


Motor Torque & Current vs. Speed known as Starting Torque):
The torque a motor exerts at
zero speed. The locked-rotor
torque must be greater than
the mechanical breakaway
torque to allow the shaft to
rotate (to start the motor).
Refer to Figure 30.
• Pull-up torque: The minimum
torque produced between
zero and rated speed. In most
cases, this is equal to the
locked-rotor torque but in
some motors may be less
than the starting torque.
• Breakdown torque: The
maximum torque exerted
Figure 28 between zero and rated
speed. This point is often the
Breakaway torque depends on the highest generator load point
load’s static resistance to rotation. and must be considered
The load’s static friction can be when sizing large motors.
higher than the rolling friction
depending on the characteristics • Full-load torque: The torque
of the driven device. The load capability of the motor at
breakaway torque must be less than rated load and speed. Note
motor locked-rotor torque or the that speed is less than
load cannot be started. synchronous speed for an
Shown in Figure 29 are types of induction motor. This is due
torque and the names used for to the slip required to
each. Also shown is a typical load produce torque. If the actual
torque curve. running torque demanded by
the load is less than rated full
load torque of the motor,
running speed will more
nearly approach synchronous
speed.
• Breakaway torque: The
torque required to initially
breakaway or overcome
friction to start the load from
a standstill. The load
breakaway torque must be
less than motor locked-rotor
torque or the load cannot be
started.

Figure 29

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Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

load required torque and motor


available torque. Minimum motor
torque must exceed maximum
torque demanded by the connected
load. The time necessary to achieve
full rated speed is of utmost
importance. Small accelerating
torque is usually caused by reduced
voltage at the motor.
Prolonged accelerating time with
high current draw will reduce useful
motor life. Figure 32 reflects typical
motor capabilities.
Acceleration Time
The difference between the torque
developed by the motor and the
Figure 30 torque required by the load will
determine the rate of acceleration or
acceleration time. If the load torque
exceeds the motor torque at any
point, the motor will stall.
Considerable heat can be
developed within the motor during
startup, especially in the rotor. The
motor can be damaged from
excessive heat if the starting time
is excessive or exceeds the time
intended by the motor
manufacturer.
There is no precise limit for the
amount of time allowed to avoid
motor damage during acceleration.
However, motor manufacturers
provide general guidelines. A motor
start time greater than ten seconds
Figure 31 may be of concern depending upon
the motor design and manufacturer.
Figure 31 represents speed torque Some motors are protected with
curves of typical squirrel cage thermal overload relays to trip off
motors. before this becomes a problem. The
number of starts and time interval
Acceleration Torque between starts, as well as the frame
Acceleration torque is the net size, are items to consider.
difference, at any speed, between

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Figure 32

Estimated Acceleration Time AT = Acceleration Time in


Formula seconds
The formula used to calculate In this example, change in speed
acceleration time is: is from zero to full rated speed. To
Wk2 x find T, it is necessary to find the
AT motor torque average. A simple
= ∆N
308T estimate may be found by
measuring the length of several
lines running between motor torque
Where: and load torque as provided by
Wk2 = Total motor and load motor manufacturer’s torque
inertia (lb. ft2) Wk2 + curves, such as the one shown in
Motor Wk2 Figure 33. Then, divide the number
∆N = Change of speed (rpm) by the total number of lines on the
chart.
T= Acceleration torque
(lb. ft.)

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Low voltage operation can cause


overheating, extended load
acceleration times, opening of
circuit breakers and engine/
generator protection shutdowns.
Table 17 shows the minimum
recommended motor ratings.
Minimum Recommended Motor Ratings
Induction Synchronous
Volts RPM Motors
hp Motors hp
601-3,000 3,600 250 —
1,800 or
601-3,000 250 250
less
3,001- 3,600 350 —
5,000
3,001- 1,800 or
300 250
5,000 less
Figure 33 5,001- 3,600 1,000 —
7,000
5,001- 1,800 or
7,000 less 800 600
Synchronous Torque
The steady-state torque developed Table 17
by a synchronous motor at rated
speed. Inrush current to the motor causes
a rapid drop of generator output
Peak Torque voltage. In most cases, 30% voltage
Maximum torque a load requires dip is acceptable, depending on
from its driving motor. equipment already on-line. Degree
Motor Voltage of dip must be identified by an
A properly sized genset must have oscilloscope. Meters or mechanical
adequate kW (power) and kVA recorders are too slow for this
capability to satisfy the demands of measurement.
a motor during starting. Single-speed, three-phase,
Most motors are energized with constant-speed induction motors,
electrically operated contactors. when measured with rated source
Extremes in voltage dip due to voltage and frequency impressed
motor starting may cause the and with rotor locked, must not
electro-magnetically held contactors exceed the values listed in Table 18.
to dropout or close intermittently
thus preventing the motor from
starting.

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Locked Rotor Current — NEMA MG 1

60 Hz - 230
50 Hz - 380
Volts Locked
Horsepower Rotor Design Horsepower Volts Locked Design
Letters Rotor Current, Letters
Current,
Amperes* Amperes **

0.5 20 B,D,E 1 or less 20 B,D,E


0.75 25 B,D,E 1.5 27 B,D,E
1 30 B,D,E 2 34 B,D,E
1.5 40 B,D,E 3 43 B,C,D,E
2 50 B,D,E 5 61 B,C,D,E
3 64 B,C,D,E 7.5 84 B,C,D,E
5 92 B,C,D,E 10 107 B,C,D,E
7.5 127 B,C,D,E 15 154 B,C,D,E
10 162 B,C,D,E 20 194 B,C,D,E
15 232 B,C,D,E 25 243 B,C,D,E
20 290 B,C,D,E 30 289 B,C,D,E
25 365 B,C,D,E 40 387 B,C,D,E
30 435 B,C,D,E 50 482 B,C,D,E
40 580 B,C,D,E 60 578 B,C,D,E
50 725 B,C,D,E 75 722 B,C,D,E
60 870 B,C,D,E 100 965 B,C,D,E
75 1085 B,C,D,E 125 1207 B,C,D,E
100 1450 B,C,D,E 150 1441 B,C,D,E
125 1815 B,C,D,E 200 1927 B,C,E
150 2170 B,C,D,E
200 2900 B,C,E
250 3650 B,E
300 4400 B,E
*Locked rotor current of motors designed for voltages other than 230 volts shall be inversely
proportional to the voltages.
**The locked rotor current of motors designed for voltages other than 380 volts shall be
inversely proportional to the voltages.
Table 18

Full voltage starting uses a


Motor Starting Techniques momentary push button as the start
There are various methods used switch. When pushed, the button
to start motors. Those that will be energizes contact coil “M”, as
discussed are full voltage, soft shown in Figure 34. Then the motor
starting and reduced voltage. contacts, “M”, close to start the
Full Voltage Starting motor; a seal in contact “M” holds
The least complicated motor the contacts in until the “stop”
starting method is full voltage button is opened. The on-off control
starting or across-the-line starting. commonly features integral
Motors are simply connected to the overload protection.
power source by switches in the Full line voltage is supplied to the
line, as shown in Figure 34. Full motor instantly when the motor
voltage starting is the most widely switch is actuated; refer to Table 19.
used motor starting method.

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Maximum starting torque is The generator set must have


available; therefore, the motor will sufficient motor starting kVA
have minimum acceleration time. capacity to limit voltage drop. If
Reduction of acceleration time is actual values of the motor starting
advantageous for motors that cycle current cannot be determined, an
off and on frequently. The shorter approximate value of 600% of full-
the time it takes the motor to get to load rated current is a good
full speed, the less heating will approximation for Design B motors;
occur on the motor windings. This approximate 1500% of full-load
will allow for increased service life rated current for Design E motors.
of the motor. Refer to Figure 35.
Full voltage starting is used unless
there are limitations on inrush
currents. Most public utilities do not
allow full voltage starting of large
motors. When large motors are
started, a relief must be provided.

Figure 34

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Reduced Voltage Starters


Line Current Starting Torque
Type of Starter Motor Voltage % Full Voltage % of Full Voltage
% Line Voltage
Starting Current Starting Torque
Full Voltage Starter 100 100 100
Autotransformer
80% Tap 80 *68 64
65% Tap 65 *46 42
50% Tap 50 *29 25
Resistor Starter
Single Step (Adjusted
for motor voltage to be 80 80 64
80% of line voltage)
Reactor 5
50% Tap 50 50
45% Tap 45 45 20
14
37.5% Tap 37.5 37.5
Part Winding
(Low speed motors only)
75% Winding 100 75 75
50% Winding 100 50 50
Star Delta 57 33 33
Solid State Adjustable
* % line current is 64%, 42% and 24% before addition of autotransformer magnetizing current.

Advantages Disadvantages
Autotransformer

1. Provides highest torque per amp of line current. 1. In lower hp ratings, it is most expensive
2. Taps on autotransformer permit adjustment of design
starting voltage.
3. Closed transition starting.
4. While starting, motor current is greater than line
current.
5. Low power factor.
Resistor

1. Smooth acceleration — motor voltage increases 1. Low torque efficiency


with speed. 2. Resistor heat
2. Closed transition starting. 3. High power factor during start.
3. Less expensive than autotransformer starter in
lower hp ratings.
4. Available with several accelerating points.
Part Winding

1. Least expensive reduced voltage starter. 1. Requires special motor design for
2. Closed transition starting. voltages higher than 230 v.
3. Most dual voltage motors can be started part
winding on lower of two voltages.
4. Small size.
Start Delta

1. Moderate cost — less than resistor or 1. Requires special motor design.


autotransformer. 2. Starting torque is low.
2. Suitable for high inertia, long acceleration loads.
3. High torque efficiency.
Table 19

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• Selecting a motor with


inherent soft-start
characteristics.
• Interposing controls between
the motor and power source
to modify motor torque.
Reduced Voltage Starting
Reduced voltage starting reduces
the skVA demand on a generator set
for motor starting. There is also a
reduction in motor starting torque.
Figure 35 Though a voltage dip can often
cause problems, a controlled
Soft Starting — Cushioning Motor voltage dip can be beneficial.
Starting Under Load Reducing motor starting kVA can
Motors may be soft-started reduce the required size of the
(started with decreased load or at genset, reduce the voltage dip, and
reduced torque) to bring the load up provide a softer start for the motor
to speed gradually or to minimize loads. However, time to reach full
starting currents. Motors may be operating speed increases. Figure
over stressed when developing the 36 shows the effect of reduced
torque necessary to start and voltage on torque.
accelerate a large or high inertia
load. Also, a high starting current
may strain the electrical supply
system beyond its capability to
provide current to the starting
motor or other connected loads.
Three options for soft-starting
motors include:
• Installing a coupling to the
shaft of the motor. Doing so
allows the motor to reach full
speed before the load does.
Most common would be an
eddy-current clutch, magnetic
coupling, or variable-pitch
sheave drive. This technique
does relieve the generator set
engine of some horsepower
demand while starting, but
does not relieve the generator
of initial skVA demand. Figure 36

