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Marjorie Fuchs & Margaret Bonner

with Kenna Bourke


PCUI'son Education L'lnll'tc d
r.' j'
pA IIlhUl'gh G!\tc VVp Urc graterul
Harlow Pl' I'm iSRion
.
l to
0 rep
the rollow'
In,, \.
E:-;;;ex Cl\t20 2.1ft; maler'IU \.. roduce c0PYl1ght
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England
:tnt! ASSoClatl'd COml)nnic~n th 10UglouLLhc
' I Photographs
11
""(Ir( . Ace Photo Agenc
APlVVide VVorld pY pages 132, 176' \
B th B age 268' C . I
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boLtom, 28 (© Bettma~heo\ogy, Inc), 26
© Pearson Education Limited 2003 Carmona) , 88 (©. J ennyn), 48 «9 S
The right of Marjorie Fuchs and Margaret WoodcocklReflections Pho .
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Bonner to be identified as authors of this Schafer), 195 (© :a~), R169 «9 Kevl'n
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Authorised adaptation from the American ·
Mary Evans Picture Library ottom'
,
English language edition, entitled E page 238'
xposure New York/Stephen Daneli~
Grammar Express, First Edition by page 18; KatzlFSP pages 62, 235; © The
Mrujorie Fuchs and Margaret Bonner New Yorker Collection, 1988 Charles
published by Pearson Education, Inc, Adams page 124; © The New Yorker
publishing as Addison Wesley Longman, Collection, 1989 Tom Cheney from
Inc., Copyright © Addison Wesley cartoonbank.com.All Rights Reserved
Longman, Inc. 2001. page 214; © The New Yorker Collection
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Supplements page 306 top.
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Illustrations
Acknowledge.nents Ronald Chironna pages 27, 34, 35, 65,
The authors would like to thank Fran~oise 160, 191; Brian Hughes pages 20, 188;
Letner, Senior Development Editor, and Jock MacRae pages 53, 180; Paul
Christine Lauricella, Senior Production McCusker pages 38, 98, 294; Andy Myer
Editor, for their commitment and support. pages 10, 32,46, 54, 80, 82, 88, 102, 112,
116 158 192 222,232,246,254,272,
The publishers and authors would like 1.0 282: 314: 322: 326; Dusan Petricic pages
~ha~k the following people and 2,6,8,14,16,17,18,21,36,40,50,58,
mstItutions for their feedback and 60,66,74,84,92,96,106,120,128,150,
=ments on the material: 184,198,236,250,278,308,318,330;
drea M~Mahon - St Giles College, Steve Pleydell-Pearce pages 106, 142,
LoD.ndo n ; Pippa Sutcliffe - ILA Cambridge' 146, 172, 190, 300.
lane
M d Naught C
on - entro de Lenguas . ,
S.o ernas, Universidad de Granada" Text
~foro.so r'(!mandez-Camunas ' Information on page 136 is based on the
- p
en ll1g English School, Madrid. Roper Reports Worldwide 1998 Global
PUrls of Grammar E Consumer Study
from th . 4xpreSS arc adapted
interme~~:~~mediate and high Cover by Raven Design
:;;:;._ _ _ _ _ . evels of Focus 011 Gram
PART I: and Impe
Present Continuous 2
(I dill tlleJy/flg)
T Present Simple 6
(I tudv I
Stetlve Verbs 10
(I Ulld r tm I)

~~T Present Continuous and Present Simple 14


(I m studying /1 study.)

Imperetlve 18
(6'tudyl / Don't studyl)

I 22

PART II:
Past Simple: Affirmative Statements 24
. ' ·.u ,lea )

Past Simple: Negative Statements and Questions 28


, ala., . study / Did you study?)

T Used to 32
Ised ."0 study)

Past Continuous 36
,.'dS studYing)

T Past Continuous and Past Simple 40


, ias srudylng. I I studied.)

SelfTest II 44

PART III: Perfect and ct


Present Perfect: Since and For 46
laile 5cudled since ,1ay ria' e <-.. d;ed'o' a month.)
Present Perfect: Already, Just and Yet 50
... Ire. Idy S Iidied ',. e LJ'" F ,S"Ad ~aven't studied ye,
Present Perfect: Indefinite Past 54
1, 'f" UdleL)

Present Perfect and Past Simple 58


I 1;i VI" ,udie, f I "Udll,J("")

Present Perfect Continuous 62


-.!!:~- ; (. ,. I C I 'InL '

• '\ Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous 66


..~ II n, I /Jdi< ,; /1. . . . . . . I &tudYlIlg )

Ul
Past Perfect 70
,J c' ',,-1;( J}
':':" """-::'T Past Perfect ContinuouS 74
(/ U '€ 1 ~ tue1ying)

SeltTest III 78

PART IV: and Future


Future: Be going to and Will 80
(I "'lm gOlflq co study / I will study.)
~:-;'T Future: Contrast 84
Be going to, Will, Present Simple, Present Continuous

Future nme Clauses 88


( will study hard before I take the test.)

Future Continuous 92
(I will be studymg.)

Future Perfect and Future Perfect Continuous 96


(, will have studied. / I will have been studying.)

SelfTest IV 100

PART V: Wh- Questions, Tag Qu ion ,Additions


T Wh- Questions: Subject and Predicate 102
(Who studied? / Who did you study?)

-::..;T Question Tags 106


(You studied, didn't you? / You didn't study, did you?)

Additions with So, Too, Neither and Not either 110


(I studied, and so did she. / I didn't study, and neither did she.)

SelfTest V 114

PART VI: Modals (I)


T Ability: Can, Could, Be able to 116
(I can C'tudy tor hours)

T Permission: May, Can, Could, 00 you mind if ... ? 120


(Me}, I tudyon my own?)

T Requests: Will, Can, Would, Could, Would you mind . .. ? 124


(Will you "tudy with mE'?)

Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better 128


(You "hould study LngIJ8h )

Suggestions: Could, Why don't . .. ?, Why not . .. ?, 132


Let's, Shall we ... ?, How about . .. ?
(Why nOltudy Lnqli-;h)
Preferences: Prefer, Would prefer, Would rather 136
(I would pr " r to ,tud ,p, Ini- ,11 )

SelfTest VI 140

iv
PART VII: (II)
Necessity: Have (got) to and Must 142
(I've qot to study harder. II mllst study harder.)

Choice: Don't have to; No Choice: Must not and Can't 146
(/ dOll't 11L1VP to Ie We>. II must not loave.)

Expectations: Be supposed to 150


(/ m <,uppo d to ' tudy)
Future May, Might, Could 154
(/ mLlY tudy til n;, nr , Y r )

Deduction: May, Might. Could, Must, 158


Have (got) to, Can't
( fle> mu t b (', l I .tud(mt.)'i

1 Expressing Regret about the Past: Should have, 162


Ought to have, Could have, Might have
I" I), (il,! Il.1H' ,;tucfif'ci hdrcilH w"'o"
I W;]', younq.)
Deduction in the Past: May have, Might have, 166
s Can't have, Could have, Must have, Had to have
(Ic r1).j~ i'.llrc:l l1€'en.l good 'jtudcnt Iii his youth . )

I SelfTest VII 170

PART VIII: Adjectives and


Adjectives and Adverbs 112
• quiCK· quickly)

Participles used as Adjectives 176


• Interesting I interested)

J Adjectives and Adverbs: As . . . as . . . 180


(as qUick as I as quickly as)
Adjectives: Comparatives 184
qUicker than)
188
Adjectives: Superlatives
(the quickest)
Adverbs: Comparatives and Superlatives 192
more quickly chan / rhe mos. qUlckl}
196
SelfTest VIII

PART IX: Gerunds and Infinitives


, 198
Gerunds: Subject and Object

(S.udvlng IS imporia, r e."o) <;rudymg.)
f 202
Gerunds after Prepositions
Ir r ."O:::°u in SCUd.' rlnq If RC. or t: '-lying)
206
I Infinitives after Certain Verbs
,. ' . " II : - " Udl .

f, 210
Infinitives after Certain Adjectives and Nouns
( , . (( ·tU(] :if''''' ,,,' I
I
v
Infinitives with Too and Enough 214
n (it / wi} 'nouqh t( rudy)
CO ~
218
Infinitives of Purpose
(1 I( 11 tc> [tJd})
Gerunds and Infinitives 222
(!;;;cor:. study,ng 'cop co study)
Make, Let, Help and Get 226
(r 1AKe him srud} / qet him co ~tudy)

230
SeltTest IX

PART X: Phra I Verbs


Phrasal Verbs: Inseparable 232
(run into a classmate)
Phrasal Verbs: Separable 236
(look a word up)

SeltTest X 240

PART XI: Nouns, Quanti Artie , Reflexive


and proealPronou
Nouns 242
(college. Boston College, chalk. students)

Quantifiers 246
(some. any, a lot of, a few. a little)
icles: Indefinite and Definite 250
(a / the)

" (No Article) and The 254


(students / the students)

Reflexive Pronouns and Reciprocal Pronouns 258


(ourselves / each other)

XI 262

PART XII The Pa


The Passive: Overview 264
(Ic done / wa" donC' / h Ie b. efl done)

The Passive with Modals 268


(must bp done)

The Causative 272


(hi/vf" 'jOmf thmg done)

SelfTest XII 276


XIII: I
Zen) Conditionals 1,.
(If I study. I get good grades.)
First Conditionals 282
(If I tudy. I will g t nood gr des)
Conditionals
(If I "'tudlc eI. I would (7('t good grdcies.)

Third Conditionals 290


(If I h 1 tUeil d I w )(lld 11 V('I 'lot quod Hmciec;.)
WIsh: Present and Past 294
(/~, 11 I ·,tudl d hi r '. / I WI. II II! ld .tudied here.)

SelfTest XIII 298

PART XIV: Relative CI


Relative Clauses with Subject Relative Pronouns 300
( om one who' '11Idl ".)

1 Relative Clauses with Object Relative Pronouns 304


or When and Where
I'::' ,'1 '! l,' ,n ''.ll I ~tudy / the school where' study)

Relative Clauses: Defining and Non-Defining 308


I' ; ;end who studies here, /
. l ' , . i.'

My best friend. who knows you, studies here.)

SelfTest XIV 312

PART XV: Indirect Speech


Direct and Indirect Speech: Imperatives 314
. 'S':udy' She told me to study.)

Indirect Speech: Statements (1) 318


S/"e said .hat she was going to study.)
Indirect Speech: Statements (2) 322
(She said she had studied.)
Indirect Questions 326
's 1e aS~tJd me if , was studying.)
Embedded Questions 330
SI II? ,, 'A.r' ,~ed rr:> krlOW whaL I studied.)

