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Webinar Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 19/10/2016

Design of Footbridges according to the


Artur Kosakowski SETRA guide
Rafał Gawęda
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3
Webinar summary

In this webinar we will focus on the recommended


methodology to apply in Robot in order to design
footbridges according the SETRA guide.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 4


Topics covered in this Webinar and what we
plan for the next one
 This webinar: SETRA application guide
 Introduction.
 Theoretical principles of this methodology.
 Example in Robot.

 Next webinar: Instabilities : How to solve them

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 5


Introduction
 SETRA stands for « Service d’Etudes techniques des routes et
autoroutes ».

 SETRA is a French technical service depending on the French


Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development Ministry.
This organism is competent in the transportation domain for France
(Roads, bridges, tunnel ect…).

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Introduction

 During their life span, footbridges suffer from vibrations created by


the wind actions, pedestrians etc…
Those vibrations are generally not detrimental for the footbridges
structures but can become more or less annoying or even
uncomfortable for pedestrians.

 The purpose of this guide is to help designers to correctly consider


and analyse dynamic effects related to pedestrians actions on
footbridges.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 7


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
Walking Time history function:
 Walking is considered as a continuous contact with the ground
whereas running is discontinuous.
The guide defines the time history function of the walking action
(F(t)).

 G0 is the assumed averaged weight of a pedestrian (700N).


 f is the average walking frequency.
 ji is the phase lag of the ith harmonic compared to the first harmonic.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 8


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
Walking Time history function:
In case of pedestrian loads applied to footbridges, only the first
harmonic is generally considered.
Components of the pedestrian loads for each directions are as follow:

 Vertical direction:

 Transversal direction:

 Longitudinal direction:
© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 9
Theoretical principles of this methodology.
Pedestrians crowd:
In this method pedestrians crowds are considered with different load cases depending on the
pedestrian density to be assumed.
Such cases are created based on probabilistic laws.

Synchronous lateral excitation due to pedestrians crowd


Synchronous lateral excitation happens when a pedestrian crowd frequency get progressively
closer and closer to the footbridge’s transversal frequency. This lead to high vibrations that could
eventually damage the structure.
Such phenomenon already happened for the Millenium Footbridge (London) and the Solferino one
(Paris).

This is the reason why this guide suggests to limit transversal accelerations to 0,10 m/s².

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 10


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
The proposed methodology is composed with 6 main steps:

1. Determining the footbridge class.

2. Determining the comfort level.

3. Frequencies determining and check of the dynamic analysis necessity.

4. Dynamic load determining.

5. Verification of the dynamic effects.

6. ULS and SLS verifications.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 11


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
1. Determination of the footbridge class:

The contract owner is responsible of this choice.


Four classes are available:

I. Class I (Highly dense Traffic): Footbridges that connects areas with high density of pedestrian (Train
stations or subway stations located close by) or that will be frequently
crossed by dense pedestrian crowds (Famous touristic areas for
instance).

II. Class II (Dense Traffic): Footbridges that connects areas with an important density of
population.
Such Footbridges can sometime be loaded on their whole surface.

III. Class III (Normal Traffic): Footbridges that can be crossed by big groups of pedestrian but that
won’t ever be loaded on the whole surface.

IV. Class IV (Low Traffic): Little used footbridges that connects low population density areas.

NOTE : Class IV footbridges don’t need to be analyzed


© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 12
Theoretical principles of this methodology.
2. Determination of the comfort level.

The contract owner is also responsible of this choice.


Three levels are available:

1. Maximum comfort (Range 1) : Users will almost not feel the accelerations of the footbridges.

2. Average comfort (Range 2) : Users can slightly feel the accelerations of the footbridges,

3. Minimum comfort (Range 3) : Users can surely feel the acceleration of the footbridges but such
accelerations are not uncomfortable.

Horizontal accelerations limited to 0,10 m/s² to avoid synchronous lateral excitation .


© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 13
Theoretical principles of this methodology.
3. Frequencies determination and check of the dynamic analysis necessity.

Four risks frequencies ranges are defined. Those are used to determine if the dynamic analysis is
necessary. Each range represents the odds of the footbridge entering resonance.

1. Maximum Risk (Range 1) : The odds of resonance are maximum.

2. Average Risk (Range 2) : The odds of resonance are average.

3. Low Risk (Range 3) : The odds of resonance are low.

4. Negligible Risk (Range 4): The odds of resonance are negligible.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 14


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
3. Frequencies determination and check of the dynamic analysis necessity.

Based on the risk ranges previously defined and on the footbridge’s class chose by the contract owner we
can then determine the number and the types of cases that need to be considered in the analysis:

Case 1 : Dense and slightly dense crowd.


Case 2 : Highly dense crowd.
Case 3 : Additional case for crowd (second harmonic)

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 15


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
4. Dynamic load determination.

Here’s the expression of the sinusoidal load to be considered:

• G1 (Newton) is the dynamic component of one pedestrian it’s equal to:


• 0,4 x G0 for vertical modes
• 0,05 x G0 for transversal modes

• G0= 700N

• S total surface of the Footbridge

• f is the frequency

• Y is a reduction coefficient

• n’ is the equivalent number of pedestrians

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 16


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
4. Dynamic load determination.

• y vary from 0 to 1. It represents the probability of the footbridge to become resonant.

Range 1 and 2:

[Hz] [Hz]

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Theoretical principles of this methodology.
4. Dynamic load determination.