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Any reduction in voltage during Solution


starting sequence will have effect % decrease of rated volts = x
on both torque and load x2 = Available Torque
acceleration.
Starting torque varies directly with
the square of the voltage impressed 200
=x
on the stator. If the voltage imposed 230
on the terminals of an induction x2 = 0.756 = Available Torque
motor being started is reduced from
its rated voltage to some given The available torque is 75.6%.
percentage of this full value, the Reduced voltage during start can
power demand of the motor will be give relief from excessive current
reduced to a value equivalent to the inrush demand and excessive
full voltage start kVA times the transient disturbances. However,
percent of full voltage squared. the motor may not have sufficient
% decrease of rated volts = x torque to accelerate to rated speed,
especially if the motor is required to
x2 = Available Torque accelerate a connected load with a
heavy inertial content.
Using Ohm’s Law, it is seen that Starting current varies directly
the power consumed in the circuit with the impressed voltage.
will vary directly as the square of
the current flow. Therefore, since Example
current flow in a given circuit is What is the current draw of a 230 V
directly proportional to the voltage motor that is reduced to 200 V?
across the circuit, the result of Solution
reducing the voltage to some 200
percent of full voltage will be a = 0.87
230
reduction in power consumed in the
circuit equal to the percent of full Current draw is 87% of rated.
voltage squared. Figure 37 illustrates the effect of
Example reduced voltage on current.
If line voltage of 230 V is supplied
to a 230 V motor, the available
torque is 100%. If a 230 V motor is
reduced to 200 volts, what is
available torque?

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Reduced Starting Methods


Autotransformer — Open Transition
Autotransformer starters, also
called auto compensators, reduce
voltage to the motor terminals for
starting by transformer action. They
are available for very large high and
low voltage motors. The auto-
transformer has a reduced voltage
winding tap which is removed from
the circuit and connected directly to
the line as the motor approaches
rated speed.
Autotransformer starters typically
have three taps available to select
50%, 65% or 80% of line voltage.
Figure 37 With transformer action, current
drawn from the source will vary as
There are several types of reduced the square of voltage at the motor
motor starting. terminals. When the 80% tap is
used, the line current will be 80%
• Autotransformer-Open squared or 64% of line current that
Transition would be drawn at full voltage. With
• Autotransformer-Closed the transformer action, the
Transition autotransformer starter provides
higher torque per ampere of line
• Reactor current than other types of reduced
• Resistor voltage starters. Actual line current
will be a few percent more than the
• Part Winding 64% in the example because the
• Star Delta autotransformer requires
approximately 25 kVA per 100
• Solid State motor horsepower for magnetizing
All these reduced voltage starting current.
techniques decrease motor starting The transition to full voltage is
torque. Decreased motor starting usually determined by a timer.
torque detracts from the motor’s However, in some cases it may be
ability to start and achieve rated done manually. The simplest
speed when burdened by a load. If arrangement is open circuit transfer
reduced voltage starters are used, from reduced to full voltage, but it
the reduction in starting torque causes severe electrical and
developed by the motor must be mechanical disturbances during the
considered. transition switch.
Figure 38 shows a circuit
drawing and torque chart of an
Autotransformer – Open
arrangement.

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Autotransformer – Open Current drawn from the line will


vary as the square of voltage at
motor terminals; when the motor is
connected to the third (80%) tap,
line current will be 80% squared, or
64% of line current that would be
drawn at full voltage. The starter
requires approximately 25 kVA per
100 motor horsepower as magnet-
izing current. This is added to the
starting kVA of the motor being
started.
Figure 39 shows a circuit
drawing and torque chart of an
Autotransformer – Closed
arrangement.

Autotransformer – Closed

Figure 38

Autotransformer — Closed
Transition
An alternative to open transition
switching, is closed transition.
This technique minimizes shock
by providing continuous flow of
current while switching from auto-
transformer tap to full voltage.
Closed transition switching, though
involving slightly more complex
switching, is preferred for
autotransformer starting. Auto-
transformer starters are
magnetically controlled. Three taps
on the transformer secondary are Figure 39
set for 50%, 65%, and 80% of full
line voltage. These three contactors,
a timer, and a transformer make up
the starting device. This starter is
very smooth in acceleration
and allowance starting time is 30
seconds. It is the most expensive of
all starters.

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Reactor — Resistor Reactor


Reactor starters reduce voltage to
the motor by inserting resistance or
reactance into each leg of the circuit
and then short out when the motor
approaches operating speed. This
type of starter uses two contactors,
a timer, and a reactor or resistor as
the starting device.
Allowable starting time is five
seconds. It is the least flexible in
application of all starting devices
but smooth in acceleration and
priced in the middle of all starters.
The added resistance acts as a
voltage dropping device. It adds a
loss to the circuit and imposes load
on the engine. This method
provides smooth acceleration as
the starting circuit is removed
without momentarily disconnecting
motor from line. (The line current Figure 40
equals motor current, resulting in a
lower “torque to source” kVA
ratio for starting than with Resistor
autotransformers.) For example,
with 80% voltage applied to the
motor terminals, the motor current
will be 80% of normal full voltage
current and likewise 80% current
will be required from the line.
Contrast this to 64% line current
with an 80% tap autotransformer.
Reactor starting uses two
contactors, a timer, and a reactor as
the starting device. Allowable
starting time is 15 seconds. Series
reactor starting is usually used
on large motors. Its application
flexibility is limited to only the high
voltages and currents.
Figure 40 and Figure 41 show
circuit drawings and torque charts
of sample Reactor/Resistor
arrangements.

Figure 41

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Part Winding torque to kVA ratio, it does not


A special motor with two parallel allow for a smooth start and is not
stator windings is required for suitable for small, high speed
part winding starting. These are motors. Acceleration time is
successively connected to the line between 5 and 15 seconds
as motor speed increases. depending on the type of motor
used.
Part Winding Figure 42 shows a circuit drawing
and torque chart of sample Part
Winding arrangement.
Wye (Star) — Delta SCR Gates
Wye-delta starting requires that
the motor being started have all six
or twelve leads brought out to the
connection box. The motor starts as
a wye (star) connected motor and is
then switched to run as a delta
connected motor.
When connected wye, voltage
impressed on each individual
winding is 58% of full value of delta
connection. Starting torque and
current are 33% of across-the-line
value. This type of starter has the
longest allowable acceleration time
of 45 to 60 seconds. When wye-
delta is used with a limited capacity
generator set, the additional loss in
the motor’s starting torque due to a
Figure 42 significant transient voltage dip
usually results in the motor failing
Full line starting is applied to a to accelerate to near rated speed
part of the motor’s winding. Current prior to making transition to
and developed torque are reduced running mode. The power source is
to that of one winding while started almost as if it was started
starting. Torque characteristics are directly across the line, and
better if the stator is designed for therefore fails.
part winding starting but standard
dual voltage are sometimes used. Note: Alternators powering motors
Two contactors and a timer are the equipped with delta starters should
parts of this starter. However, an be sized as if the motors were being
additional cost of the motor itself started directly across-the-line.
has to be taken into consideration Figure 43 shows a circuit drawing
since it may be up to 50% more and torque chart of sample Wye
expensive than a standard squirrel (Star) arrangement.
cage motor. Although this
technique can produce a good

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Wye (Star) motor starter does not have an


automatic bypass, the SCR’s voltage
distortion will have to be
compensated by oversizing the
generator. A guideline in this
oversizing is to use two times the
kW load. Refer to the Harmonic
Content Section for more
information.
Figure 44 shows a circuit drawing
and torque chart of a sample Solid
State arrangement.

Solid State

Figure 43

Solid-State Starter
Solid-state starters offer many
options in achieving desired starting
characteristics. Solid-state starters
adjust torque, acceleration ramp
time and current limit to cause a
motor start which has a controlled
acceleration. Solid-state starters
offer smooth, step-less motor
starting by varying the conduction
angle of SCR’s. The conduction Figure 44
angle varies from 20 to 100% which
in turn controls the motor voltage The user adjusts the control to
from 40 to 80%. They have the deliver the best starting
advantage of operating without characteristic for the application.
mechanical parts and large Variations of current and voltage
electrical switching contacts. This limit are sometimes used to achieve
provides a very smooth application linear speed ramp, however the
of power. operating principle of the controlled
The solid-state starter is not to be parameter is always based on
confused with the solid-state voltage control.
adjustable speed drive. With a solid- Voltage Ramp
state starter, circuits are typically Voltage/time ramp increases
only active during starting and voltage until full voltage is applied
therefore do not require additional to the motor terminals. Constant
generator capability to kVA is maintained, and sudden
accommodate voltage distortion torque changes are eliminated, as
due to the SCR’s. If the solid-state

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illustrated in Figure 45. Initial Current Ramp


voltage step, acceleration ramp, and
current limit are usually adjustable.
An extended acceleration ramp time
and low current limit setting results
in the least voltage and frequency
dips.

Voltage Ramp

Figure 46

Table 19 lists the various methods


and types of starting, and their
principle effects on motor starting.
Extreme care should be given
Figure 45 when applying reduced voltage
starting to engine gensets. The
Current Ramp amount of available starting torque
Use of the current limit ramp is is reduced. Any transient voltage
very common. Current is ramped up dip during start will further reduce
within a prescribed time to reach a the starting torque. For example, if
programmed limit; refer to Figure a motor is being started with an
46. Current limit settings from 150% autotransformer starter on the 65%
to 600% of full load current are tap, the motor will have only 42.25%
typically available. A 300% limit of its full voltage starting torque
reduces the starting kVA by 50% available upon start. If the system
from the normal 600% current with voltage dips 20% during transient,
full voltage across-the-line starting. the voltage at the motor terminals
Use of the current limit setting will be only 80% of 65% of rated
reduces motor torque available to voltage (52% of full voltage).
the load as shown in Figure 44. Squaring 52% gives a net value of
27% of full voltage starting torque,
not the anticipated 42.25%.