SelfTest XV 334

vii
Appendi
APPENDIX Irregul a r Ve rbs
APPENDIX Commo n St.at.ive Verbs
APPENDIX Common Verbs Followed by the Gerund
(Base Form of Verb + -ing)
APPENDIX Common Verbs Followed by the Infinitive
(To + Base Form of Verb)
APPENDIX 5 Verbs Followed by Objects and the Infinitive
338
APPENDIX 6 Common Verbs Followed by the Gerund or the Infinitive
338
APPENDIX 7 Common Verb + Preposition Combinations
338
APPENDIX 8 Common Adjective + Preposition Combinations
338
APPENDIX 9 Common Adjectives that Can Be Followed by the Infinitive 338
APPENDIX 10 Irregular Comparisons of Adjectives, Adverbs and Quantifiers 339
APPENDIX 11 Common Participles used as Adjectives 339
APPENDIX 12 Some Adjectives that Form the Comparative and Superlative 339
in Two Ways
APPENDIX 13 Com mon Reporting Verbs 340
APPENDIX 14 Common Time Word Changes in Indirect Speech 340
APPENDIX 15 Common Phrases Introducing Embedded Questions 340
APPENDIX 16 Verbs and Expressions Commonly Used Reflexively 340
APPENDIX 11 Some Common Phrasal Verbs 341
APPENDIX 18 Some Common Irregular Plural Nouns 343
APPENDIX 19 Spelling Rules for the Present Continuous 343 I

APPENDIX 20 Spelling Rules for the Present Simple: 343


Third Person Singular (he, she, it)
APPENDIX 21 Spelling Rules for the Past Simple of Regular Verbs 344
APPENDIX 22 Spelling Rules for the Comparative (-er) and 344
Superlative (-est) of Adjectives
APPENDIX 23 Spelling Rules for Adverbs Ending in -ly 344
APPENDIX 24 Contractions with Verb Forms 345
APPENDIX 25 Punctuation Rules for Direct Speech 347

APPENDIX 26 Pronunciation Table 347 I

APPENDIX 21 Pronunciation Rules for the Present Si mple: 348


Third Person Singular (he, she, it)
348
APPENDIX 28 Pronunciation Rules for the Past Simple of Regular Verbs
349
APPENDIX 29 Used to or would?
349
APPENDIX 30 Have or have got?
349
,
APPENDIX 31 Compound Nouns
350
APP . IX 32 British and American English
351
Appendix Quiz
352
Key
413
Index

•••
VIII
elcome to Grommar Exp' ess

Grommar ExP'fiS features

• Short, easy-to-use four-page units


• Grammar points presented and through cartoons, photos
and other illustrations
• Clear Grammar Charts showing the forms of the grammar point
• Chart Checks to help you use the grammar charts
• Clear Grammar Explanations and Examples
Usage Notes telling you how English speakers use the grammar point
• careful! Notes showing typical mistakes students make
• Pronunciation Notes to help you pronounce words correctly
• A variety of exercise types to practise the grammar points
• Selffests to check your progress
• Appendices with helpful lists and information
• An Answer Key so you can check your answers
• An Index to help you find grammar points quickly

UNITS
Grammar Express has 76 units. Each unit has four pages - two pages of grammar
presentation and two pages of practice. This is how a typical unit works:

The grammar point is presented in three steps.


1. II us ration
Each unit begins with an illustration - a cartoon, comic strip, photo with
speech bubbles or a newspaper headline - which introduces the grammar
point in context. It also introduces the topic of the unit. (For example, in
Unit 8 the cartoon introduces the grammar point used to, and the unit topic.
fashion.)
A Check Point helps you think about the meaning of the grammar point in
the illustration.
2. Charts
Grammar Charts show the forms of the grammar point. (In Unit 8 you can see
llsed to ill statements, questions, and short answers.)
Chart Checks ask questions about the grammar charts. They help you notice
important information about the forms and uses of the grammar point you are
tudying.
An Express Check follows the Grammar Charts. This is a quick and easy way
for you to tryout the forms in the charts.

3.
Grammar Notes present Grammar Explanations on the left and Examples on
the right. Timelines show the meaning of verb forms. (For example, in Unit 8
the timeline for used to shows that you can use it only for the past.)
Usage Notes tell you how English speakers use the grammar point. (In Unit 8
the Usage Note for used to explains that this form is more common in affirmative
statements than in negative statements or questions.)
Be careful! Notes point out typical mistakes that students make.
(One of the Be careful! Notes in Unit 8 warns you not to confuse used to with
be used to or get used to.)
Pronunciation Notes tell you how to pronounce the grammar point correctly
in everyday speech. These notes use easy pronunciation spellings.
Check it out! tells you where to look in the book (appendices or other units) to
find more information about the grammar point.

Two pages of exercises give you practice in understanding and using the
grammar point. A typical unit has four exercises.
E ercise 1
The first exercise is always a 'for recognition only' exercise. This means that
you will have to find or understand the grammar point but you will not have
to use it yet. (For example, in Unit 8 you will read a short magazine article
about fashion, and find and underline all the examples of used to which refer
to past habits.)
2
In these exercises, you actively practise the grammar point. There are a
variety of exercise types, including multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks,
describing pictures, sentence combining, and asking and answering questions.
The exercises always show the grammar point in a context that is related to
the unit topic. (In Unit 8, Exercise 2, you will complete sentences about
fashion in the past while you describe pictures

x
4
This is always an exercise. In this exercise, you will have to find
and correct typical mistakes that students make when they the
grammar point.

TESTS
The 76 units of Grammar Express are divided into 15 parts. After each part
you will find a SelfTest. Thcse tests will help you review and see how well
you have lcarnt the material in the part. The SelfTests have multiple-choice
questions similar to questions found in a variety of international
examinations.

ApPENDICES
At the back of the book, you will find 32 with useful information,
such as lists of common irregular verbs, verbs followed by the gerund, verbs
followed by the infinitive, spelling and pronunciation rules and differences
between British and American English.

An Appendix Quiz practises elements from the Appendices.

ANSWER KEY
The Answer Key provides answers to the Check Points, Charts Checks,
Express Checks, all the practice exercises and the SelITests.

Grammar p ess can be used for self study or in the classroom. You can
either start with Unit 1 and work through the entire book, or choose the
units you want to focus on. We hope you enjoy learning grammar with
Gramm r Ex ress.

Good luck'

xi
T
ontinuous

Hundreds
of fans are waiting \'
for the Airheads \
to a rrive.

'---------------

L.-=o~...-.....I POINT
Wow!
Tick the best advertisement for this
The Airheads
TV news programme.
are dropping
D It's happening now! from the sky!
D It happens every day!

CHART CHECK 1 AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS NEGATIVE STA


I T(i( .hp '-or"p'(
BASE FORM OF BASE FORM OF
SUBJECT BE VERB + -ING SUBJECT BE NOT VERB + -INC
The present
continuous is made I am
up of two parts: 'm
I--

D e + base form
He/She/It
Is
of verb waiting .
's
-
D + base form
are
of verb + We/You* /They
're
Which part changes *You I S both smgul ar and plural.
• ,

with different subjects?


o .
;• 0 base form of
L verb +
--

2
Pre_nt •
•••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••

CHART
Circle T (True) or FORM
F (False). -
BE SUBJECT + -ING

T F In questions, Am I you are. you aren't .


be comes after • - --

the subject. Is she standing? Yes, she Is. No, she Isn't.
--
Are you I am. I 'm not.
- - -

WH-

Complete these sentences with the present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

Why _ _ _ _ _ _ you _ _-----;-;--------:-_ _ ? They _ _ _ _ _ _ still - - - : - - - - .


(leave) (perform)


Grammar Explanations Examples
1. Use the e e c o s to describe • I'm standing outside the Theatre Royal
something that is happening now. right now.
)W tanding • As I'm talking to you, the fans are gathering
: \'f1\ S
Past ..................................~ ............................... t-=-uture

in front of the theatre.


2. Use the c - to describe • The Airheads are playing at the Theatre Royal
something that is happening these days, even if this week.
it's not happening right now.
• I'm studying literature "s ten".
'u '
••
Past ............... 7-~ ............. ~............. / ..~ ........... ~ Future
'" SfUdYi7,g liter~~

3. USAGE NOTE: The - is usually A: Bye, Jack, we t I ~ now.


used in speech and in informal writing. B: Wait! 1 m_ . nln with yo u.

/
Check it outl
For different form s of negative contraction s with br, HI'(' ApP(lndi x 2.~ IHI pngt' :1·10.
For s pelling rules for the prCflf'nt continllollA, HfI[' Apptllldi x I!) 011 pllgt' :1-1:1.
4 • Un t 1
• • • • • • • • •••• • • • • •• • •

IDENTIFY. cad this letter. Underline the pre~ent continuous verbs that describe
happeninq now. Circle the present continuous verbs that describe things
. . 'J
that are happening these days.

Dear Steve,
~ working)very hard these days, but I have some good news. Right now,
I'm sitting at a desk in the Entertain [aent Section of the Tribune! Of Course I'm
still ta.king journalism classes at night as well. The job is temporary - Joe Sims ,
the regular reporter, is taking this month off to write a book. This week we're
preparing to interview YOlJr faVOlJrite group, the Airheads. In fact, at this very
moment they're flying into town by helicopter. They're performing at the Theatre
Royal all week. How are you getting on? Are you still writing music? OOps! The
crew are calling me. We're leaving for the theatre now. Write soon!
I
Steph

\

COMPLETE • Read this conversation. Complete it with the present continuous form of the
verbs in brackets. Use contractions whenever possible.

BEY: Bye, Joe, I ___'m-;;-l;;-


ea_v_in7"'g~__ now.
1 (leave)
JOE: Where _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you _ _ _:::-;--;-_ _ _ ?
2. (go)
BEV: I ---~---- running. Ann downstairs.
3 . (go I - - -4
-;-.--:(;-
w-ai7:)- - -
t
JOE: Great! Why don't you take the dog out with you?

BEV: Why don't you take him? It's your turn.

JOE: I can't. I -_---;-~--;-::--_ on my book.


5. (work)
BEV: But you
---:6~.-;:(I"::-::r--;-
rj(-)--- anything right now. You _ _ _ __ _ _ _ just •

- - --,:;-----_
7
there.
,
I

JOE: That's not true. I


----;i>7~--- here but I __ _ _ _ _ _ _ also
8 (,it)

. ( ,,~ about my work. Can't the dog go with you? •

BEV: No, because afterwards w t


e wan to go to the Plaza. The Airheads
iJ) there this week and Ann wants to get their autographs.
You know she's a big fan of theirs.
Pre.ent • 5
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ASK' • Steph Is Interviewing Paul, the lead singer of the Airheads. Write
questions using the words In brackets. Give short answers.

STEPH: Paul, _~a~re~y=o=u~l~nt~r~o~d~u~c~ln~e~a~n~y~n~8~


w e~o~n~e~e~o~n~t~hl~e~to
~u~r~11h.~~,-__________________
_. . 1. (lIllrodllC : .Hly IIC'W ,Ollq, on Ih " lour I)

'18::e::."..:..:w~8~a.:. re
PAUL: _ '1:: :. :..-~~-:-:-:7."" _______ • We're introducing some songs from our
2. (~~ w. )
new album. III th e Ail:
STEPH: Your fans are so c. cited to sec you aftcl- s uch a long time.

". IWhv I tour J t1CJdI1l1)

PAUL: We want to play for live audiences. We enjoy that.

STEPH:
4. (What I work 011 I these days I)

PAUL: Some exciting new material. But we aren't talking about it yet.

STEPH:
5_ (Who I sing / now 7 )
PAUL: Sylvia is singing some of the songs from the album.

STEPH:
6. (she / replace / Tina?)

PAUL: _ _ _ _---;::--::-:------;--,----_ _ _ _ . Tina has just had a new baby but she'll
7. (No she)
be back in a few months.

EDIT • Read this letter. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the present
continuous. The first mistake has already been corrected.

, ..
m wr:"ino;)

I you from my hatel room. Everyone else is sleep but I srtting here, looking at

the sea. We're staying at the Pla2Q in Atlantic Beach ana the view is beautiful. The tour is

goes well. The auaience is cra2Y about the new songs but the fans is always asking for you.

How's the baby? Has she gat a gooa vOice? Do you teaching her to sing yet? Maybe bath of

you will come along for the next tour!


Sylvia
resent -
I

--

I

John is a/ways in a hurry and he does He works all the time - he never relaxes.
everything at once.

ICHECKJ POINT
Tick the best caption for the cartoons.
o John At Work This Week
o John's Typical Working Week

CHART CHECK AFFIRMATIVE ATIVE


ere e (7rue) or STATEMENTS STATEMENTS
F (Folse). SUBJECT VERB SUBJECT Do NOT BASE FORM I
T F The form for
I/We/You* /They work. do not

l
e / I e/ ends I/We!You/They
m .s. He/She/It works. don 't
I work .
. T F Negative *You is both singular and does not
statements He/She/It
plural. doesn 't
have or , E j
1
before
the base form. YES/NO QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWERS
T F Questions have Do SUBJECT BASE FORM NEGATIVE
- ,
( or 0 ~ after 0 you don ·
I do. I
the subject. - ? No,
WOf" Yes, doesn 't.
Does he he
he does.

6
Present SImple _ 1
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

WH- WORD Do SUBIECT FORM

Where do you
w o rk?
When he

EXPRESS
UmcramlJlc the word to compl te tile question.

work • Why • Ill' • docs _ _._ _ _'_


. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ all the time?