• y vary from 0 to 1. It represents the probability of the footbridge to become resonant.

Range 3 :

[Hz] [Hz]

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 18


Theoretical principles of this methodology.
4. Dynamic load determination.

n’ Class I Class II, III

With

d Class I Class II Class III


1 Pedestrian / m² 0,8 Pedestrian / m² 0,5 Pedestrian / m²

S is the total footbridge’s surface

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 19


Theoretical principles of this methodology.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 20


Example
We are going to verify an existing Footbridge built in
Chelles in Paris region.

The verification of this footbridge has been


described in the following book:

“Construction Métallique, N°4-2002” CTICM


“Construction Métallique, N°3-2006” CTICM

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 21


Example
As you can see on the map, this footbridge
connects two urban zones with low population
density.
That’s the reason why this structure has been
initially designed as a class III footbridge.

For the purpose of this example, we’re going to


assume that this footbridge actually connects
two urban zones with high population density.

Example assumptions:

• Class II
• Requested comfort level = average
(Range 2)

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 22


Modal analysis assumptions and results
• Two modal analysis considered: Loaded and unloaded.
• Fmax=5Hz
• 10 modes calculated

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 23


Determination of dynamic load cases to
consider
Based on ranges defined in slides 13 and 14 and on the table visible in slide 15 we can
identify cases to be consider for each modes:

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 24


Determination of dynamic load (Case 1)
Reduction coefficient y

[Hz]

[Hz]

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 25


Determination of dynamic load (Case 1)
Reduction coefficient y

[Hz]

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 26


Determination of dynamic load (Case 1)

Direction Sinusoidal load (N/m²)


Vertical
Transversal

d Class I Class II Class III


1 Pedestrian 0,8 Pedestrian 0,5 Pedestrian
n= 370m2 * 0,8 = 296 / m² / m² / m²

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 27


Determination of dynamic load (Case 1)

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 28


Determination of dynamic load (Case 3)
Reduction coefficient y

[Hz]

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 29


Determination of dynamic load (Case 3)
Reduction coefficient y

[Hz]

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 30


Determination of dynamic load (Case 3)
Direction Sinusoidal load (N/m²)

Vertical

Transversal

d Class I Class II Class III


1 Pedestrian 0,8 Pedestrian 0,5 Pedestrian
n= 370m2 * 0,8 = 296 / m² / m² / m²

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 31


Determination of dynamic load (Case 3)

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 32


Dynamic analysis creation in ARSA

FRF analysis to be defined for each required modes with the


following assumptions:

• Initial frequency and final frequency set to define a short


frequency range in which the considerer mode frequency exist.

• “Consider eigenfrequencies from the specified range in


calculations” activated to make sure that the mode frequency will
be considered.

• Constant damping.
© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 33
Loading example (Case 1 / Mode 1)
SETRA guide §2.4.1 defines the loads to be assumed.

It is required to define loads accordingly with the modal deformation

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 34


Dynamic Results analysis
Assumptions:
• Class II
• Average comfort required

As a consequence, calculated accelerations must met the following:

Az ≤ 1,0m/s²
Ax, Ay ≤ 0,1m/s²

This design doesn’t met the contract owner


Expectations.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 35


Dynamic Results analysis
Detailed results:

• Most of vertical modes exceed the acceleration limitation in that case.

 In such situation the design of the Footbridge must be redefined in order to meet the contract
owner requirements.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 36


Stresses and deflection verification
The following SLS combinations must be checked:

 CP + Qpstat + Qpdyn

• Qpstat is the pedestrian static load


• Qpdyn is the dynamic load:

• It is not possible to create a combinations


with an FRF analysis.
An harmonic analysis is required.

• Mind to insert as many decimals as


possible in the frequency field.

• Don’t forget to redefine dynamic loads in


the harmonic cases.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 37


Stresses and deflection verification
The following SLS combinations must be checked:

 CP + Qpstat + Qpdyn

• Qpstat is the pedestrian static load


• Qpdyn is the dynamic load:

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 38


Stresses and deflection verification
The following SLS combination must be
checked: Verifications:
 Deflection f ≤ L/500
 CP + Qpstat + Qpdyn
 Stresses : s < fy
• Qpstat is the pedestrian static load
• Qpdyn is the dynamic load:

The deflection values exceed the limitations. Stresses are acceptable

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 39


ULS verification
Such verifications are done for combinations of exceptional dynamic loads such as vandalism or
strikes.

The following ULS combinations must be checked: x Is assumed equal to 2%

 CP + Qpa,stat + Qpa,dyn

• Qpa,stat is the accidental static load


• Qpa,dyn is the accidental dynamic load

 Qpa,stat=700N/m²
 Qpa,dyn is define by the following expressions:

Direction Sinusoidal load (N/m²) Checks to perform (chapter V fascicule 61):

Vertical • s < fy

Transversal • t < 0,6*fy

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 40


ULS verification
Mode 1 is a vertical mode:

x Is assumed equal to 2%

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 41


Questions ?

Please feel free to ask questions using « GoToMeeting » Questions tab now

We may not be able to answer all questions during the webinar. Please post them on the Robot
forum after the presentation.

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 42


Useful links
 Robot webinars

 Robot discussion forum

 Robot troubleshooting articles on AKN

© 2016 | Global Customer Support & Operations 43


Next webinar session on 23.11.2016 on the following topic :

Instabilities : How to solve them

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