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adversely affect other loads which


Table of Methods and Types of Motor are already connected. All loads
Starting following the initial intermittent
PU PU load (like a furnace) must include
Method PU Line Rated Rated
and Type of Voltage Start Start the intermittent load as part of its
Starting Applied Torque kVA total as well. By considering this,
Available Required more kVA may be needed and a
Full Voltage
Across-the- 1.0 1.0 1.0
larger genset may be appropriate.
Line
Motor Starting Troubleshooting
Full Voltage Techniques
Part
Winding 1.0 0.70 0.70 If motor starting is a problem,
(See Notes consider the following:
1 & 3)
Reduced • Change starting sequence.
Voltage Start largest motors first. More
Auto- 0.80, 0.64, 0.67,
transformer 0.65, 0.42, 0.45, starting kVA is available,
(See Note 0.50 0.25 0.28 although it does not provide
2) better voltage recovery time.
Reduced
Voltage • Use reduced voltage starters.
Reactor/ 0.80, 0.64, 0.80, This reduces the kVA required
Resistor 0.65 0.42 0.65 to start a given motor. If
(See Notes
1 & 3) starting under load,
Reduced
remember this starting
Voltage 0.58 0.33 0.33
method also reduces starting
Star-Delta torque.
NOTES:
1. Values are typical. Various values of skVA • Use current limiting starters.
and torque are available depending upon
motor/starter design. Consult the • Specify oversized generators.
motor/starter manufacturer for specific data.
• Use wound rotor motors.
2. The calculated percentage values of Start
kVA have been increased by three percentage They require lower starting
points to allow for the magnetizing kVA current, but are more
required for the autotransformer. expensive than other motors.
3. Values listed are typical. Consult with the
customer or the manufacturer of the • Provide clutches so motors
motor/starter for specific data. start before loads are applied.
4. In the absence of specific data, indicated While starting kVA demand is
typical data may be used for estimating not reduced, time interval of
purposes, but should be shown as “assumed
values in lieu of specific data”. Performance high kVA demand is
of actual equipment may vary from calculated shortened.
performance on all calculations and
quotations. • Improve system power factor.
Table 20 This reduces the generator
set requirement to produce
reactive kVA, making more
kVA available for starting.
Intermittent Starting
When a motor is run intermittently, • Unload the motors. Starting
the transient response time must be loaded motors can cause very
considered. When an intermittent high generator set loads
motor is started, the voltage dip during the motor starting
which occurs must still be in an phase.
acceptable range that does not

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Miscellaneous Loads VFD’s start at zero frequency and


Most facilities will have both ramp up to a set point. Variable
lighting and motor loads. Some voltage drives start at zero voltage
facilities may have additional and ramp up to a selected point.
miscellaneous loads; these could Both are under a current or torque
include adjustable speed drives, limit to avoid large inrush current.
UPS loads, single-phase loads and A variation of the variable speed
elevator loads. drive is the reduced voltage or
reduced current starter; see
Adjustable (Variable) Speed Drives description under motor starting.
Electronic adjustable speed drives
are used to control the speed of Generally, when these drives
both AC and DC motors. Speed represent more than 25% of the
control allows application of total load on the generator set, it
motors, at their most efficient may require a larger generator.
speed, to be matched to the VFD’s require large generators.
demand created at a particular VFD’s are current limiting and
moment. Terms used to describe reduce kW and kVA. Non-linear
these drives include the following. current is drawn which has
harmonics. This causes a voltage
• Variable Speed Drive (VSD) drop across the reactance of the
• Variable Frequency Drive genset. When Total Harmonic
(VFD) Distortion (THD) exceeds 15%,
additional generator capacity may
• Adjustable Frequency Drive be needed. Larger generators have
(AFD) greater reduction in impedance of
• Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) the generator; this reduces the
These drives rectify incoming AC effects of the harmonic current
power to form DC power. The DC distortion.
is used to either power a DC motor For six-pulse VFD’s, twice the
directly, or power an inverter that running kW of the drive is a typical
converts DC back into AC at a sizing factor used to offset any
desired voltage and frequency for reduction in starting kW or kVA. If
driving a motor at any speed at any an input filter is used to limit current
point in time. to less than 10%, the sizing factor
The rectification of AC with SCR’s can be reduced down to 1.4 times
distorts current waveforms and sub- the running kW of the drive.
sequently causes distorted voltage Passive filters may be used to
waveforms, which can have impact reduce the impact of harmonic
on other equipment connected to distortion. However, the possible
the same source. effects of leading power factor with
tuned inductor/capacitor filters at
start-up or with light loads may
effect voltage regulation of self-
excited generators.

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Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) the power source. Current


Systems waveform distortion can develop
SCR drives allow infinite speed harmonic resonance in system
adjustment of electric motors. They equipment. This causes heating in
are used in a variety of applications. motor and generator coils.
DC motors used in elevators, cranes The creation of distortion with an
and printing presses utilize SCR’s. SCR device can be shown by
Additionally, AC variable frequency looking at a simple generator
drives (VFD) and AC variable supplying an SCR controlled load;
voltage input (VVI) drives used in refer to Figure 47.
pumps, fans, process conveyors,
machine tools and printing presses
use SCR’s.
Typically, SCR drives may require
oversized generators. Operating DC
motors at variable speeds causes
the generator Power Factor to vary.
Accordingly, AC generators are
oversized to 0.6 or 0.7 PF to provide
more generator ampere capacity. Figure 47
Testable capacity of the genset is
given by the following equation: Turning the SCR “on” at some
point during the applied voltage
EkW = (bhp – rad fan hp) x Gen eff cycle creates an instantaneous
x 0.746 demand for a large amount of
current to flow in the circuit. With
Additionally, the generator must an SCR, current does not flow until
be form-wound to provide the SCR is gated “on.” This current
additional mechanical bracing of the flow results in an instantaneous
generator winding. This bracing voltage drop within the internal
resists the forces caused by current impedance or reactance of the
surges resulting from operation of generator. Consequently, the
the SCR controllers. Generator voltage at the generator output
winding temperature rise design terminals appears as a distorted
limit is also lowered to compensate sine wave; refer to Figure 48.
for additional heating caused by the
SCR load.
Undersized generators may cause
circuit breaker tripping.
SCR systems lend themselves to
infinite speed control of motors,
rectifiers and uninterrupted power
supplies (UPS). Each of these
devices converts the sinusoidal Figure 48
supply voltage into a direct current
voltage. In some cases, the Over time, these distortions which
equipment may convert the DC occur on a three-phase power
voltage back to AC voltage. Used source can cause unfavorable
with limited power sources, such as performance of the entire system.
engine-driven generator sets, SCR
switching causes severe voltage
and current waveform distortion at

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When planning systems with SCR Static systems isolate critical load
devices, the control manufacturer through solid-state devices which
must be informed that a limited use batteries to bridge power
power source (generator set) will be interruptions until a genset is
used. The system can then be available to power the system.
designed to minimize distortion UPS’s can also be used to perform
problems. Limiting SCR loads to an orderly engine shutdown to
66% of a Cat generator’s prime minimize restart damage.
power rating ensures regulator
control and avoids generator Static UPS systems use static
overheating caused by harmonics. components to provide quality
Applications requiring high load power to critical equipment,
factors must be analyzed on an independent of the quality or
individual basis. availability of the normal power
source. The simplest systems
Welding Loads consist of a rectifier (converter), a
Welders draw erratic fluctuating DC storage battery bank, and an
current. These current fluctuations inverter.
produce voltage waveform The rectifier, sometimes called
distortion due to relatively high-load converter, is a device that converts
source impedance. Generator sets AC current to DC current.
may require significant derating
with welder loads. The inverter uses Solid State
technology to convert DC to a
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) waveform that is then filtered so it
A UPS system is an assembly of is suitable for powering the critical
equipment used with electrical load.
loads sensitive to power source
disturbances or that require A bank of storage batteries
absolute continuity of power. The “floats” on-line to provide seamless
UPS can store energy for a period DC power to the inverter in the
during power outages. The UPS event of power source loss to the
continually conditions power and if rectifier. The batteries get their
the normal power source is not restoring charge and standby float
available, the UPS provides power charge from the rectifier’s DC
to the critical load until the standby output.
power generation can come on-line. The DC output of the rectifier
The generator set should be sized to provides for two functions during
the UPS rating, not the load. the time when an AC power source
Continuity and isolation from is available at its terminals.
power source disturbances can be 1. It provides regulated DC to the
assured by using either a rotary or a inverter for powering the
static UPS system. critical load.
Rotary systems use a motor- 2. It maintains the “state of charge”
generator set to isolate the critical on the bank of DC batteries;
load combined with kinetic inertia
storage technique or batteries to including recharging
carry the critical load while cranking if the state of charge has been
a diesel engine. depleted by a recent normal
power outage.

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The AC output of the inverter is For a twelve-pulse system where


“conditioned power” to match the the loads are less than 25% of the
voltage and frequency requirements generators standby rating, a
of the critical load at all times. standard generator and automatic
During a power interruption, voltage regulation system may be
power for the system comes directly applied.
from the reserve battery bank Size and cost considerations
without switching. The load is seen dictate the number of pulses to be
as the static power converter/ used in system design. Problems
battery charger. with high THD with a six-pulse
Six-Pulse and Twelve-Pulse Rectifier rectifier can typically be minimized
The rectifier or converter unit, by the rectifier manufacturer using a
which converts AC to DC in a UPS properly designed passive filter.
system, consists of large individual By-Pass Capability
rectifiers in circuits to control the DC Some UPS systems include
output. They draw current in pulses additional components to allow the
from the AC source. These current capability to by-pass the UPS in the
pulses are not sine wave in shape event of failure within the system,
and cause voltage waveform system maintenance or momentary
distortion at the source. Refer to overloads on the critical load side.
the Non-Linear Load Section for Figure 49 is an example of a UPS
examples. with by-pass capability. A device
In three-phase rectifiers, the called a static transfer switch
circuits and circuit elements may be allows automatic and virtually
arranged to provide DC power with uninterrupted transfer of the critical
six or twelve DC current pulses per load back to the incoming source in
AC input cycle. the event of a planned or unplanned
system event such as mentioned
The higher the number of pulses above.
per cycle, the smoother the
demand. Therefore, a six-pulse The UPS must have circuitry to
rectifier has a more distorting ensure the inverter output and by-
demand than a twelve-pulse pass source are synchronized.
rectifier. Source voltage and frequency must
be within an acceptable range, or
A six-pulse system should have a the UPS will disable the automatic
generator rated for continuous duty by-pass feature.
at 80°C temperature rise. An
upgrade of the voltage regulation
system may be necessary, as well.
The subtransient reactance should
also be determined before sizing the
generator.
For a twelve-pulse system, where
these loads are more than 25% of
the generators standby rating, a
generator rated for continuous duty
at 105°C rise for Class F and H
insulation systems should be
selected.