G mm r E pi ions Examples
1. Use the pres nt simple to talk about what _ Some people r ~ through life.
happens regularly. _ They do' ' .

Now _ Other people are calm.

P \ .. ~..........

,
•••
........ ..•.•...•••..•••.••..••...••........
.
••
.'. , ---
~

'uture
_ They don' "eel tense.

rush

2. Use ' , with the present _ She never relaxes.


simple to express how often something _ You usually take life easier.
happens. _ We sometimes sleep late.
• They rarely go on holiday.

...•......•••....••......••...•.•.. .....••••.......• ~. ················f,·················~


, ; ''tl

BE CAREFUL! Adverbs of frequency usually • We usually rush around too much.


come before the main verb but they go after • We re often stressed out.
the verb , .

3. Use the simi to talk about • Stress cause high blood pressure.
scientific facts.
• Water r !e' 'e " at O°C.

Checle it out!
For spelling rules for the trurd person singular (he / she / it) of the present simple,
see Appenclix 20 on page 343.
~or pronunciation rules for the third person singular (he / she / it) ofthe present
SImple, see Appendix 27 on page 348.
8 Un t
•• •• • • • • •• •

IDENTIFY. ead thi extract from a book review. Underline the present simple verbs.
ldverb of frequency.

Books Section 10

medication for stress-related illnes


ALM DOWN! By Dr Sara Roads ses.
Medicine usually lowers a patient's blood
n today's fast-paced world, we (neve 9 pressure. But, Dr Roads claims, 'You don't
e cape stre s. Stress always affects us always need pills. Relaxation exercl' ses
p ychologically but according to are sometimes as effective as pill s.
Dr Roads, author of the new For example, breathing exercises
bestseller, Calm Down!, it also affects relax you and lower your blood
us physically. For example, stress pressure at the same

cau es high blood pressure. tIme - and it only


Doctors often prescribe takes a few minutes~'

• vtegan and Greg have completely different types of personality. Read about
one a"d write about the other.

Megan Greg

Megan doesn't relax easily. • Greg ____re'-Ia'-x-'e_s_ _ _ easily.


- She _------=dc.:..:o:....:e:....:s'-'-n:....:'t=-t.:.,:a::.:kc:::e=--_ time to enjoy He takes time to enjoy himself
herself.
oJ Megan and her boyfriend never go Greg and his girlfriend often
on holiday. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on holiday.
She _ _ _ _ _ _ _ through the day. He )esn't ru~ through the day.
She nervous. He _________ nervoUS.
She ~ always in a hurry. He _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ never III

a hurry.

• She other people's sentences He _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ other people's
for them.
sentences for them.
8 She _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a lot. oesn t wor much.
He
She - - -_ _ _ _ _ enough time . h things.
• He enough time to finIS
to finish things.
1 Megan high blood pressure
due to stress.
pressure due to stress.
••••••••••••••••

ASK & • Peter Is an accountant. Look at his schedule. Write questions and
answers about his day.

MONDAY
NOVEMBER
8:00-7:00 get up. exercIse 12:00-12:30 lunch
8:00-9:00 work. on reports 12:30 5:00 return phone calla
9:00-12:00 see clients 5:30-7:00 go to evening cla88

1. When / get up?


When aoee he get up? He gete up at 6:00.

2. exercise in the morning?


Doee he exerciee in the morning? Yee, he aoee.
3. work on reports in the afternoon?

4. When / see clients?

5. have a lunch break?

6. What / do / from 12:30 to 5:00?


7. Where / go / at 5:30?

EDIT • Read Peter's diary entry. Find and correct ten mistakes in the use of the present
:imple. The first mistake has already been corrected.

never have
: Jjn alLnight. My .boss tell
,
,

, me thaU .need. ab.oJlday..J agcee but L afrafd til take olle.J)aes. my boss thinks that the
,

- _. I, otflce J;im iuncti.o1'l wIthout mer Idant want them to thlnk...l'm not necessary. But my
,,

wIfe 113 unhappy. too. Sh.e complain that she never sees me any more. My schedule are
--- ! crazy. I don't think 1 can keep thIs up much longer. I don't wanta to give up evenIng
I
.- .
.' c1a1313e8. though.. 1 thInk often that there has got to be tl bette::.r...:w
:tl~Y::.:.._ - _ - - _ - -
T
iva

-- What'5 it like? -
Not bad.
o It ta5te5 like
o chicken.
o
°0
I o o
o o

ICHEC POINT
Tic'c the COl 'ec Q'1S ver
According to the fish, the worm
o has the flavour of chicken.
o behaves like a chicken.

CHART CHECK VERBS WITH


..
'r e I
~

e, Jr STATIVE MEANINGS
F (Fe '..P I an to go fishing.
T F Some verbs He 0 s a big boat.
have both The weather seems fine.
a stative l.
I They fish.
and an active - -------

meamng. • -,
T F A verb VERBS WITH BOTH STATIVE AND ACTIVE s
used with NON-ACTION ACTION
a stative - -
meaning is not The fish five pounds. He elg the fish noW.
used in the We it's a good day for fishing. We th about going.
continuous. This fish delicious. I the fish now.
ThiS food II good. the food.
The cook

EXPRESS
"'{JleLC rne5e sentences with the cnrrprt form of the verb w
I five kiloS.
- - - - - - - the fish now. It _ _ _ _ _ _-

10 I
statlva • 11
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

1. Many verbs describe states or situations • John owns a boat.


instead of actions. These verbs are called sta Iv (The verb OW" describes John's situation, not
verb . something he is doing.)

Most stative verbs are not usually used in the present • He w nl$ fish for dinner.
continuous even when they describe a situation that NOT
is happening now.

2. Stative verbs are usually verbs that:


a. describe a t t of bing • Jane ' tired but happy.
(be, feel) • She ful good.
b. express notions A: Do you I'k • my new dress?
(hate, like, love) B: I I ,v<,; it!

c. describe nt I • I ( a lot of good recipes.


0 •
(know, remember, believe, think [= believe], • Ali rc e (; .. your number.
suppose, understand) • I hin you're right.

d. show po " I!' • This bike belon to Sam.


(have, have got, own, possess, belong) • Some students o~'1n microwaves.
e. describe - and '_ " • I feel relaxed.
(hear, see, smell, taste, feel, notice, seem, • David seems tired.
look [= seem], appear, sound)

f. describe ~ " and . 'ces • I need a pen.


(need, want, prefer)

g. describe -"s • How much '. oes it co.. ,?


(weigh, cost, contain)

3. is often used with verbs of perception. We do • I ca he , the telephone.


not usually use the continuous form. NOT I hear the telephone.
NOT'
• 'an you sm· gas?
NOT

4. BE CAREFUL! Some verbs can have stative and active STATIVE


meanings ( , " "', . ' " , , • I I , .' garlic. Did you put some in?
I ' ).
(I notice garlic.)
• The soup , good. Try some.
(The soup is good.)

ACTION
• I I the soup lo see if it needs more !>Jlt
(/ 'm trying the soup.)

Check it out!
For a list of common staLive verbs, sec Appendix 2 on puge :l:37.
12 • Un! 3
• ••••••••••••••••••••••

IDENTIFY. ead this conversation. Underline a/~ the stative verbs t~at de~crib~ a
.Jat is in proqress. Circle all the statlVe verbs (hat describe a situation
that is generally trlle.

ANNA: This steak tastes delicious. Your salmon looks good, too.
BEN: Here, I'm putting some on your plate. I think you'll like it.
-
ANNA: Mmm. I do like it! Funny, I usually don't lik~ fish.
BEN: Red has that effect on people.

ANNA: I have no idea what you're talking about. What do you mean?
BEN: Well, colours can change the way we feel. For example, people often feel

hungrier in a red room . I notice that you're looking at the red wallpaper.
ANNA: And I certainly feel hungry. I'm eating half your salmon.
BEN: That's OK. I'm tasting your steak. It's delicious!

CHOOSE. Complete this magazine article with the correct form of the verbs
,'n brackets.

John Bints is in a sports shop. The flowers s mell nice but he isn't
1. (smell / are smelling,
really paying attention to the scent because he _-:;--;;--;---;--;-----;-----;_ at a pair of
2. (looks is look ng
running shoes. They _-;:--;----;--;--_ -,-;----;-_ a lot more than he usually pays but John
3. (cost / are costing)
really, really _-;--_.,-_ _-:---:-- those shoes. He's the victim of 'smart scents', aromas
4 'ant< IS wanting)
that shops use to make customers buy more.

sounds. They always calm her down.


• Read this con enotton Compl te it with the orrect form of th~
n,bs In brocket U e the pre ent contlnuou or th(' pre ent simple.

k Hi, Ali. Mmm. Something emelle good! What's cooking?


1
8: Fish soup. J __--::--_~~_~_ it to SCl' if it _ _--:_ _ _ _ _ more garlic.
l I" J

= ,. - • --. you to try it?


t

A: Mmmm. It ____ .__ ___ good out I ______., __._,._ it needs salt.
6 (I j

8: OK. I -'---:c-~~_~-~~~'~-' of adding Borne tomatoes, even though it


1
• _____~ ~._'~.'_.~"~'=--'- in tllP n,cipt,.
u. ,
A: Thllt _"__,_,,_ _ _ _ _ _ likl' n good idea. But wait a minute. I _ _ _~,.-:--_ _
. . I 10. 'I(I~.<

at thl:' re-dpl' and it. says yuu can ndd milk. How about that?
B: I _-.,.~_ _ _ _ if the milk _ _---:::-::--:--:-_ _ _ fresh.
11. t ~ 12. (b J

A: I'll check. H mm. I _ _-::-::,....-;-~:--__ it but I _ _ _--:----:----,--__ sure. Let's add


13. ( !Ilt'l • 14. (not bp)
t.he tomatoes in tead.

8: OK. I ________ cooking! The whole house _ _--=--::--:----::".--_ _ great


1 16. (s(11ell)
when you cook. And it always puts me in a good mood.
A: I _ _--",.____ w ha t you _ _---::--:--:--_...,--_ _ . I _ _--::-::--:,.,..--::,.-----__ the
17. no. 18. (mean) 19. (f€el)
same wav. o

EDIT • Read this diary entry There are eight mistakes in the use of active and
stative verbs. Find and correct them. The first mistake has already been corrected.

lG_March:.!.- ____________________---.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
, -, ' -

Not a gooa aayl I feel aepressea ana I've got a heaaache. 11m nee6ling to ao something

.!Q. _change mv mooa ana get na of this pain. Last week, I'm reaaing an article about how

smells can affect mooa ana even health, so at the moment' I smell an orange (for the

aepresslOn) ana a green apple (for tile heaaache). They smell nice but I'm not thinking that I

notice a aifference Irl how I feel! I think I'm preferring to eat somethlrlg When I feelJlp\.\l~LBut_

I worry 111 at I'm weighing too much. So, at the moment I have a cup of peQPermint tea with ....

lemon. The article says 1hat the peppermlrlt smell helps you eat l.e.s~'nWell, laon't know
about that! A chocolate Ice cream sounas pretty gooa nght nowl tt'~ seeming that there are
no easy solutions.
------ -
- -- ~ -_ ...

T
resent
resent i Ie

Cross-Cultural Confusion

is she is he doing •
Why is Taro
wearing her here already?! It's
leaning back
dressing gown? '-.. nly 7:00 p.m . ./ Hi. How are
like that?
t's 7:00 .m. ../ you doing?
Eva! Fine thanks.
How are you?
Karl!

j Why is Sam
>

standing so
close?

Friends from different cultures often Sometimes they don't agree about
have different ideas about time. social distance, either.

CH POINT
Circle T (True) or F (Fa/se).

T F Karl is arriving late tonight.


T F In Sam's culture, people rarely stand close to each other.

CHART CHECK PRESENT CONTINUOUS I


PRESENT SIMPLE
" v .p
I BASE FORM
SUBJECT BE + -INC
SUBJECT VERB
The present I I
J
continuous has:
-- I

o one part We/You*rrhey re arriving now.