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The demand for close control of waveform caused by the UPS


voltage and frequency is of more rectifier and the possibility of
concern for by-pass with a generator set frequency deviation
generator set source. This is due to pulsating load or small load
because of harsh effects on voltage changes.

UPS with Bypass Capability

Figure 49

An isochronous governor is parallel, typically with one or more


recommended on the generator set UPS systems than required to
and the UPS should be adjusted or power the load. Therefore, the
designed with the widest possible critical load can be sustained even
window of voltage and frequency with the loss or failure of any one
acceptability for by-pass. individual UPS system. A static
switching bypass, although of lesser
Parallel Redundant UPS importance for reliability, may still
Extremely critical applications be used for maintenance or
may use a parallel redundant UPS; momentary overload and fault
refer to Figure 50. These are clearing capability.
multiple UPS systems operating in

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Parallel Redundant UPS

Figure 50
Static UPS System

Figure 51

UPS Interface • Isolate critical load through a


Electrical loads sensitive to power motor-generator set to avoid
disturbances during substation five-cycle power interruptions
switching, voltage fluctuations or of utility.
total outages require absolute Combining the characteristics of
continuity of power. Continuity can a UPS system, particularly static
be assured by isolating critical loads systems as shown in Figure 51, and
and incorporating one of the a generator set present special
following: considerations to ensure
• Assign a generator set solely compatibility. An understanding of
to the critical load. Sudden how these systems work and
load changes are sufficiently interface is essential.
small to avoid speed
changes.

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A UPS is rated in output kVA. In Other loads connected to the


sizing a genset, it is important to generator will counter this effect.
recognize the need to provide power Also, disconnecting the filter at
based on UPS input. For instance, a lower UPS loads will minimize the
rated UPS 100 kVA requires more problems.
than 100 kVA from the power source; Filters may also act as stored
the difference between input and energy devices affecting circuit
output kVA is the efficiency of the switching components such as
unit. In addition, battery recharge automatic transfer switches.
load might be as high as 25% of the Indiscriminate filter designs may
output rating. also cause resonant conditions with
UPS systems typically have other circuit elements.
electronic circuits that discern input
voltage and frequency change. All Impact of Other Loads
UPS should be designed or adjusted Most electrical devices and
with operating parameters that are equipment are relatively unaffected
compatible with the genset. This when powered by generator sets with
includes using the widest possible UPS loads. However, knowledge of
window of voltage and frequency potentially sensitive devices may be
acceptance when used with a of value in system planning. Many
genset. electronic devices contain internal AC
to DC power supplies with adequate
Coordination between the genset filtering and are relatively immune to
supplier and the UPS supplier is waveform distortion. A few special
critical in meeting the client’s needs. purpose electronic or control devices
Input Filters that depend upon source voltage
Filters may interact with other “zero crossings” for timing may
components within a system. perform erratically. If these devices
Therefore, they should be considered are of low power, a simple and low
very carefully. Typical tuned circuit cost filter will usually eliminate any
filters represent some compromise problem.
when used with rectifiers that are Power factor correction capacitors
exposed to broad power changes, are used primarily for economic
such as may be encountered in UPS reasons. They can also be effective
applications. Filters with capacitive in reducing waveform distortion.
reactance components may have little Caution must be exercised where
effect on power factor with rated load power factor correction capacitors
on the UPS; however, the power are used. A resonant condition at
factor may become capacitive leading one of the harmonic frequencies
at a part-load condition. with some part of the line
Generator sets inherently have inductance such as a transformer,
difficulty controlling voltage with on-line motor or the generator is
leading power factors, and rising possible. Excessive and possibly
voltage may be observed. This damaging currents at the harmonic
condition is emphasized during UPS frequency can flow through the
start-up by the power walk-in equipment. It may be advisable to
feature. Typically, a UPS has some keep them off line until effects of
means of gradually applying load to operating on an emergency
the source over a 10 to 20 second generator set with non-linear loads
period. An unloaded filter may can be observed.
present a leading capacitive power
factor load beyond the generator’s
voltage control capability.

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UPS Sizing Example If UPS efficiency is unknown,


The following is a procedure to the following guidelines are
use in sizing Cat generator sets that recommended:
have static UPS systems as part or
all of their load. This procedure has • Use 0.85 if UPS < 100 kW.
four parts: • Use 0.875 if UPS > 100 kW,
Part A but < 500 kW.
Establish UPS input kW. Use UPS • Use 0.90 if UPS > 500 kW.
input kW from supplier data. (In this Note: Maximum input with
example use 255 kW.) If not avail- redundant systems is less than total
able from supplier, the following rating of individual systems.
procedure and guidelines are
recommended to approximate or Part B
estimate UPS input kW. Establish the minimum size
UPS Output kW + Battery generator to contain waveform
UPS Input Recharge kW distortion (quality of electric power).
kW =
UPS Efficiency
• 6-pulse rectifier/charger:
Minimum standby rated
UPS output for computer loads is generator set =
frequently stated in terms of kVA. UPS input kW x 1.6.
For approximating, if UPS output
kVA is given and kW is unknown, • 12-pulse rectifier/charger:
use 0.9 pf (typical for computer Minimum standby rated
systems). generator set = UPS input kW
x 1.4.
Battery recharge kW generally
ranges from 0 to 25% of input kW
(15% is typical). If unknown, use
25% of output kW for an
approximation.

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Part C and other support functions.


Size the generator to Following selection of the generator
accommodate other loads. set in Part D, a check should be
made to determine if the generator
• 6-pulse rectifier/charger: set has adequate motor starting
Minimum standby generator skVA capability.
rating with other loads =
(UPS input kW x 1.15) + kW of In special cases, it may be
other loads. possible to optimize economics by
selection of a generator with
• 12-pulse rectifier/charger: standby rating as determined in Part
Minimum standby generator D and driving with an engine which
rating with other loads = has a standby rating commensurate
(UPS input kW x 1.10) + kW of with the actual total kW load on the
other loads. generator set. Actual total kW load
Part D is the UPS input kW plus kW of
Compare “B” and “C” for final other loads.
selection. Select larger of Part B or Regenerative Power
Part C and round to nearest larger Some motor applications, such
size standby generator set. as hoisting, depend on motors for
Example: braking. If a mechanical load causes
Select a standby generator set for the motor to turn faster than
powering a UPS rated 200 kVA/180 synchronous speed, the motor will
kW. Other loads connected to the act as a generator and feed power
generator set total 100 kW. back into the system. The term
“regenerative power” is sometimes
Solution: used to describe the power
Part A: From supplier data, the produced by these loads. If no other
UPS input is 255 kW. loads are connected to absorb this
Part B: The rectifier/charger is a energy, these loads will cause the
6-pulse circuit, 255 kW. Minimum generator to act as a motor,
standby rated generator set = 255 possibly causing engine overspeed
kW x 1.6 = 408 kW. which can lead to engine failure.
Part C: Sizing for other loads. Only engine frictional horsepower
Minimum standby generator set can be relied on for braking.
rating with other loads = (255 kW x Exceeding frictional horsepower
1.15) + 100 kW = 393 kW. causes the generator set overspeed.
Part D: Select larger of Part B or In calculating the ability of a
Part C. Part B (408 kW) is larger than system to overcome regenerative
part C (393 kW); therefore, a power, it is conservatively
standby generator set of at least recommended that only engine
408 kW is recommended. A Cat friction horsepower be considered.
450 kW generator set will satisfy Engine friction horsepower at
this application. synchronous speeds is available
Loads on the generator set from the engine manufacturer.
frequently include large motors for Typically, a generator set will retard
air conditioning approximately 10% of its rating.

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When combinations of connected Transformer Efficiency Losses


load and engine frictional Power transformers are relatively
horsepower are not sufficient to efficient. Typical efficiencies are
restrain regenerative energy, load 95 to 99% at full load. The efficiency
banks may be added to protect the is the ratio of real power output to
genset from being affected power input. Losses are mainly
regeneration. losses incident to magnetization
Transformers at no-load and the addition of I2R
Transformers are used in power losses caused by the load current.
distribution systems for voltage Transformer Taps
step-up, voltage step-down, or Transformer taps can be used to
circuit isolation purposes. They are adjust voltage levels. Transformers
commonly used to step-down consist of a primary coil and a
transmission line voltage to a secondary coil. The coil winding of
useable distribution system voltage a transformer can be tapped to
and to step-down service or supply change the turns ratio and adjust
voltage to the utilization voltage of the voltage level of a system. Refer
user equipment. to Figure 52.
Transformer Magnetizing Current
When a transformer is initially
energized, there is an inrush of
current to bring it from a residual
flux level to normal steady state flux
level. Transformers have inductive
characteristics similar to motors
when charging, with inrush
(magnetizing) current as much as 40 Figure 52
times full load current when
connected to a utility power source. Example:
With a generator source, values of To better understand transformer
generator subtransient reactance taps, consider the 4160 V to 480 V
(X”d) limit the inrush current to distribution step-down systems
values of 6 to 10 times generator shown in Figure 53 and Figure 54.
rated current. However, the process On the system, voltage is dropped
of flux build-up in transformer from 480 V at the bus to 450 V at the
excitation takes only a few cycles load. But, what if that load required
before current returns to a relatively more voltage than 450 V from the
low exciting current level. The effect 4160 V generator?
on the generator set can be ignored,
but, if voltage fluctuation to highly Solution:
sensitive equipment must be closely One way to remedy the situation
controlled, kVA capability of the is with a –5% transformer tap, which
power source must include starting increases voltage at the load to
of this low power factor load. 474 V. Keep in mind that the tap
Typically, a genset can energize a adjusts the overall voltage level. It
transformer that is two to four times does not change the voltage spread.
the genset’s kVA rating. A voltage In this example, voltage at the
dip occurs at the generator transformer would have been
terminals, almost as if a short circuit increased from 480 V to 504 V. An
had occurred. However, transformer automatic regulator on a generator
flux builds up in a few cycles and set could have also been used to
voltage is restored. adjust overall voltage, instead of a
transformer tap.