I/We/You/They
never
rriv
on time.
o two parts He/She/It always
_1 He/She/It rives I
The present simple *You is both singular and plural.
I
- - L - _ - L - l_ I

has:
o one form
o two forms
-

14
and
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXPRESS
Complete the following chorh with the verb buy.

SUBJECT BE BASE FORM + ·IHe; SUBJECT VERB


- -------+------- --------- ~----
I I

You flowers now. You usually chocolates.

He He

m r Expl n tlons Examples


1. Use the pr nt contlnuou~ for things that • Sam is • Iking to Taro.
are happening now. • At the moment, Taro is speaking English.
~o(O'
Now '(\9 to
: OW·I
: " t
: ~e ' _
.
t .................................... .............................~ Future


••

Use the p simp to describe what • Sam alks to Taro every day.
happens regularly. • Taro speaks Japanese at home.
Now
••
s .
.........................•....... . •
.
'!•••••••••••••••••• ~v ••••••••• ~ - t ure
-u
P t ••


He talks to him every day.

2. Use the : -JO for things • We're s .udying in the US _ 's month.
happening these days. • Laura 's study"ng in France ,is, Ii? •

• Are you studying hard - ) "se d Y5 ?
P ~t ................................... ~.............. ...............
~ / ~
'uturt'

~'re siudyi!l9'

3. REMEMBER! Most _ are • Jane . .3 _ to go home right now.


not usually used in the present continuous NOT
even when they describe a situation that exists
at the moment of speaking.

4. Use the to talk about scientific



• Stress high blood pressure.
facts and physical laws. ,U at 100°C.
• Water

Check it out!
*For a list of Common stative verbs, see Appendix 2 on page 337.
16 Unit 4
•• •• • • ••••••••

IDENTIFY. cad the~e diary entries written by Brian, a student <itudying in Argentina .
.. Ie verbs that describe what is happening now. Underline the verbs that
d cribe what usually happens.

28 June: I, m sitting} n a seat 4 July: The weather is cold now.


3.000 metres above the earth I usually spend the f irst weekend
en route to Argentina! I usually of July at the beach but today I'm
have dinner at this time but right - walking around in a heavy sweater.
now I've got a headache from the
excitement. The person next to me 6 August: I feel so tired ton ight.
is eating my food. She looks happy. Everyone else feels great in t he
evening because they have long
:30 June: It's 7:30. My host's naps in the afternoon.
parents are still working. Carlos, the - -
father. works at home. The youngest -- - -- - --
son, Ricardo. is sweet. He looks -- - - -
(and behaves) a lot like Bobl2y. Right -- - - . - -- - -
now, he's looking over my sbQulder _ - - - ---- - - --
and trying to read my_diary. __ - -- - - - -- -
- --

(OMPLETE • Some students are talking outside a classroom. Complete their conversations
. the present continuous or the present simple form of the verbs in brackets.

1. LI-WU: Hi, Paulo. What _ _ _--=-a:..:re'---_ _ _ you _ _ _.:::d.::.o.:..:,in:..::;;9L-_ _ ?



PAULO: Oh, I for the class to start.
b ( 'ar)
LI-WU: How are you? You _ _ _---;::--;--;--_ _ tired.
c. (look)
PAULO: I am a little tired. I ----:-;---c,-:---- a lot in the evenings this terro.
d. (work)
Hey, is that your teacher over there?
LI-WU: Yes. She _ _ _ -.,._ _ __ to one of my r
r
classmates.
e. (t<llk) "
. ,I
PAULO: I wonder what's wrong. He _ _ _ _ _ __ _ at v ,
I
her. He ---~;___;_:__-- embarrassed. 1/
II
g. OOvk)
J
LI-WU: Oh. That --:--:-:--____ anything. In Taiwan
., IrOl 111 111)

It S not respectful to look directly at your teacher.


, . MORIKO:
Look, there's Miguel. He _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to Luisa.
1
NINA: Yes. They ----.:-77""---
b, (do) a class together this term.
Preeent ConUnuou. and
•••••••••••••••••••••••• ••
c.....,....,..--,.,--- very close to each other. - _ _ _ _, _ '_ ' ....; you
They - - -

--~d:;-;:
( ~
• I 1111
k7"
) - - they --"7"";~~--'-
'tL ,
. , (go out)
' , together?
NINA: No. I _ _:;-:-....,...,.,,.,....,...,..--_ it __----:::-;:~~--
f. ('101 th'nk) g. (mean)
anything special. I -_--;--;-_-:--__ from Costa Rica,
h. (roml')
and people there normally ---;-77""::-':--- that
I. (~I nd)
close to each other.
3. RAsHA: There's Huns. Why _._._____ ._ _ _ he -
_ ,_ _, _ .- - ; - - _ ., . - : - - ' n _ _ _ so fa s t'? The lesson ___-.::-:--:-:--:--:--_
It. (\\I i ) b. In'.1 Ilrl}
until 9:00. He _ _ _ _ _ still _---:_ _ _ ten minutes!
c. (I",' I' ;1'11,'

CLAUDE: He always _ _ _;-:---;-;-:--_ _ fast. People from


d. (wdtk)
-·'l'd]]!'!

Switzerland often _ __ _ _ _ _ _ to be in a hurry.


C. I· (1'1'11)

4. YOKO: Isn't that Sergio and Luis? Why _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ they _ _ _-;-;--:--_ _


., a. ht.l)(r ,
hands? They _ _--:--:::-____ each other.
1 II b. (know)
.-.jJ ,
,

JING: In Brazil, men _ _ _--:-;-:-_ _ _ hands every


c. (shdke)
time they _ _---;;-:----:,.,---_ _ .
d. (meet)

EDIT • Read this student's diary. Find and correct eleven mistakes in the use of the present
COil irJUOUS or present simple. The first mistake has already been corrected,

: m 5,i tting
It's 12:30 andl sit in the library. My classmates are eating lunch together but I'm not

hungry yet. At home, we eat never this early. Today our homework topic is 'culture

shock'. It's a good topic for me right now because I'm being pre! ty homesick.

I miss myoid routine. At home we always are having a big meal at 2:00 in the

afternoon. Then we rest. But here in Toronto I'm haVing a conversation class at 3:00.

Every day, I almost fall asleep In class, and my teacher ask me, 'Are you bored?' Of

course I'm not bored. I Just need my afternoon restl This class always Is fun. This te"rm ,

we work on a project with video cameras. My team Is filming groups ofJ>eople from

different culture~. We are analyse 'social dlsta.!:'ce'. That means ,b,ow close to each othe,:.

people stand. Accordln.9 :!:.o m.Y.!1ew !"/at£h, It'~ 12:55, so I leave now for my one o·clock.

cI~ss. Teachera _here really 8r~n·:!:. liking It wh_en you a r e latel



T
ive
To do this
exercise, bend your knees
and place your right foot in
front, like this. Punch with
your right fist.

C::.:..:.::=-=~. POINT
L.;I

Check the corree answer.


The woman in the photo is
o giving instructions on how to do an

l
exerclse. f ,

o ordering someone to do an exercise .


--
I CHART CHECK AF NEGATIVE
, ' " ' r ', eet
- , ,. -
BASE FORM
OF VERB
BASE FORM
DON 'T OF VERB
Imperative sentences en your knees. n I your knees.
o include a subject.
Punch
Don't - , with your-fist.
with your fist.
o don't include punch
- -
a subject.
---

18
• tg
•••••••••••••••••••• •
EX'RESS
Use these verbs to complete tlJ£' charts.

touch listen stand up

AFFIRMAIIVE
BASE FORM OF VERB DON'T FORM OF VERB
- ---- .. -
to the music. to the music.
-
your toes. your toes.
- -~~ . - -- •

straight. straight.
- •

Gramm r Explanations Examples


1. The imp r . form of the verb is always the • Mary, please ready.
base form. It is the same whether it is directed at • Ge ready, guys!
one or several people.

2. The of an imperative statement is ." u. • Stand up straight.


However, we do not say or write you in NOT
imperative sentences.

3. The imperative form has a number of ' es.


Use the imperative to:

a. give . and ' tructions • Turn left at the traffic lights .
b. give . . or • Don't move!
c. make (Use please in addition to • Plea. e read this article.
the imperative form.) • Re"d this article, pie .se.
d. give or make estions • Do e cI~e if you feel unwell.

e. give

r ••••• ~ • E: careful! 0 that mat!

f. someone • on to the gym with us tomorrow.

/
~
/
20 • Un t
•• • •••••••••••

MATCH. Match cadJ imperative with tlJe correct situation.

".., "or tiv Sit ation

Don't touch thai! Someone is visitjng a friend.


• Look both ways . b Someone is going out into the cold.
Dress warmly! . Someone is crossing a street.
Don't bend your knees. Someone is taking an exam.
Mark each answer true or false. e. Someone is exercising.
Come in. Make yourself at home. . Someone is tasting some food.
Add a little more pepper. g. Something is hot.

MATCH. You're going to give instructions for making a banana-strawberry shake.


ate ~ a verb from column A with a phrase from column B.

Column A Column B

Add the ingredients until smooth.


Slice
Wash a banana.
Cut orange juice into the blender.
Blend the strawberries in half.
Pour the fruit to the orange juice.

LABEL • Now write the sentences in order under the correct pictures.

1. Slice a banana. 2. •
3.

4. -
5. 6.
· z:t
•••••••••••••••••••••••

& • R ad thi ad ertisement for a martial arts school. Complete It


using the affirmative or 11 qutfv imp raOve form of the verbs in the boJC.

get choose reduce Improve learn


miss register take tltfni delay

_-..:.D::..::O:..!:1't
:. : th Ink that martial arts is only about physical training. A good
1
martial arts programme offers mnny other benefits as well. ____.".....-___ _
2.
self-defence and more at the Martial Arts Academy:
___--::----- stress. Martial arts training helps you relax.
3
_ _ _--,-____ your concentration. Martial arts students focus better.
4.
_ _ ______ fit. Strength and flexibility improve as you leal n.
We are offering an introductory trial membership. _ _ _----,,---_ _ _ this
-
special opportunity. _ _ _----,_ _ _ _ lessons with Master Lorenzo Gibbons,
a ninth-level Black Belt Master. _ _ _---::_ _ __
8.
classes from our convenient timetable.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ! _________ now
10
for a two-week trial.
ONLY 00 UNIFORM INCLUDED.

EDIT· lead part of a martial arts student's essay. Find and correct five mistakes in the
the imperative. The first mistake has already been corrected.

For the Black Belt essay . Master Gibbons gave us this assignment :
Write
You write about something important to you . My topic is The RighL
Way. the rules of life for the martial arts . First . respects
other people - treat them the way you want them to treat you .
Second . helped people in need . In other words . use your strength
for others . not to use it just for your own good . Thitd . 110 lie
or steal . These are the most important rules to me .
••••

t 1·
I
V

ONE
(Offect Of15wer Lo complete each sentence.

ExAMPLE:
J ennifer never _ _ _ _ coffee. f

(A) drink (C) is drinking


(8) drinks (D) was drinking
-- -- -
---- ready for school? It's already 7:00.
(A) Do you get (C) You get . ABC D •

(8) Are you getting (D) You are gettmg

Nick - - - - to Greece every year to visit his family.


(A) is going (C) go ABC D !,.•

(8) he goes (D) goes

Why ? The lesson isn't over yet.


(AJ are you leaving (C) do you leave
ABC D
(8) you are leaving (D) you leaving

Something _ _ _ _ good. Is that fresh bread in the oven?


ABC 0
(A) smells (C) smell
(8J is smelling (D) smelling
- Which class ____ best?
(AJ are you liking
ABC 0
(C) you like
(8) you are liking
(D) do you like
- - - - loose clothes to exercise. You'll be more comfortable. ABC 0
(A) Wear 16.
(C) Wears
(8) Wearing
(D) You wear 17
Please - - - _ to class on time. We start at exactly 9:00. ABC 0
(A) we come (C) you're coming
(8) come (DJ comes
19
I something outside. Are the doors locked? ABC D
(A) 'm hearing (C) hearing . •

(8) can hear (D) hears


2''.
Walk! run!
(A) Not ABC D
(8) No (C) Don't
(D) You don't
10. -Do you like fish?
- Yes, I _ ___ . ABC D
(A) am
(8) do (C) don't
(D) like

22
23
...... , ... , .......
","eel I •

11. Harry works all the time. He - - - -. A C D


(AI never relaxes (e) often relaxes
(BI relaxes never (01 relaxes sometimes
12. What _ these days? ABC D
(A) are you doing (e) you are doing
(B) do you do (01 you do

13. The baby's so big! How much ___-,_'_'__ now? A C D


(A) weigh (e) is she weighing
(B) she weighs (0) does she weigh
14. . Are you taking nn English class this term'? A C D
- Yes, I ~ .
(A) take (e) do
(B) am taking (0) am
15. Water ____ at 100°C. ABC D
(A) boil (e) boiled
(B) boils (0) is boiling
AIt:
TWO
Each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts
of the sentence are marked A, 8, C and D. Circle the letter of the one underlined
word or phrase that ;s NOT CORRECT.
---------------~----------------------------------------------' -------~
I
EXAMPLE:
Mike usually drives to school but today he walks. ABC D
C D
.. ,,

16. Fran usually . before work but this moming she~ jogging. ABC D
A B C 0

17, The wind is blowing, it rains and the sky looks grey. ABC D
ABC 0

18. Where yon are workjng these days after school? ABC D
, B ( 0

19. The floor is wet so walk slowly and IlQ fall down! ABC D
r e o
20. Sometbing' djfferent - are you wearing a new perfume? ABC D
C
21. We always eat out because we hates cooking. ABC D
C
, 22. Peter al'l'ives usually early lmt today he~ late. ABC D
fl 11 C 0
23. I n~ed my CD player if you don't using it at the moment. ABC D
• C D
,
24. I neyer haye anything to write with because I'm always lose my pens. ABC D
A H ( 0
25. Turn left at the lights and you don't forget to signal! ABC D
A /I C D
. .. ••
.. e:
ast I

Oh, Albert!
r
..

You were a good


, man but a
terrible poet!

1was a \,oet. .de


t r and WI . POINT
wavelied a on
~. ...:1\ 1 waS OV Tick the year these sentences
\ lived \ll 1 • nppeared :" 1-1,0 npW'loaop-
A then \ dled.
anu S
}\L1)"tRl I 'Poet Albert Rimes lives in Belgium.'
...... 191(}-1990 ~_ 01989 01999
Ie
\ . ~\ ","'
t I \,.\.
l
"--
....
. \.

1'-,(" 'Poet Albert Ri mes lived in Belgium


~ I,
i I'll'" .
It'ct.,tl''~
most of his life.'
/1, \1, (f, I I '.
e ' \ 01989 01999

i
I
CHART CHECK ~ THE PAST PLE: BE
I
SUBJECT BE
I/He/She/lt was
How many f01'lI1s young in 1930.
has the past tense We/You * /They were ,
of _ got?
*You is both singular and plural.
o one 0 two
-
I PAST SI
What do you add to • REGULAR VERBS
the base fo1'l0 of SUBJECT
I
regular verbs to form VERB
the past tense? ,
,
-
, - -
moved I I
I
o or . 0 -t
j
I/He/She/lt/We/You/They •

orked
: fifty years ago.
,
,
'---- Ie
I j

THE PAST PLE: ULAR


SUBJECT VERB
-'---
wro I poetry.
I/He/She/lt/We/You/They
- -
b came famous.

built
- ~,
-. ~
a monument.

24
Pa Simple: A <f rn II .t t. IT 'it, 25
• •• • • •• • • •• • • • •• •• •• •••• • • • •• • • • •••• • • • •• • •••
EXPRESS
r tUe We c/Jart.
- - - I
BASE FORM OF VERB PAST SIMPLE
- - --~ -

be ------------_____ and ________________

come

save
- ---- ------ --
I

Grammar Explanations Examples


1. Use the to talk about things that • Albert Rimes hved in the twentieth century.
are now finished. • He was a poet.
I • & •

• He wrote poetry.



Pa. ................ ................ .............................. t-uture

~ ~ ~

He was a poet. ~

2. You can use the with • By 1930, he was famous.


- that refer to the past • He died over ten years ago.
(last week, by 7980, in the twentieth century,
fifty years ago).

3. The . cl ular ver is formed BASE FORM PAST SIMPLE


by adding · or live lived

JOin

-.
play -.
There are often spelling changes
CAREFUL! study -. stud e
when you add . _ to the verb. hop • hoppe

Many common verbs are be was/were


Their past tense is not formed by adding have had
-d or oed. get got
go -. went

Checlc it outl
For spelling rules for the past simple of regular verbs, see Appendix 21 on
page 344.
For pronunciation rules for the past simple of regular verbs, see Appendix 28
on page 348.
For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix Ion pages 336-337.
• •••• 26 Unit
• ••••••••

tsuo Basho. Underline all the regular past


t M
IDENTIFY. cad about Japanese poe a b
.\ \I :'5. Circle all the irregular past tcme ver s.

Matsuo Basho ote more than 1,000 thre l'


• e-1ne
~ poems or 'haiku'. He chose topics from nature, daily
~, -
t,
1
l, ~ h
• ,~ \;
;7-
t')
life and human emotions. He became one of J apan's
most famous poets and his work established haiku as
an important art for m.
Mat suo Basho wa s born near Kyoto in 1644.
His father wanted hjm to becom e a samurai (warrior).
Instead, Matsuo moved to Edo (present -day Tokyo)
and studied poetry. By 1681, he had many students
and admirers.
Basho's home burnt down in 1682. Then, in
I

1683, his mother died. After these events, Basho felt


restless. In 1684, he travelled on foot and on
horseback all over Japan. Sometimes his friends joined him and they wrote poetry
together. Travel was difficult in the seventeenth century and Basho was often ill. He died
in 1694 during a journey to Osaka. At that time he had 2,000 students.

CHOOSE & • Read this biography of another poet, Emily Dickinson.


Complete it using the past simple form of the verbs in the box.

be become lead leave see wear write

Emily Dickinson, one of the most popular American poets,


lived
1.
from 1830 to 1886. She - - - - - : ; : - -_ _ _

~.
favourite themes. Dickinson
- - - - - ;4.; - - - - - an unusual life.
M ter just one year of college, she
s. a recluse -
she almost never ----'7'"---- h
6. er house in Amherst,
Massachusetts. At home, she
- - - '7'.---- no one except her
family, and she only ------.;;--_ _ _ White.
8.
Peat Afflrmatlv.
•••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••• •

In addition to her poetry, Dickinson _ _ _--::~_-- many letters. Other


9.
people always _ _ _~~.____ the envelopes for her. During her lifetime only
10.
seven of her 1,700 poems _.___ .. ____ in print - and this _._ _--,.-;;-_ __
11. 12.
without her knowledge or permission.

Now complete tllese lines from a poem by Emily Dickinson.

bite drink eat hop see

A bird _ _ _~c-7
a 7"
m;..;;.e_ _ _ down the walk:
H.
He did not know 1 -----::--:c----- ;
14.
He _ _ _ _ __ _ _ an angle-worm in halves
15.
And _ _ _ _____ the fellow raw.
16.
And then he _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a dew
17.

From a convenient grass,


And then _ _ _-=-::_ _ _ _ sidewise to the wall
18.
To let a beetle pass.

EDIT • Read part of a student's diary. Find and correct eight mistakes in the use of the
pas simple. The first mistake has already been corrected.

enjoyed
Today in class we read a poem by Robert Frost. I really ft. tt was about a

person who choosed between two roads in a forest. Before he made his decisIOn, he

spents a lot of time trying to decide Which road to follow. Many people thought the

person were Frost. In the end, he take the road that was less travelled on. He deCided

to be a poet. That deCISIOn change his life a lot.

Sometimes I feel a Irttle like Frost. Two years ago I decide to come to thiS

country. That Were the biggest deCISIOn of my life .


ast i Ie:
Ne
and uestions
1

THE D AILY E\\ '

?•
.DID E-
-LAE, 1 E\X' GUI lEA, JULY 2, 1937. Amelia Earhart's small
plane left the island ofLae at exactly 12:00 midnight. She was
not alone on the flight but she and Fred Noonan, her
navigator, were very tired. She reported her last position
at 8: 14 p.m. After that, she did not make radio contact
again. Why did they disappear? Were they exhausted? Did
they run out of fuel? The US Coast Guard started its
search for the answer at 10: 15 p.m.

I EC
Circle T {True C FOrse) or? (the article doesn't say).
T F ? The plane crashed.
T F ? Earhart made radio contact after 8:14 p.m.
T F ? Earhart had a navigator with her.

PAST SIMPLE: NEGATIVE STATEMENTS


I CHART CHECK 1 BE
COl rpr
SUBJECT BE N OT
. . .
- .. --

I/He/She/lt was
What word do you I
n ot was not = wasn't
r . . - -

here last year.


,

add to to forlll a We/You* /They were n't , •

negative statement? , : were not = weren't I


_~I L. '
o no 0 dId 0
; *You is both singular and pluraL
,
What do you add to I

other verbs to form a I


ULAR
negative statement? I SUBJECT DID NOT
o not 0 did "ot I- - - - . -
-~,.~ - ------ - .--~ .
I/He/She/lt did not
l We/You/They didn't last night. did not:: didn't

28
Past Simple: Negative Statement and Questions _
....•....•.•••.•••••••••..••••.•.••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••• i.

PAST SIMPLE: QUESTIONS

CHART 2 YES/NO BE
Tick the correct BE SUBJECT AFFIRMAIIVE NEGATIVE

answer.
Was she she was. she wasn't.
Which word(s) here last year? Yes, No,
can begin yes/no they they were. they weren't.
questions with be? -- - -

LJ was I WH- QUESTIONS: BE


,

LJ were ,
i WH- WORD I BE
o did wa
Which word(s) , Why
,
here last year?
werE they
can begin yes/no l
questions with j r-- - -----_., ..

other verbs? , I YES/NO VERBS SH ANSWERS


LJ was ' DID • SUBJECT BASE FORM AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
0 were -------- ' .
I

I she fly to Mexico? e , she ·d. No, she didn't.
0 did
WH- QUESTIONS: OTHER VERBS
WH- WORD DID SUBJECT BASE FORM
Why did it disappear?

EXPRESS
U.. ;,cu:.. I:;iJle t"ese words to form a question and an answer.

navigator • she • have • Did • a --------------------------------------?


she • didn't • No --------------------------------.

Grammar Explanations Examples


1. Use the . to make • She W ' sn alone.
about actions or situations that are • They e on an island.
now finished. • They d ' . 1 the plane.
Now • He In't c I. that night.

••

P(1')t .••.•..•••. ..•• ~ /..••••...•••....• ~•••..•••••..•.••••••.•.••...•. ~

uture
wasn't alone 1

2. Use the . to ask about . ' she alone in the plane?


actions or situations that are now finished. • Where she from?

Check it outl
For questions about the subject, see Unit 24 on pltgPH 102 103.
30 Unit 7
• •• ••• • ••••••••
•••

ook at some facts about Amelia Earhart.


READ •

• She received many awards.


• She was born in the United States.
• She rna [Tied George Palmer Put
• She didn't get a degTee. natn
• She didn't have any children. .
• She didn't keep her first plane.
• She wrote three books.
• She flew across the Atlantic Ocean.

ANSWER. Tick the correct box.


Yes No

1 Did she get many awards? 0 0


2. Was she a university graduate?
0 0
3. Was she an American citizen? 0 0
4. Did she keep her first plane? 0 0
5 Was she an author? 0 0
6 . Did she have a husband? 0 0
7. Was she a parent? 0 0

ASK & ANSWER • Use the cues to ask questions about Amelia Earhart. Then answer the
questions with the information in the box.

)(1 1§}2l{ in 1937 American at Columbia University for two years New Guinea three

1. When / she / cross the Atlantic Ocean?


When did she cross the Atlantic Ocean? In 1928.
2. Where / she / study?

3. How long / be / she / a social worker?

4. Where / her last flight / leave from?

-
How many books / she / write?

-
6. What / be / her nationality?

-
7. When / she / disappear?