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Figure 53

Figure 54

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Transformers have a variety of Power for complex telephone


taps. Table 21 is an example of taps systems is frequently supplied from
found in a 4160-480 V transformer. building system mains. Voltage and
frequency stability requirements are
4160-480 Volt Transformer Taps usually not severe, however solid-
Primary Secondary state battery charging equipment
Tap
Voltage Voltage may be part of the load and create
3952 480 –5% disturbance to a generator power
4056 480 –21⁄2% source.
4160 480 Normal Medical Equipment
rating
4264 480 +21⁄2%
X-Ray equipment typically needs
very short duration, high voltage
4368 480 +5% from power supplies. This need
Table 21 results in high current draw in short
durations, which in turn results in
Critical Loads low kW demand at near unity power
Critical loads are loads that cannot factor.
tolerate voltage and frequency dips. Power source equipment should
Data centers, communication be selected to maintain x-ray
equipment and medical equipment quality. As x-ray equipment is
are examples of critical loads. activated, voltage dip due to inrush
Data Centers/Computers should be within 10% or within the
Data centers require a reliable manufacturer’s recommended
power source. Power quality tolerance.
requirements should be considered These loads generally represent
prior to power system design. As a only a small part of the generator
rule, avoid heavy SCR loads, block load, so x-ray pictures are not
switching loads and large motor normally affected.
skVA on data processing equipment
power circuits. Helpful Load Application Tips
Some general rules can be used if
Communications Equipment the smallest but most effective on-
Communication equipment site system is required:
includes broad ranges of electronic
devices for transmission of • Across-the-line motors when
information. Most common are started, should always have
radio and television broadcasting the largest motor started first
equipment, studio equipment, and then smaller motors
transmitters and telephone sequentially after that.
equipment. Generally, all devices • When motors with electronic
pass their power supply through drives are started, the
transformers. Therefore, power “largest motor first” rule
factor is slightly less than unity. does not necessarily apply.
Most equipment tolerates frequency Electronic drives allow better
variations of ±5%, except where control of the load by
synchronous timing from the power controlling the maximum
source is used. Voltage variations of current load and rate of load
±10% are usually acceptable since application. These loads are
electronic circuits sensitive to more sensitive to voltage
voltage variations contain internal variation than the motors
started “across-the-line”.

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• When UPS loads are present, amount of excitation required is a


load them last. Generators function of generator load.
are more stable and less Excitation required to maintain
affected by non-linear loads constant voltage increases with
when linear loads have been load. Reactive lagging power factor
running before non-linear load requires more excitation than a
loads are applied. unity power factor load. Leading
• Loads that have filters or use power factor loads require less
power factor correction for excitation than unity power factor
power quality improvement loads. When a generator has a
should not be applied to a leading power factor, the armature
light load level. The flux reacts additively with the field
capacitive elements of these pole flux to increase saturation and
loads make the generator produce a higher terminal voltage
susceptible to huge voltage for a given amount of excitation.
increases. The automatic voltage regulator
responds to control voltage by
Line Losses reducing excitation. At light load,
Wires and cables in circuits always the regulator will go to its minimum
have some resistance to current excitation capability. However, the
flow. This presents a power loss additive excitation from a leading
and a voltage drop. The losses are a power factor will cause the terminal
function of line length and line voltage to rise and will not be
current carrying capability. These controlled by the voltage regulator.
losses must be considered. It is not uncommon for this
Line voltage drop may be a more condition to occur with power factor
important consideration. Voltage correction capacitors or tuned
drop can represent a significant circuit filters, which are connected
difference between generated to circuits at light load conditions.
voltage and voltage delivered at the This same phenomenon can occur
load. Line voltage drop change with when energizing long transmission
load change also affects voltage lines due to distributed capacitance.
regulation at the load, if the load Adding reactance to the circuit is a
varies. possible solution to overcome the
Power losses are calculated as I2R problem should it occur.
loss in watts or kilowatts. Voltage Long Transmission Lines
drop is calculated as I2R loss. The Long transmission lines may
amount of resistance is based on require the effects of distributed line
length, cross-sectional area, capacitance to be taken into
temperature, and substance of the account. The definition of a “long”
conductors. Standard electrical transmission line is a relative term
handbooks contain tables of and difficult to define for a
resistivity of wire and cable for generator set application. However,
making calculations. Line losses are as can be seen by the equivalent
not typically a factor with short circuit of a transmission line, there
cable lengths of proper size. is distributed capacitance between
Power Factor Loads the lines and ground; refer to
Self-excited, synchronous Figure 55.
generators are not designed to The line charging current varies
operate with leading power factor with voltage, length, height, and
load. The AC voltage generated is line spacing along with other
controlled by DC excitation. The factors.

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A problem arises, particularly with limit of the generator saturation


an unloaded line, where the line curve upon energization of the line.
charging load appears as a leading Having some lagging reactive load
power factor load to the generator. on-line will correct or avoid this
Power factors of 0.95 leading or problem should it occur.
more may result in the generated
voltage going uncontrolled to the

Figure 55

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Two-wire Circuit Power Loss Three-wire Circuit Power Loss


Formula Formula
The formula for calculating the The formula used to calculate
power losses for a two-wire circuit power for a three-wire circuit
(DC or single-phase) is: (assuming a balanced load) is:
24 x L x I2 36 x L x I2
=P =P
CM CM

Where: Where:
P = Power Loss in Watts P = Power Loss in Watts
L= One-way Length of a Circuit L= One-way Length of a Circuit
in feet in feet
CM = The Cross Section of a CM = The Cross Section of a
Conductor in Circular Mils Conductor in Circular Mils
I = Represents Current I = Represents Current

Example Example
Assume a single-phase motor Assume a three-phase motor
rated to deliver 7.5 hp at 115 V is rated to deliver 100 hp at 230 V
connected to a power source via a connected to the power source via a
200 foot, No. 1 AWG copper wire 400 foot cable sized at 250 MCM.
sized at 83,690 CM. Also, assume Also, assume the motor draws 248
the motor draws 80 amperes at full amperes at full load. What is the
load. What is the power loss? power loss?

Solution Solution
Use the formula for a single-phase Use the formula for a single-phase
motor: motor:
24 x 200 x 36 x 400 x
802 =P 2482 =P
83,690 250,000

The result is a 367 watt power The result is a 3,543 watt power
loss. loss.

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Single-Phase Loads To determine the maximum


In three-phase power generation, single-phase load which may be
a single-phase load is a load placed safely drawn from a generator set
across one voltage phase of the supplying single-phase and three-
generator. phase power simultaneously, use
If single-phase loads are added to Table 24 on Page 98 to help with
the three-phase system, a condition calculations.
of unbalance will exist unless the Example 1 (Closed Delta Generator)
single-phase loads are equally Refer to Figure 56. Find the amount
distributed among each of the three of single-phase power which can be
phases of the generator set. safely drawn from a three-phase
Tests have shown that phase- 120/240 volt four-wire generator set
voltage unbalance of more than 2% rated to deliver 100 kW at a 0.8
in three-phase will cause motor power factor. The coil current rating
overheating if the motor is of the generator set is 334 amperes.
operating close to full load. Some Assume that the single-phase load
electronic equipment may also be is connected from one line-to-
affected by an unbalance of more neutral, has an operating power
than 2%. factor of 0.9 lagging and that the
generator set is supplying a three-
Load Balancing phase load of 50 kW at a power
If the electrical distribution system factor of 0.08.
served by a three-phase generator
set consists entirely of three-phase
loads, the system is balanced. The
coils making up the generator’s
three phases each supply the same
amount of current to the load. If
single-phase loads are added to the
three-phase load, however, a
condition of unbalance will exist
unless the single-phase loads are
equally distributed among each
of the three phases of the
generator set. Figure 56
Generators operate best with Solution 1
balanced loads. If the loads are 1. First, find the current drawn
unbalanced, the risk of overheating from each of the lines by the
is probable. When sizing a three-phase load.
generator all loads should be
balanced. 1.732 x I x pf P x 1000
xV
In many applications, balancing P= I=
1000 1.732 x V x
of single-phase loads may not be pf
practical. If these loads are small
(10% or less of the generator set 50 x 1000 = 151
three-phase kVA capacity), 1.732 x 240 x 0.8 Amperes
unbalanced single-phase loading is 2. Find the coil current capacity
not cause for concern provided any remaining for the single-phase
of the three line currents do not load:
exceed the generator set rated line 334 – 151 = 183 amperes
current.

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3. Find the single-phase power 3. Find the 208 volt single-phase


available: load current:
VxIx 120 x 183 x Px 10 x 1000 = 60
P= pf = 0.9 = 19.8 I = 1000 =
kW Amperes
1000 1000 V x pf 208 x .08

Example 2 (Wye Generator) 4. Find the coil current capacity


Refer to Figure 57. The generator remaining for the single-phase
set is rated to deliver 100 kW at a 120 volt load:
0.8 power factor. It is a three-phase 161 – 60 = 101 amperes
machine with a coil current rating of 5. Find the 120 volt single-phase
334 amperes. The three-phase load power available:
to be supplied is 50 kW at 0.8 power
factor. The single-phase load V x I x 120 x 101 x
P = pf = 0.9 = 10.9
consists of both 120 and 208 volt kW
circuits. The 120 volt load has a 1000 1000
power factor of 0.9 and is connected
from neutral to one leg. This leg is Example 3
common with one of the two Refer to Figure 58. Similar to the
supplying 10 kW at a 0.8 power previous example, the generator set
factor to the 208 volt load. is rated to deliver 100 kW at a 0.8
power factor. It is a three-phase
machine with a coil current rating of
334 amperes. The three-phase load
to be supplied is 50 kW at 0.8 power
factor. The single-phase load
consists of both 120 and 208 volt
circuits. The 120 volt load has a
power factor of 0.9 and is connected
from neutral to one leg. Different
from the previous example, this leg
Figure 57 is not common with one of the two
legs supplying 10 kW at a 0.8 power
Solution 2 factor to the 208 volt load.
1. First, find the current drawn
from each of the lines by the
three-phase load.
1.732 x I x pf P x 1000
xV
P= I=
1000 1.732 x V x
pf

50 x 1000 = 173.5
1.732 x 208 x 0.8 Amperes Figure 58
2. Find the coil current capacity
remaining for the single-phase
load:
334 – 173.5 = 161 amperes

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Solution 3 (Wye Generator) The one-line diagram shown in


1. First, find the current drawn Figure 59 represents a balanced
from each of the lines by the system. In the top diagram, the
three-phase load. generator is shown in its three
phases, which are separated with an
ELN line-to-neutral voltage. XS
1.732 x I x pf P x 1000 represents generator reactance. RL
xV and XL are load resistance and load
P= I=
1000 1.732 x V x reactance, respectively. The middle
pf diagram illustrates the single-phase
equivalent of all three phases. The
50 x 1000 = 173.5 bottom diagram is a further
1.732 x 208 x 0.8Amperes simplification of the same thing.
A simplified diagram is often used
2. Since the 120 volt is the only in three-phase representation.
single-phase load on this leg, Example 4, Generator Set Sizing
the coil current capacity In all of the following steps,
remaining for the single-phase Figure 60 and Figure 61 will be used
120 volt load is 173.5 amperes. to detail how to size a Cat generator
set, using load information; Figure
61 is used when motors with NEMA
3. Find the 120 volt single-phase code letters are considered.
power available:
1. Using information from the
V x I x 120 x 173.5 x nameplate, fill out information
P = pf = 0.9 = 18.7
kW in Part I and II. The motor
1000 1000 efficiency can be estimated
using a chart of approximate
One-line Diagrams efficiencies in Table 22.
One-line diagrams greatly simplify
load and system analyses.