Paat Simple: Negative Statements and
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• The magazine Flying High (FH) interviewed a young pilot. Complete the
Interview with the correct form of the verbs In brackets and with short answers.

FH: _ _ _..!D:.::'d=-_ _ _ you always __---:~w:.;:a::.;n~t~--


1. (W(Hlt)
to be a pilot?
SUE: _ _ _...!'rI.!:.ee~--._ , I _ _ _-'d"='2.:""d____ • I saw a documentary about Amelia
Earhart when I was six. She became my role model.
FH: _ _ _- : : : - - "0 ; - : - '- ; - - - - - your parents happy with your decision?
3. (bC')
SUE: __ _ _ _ _. _-_.. they - - - - - : - - - - ' - . They _ _. ~--:-_-:--__ me to fly.
4. 5. (not want)
FH: Why not? ________, they _ _.__--::-~_:__--- it was too dangerous?
6. (fe I)

SUE: __________ . they - - - - - - : ;7=-


.----. But I was very determined, and
they _ _-:-;~-.-:---:-__ me from pursuing my dream.
8. (IlClt SIOI')
FH: _ _______ you ever __---=--,-,_-:-_ _ of flying around the world?
9. (drhlm)
SUE: Of course. But I _ _~_--:-.,..-:-:_ _ it would happen so soon.
10. (not think)
FH: -------0:-::--::----- you alone on the flight?
11. (be)
SUE: ________ , I _ _ _----::-::,.--___ . I had a co-pilot.
12.
FH: _ _---=::-::--:--_ _ it difficult to find a co-pilot for this flight?
13. (be)
SUE: - - - - - -_ _ , it _ _ _----=-.,---_ _ _ . She's my flatmate.
14.

EDIT • Read this postcard. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the past simple.
The first mistake has already been corrected.


receive - --
Hi! Did!fou m!f last letter? I didn't knew!four
I
l1ew address so I sent it to !four old one. When !fou

moved? Did!four f/atmate move with !fot-I? R(ght now L~4p _


I'm on board a plane f/!fl'n,g to EI Paso to visit Ana.
To: Suejacohs
Did!fou met her at the conference last !fear? I wanted
16 Beckie.!! AvtJl1ut:
to visit her il1 june but I no had the tJine. At ii'st I was
Mordon
.Join.!] to drive f-om Los An.!]eles but I decided to f/!f

instead. This is on& 111!f third f/(ght but / love f/!fil1.J!


GLS6SB()
/ I didnt know f/!:f1f'!J could be so nmch fim! Hope f-O

hear f-om !:fOU. -M.


/


T
to

f
- Look at that!
I u6ed to wear
I \ baggy jeans!
o

I I POINT
T;,./' he corre~ ., voIer

The man is thinking about


: 0 a habit he has now.
o a habit he had in the past.

CHART CHECK 1 AFF TIVE STATEMENTS NEGATIVE STA


I
,
I ( BASE FORM BASE FORM
! F (Fe. . SUBJECT USED TO OF VERB I SUBJECT DIDN'T USE TO OF
------ -- ~. - .......
T F In affirmative I I
statements, She • •
• : used to we Jeans. She didn't use to wear leans.
IS
used with They They ___ J
all subjects.

CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO STIONS ANSWERS


I
T rn I Ullswer. DID SUBJECT USE TO BASE FORM AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE I
I
I In questions, what
T

form of L 0
I you .I I
,
is used? 01 . she use to w didn't.
I jeans? Y I she ' did. No, she
0 did . .. used to l they they I

J • •

o did . .. use to
WH- QUESTIONS
WH- WORD DID SUBJECT USE TO FORM

you
What did she u to w r?
I they

32

U.edto _ 33
•••••••••••••••••••••••
EXPRESS
Circle the correct words to complete the e SC'17tellces.

wear bagh'Y jeans.


• Did you use to.! ysC d to Elhop fOI' c1otl1l's with your friends?
• What did your parents usc to t'ily'ing f s.ny about your clothes?

m r Inti n xampl s
1. Use us d t + base form of the verb to talk • Leo I .( I) J Y baggy jeans.
about . or . . that (In the past, he often bought baggy jeans.
no longer exist in the present. He doesn't buy baggy jeans now.)


••
t .................. ··········,·i······························~

Future
••
used to buy •

BE CAREFUL! always has a past meaning. • In his youth, Leo u' t: • . thin.
There is no present form. NOT

2. We usually use ~d· in sentences that • Jeans used to come only in blue.
.. -e . We Now you can buy them in any colour.
often emphasise this contrast by using time
expressions such a s , . and - They used to live in Genoa but they
. with the present. no longer live there.
• She used to wear a size 6 but she
doesn't any mo e.

3. BE CAREFUL! Form estio with + l "'e to. • Did you use to wear jeans?
NOT
Form the .. , with .' + " tn • _ They didn t use 0 come in different colours.
USAGE NOTE: ! . is more common in NOT They didfl't used to COffie ...
affirmative statements than in negative • Jeans used not 0 be so expensive.
statements or questions. The negative form
. is also possible but

. IS more common.

4. BE CAREFUL! Do not confuse + base • I u oed to tight jeans.


form of the verb with the following expressions: (It was my past habit to wear tight jeans.)
t:: u d . (be accustomed to) • I I I . J 0 q. I up early.
(It's normal for me to get up early.)
get used . (get accustomed to) • I . I In London.
(I became accustomed to !i\' /fu/ tht'fe)
34 • Unit a
• •••• • • ••••••••••••

IDENTIFY. Read this fashion article. Underline all the forms of used to that
rder to c. habit in the past.

In many ways, fashion !1sed to be


much simpler. Women didn't use to
wear trousers to the office and men's
clothes never used to come in bright
colours. People also used to dress in
special ways for different situations.
They didn't use blue jeans as business
clothes or wear tracksuits when

(HOOSE & (OMPLETE • Look at these pictures from an old magazine.


Use the verbs in the box with used to. Write one sentence about each picture.

carry dance dress have wear

1. Women's skirts used to be 2. All men _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ long hair.


long and formal.----==~~~--

3. Children _ _ _ _ _ __
adults. like 4. Men and women _ _ _ _ _- - - .
at formal balls.

s. Women
tt' -:-__-:;---:-:----- many
L.
pe lcoats under their skir t s. 6. Men _ _ _ _ __ __ walking stickS·
Ueedto _
........ -....... .
Rewrite the sentences so that the meaning stays the same. Use the correct fom. of used to.

1. In the past, did people WOl'ty about fashion as much as they do now?
Did people uee to worry a"out fashion as much as they "0 now?
2. When trainers were first made, they only came in two colours - black and white.
Trainers _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - __.' _00-_
. - __. _"__._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __
3. They didn't cost as much as they do these days.
They __._.___. ___________________________________________________

4. Did people wear jeans fifty years ago?


Did _________________________________________________________

5. Jeans and trainers didn't cost very much thirty years ago.
Jeans _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

6. Did women wear jeans?


Did ___________________________________________________________

EDIT· Read this student's diary. Find and correct five mistakes in the use of used to.
The first mistake has already been corrected.

use
When I wa.s young~r, c;loth~s .didJi"Lu5Cci to be a pLobLern.AII the gjrls at my

school used to wore the s.ameJ.miform. Lu.sed _to.-tbinLthat.Jt took away from ___ _

my freedom of choice. Now. I c;anJ'iear..what Lwan..t..but _cJo_thes CQst so much! -


+ Even blue jeans, today's 'uniform', u.sed to be cheaper. My mum uses to pay less

.than £30 for hers. I suppose they didn't used to sell designer jeans ba.ck then.

You know, I was used to be against school uniforms, .but now I'm not so su re!
••
T

--
I

POINT


The girl in the hospital bed is givin
I wasn't
her version of g
running for o what she usually did in the past,
the bus, I was
skii . o what she was doing at the time
of her accident.

CHART CHECK 1 STATEMENTS


~ or
C/H.lt: .ie, :> BASE FORM OF
F (F("~e SUBJECT 8E (NOT) VERB + -ING
T F The past I I/He/She/lt was
continuous is (not) skiing.
made up of the We/You* /They were
past tense of
+ base form *You is both singular and plural.
of the verb.

,
I
CHART CHECK 2 .........
~

YES/NO QUESTIONS ANSWERS
jet: :: rr,rrec
BASE FORM
n"" 'IPr. 8E SUBJECT + -ING NEGATIVE
In questions, the verb -~,-~.-. - . • I
she , she ,· was. she ' wasn't.
I comes: !
skU 7• I'
Yes,

.,._. -- No,
I
...

o after the subject Wer , you


we . were . we weren't.
-----~.-----
o before the subject
.. ' .. -

-.-. .
-- - -
WH- QUESTIONS
I

!, WH- WORD 8E
I
SUBJECT , BASE FORM + -ING
Where
was she
When
ski 7•
Why
wer~ you
L_ --. •
-

36
Peat • 31
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXPRESS
Complete this conversation with the pmt continuous form of the verb stay.

A: Where ________ you - - - - - - - -?


B: I _ _ _.___. _ _ --- at a ski resort in the Alps.

m x I n I n pi s
1. Use the p ~ c n Inu us to describe an action A: What w r you doing at 3:00?
that was in progress at a specific time in the past. B: We er
The action began before the specific time and c: I w. \ eating lunch at 3:00.
mayor may not have continued after the
specific time.
Now

•••
3:00 •••
• u ..... ...... *................ .............................
~


~ F-uture
••

skiing
BE CAREFUL! 5tative verbs are not usually used in _ Ih a headache last night.
the continuous. NOT
(For a list of common stative verbs,
see Appendix 2 on page 33 7.)

2. Use the . with . . to talk _ While he was s .n9, I was reading .


about two actions in progress at the same OR
time in the past. Use the past continuous in _ I was reading ; ile he 'as skiing.
both clauses.
Now



p s •
•••••.••••••••••, •••••••••••••• n.~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Future
~s skii~ / :
If.t-Jin?adi"~

USAGE NOTE: In informal conversation, some _ Sorry, I asn't listening wI!' you
people use with the past continuous. Iking.

3. Use the " to focus on the _ Sheila --t .. , a book last night.
duration of an action, not its completion. (We don't know if she finished the book.)
Use the . . ' . to focus on the _ Sheila . a book last night.
completion of an action. (She probably finished the book.)
38 •
, ............... .
•• • • • ••
Unit 9
••
TRUE OR FALSE. Read each numbered sentence. Write T (Tr~e) or F (False) for the
s ~ t , CIt L'lac follows. Write a question mark (1) if there IS not enough information

While Tanya
. was watching th e Winter Olympics on TV, Michael was clean ngThe
snow.
F First Michael finish ed clearing the snow. Then Tanya started watch'lIlgTV

2. In this ph oto, I was puttin g on my boots.


I was wearing boots in t h e phot o.
3. At 5:00, th ey were drinking hot chocolate by the fire.
We don't know when they started drinking hot chocolate.
4. Last n igh t, I was reading an article about skiing in Morocco.
I finish ed the article.
5 . At 10:00, h e drank a cup of coffee.

He finished the coffee.


6. It was snowing while she was taking the photograph.
First she took the photograph. Then it started to snow.

DESCRIBE • .Fritz and Karyn were at a ski cafe. Write about the picture. Use the
past contmuous.

1. Fritz was wearing a hat.


(wear / a hat)

2. Karyn wasn't wearing a hat.


(wear / a hat)

3. They
(sit / outside)

4. It
(snow)

5. They
(wear I sunglasses)

6. They
(wear I their gloves)

7 The waiter
(serve / drinks)

8. He
(serv!' / lunch)

9. Karyn
(smile)

10. She
(use / ,I mobile phone)
Paet Contlnuou. • 39
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ports Magazine (MS) interviewed the snowboarding


• Mountain
champion, Rosie Happ (RH) Complete the interview with the correct form of the verbs
in brackets and with short an wen.