Figure 59

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Approximate Efficiencies of Squirrel Cage Induction Motors*

hp kW Full-Load Efficiency
5 to 7.5 4-6 0.83
10 7.5 0.85
15 11 0.86
20 to 25 15 to 19 0.89
30 to 50 22 to 37 0.90
60 to 75 45 to 56 0.91
100 to 300 74.6 to 224 0.92
350 to 600 261 to 448 0.93
* Efficiencies are significantly influenced by the motor class.
Table 22

Figure 60

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Figure 61

2. Total engine load is determined letter from Table 15 on Page 58.


by calculating motor Find the Starting skVA using
efficiencies and adding to the following formula:
resistive load; add the lighting LRA x V x
loads, other non-motor loads skVV 1.732
and motor loads together. = 1000
3. Select engine (Part IV) which
matches frequency (Hz), 5. Motors on-line diminish skVA
configuration (gas, diesel, to start additional motors. For
turbocharged, aftercooled, item B1 - column 1, the first
naturally aspirated), speed and motor is always zero if there is
load. Hz and configuration are more than one motor. Motor #2
found in Section I. Speed is space is the kW in Section II
by customer preference and from first sequence motor.
the load was determined in Additional motor’s kW are
Section II. added to the total for each
4. Generator Sizing: In Section V motor starting.The items in the
fill in Part A for all motors from B2 row are filled in using
nameplate. Minimize starting Section II information as
requirements by starting the written. The items in the B3 row
largest motors first. The motors use the Motor Preload
rating and NEMA code can be Multiplier formula to determine
found in Section II. The skVA/hp the percentage of motor load.
is found using the NEMA code

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The Motor Preload Multiplier Reduced Voltage Starting Factors


formula is B1 divided by B3 or: Type Multiply
All Motors Running skVA By
% Motor
All Motors Running & X 100 Resistor, Reactor, Impedance
Load =
Being Started 80% Tap 0.80
65% Tap 0.65
50% Tap 0.50
Under 40%, the multiplier is 1.0. 45% Tap 0.45
Over 40%, use a value from the
chart in Figure 62. Autotransformer
80% Tap 0.68
65% Tap 0.46
Motor Preload Multiplier 50% Tap 0.29
Y Start, Run 0.33
Solid State: Adjustable, consult manufacturer
or estimate 300% of full load kVA (Use 1 if no
reduced voltage starting aids used)

Table 23

If no starting aid is used, use 1.0.


Row B8 can be filled by using
information in Section II.
6. Use the effective skVA and
Acceptable Voltage Dip
numbers to find on TMI the
appropriate generator. Fill in
C1, C2 and C3, using the
Figure 62 numbers from TMI.
7. Generator set sizing (VI) can be
If reduced voltage starting is used, found by selecting the largest
multiply the skVA by the factor generator set model of step IV
found in Table 23; fill in spaces and step V. (C1).
for rows B6 and B7.

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kVA of AC Circuits

Table 24

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Genset Selection Considerations

When choosing a genset these Linear Loads


factors need to be considered: Linear loads are defined as
• Load Type alternating current (AC) loads which
draw current proportional to
• Load Steps voltage. They draw current evenly,
• Load Balance in sine waveform, throughout the
cycle. The load may be resistive,
• Generator’s inductive (lagging power factor) or
o Temperature Rise capacitive loading (leading power
factor). Regardless of the type,
o Pitch current drawn by a linear load will
o Voltage Range remain sinusoidal.
Conventional electrical formulas
Load Types for determining electrical
All loads are different in their characteristics such as voltage drop,
power quality needs. A simple current flow measurement, power
incandescent light bulb does not consumption and heating values are
demand high quality power. applicable to linear loads and
The amount of light will drop assume there is no distortion of
proportionally to voltage, but voltage and current waveforms.
frequency and voltage waveform
free from distortion is not significant. Typical linear loads are:
Other loads are sensitive to those • Incandescent Lights
type voltage variables. Loads
are typically defined as linear or • Resistance Heaters
nonlinear. One of the first steps is to • Induction Motors
separate loads into linear and non-
linear loads. Table 25 provides • Synchronous Motors
examples of linear and non-linear • Electromagnetic Devices
loads.
• Transformers (non-saturated)

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Voltage and
Current Drawn Current Examples
Waveforms

Linear Proportional to Sine wave Incandescent light bulbs


voltage Induction and synchronous
motors
Electromagnetic devices
Resistance heaters
Non-Linear Non-proportional Pulses Silicon controlled rectifiers
to voltage Variable speed drives
Uninterruptible power
supplies
Battery chargers
Fluorescent lighting
Table 25

Non-Linear Loads Typical non-linear loads are:


An electrical load which changes • Silicon Controlled Rectifiers
or modifies the current or voltage
waveform to one that is not • Variable Speed Drives
sinusoidal is a non-linear load. A • Uninterruptible Power
load that draws current in pulses is Supplies
a non-linear load.
• Battery Chargers
The development and application
of solid-state electronic components • Computing Equipment
has proliferated nonlinear electrical • Fluorescent and Gas
loads. Semi-conductors, particularly Discharge Lighting
silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR’s)
have the ability to turn “on” or • Transformers (saturated)
begin conducting at any point All of these devices require current,
during the applied volt wave and which cannot be provided without
draw instantaneous pulses of causing some distortion to the
current. These instantaneous pulse applied source voltage. Non-linear
demands result in harmonics, which loads in the system can cause
result in the nonlinearity. problems for other loads.
Another source of non-sine wave
current drawing loads is saturated
magnetic core equipment, such as
fluorescent ballast transformers and
saturated core reactor regulators.

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Harmonic Content Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is


Deviation from a pure, single the measurement of the sum of all
sine wave can be expressed as harmonics. Most loads will continue
additional sine waves of to operate with THD at 15 to 20%.
frequencies, which are a multiple of However, loads with sensitive
the generated frequency. These electronic equipment can develop
additional frequencies are called problems with THD greater
harmonics. than 5%.
Because three-phase generators Non-linear loads cause harmonic
are magnetically symmetrical, currents. These harmonics can
resulting in the cancellation of even cause control problems and internal
harmonics, only odd harmonics are heating of the generator limiting its
normally of any significance. For capability. Generators are designed
example, a 60 Hz generated to provide a given output at rated
waveform will contain the 60 Hz frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz. It is
fundamental; a 180 Hz, 3rd possible for a generator to carry
harmonic; 300 Hz, 5th harmonic; less than its full rated current and
420 Hz, 7th harmonic and so on. yet overheat because of a harmonic
Table 26 shows both even and odd current generated by non-linear
harmonics of a 60 Hz generated load. Form-wound machines
waveform. typically provide better performance
A 50 Hz generated waveform will in high harmonic applications.
contain the 50 Hz fundamental; a In cases where non-linear loads
150 Hz, 3rd harmonic; 250 Hz, 5th cause increased generator heating,
harmonic; 350 Hz, 7th harmonic and two techniques are typically used
so on. to compensate for the increased
In general, the higher the generator heating. Deration is one
harmonic order, the lower the method and using a generator that
magnitude of the harmonic. is oversized for the kVA requirement
is another.
Harmonic Frequency Sequence
Fundamental 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th
60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540
Table 26

Figure 63

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Figure 64

Figure 65

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Generator Heating
Generator Considerations Generators are designed to
Generator System Protection provide a given output at rated
The application of synchronous fundamental frequencies of 50 or
generators into any installation 60 Hz. Design considerations
requires at least a minimum amount include making the most effective
of protection to protect the use of active material to meet
generator and prime mover against acceptable limitations of
faults and abnormal operating temperature rise. (More on this
conditions. The customer needs to topic is found in Engine Ratings
balance the expense of applying a section.)
particular protective device (relay, Generator Reactance Impact
surge arrestor, etc.) against the Subtransient reactance (X”d) is a
consequences of losing a generator primary indicator of the amount of
or prime mover. When considering harmonic distortion to be created
what protective devices to use, the by a non-linear load. Current reacts
potential loss of a generator or with impedance to cause voltage
prime as well as the impact of loss drop. The internal reactance of a
of service needs to be considered. generator to instantaneous current
The extent of the protection system change is the direct axis sub-
design will depend on the size and transient reactance (X”d). A
relative value of the generating unit. generator with the lowest per unit
There is no standard solution based value of X”d at a given load will
on the generator set power rating, typically have the lowest value of
however large critical units tend to total harmonic distortion under non-
have extensive protection systems linear load conditions.
with redundancy while smaller less The internal reactance of a
critical units may have a subset of generator due to line-to-neutral or
the primary protection provided for unbalanced loading is the zero
the larger unit with little if any sequence reactance (Xo). Any 3rd
backup protection. It is the harmonic currents, also known as
responsibility of the customer to triplen harmonics, produced by the
understand the site and application load will not cancel in the neutral
and to provide the appropriate and the result is neutral current
amount of protection. This will flow, even with balanced loads. The
require an evaluation of the triplen harmonic circuit is the same
potential risks, and a commercial as three single-phase circuits with
evaluation of the cost for protection three parallel line-to-neutral
devices versus the cost of failed branches sharing common neutral.
equipment.
Phase conductor heating from the
For additional information 100% rated neutral 3rd harmonic
regarding protective devices, current and other effects will add
including applications that are not approximately 6 to 7% of additional
using paralleling switchgear heat. This relatively high 3rd
reference Generator Paralleling harmonic would only require 6 to
Switchgear A&I Guide (LEBW7543). 7% derating of the generator. It can
create distortion of the generator

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voltage waveform and often power the load directly at


consequently, could have effects on 208/120 volts with a wye
circuit protective devices and other connection. Whenever loads are
external circuit elements. connected directly to the generator
If the load generates 3rd bus, line-to-neutral, the possibilities
harmonics, the neutral current may of 3rd harmonic current should be
become quite large. The generator considered.
will actually tolerate a fairly large Waveform Distortion
amount of 3rd harmonic current Waveform distortions are greater
flow in the neutral with a moderate on a genset than when the loads are
increase in generator heating. connected to utility power. A
It is not uncommon for a facility generator can be compared to
to have large banks of fluorescent others by the level of distortion
lighting and/or single-phase when running at full load. Since
personal computing equipment larger loads increase harmonics, full
circuits; creating large amounts load should be used for accurate
of 3rd harmonic current. A neutral comparison. Typically, a 5% or less
conductor larger than the THD is specified, with no more than
conventional half-rated neutral may 3% from any one harmonic.
be required for these circuits. The magnitude of a voltage
Fortunately, the design of many of waveform distortion caused by the
these facilities includes steps to non-linear current demand of the
reduce 3rd harmonic current before rectifier/charger is a function of the
they reach the generator. Where source impedance. Source
loads are connected to the impedance is not an easily defined
generator bus line-to-line, without a value as generator reactance varies
neutral connection or supplied with time following a sudden load
through delta-wye transformer, any change. Generator subtransient
triplen harmonics, caused by the reactance (X”d) and subtransient
load, are not recognized by the short circuit time constant (T”d) are
generator. primary parameters which influence
This harmonic blocking effect, distortion during the short duration
although desirable to the generator of SCR commutation periods.
and other parts of the distribution A standby generator is character-
system, can lead to excessive istically of higher impedance than a
transformer heating. transformer. Further contributing to
Generators operating at 400 volts the impedance difference is often a
or higher typically supply loads significant difference in kVA rating
through delta-wye distribution in the two sources. Where as a
transformers. Exceptions to this facility source transformer is
may occur; of special concern is frequently sized to carry the total
where gas discharge lamps are facility load, the standby set is often
connected directly to the generator only sized to carry the emergency or
bus at line-to-neutral voltage, critical loads. A generator may have
without benefit of harmonic 5 to 100 times greater subtransient
reduction techniques. Smaller reactance than the normal source
generators (typically below 100 kW) transformer.

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Consequently, non-linear loads Adding a low pass filter to the


which work fine on utility, may react generator output for attenuation of
entirely different when powered by prevailing harmonics is theoretically
a generator set. Using an oversized possible, however, should be
generator to reduce reactance may considered a last resort option.
be of some benefit. However, to Practical tuned circuit filters
obtain a significant reduction in generally represent compromise
reactance is not usually economically and may introduce more problems
feasible. A doubling of generator than they solve. Component size
rating is required to reduce and expense are also limiting
reactance by one-half. factors. A better approach is to
Damping with other loads reduces specify or add filtering or other
effective bus reactance. Motors, harmonic attenuating options such
in particular, act as absorbers of as isolation transformers at the
momentary voltage irregularities source of distortion. Consultation
and reduce harmonic content on the with the UPS supplier will usually
line. Typically, computer room reveal such available options.
support functions such as HVAC Generator AVR and Excitation
systems, chilled water systems, fire The voltage regulator must control
protection systems, and room output voltage of the generator in
lighting must also be connected to spite of the load causing a distorted
the standby generator set. These wave shape. Various techniques can
support systems are often as large, be used to accomplish this task.
or larger, than the UPS load. It is Three-phase sensing minimizes
frequently very desirable for system effects of waveform distortion by
operation and distribution reasons providing an average of all three
to have small, three-phase, phases at any given instant. Since
continuously running air handler the SCR’s in three-phase rectifier
motors in the computer and UPS loads do not all “gate on” at the
room sharing a common feeder or same instant, a minimized distortion
power transformer with the UPS. average signal of the three phases
Resistive loads are effective in is processed. In comparison, a
minimizing waveform distortion single-phase sensing regulator will
caused by “ringing effect”. sense severe distortion occurring at
Resistance acts as a damper to a given instant during the cycle in
oscillation in a resonant circuit. one phase. The generator has a
Adding a resistance load is one three-phase sensing network with a
technique used as a treatment to floating neutral as a standard
minimize waveform distortion feature. Thus, voltage disturbance
caused by system oscillation. This, in any one phase will shift the
however, is only effective if high neutral but not appreciably affect
frequency oscillations are the cause the voltage to the regulator.
of the problem. If a resistance Waveform notching is effectively
element is added strictly for blocked from the regulator.
treatment purposes, the addition of Regulator circuits must include
a capacitor in series with the features to isolate field power
resistor will reduce fundamental control from effects of distortion. If
current with minimum effect on SCR’s are used within the regulator,
high frequency damping. circuits must be used to prevent the
distortion from load SCR’s
interfering with triggering of
regulator SCR’s.

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Generator field power must be circuit elements as well as


filtered to minimize interaction with characteristics of the non-linear,
distortion from the load. A well- distortion producing device.
filtered regulator combined with the The impact of generator pitch on
inherent inductive filtering of a load generated harmonic currents is
brushless design generator virtually highly dependent on the system
eliminates this problem. The self- configuration. This too, is typically
excited generator has a well-filtered not consequential except in special
regulator and excitation system cases. When supplying non-linear
which provides voltage control and loads which have no neutral
stability of equivalent quality to that connection, the coil pitch has no
obtainable with a permanent effect on voltage waveform
magnet pilot exciter. It is also fully distortion.
capable of sustaining excitation
during the short circuit periods Generator Pitch
occurring during the commutation Generators do not generate a
of load SCR’s without the benefit of perfect sine wave. Consequently,
excitation sustaining options. A there are some harmonics
permanent magnet exciter, while generated.
capable of sustaining excitation To produce voltage, a
during a sustained fault condition, synchronous generator has a direct
has no advantage in providing current (DC) excited structure
excitation during the short duration consisting of alternating north and
of load SCR commutation. south magnetic poles, usually on
Additional regulator filters or the rotating member of the
optional features are not required generator or rotor. The magnetic
for all generators for UPS field produced, sweeps the
applications. armature (usually the stator) and
Determining Distortion induces voltage in coils placed in
A review of the entire generator slots in the armature. When the
set distribution system should be span of each of these coils is exactly
made to determine if loads exist equal to the span of the north to
which require a source with low south field poles, the maximum
distortion waveform. Unless the magnetic flux is encompassed by
generator set system is large, it is the coil and the maximum voltage is
quite common for other loads to produced. Such a positioning of
share a common bus with the UPS. coils is called an “all pitch” winding.
If distortion-sensitive loads are Very few machines are wound full
suspected, a consultant or distribution pitch because the winding requires
system designer with knowledge of excessive end turn copper and
where harmonic distortion might be provides little harmonic control.
adverse and how to avoid it should Most generators are fractional pitch
be contacted. windings.
To calculate total harmonic The magnitude and frequency of
distortion at a point in the harmonics generated by the
distribution system requires the machine will vary with the pitch
consultant to have access to system factor and other design parameters.
data such as subtransient reactance 2/3 Pitch
and kVA rating of the generator |and The 2/3 pitch winding became
any other rotating machines, popular when manufacturers of
reactance and resistance’s of small generators wound their
transformers, cables, and other

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machines in delta to combine three- Only where the load is connected


phase and three-wire single. directly to the generator does the
Generators with 2/3 pitch are low zero sequence reactance of a
sometimes thought to have an 2/3 pitch generator reduce the
advantage with non-linear loads voltage waveform distortion. If the
because of their low zero sequence load is supplied through a Delta-
reactance (Xo — a low reactance to Wye transformer, the 3rd harmonic
3rd harmonic zero sequence current.). currents do not appear in the
However, 3rd or triplen harmonics are generator and the 2/3 pitch winding
not normally present in three-phase does not help reduce distortion.
rectifier loads, such as encountered
with UPS or variable speed motor Paralleling and 2/3 Pitch
drives, and this characteristic Paralleling generators of different
becomes insignificant. Additionally, a pitch can cause harmonic distortion.
2/3 pitch generator typically generates A circulating current will flow
higher 5th and 7th harmonics which between paralleled generators if
will cause additional heating in they do not have equal generated
motors due to the higher frequency. voltage waveforms. The flow is
In cases with single-phase non-linear dependent upon the voltage
loads connected line-to-neutral difference. In some cases, there
directly to the generator bus, the 2/3 may be no advantage to 2/3 pitch
pitch generator has the potential to winding when paralleling.
minimize, but not totally prevent, 3rd When paralleling with a utility
harmonic, (load created) voltage the 2/3 pitch winding may be a
waveform distortion. disadvantage due to low zero
sequence reactance. Typically, 3rd
Non-Linear Loads and 2/3 Pitch harmonic current flow in the neutral
Non-linear loads generate harmonic is of the most significance.
currents which cause waveform Reactors, resistors, or switches can
distortion of the generator. For be installed to limit these currents.
balanced three-phase loads,
distortion is caused by voltage drop Applications Requiring 2/3 Pitch
due to the harmonic currents in the When paralleling, it is desirable to
subtransient reactance of the match the pitch of the existing
generator. The subtransient reactance generators. If the existing
of a generator is not a function of coil generators have 2/3 pitch another
pitch. Therefore, the coil pitch does generator of matching 2/3 pitch is
not affect waveform distortion. preferable. Single-phase non-linear
The zero sequence reactance loads that are connected in a
of a generator is effective only to balanced manner with a neutral
currents which flow in the neutral connector directly to the generator
line. Single-phase non-linear loads is also an acceptable application of
usually generate high 3rd harmonic a 2/3 pitch. An example of this is a
currents. When these loads are 277 V lighting L-N.
connected in a balanced manner
to a three-phase generator, the 3rd
harmonic currents add in the
neutral to produce very high neutral
currents.