MS: Congratulations! You have just become n semi -finalist for the Olympic
Y!e.re
snowboarding t(~nm . - - ' .~ _' you expecting
1 I -prc)
to get this far

in the competition"?
waen't
RH: 0, ~·----;l--
N I -
_ . During the triuls , I _ _--:-:-_---:
~. (r (ovn,___ from a

had cold. By t1w last day, I still _--:::-;-:-.~=--=:--_ very well. That's what
• 4. (not pf rl 0rm)
1 t.hought, anyway.
MS: Whnt. _,,~_ _ _ _ __ you _ _~_~._ _ _ about while you
. '"
." .
. - , : ''

_ _ "_00---;:-"7."":-:-:---- for the announcement?


6. \ l ill
RH: Actually. I _ _:;-:-::-::-:-;:-:-;-;-__ about the competition at all. Some friends
7. (not til
and I _ _ -;::-_--:-___ a film.
. "

MS: You're quite new to the sport. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you _ _-::-;---_-:-:-_ _


9. (compete)
professionally this time last year?

RH: Yes, I _ _ _---;;-:=_ _ _ _ • I _ _--;;-:;:-;;--:-:-::-;:--__ with Barrett Christie then and


10. 11. (train)
we - -_ _ _ _ _ _ both _ _~-=---:::_;__:__-- part in local competitions.
12. (take)

EDIT • Read this diary entry. Find and correct eight mistakes in the use of the past
continuous. The first mistake has already been corrected.

I - --
I NtVe
• This eveni,'!!, Sl1Clia and I HNiI.5lookin.g at some photo!Jraphs fom H1.!f sklii1.!J trip with Fritz's

famif!f last .!fear. B.!f tile.. end ofthe evenin.!J, we lau.!Jhi"!Jlike craz.!f' That was "11.!f first

I experience 011 skis so thepicturcs were reall.!; embarrassin.!J. In one shoi I was can'le down the J

slope 011 m.!f back. In another ont; J11.!f skis wasfilllil1.!J out ofthe ski "ft-whlie I was ridi"~9 ttl'

ti,e slope. Fritz was takil',!! tllatpicUtre fom the lift_entrance. Good thi",!! he nof sUl11di,'!!

r(gllt under me! Wllere was I whell Fritz was fol"n.!J down the slope? well, IfJlji>rfwIllf"(111

wasn't cany H1.!f camera. Tllat would 11ave been a .!Jr.:at picturt'! If was t'lm(/::iJ~q 1/,,11' l,.-;f

Frit:z:-;!Jlr/fiend, Kar.!}n, learnt that.weekend. stu IVIIS dtJiJ'!jjuI11P., I~IJ lilt' ...;,·,"tIJIJ. {.!Ij- F.lj

'---_____~__ that~time, I spent a lot oftime al the ski caft'.


--~~--~.------.~-------------.--.--~
••

and

ast I

o m

Did you see o


•o
the accident'? •

Ie POINT
Number these ;Q'eme,its in to
correct t: ..... D (lrdPr e
Yes . .. fh e guy in
There was a
the s ports car was talking
car accident.
on his mobile phone wh en he
hit t he other car. The driver of the Sports
car was on the phone.

CHART CHECK PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST SIMPLE


I "''' .... . l True) or PAST CONTINUOUS WHEN PAST SIMPLE
~ 1... .,
~ .
He was speeding when the accident happened .
Use e to introduce
T F a past sjrnple
action. PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS
T F a past PAST SIMPLE WHILE PAST CONTINUOUS I
continuous
action. The accident happened while you were driving .
, r

PAST SI E AND PAST S


PAST SIMPLE
WHEN PAST SIMPLE
-----+--~~
The police came
when the accident appened.
-----1-
- - - --- - -
PAST CO OUS AND PAST
, PAST CONTINUOUS
- WHILE PAST CONTINUOUS
They w e dlk'ng while
-
they • •
're riving .
---
EXPRESS
( ire/(- the correct wo d
r s to complete the~e sentences.
• When IWh'1 th
..l.!...!~!...LIT.!lWIl.§e e car crashed, he hit his head.
• How fast was he dri ' , ned?
-'-'--"'~!£J,u:.uYllli!Jng 1 dId he drive when the accident happe

40
Paat Continuous and Past . 41
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Grammar E plana i n x mple


1. Use the past continuous with the past • I was crossing the street when the driver
simple when a short action interrupts a longer hooted at me.
action in the past. Use the imp' for the (First, I started crossing the street. Then, the driver
interrupting action. hooted at me.)
• They w .rt driving too fast when
Now
• ••
••
they crashed.
hooted •••
t . ··············~········· .. ··,.··r·······················

...... ~ Fut ur
••
"'riS crossi(\~
Use wh n to introduce the past simple action • He was speeding when the light turned red.
OR use whll to introduce the past continuous • 'hIll' he . ding, the light turned red.
action.

2. Notice the difference in meaning


CAREFUL'
between these two different sentences.


fights crossed i
changed street l
. .
s ....... ...................................................... ... uture

p • •
•• • When the lights change , I c os e the street.
••
(First the lights changed. Then I crossed the street.)
Now
fights • •

•••
changed •


Past ................ '.............._ u.~.............................. ~ ~uture
• When the lights changed, I was crossing
••
. ••

"'os-ciossi(\~



the street.

(First, I started crossing the street. Then the lights
changed while I was still crossing.)

3. Use the . .' de to • Joe was talking on the phone I. e he


talk about two actions in progress at the same was driving.
time in the past. Use the past continuous in • They weren't paying attention . " .. they
both clauses. were crossing the street.
.-••
.

Past ····························· ...... ·t· .. ·.........................~ :uture


~ta'ki~ · ;
"'os driv\"~

4. The . (the part of the sentence


beg·' . • When ou II d , I was leaving.
Inning With , or · ) can come at • I was leaving wn L •
the beginning or the end of the sentence.
The meaning is the same.
Use
. a aft er th e time
. clause when • '1111 h rlvln he wa\ t'llkinq.
It comes at the beginning of the sentence. • He was lalking ""e Ii •
42 • Un t 10
•• • •• ••• • •• •• •• •• •• •• • • •

TRUE OR FALSE. ead cac" nllmbered entcnce. Write 7 (fme) or F (False) for the
I follow .

'When our fi'iends arrived, we at e lunch.


T Our friends arrived just before lunch.
While we were talking on the phone, I was driving to school.
We finish ed the conversation. Then I dr ove to school.
Jan h eard about the accident while sh e was driving to work.
Jan knew about the accident by the time she got to work.
, When they left the motorway, it started to rain.
It was raining while they were on the motorway.
5 When Zoe got to school, her class was taking a test.
Zoe was late for school.

COMPLETE • A police officer is interviewing two witnesses of a traffic accident.


Complete the interview with the correct form of the verbs in brackets and
with short answers.

OF'F'ICER: YVere t d'


- - - - - - - - you ___5-=--a:-n,.----ln~g~-- here when the accident
1. (stand)
___~h~a~pp~e~n~e~d----?
2. (happen)
WITNESS 1: Yes, we _____..:.:w~er~e~---. We _ _ _~-:--:--___ at the bus stop
1. 4. (wait)
when we first ---r-,::-::-::-:---:---- the car.
S. (notice)
OFF'ICER:
-------------- the car _ _---::~-_;:__--- when it
6. (speed)
---:;-
7.~(-
ge-:-;t):----- to the junction?
WITNESS 1: Yes, it

- --:;;;;:-;-:::-:-;-;---
10. (reach)
the corner.
WITNESS 2: No, it ht
- - -,-:;- 11. - - - ! Those men ___=-=:::--:-----:-_ _ on a red lig

11. (hit) them.


OFFICER:
- - - - - - - - the driver _ _-.~:-:----:--_ _ when he
14. (stop)
- - - '.;-;;;5=-.(~S(:,P-;-
:-: ) - - - the men?
WITNESS 1: No, he
- - -' 1i1.:6:. - - - . He _ _--:;-:;-,-~--_ on his mobile phone
while he ---'iRr;:;;~--- Th 17. (t,llk)
in tilDe.
18. (drive) . at's why he _ _-==-:--.-:=::-;---
top) .'
--22QO.':7(~
llo;;tt-;::;p::
ay:\)--' attention while they
21 . (cross)
Peat
and"'"
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
_ _ __ __ __ it _ _-=::-:----:--;--_ _ when the accident
22. (now)

----:~~--::::-;----?
21. (h.tppe.n)

WI1'NE8S 2: Yes, it ._ _ _--:~---24.


. I'm sure of it. The roads were very slippery.

1: No, it _._._.__-:;;~_ _ _ . The snow ----::2~6.---;(:-::,'-,'rt:-:-)--- when the


n.
am bu lance _ _----::-;;~~:::_::_:_;_---".. .

COMBINE. Read racll pair of sent nces. Comblnc them ;"to one sentence using the past
simple or the pmt continLlous form of thc verbs. Use a comma where necessary.

1. Diana nttcnded a meeting. The blizzard started.


When _ the blizzard .etarted, Diana wae attending a meeting.

2. She drove home. She listened to her car radio.


While ___________________________________________________________

3. She pulled over to the side of the road. The visibility got very bad.
_______________________________ when _________________________________

4. She listened to the news. She heard about the accident.


___________________________ while _____________________

5. It stopped snowing. She drove to the police station.


---------________________ when __________________

6. She talked to the police. She thought about her article for the moming paper.
While ------------------------------------------------------------

EDIT· Read part of the first draft of Diana's article. Find and correct five mistakes in the
use of past time clauses. The first mistake has already been corrected.

Yi driving
esterday, a ma.n was talking on his mobile phone while he was dPive his car. MCliYbe

he checking his diary while he was making his next appointment. He was certainly
not concentrating on the road when the lights suddenly was turning red. The two men
in the street were trying to j1lrnp out of the wCliY when they saw biro but it was too

late. No one was badly hlll't but that was just luck. Last year, the City Council weI'en't
passing the 'talking and driVing' law. We need that law I

t complete each sentence.


(ir I the lett"r of the orrect answer 0 -
.
- -
EXAMPLE:
J ennifer never _ _ _ _ coffee.
(A) drink
(e) is drinking
(D) was drinking
(S) drinks
~---
--- - -.-~

Roger me at 9:00 last night. ABC D


(S) calls (D) calling
Sara didn't hear the phone. She - - - - . ABC D
(A) sleeps (C) used to sleep
(S) slept (D) was sleeping

There _ _ _ _ a lot of people in the park yesterday. ABC D


(A) are (C) was
(S) is (D) were

One day last March, I _ _ _ _ a very strange letter. ABC D


(A) did get (C) used to get
(S) got (D) was getting
Where _ _ _ _ to school?
ABC 0
(A) did you go (C) you go
(S) you did go (D) you went
. Claude didn't _ _ _ _ in Canada.
ABC 0
(A) lived (C) used to live
(S) use to live
(D) used to living
. Rick left the class early because he ah d h ABC D
A) h d ea ac e.
( a (C) used to have
(S) have (D) was having

8. As soon as the lights turned red she the car. ABC D


(A) did stop , (C) -st-o-s--
(S) stopped p
(D) was stopping

(A) cook ABC D


(S) cooked (C) was cooking
were cooking
(D)
10. Johnny the h
(A) read
- - - - paper w en I interrupted h'
1m. ABC D
(S) reads (C) Was reading
(D) Were reading

44
. .1fT. . II • 45
••••••••••••••••••••••••••

u. Did you watch TV last night? A C D


-.____ I was revising for a test.
(A) Yes, I did. Ic) No. I didn't.
(S) Yes, I was. (D) No, I wasn't.
12. I remember you. You . _~ ._._~_ to go to school here. ABC D
(A) use Ie) were using
(S) used (D) were used

fa h nt nc 1m ~ ur IInderllll d word~ or phrases. The fOLlr underlmed parts of


th scntlllce Of, marked A B. C and D. Circle tile letter of the one undPrlined word
or pilrcHC that I NOT (ORRfCT.
I

Mike usually flrives to school but today he walks. A B C@


B 0
- - -- •

13. Why did you called him last week? ABC D


A B
14. They were watching TV while I were reading. ABC D
, c ~

15. What are you doing


., last night at 8:00? ABC D
16. The doctor called this morning while you slept. ABC D
C 0
17. It was no raining when the game ABC D
c
18. Paul was drying the dishes when he was dropping the plate. ABC D
C 0
19. When Gloria were four, she used to pretend she had a horse. ABC D
e B C
20. What do you use to do when you felt afraid? A C D
::- C 0
21. As soon as the alarm clock rang, she woke up and was getting ABC D
I
,
out of bed.