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Other Generator Set Selection WYE Connection


Considerations
There are times that a facility
will have reconnection issues. For
example, if a genset is being placed
at a site and then moved to another
site (with perhaps different
applications) the generator set will
have to be sized to meet the
different requirements of both sites.
It is also possible that a customer
will know that the facility will be
rewired from 480 V to 240 V. Such a
situation will require additional
consideration when sizing the
generator set.
Figure 66
Voltage Range/Number of Leads
The voltage range and the number
of leads need to be considered so Delta Connection
that a generator set can be matched
to the job at hand.
Phases are typically arranged in
a wye configuration as shown in
Figure 66 or a delta configuration
as shown in Figure 67.

Figure 67

The wye phase connection has a


neutral point, often connected to
ground. The delta does not have a
neutral point. The wye configuration
is used with three-phase loads or
line-to-line loads. Delta connections
are used with single-phase and 3-
phase loads. Delta connections are
found in rural communities where
three-phase is not available. A
generator can lose up to half of its
rating if a delta configuration is
hooked to a three-phase system. It is
most common for generators to
have 12 or 6 leads. Figure 68 shows
a six-lead wye connection and
Figure 69 shows a six lead delta
connection.

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Six Lead WYE Connection Before choosing a generator set,


the current coming in must match
the neutral lead. If they do not
match, current will be lost in the
generator which will weaken the
insulation. Alternators would be
more susceptible to contamination
and failure. Differential protection is
a preventative item which checks
the current and determines if the
neutral matches the incoming
current.
Genset Voltage Selection
Caterpillar identifies three voltage
Figure 68 types:
• Low
• Medium
Six Lead Delta Connection • High
Low voltage is the voltage on a
local level or part of a site. 600 V or
less with 800 kVA is the range for
low voltage rating.
Medium voltage is a low-level
distribution rating. This voltage is
distributed to power residential
sites and other campuses. 601 V-
5000 V with 5-10 MVA is the range
for the medium rating.
High voltage runs over regions
and is the voltage at a utility or the
Figure 69 national grid. 5001 V-15,000 V used
with MVA’s greater than 10 are
A twelve-lead wye connection is considered High Voltage.
the most common in North Figure 70 shows a voltage versus
America. It allows the most kVA chart, indicating low, medium
versatility because of the multiple and high voltage selections.
configurations allowed.
Depending on what voltage type is
A twelve-lead, wye connected, applicable, will help determine the
480 V generator set is usually size of the generator needed.
required for large air compressors,
motors, chillers, and air handlers.
240 V is typical for smaller three-
phase motors. 120 V is common for
office equipment and small single-
phase motors.

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In installations where the load


does not vary to the extremes
encountered between day and night
conditions, it is sometimes
profitable to share the load between
several small units operating in
parallel. When the load is lighter,
one or more of the units may be
shut down; thereby loading the
other units closer to capacity. For
example, this type of system is
advantageous where load demand
is seasonal or when maintenance is
necessary and power interruption
Figure 70 must be avoided.
Multi-Engine Installations Paralleling
In some situations, the use of Generator sets can be paralleled
more than one generator set is to other generator sets or the utility.
mandatory. In others, it may prove To operate in parallel, both units
more economical to have more than must match phase sequence,
one genset. When the load is too voltage frequency, manage neutral
large for a single unit, two or more currents, operate with the same
gensets may operate in parallel by frequency directional rotation and
being electronically connected. produce almost exact sine waves.
Only after these conditions are met
Critical installations in which the can the units be connected together
prime power source is a generator by a breaker.
set may require additional backup
power. A second generator set Synchronizing lights or meters
capable of carrying critical loads are used in a manual paralleling
should be made available in case of operation to confirm both rotational
primary set failure and for use requirements and phase voltage
during prime set maintenance requirements have been met.
periods. Automatic, electronically controlled
measuring devices are used in
Cases where multiple generator automatic paralleling.
set installations may prove more
economical are those where there is The synchronized lights have
a large variation in load during the lamps, shown in Figure 71, that dim
course of a day, week, month, or and brighten. When the units are in
year. Such variation is typical in phase, the lights are at their dimmest
plants in which operations are and the breaker can be tripped to
carried on primarily during the day, complete the paralleling. If phase
while only small loads exist at night. sequence is not matched, the lamps
The more closely a generator set will never be light or dark at the
comes to being fully loaded, the same time.
greater the fuel economy per
kilowatt produced. Therefore,
the use of a small genset to power
light, off-hour loads, will often result
in long-term fuel economy.

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A synchronizing meter such as a


synchroscope, shown in Figure 72
and Figure 73, can be used instead
of the synchronizing lights for
synchronizing two or more
generator sets. The direction the
pointer rotates indicates whether
the frequency of the incoming
generator is slower or faster than
the frequency of the on-line
generator.
Similarly, the frequency at which
the pointer rotates indicates the
magnitude of difference in speed
between the generator sets. For
paralleling, engine speed is
changed until the synchroscope
pointer rotates very slowly (less
than 10 rpm), again keeping the
incoming generator set faster than
the on-line generator set. When the
pointer is at the zero position, the
circuit breaker can be closed,
thereby synchronizing the units.

Figure 71

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Example of a Synchronizing Meter

Figure 72

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• Regulator Design: Automatic
or analog voltage regulation
(AVR) of dissimilar design
may be used when paralleling
generators. When constant
voltage regulators are
paralleled with volts-per-Hertz
types, imbalance during
transient load changes can be
anticipated.
Figure 73 As load is suddenly applied,
constant voltage units attempt to
Usually, identical generator sets supply the total requirement. As the
operate in parallel without constant voltage generator drops
problems. When paralleling unlike frequency, the volts-per-Hertz unit
units, however, the following effects begins to share load. The temporary
must be considered. load imbalance passes, and kW load
is shared between generators.
• Engine Configuration:
Response to load changes Once two or more generators are
will be affected by engine paralleled, it is as though they are
size, turbocharger, governor mechanically coupled together.
type, and adjustment. They will operate at the same speed
Temporary unbalance of kW but not necessarily have the same
loads during load change is power output. Each engine’s power
likely, but can quickly contribution is controlled by the
stabilize. relative fuel system output.
• Generator Design: Circulating Droop and Governors
currents and harmonic Droop is when the governor
currents add to basic load reduces speed with an increasing
current, increasing coil load. Speed is lowest at full load
temperatures, and causing and highest at no load. Droop is
circuit breaker tripping. expressed as a percentage of rated
Circulating current is speed. A 2 to 3% droop is typical.
minimized by correct Two isochronous units, operating
regulator adjustment. in parallel, will operate at constant
Harmonic interaction speed (no droop) and be stable at
between generators must be either no load or maximum load.
calculated to determine Loads in between will shift
compatibility. randomly between the two
generators. Electronic governors
can be installed to limit this
instability by causing load to be
shared more evenly. This strategy is
especially effective in allowing
many units of unequal size to share
load in proportion to their size.
Application and Installation Guide EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing

An isochronous generator can Regulator Compensation


also be paralleled with a droop unit. When two or more units are
If load is normally at 50% or more operating in parallel, the regulators
then the droop unit can carry the must control the excitation of the
load up to 50%. The synchronous alternators so they share the
unit then picks up load from 51% to reactive load. Two methods used
100%. The droop unit can not vary to regulate excitation are:
it’s load because its governor can
only have one rack position at the • Reactive Droop
isochronous speed setting. Compensation
If the load is normally under 50% • Reactive Differential (cross
of rated, then the isochronous current) Compensation
speed generator would be set for Reactive droop compensation
rated speed and carry all loads up to does not require a wiring
50%. If load exceeds 50%, the interconnection between regulators.
isochronous unit slows down and During parallel droop compensation
the droop unit picks up the operation, the bus voltage droops
additional load. The isochronous (decreases) as the reactive lagging
unit will stay at its reduced speed power factor load is increased.
(the same speed as the droop unit), Reactive differential (cross
until the load falls below 50%. current) compensation requires the
If both units are in droop, load addition of interconnecting leads
share is automatic after they are between the current transformer
adjusted to the same high-idle secondaries and allows operation in
speed. If no load is connected, each parallel without voltage droop with
unit will stay at high-idle speed. If reactive load.
full load is connected, both units Cross current compensation can
must operate at rated speed only be used when all the
(governor racks at full load setting). paralleling current transformers on
All loads between no load and full all the generators delivering power
load will act accordingly, although to the bus are in the CT secondary
frequency will vary. Since the inter-connection loop. Because of
generators must operate at the this requirement, cross current
same speed and a given speed compensation operation cannot be
results in one rack position with a used when a generating system is
droop governor, the generators will operating in parallel with the utility
operate at approximately the same power grid. Utility voltage can vary
power output. enough to cause high circulating
current in a paralleled generator.
KVAR controllers must be used to
adjust generator voltage to match
utility and minimize circulating
current.

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EP Applications, Engine & Generator Sizing Application and Installation Guide

Load Control Unit Shutdown


There are many decisions which Unit shutdown order is
will affect sizing that the facility determined by analyzing which
personnel must make. Load loads can be spared at certain times
prioritization is a decision which while other loads are still
manufacturer expertise can help connected. Again, maintenance
influence or clarify but not dictate. implications need to be taken into
The end user has to decide upon the consideration if it is determined that
load acceptance order, load the same genset will be shutdown
shedding order, unit starting order, first each time.
unit shut down order, and/or Redundancy refers to the method
redundancy. of purchasing one or more gensets
Load acceptance order determines than needed to operate at full load.
which loads are critical and must be This is especially important to loads
accepted by which generator. where a major percentage of it is
Load shedding determines which critical. With additional gensets,
loads are non-critical and shed so down-time can be kept to a
that loads that are more critical can minimum because an additional
be given priority or additional load. genset is always free to be
connected. Figure 74 shows genset
Load Order #5 as a swing engine; this engine
Site personnel must determine the can be used to backup either critical
order in which gensets will be load group if one of the engines
started. If #1 genset is always requires service. Major maintenance
started first, it will accumulate hours can be performed on a genset while
and maintenance expenses at a the additional one is connected. If
high rate compared to the two or more additional gensets are
remaining units. present then maintenance can be
“Slobbering” of the gensets may done on two or more or have a
be another problem encountered. backup for the system when one is
The last unit started may be lightly being serviced.
loaded and said to “slobber”.
Slobber is a result of lubricating oil
being drawn into the cylinder under
low load conditions. This is not
conducive to long life and good
performance.
A site may require a smaller
supply of electricity on the
weekend, when the loads are not as
large. Gensets of different sizes can
be installed where the larger one(s)
supply the week and the smaller the
weekends.
Figure 74

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Materials and specifications are subject to change without notice.
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