Once when I was ten, I used to get ill and went to hospital.
,
ABC D
-
23. While I driving home, I turned on the car radio and heard about ABC D
-
the accident.

24. What did you do.>. while you were living in Spain? ABC D
25. Pete and Andy were driving to work when they were seeing ABC D
I
the accident.
•••
.,

nt e ct:

Come on!
You've been a pro
since 1994. Now
serve the ball!

Forget it!
You haven't won a ICHEC POINT
match for weeks !
Go home!
T F The man is still a professio aI
tennis player. n

-,
STA S
CHART CHECK 1
~/e . e eo . eel SUBJECT HAVE (Nor) PAST PARTICIPLE , SINCE/FOR
,
'" s 'e- have
I/We/You* /They
The present perfect is 've (not) lived h
ere
I since May.
made up of two parts: n't beent
has
o e + past si mple He/She/it
IS •,


o ve + past * You is both singular and plural.
participle t Been is an irregular past participle. For a list of irregular verbs,
The regular form of see Appendix 1 on pages 336-337.
the past participle is:
I 0 base form of YES/NO
verb + - or Ld
HAVE SUBJECT PAST PARTICIPLE SINCE/FoR
I 0base form of
L~ __verb + -en Have they
lived •
Sine , May?
i
~

here
Has he been for a long time?
I
.
. I
SH

46

Since and For • 47


••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

2
Tick the correct PAST
answer. WH- WORD HAVE SUBJECT PARtiCIPLE

For is used with: they IIv d


How long here? Since January.
r:J a point of time h he b n For a few months.
r:J a length of time

EXPRESS
L ok ell tile past pmtl ,pie. 11 Ie tile orr ct oillmn.
R gul.lr Irr . gular Regular Irregulclr
driven CJ 0 won o o
competed LJ 0 tried o o

G mmar Explanations Examples


1. Use the s n with ' or to • Martina Hingis a:> een a professional tennis
talk about something that began in the past and player sl:.ee 1994.
continues into the present (and may continue
• She has een a professional tennis player
into the future).
for several years.
Now
1994 ,
,•
P st ................................ (•.............................. ~ "·uture (She began her professional career several years
_ _ l .. __
• ago, and she is still a professional player.)
has been :•

2. Use the present perfect with ',:. • She earne millions of dollars s' ce 1994.
. (since 5:00, since Monday, since 7994)
to show when something started.

3. Sin can also introduce a .. I. c:


• •• • Martina · loveo sports .. "f> fhe WOf n child.
If the action ended in the past, use the past • She has won many tennis tournaments
simple in the time clause. c. . she Ml· -. from Slovakia.
(She doesn 't live in Slovakia now.)

If the action still continues in the present, use • She has become extremely successful
the present perfect in the time clause. i, . ' she ,.' D.. in Switzerland.
(She is still in Switzerland.)

4. Use the present perfect with , • Martina's mother 5 be her coach


(for ten minutes, for two weeks, for years,
for a long time) to show how long a present
situation has lasted.
,
48 •
...................... .
Unit 11

IDENTIFY. ad about tennis star Martina Hingis. Underline all the verbs in the
s . feet. Circle all the time expressions with since or for .

.l\Iartina Hingis picked up her first tenrus racket at the


age of two. \..Since theW, she has become one of the greatest
tenrus players in th e world. Born in Slovakia, she has lived in
Switzerland for ma ny years. She became th e outdoor Swiss
champion at the age of nine. Since t hen sh e has won man y
international competitions including Wimbledon, the US
Open and the Austr alian Open.
For young stars like Martina, life has its difficulties.
They are under constant pressure to win and they don't
have time to just relax with friends. In fact, Martina
hasn't been to school since 1994 and she has been in the
public spotlight for years. But she seems to be handling her success well.
Since she turned professional, she has played tennis allover the world and has
earned millions of dollars. She sees her life as normal because tennis has been the
most important thing to her since she was a little girl.

& CHOOSE • Read this magazine article about a child genius. Complete it with
-he present perfec form of the verbs in brackets. Choose between since and for.

Thirteen-year-old Ronnie Segal _ _.....:h..:.::a:-=5:.."I:..:::o..:.:ve;:.:d~__ maths _ _-=--=5:..:.:in:..:.:c:..:e,-:-:--_ he


1. (love) 2.
was a little boy. 'I - - _-:--;;--:-_ _ _ interested in numbers ---::---7-~;-;---
3. (b) 4. (mel' for
nine years, five months, three weeks, and two days,' says Ronnie. --~c;--~r:::;,--
5. (S nee For
the past year, Ronnie -_~~-:---::--_ _ classes at university. He
6. (Ill tend)
- ---;;--:-----:--:----- badly. _ - ;:-=_--::-_ __ January, he five
7. (," oj.) 8. (')lIll .t' Furl - - -9
::-.--:-(:-
tilT"e: - : - - -

exams and --"'1A~:-:-:--:7"--


10. (not get)
a mark of less than a hundred per cent on any of
them.
11. (5, l " / for) Ronnie began classes, he __---:::-:::--:---.___ an average
12. (m en
of 1.324 people a month. And his future? Young Ronnie about it
13. (n t think) ,
for years. He _ _---.:;-;;:=-::--.-_ _
. ----~.~(~'n~(~e~/~ro-r~
) ---
gomg to become a fa mous sports announcer, get rna l'I"ied, and have exactly 2.2 childreD·
P .....nt P.rfect: Since and For •
.....•.....•.••• •••.•••• ,.~ •• .-•••••••••••
ASK' • Complete the Interview about Martina Hlngls. Use the words In
brackets to write questions. Then write short answers to the questions using
Infonnatlon from Exercise 1.

1. (How long / she / be / a tennis player?)


Q: ~H~o~w~'~O~~6~.~h~
a~e ~e~h~
e ~b~
ee=,n~a~u~n~n~le~p~
la~
y~er~?___________________________________

A: Since ehe wae two. •

2. (How long / she / live in Switzerland'?)

Q:
A: •

3. (she / win any competitions / since the outdoor Swiss championship?)

Q:
A:
4. (she / go to school/since 1994?)
Q:
A:
5. (How much money / she / earn / since her career began?)

Q:
A:
6. (How long / tennis / be important to her?)
Q:
A: __________________________________________________

EDIT· Read this student's paragraph. Find and correct seven mistakes in the use of the
present perfect, and since and for. The first mistake has already been corrected.

roa'ie been

I am in /\As dark's physical educatIOn class since two months. I enjoy it a lot and
have only miss two classes since the beginning of the term . I espeCIally like tennis
but since September We don't play because the Weather have been too cold . I also
like volleyball and my team has win two matches since we have started to com pete
with Lincoln School. I'm looking forward to the next matCh.
••
• •

T
nt e ct:
Irea ust and Yet

As you can see,


• . .

the flu season has just


begun . Have you had your flu
jab yet? It's never too late!

ICHEC POINT
Well, Circle T ITr"e or F I False'
almost never ... T F The flu season will start soon.

CHART CHECK 1 AF STATEMENTS: ALREADY AND JUST


T* r-
_
"
*'~ . . \.i, ree L SUBJECT HAVE ALREADy/JUST PAST PARTICIPLE

They have developed I a new flu vaccine.


To say that something alreadyliu!t
has happened It has saved three people's lives. .
before now,
o use t:o or st. NEGATIVE ST YET
o •

use •
I SUBJECT HAVE NOT PAST PARTICIPLE I YET
To say that something - - ----1-1- - - - - - - -
They haven't ,
has not happened - yet.
-
--- - - , the interview
before now, . It hasn't ended
I
,
- I
l Ouse llread or J st.

I
o use not . • . ye .
- -
. - -_.
CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS: YET
Circle T (True) u( HAVE PAST PARTICIPLE YET
F (False).
Hav_
T F Yet is used in ----
the new vaccine
questions.
- Eo
- yet?
Has it had
-_. -----_._----- ~~----~----- "
approval


50
Present Perfect: Already. Ju t and Yet _ 51
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXPRESS
AFFIRMATiVE NEGAIIVE Uns(ramble these words to form a question.
... Answer the question .
they hav • they 't.
Yes, No,
you • have • yet • lunch. had
it has. it 1 h sn't .

-------------------------------?
-

Gr mm r Expl n Ion Ex mpl 5

1. We often use the pr I with


A: Is your daughter going to get her flu jab?
01,., dy and /w
to talk about things that have
8: She ' (Iret ely • ( it. And I' v Just had it, too.
happened before now.

AI,., ad)' means' at some time before now'.


Just means 'very recently: a moment or two
ago'.

BE CAREFUL' Do not use the present perfect DON'T SAY:


with alrea when you mention a specific time
in the past.

Already and ju. usually come between " ve


• Researchers have already discovere cures for
and the p st p ,
many diseases.
• I've just reco 'erec. from a bad cold.
Alreo . can also come at the end of the clause.
• They've made a lot of progress read,'.
-~---

2. Use the . . ~ with .' ". to


• They aven't d'sco 'e eo a cure for the
talk about things that have not happened
before now. common cold yet, but they hope to discover
one in the future.
Notice that '; usually comes at the end of
the clause. • The flu season hasn't arrived yet.

can also come between ve and the



• They haven 'et discover a cure for the
common cold .

3. We usually use ! . to fi nd out if


.
• ~ your son a. his flu jab . ?
something has happened before now.

USAGE NOTE: Sometimes we use


• . he II d h d his flu jab? The flu season
q . to express surprise that something
hasn't begun yet.
has happened sooner than we expected it to.

4. In spoken American English, people often use


• I I, ad)' that book.
alreudy, J t and
. with the past simple to
talk about the recent past. • We , back from l os Anqelf's.
• • you the shopping . '}.
52 • Unit 12
•• • • ••••••••••••••••••••••

MATCH. Watch the cause with the appropriate res ult.

r se Result
e Tom has just had his flu j ab, so is really hungry.
he probably
b may get flu .
Dr Meier has already finished
his interview, so he e has left the TV stud'
10.

3 Dr Meier hasn't had lunch yet, so h e d isn't very hungry.

. Steve hasn't had his j ab yet , so h e e. won't get flu this year.

5 Steve h as just had lunch, so he

COMPLETE. Read these questions and answers from a magazine artic/e. Complete
ther ith the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets plus already or yet.
Use short answers.

smallpox tetanus flu polio measles world smallpox last case AIDS cancer malaria common (old
• • • • •
vaccine vaccine vaccine vaccine vaccine vaccination programme •
of smallpox vaccine vaccine vaccine vaccine

1796 1880 1945 1954 1963 1966 1980 NOW

Q: We plan to travel to the rain forest next year. _ _ _--=-H....:.:a::::~:.::e~_ _ they


_ _ _..,:.~~o~u~nd~___ a malaria vaccine ___--.:y=--e_t_ _ _ _ ?
1. (lind)
A: _ _ _-.:....N:.:::o~_ _ _ , they _ _-----=.h.:. =a:. .:,v=.:en:. :. '. :. t_ _ _ • Talk to your doctor about ways to
2.
prevent this disease.

Q: My doctor told me I won't need another smallpox jab. I was surprised.


- - -- - - - - smallpox completely _ _ ~_ _ _ _ _ ?
3. (dlsappeclr)
A: - _____ _ _ , it _ _ _ _:--_ _ _ .
4.
Q: They ----::---,-,---,-_
5 (d,·" lop!
_ _ vaccines against flu. What about the common cold?
A: No. Because there are so many different cold viruses, they _ _ _ --,,.---;-,::-;- - to
6. (not be able)
develop a vaccine _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

Q: There has been so much cancer research. _________ anyone


--~=--:,.--:--:----
7. (m ke)
a successful vaccine _________ ?
A:
- - - - - - - - they - _ _~----. Researchers have made a lot of
8.
progress in recent years, however.
Preeent Pe..-otJ AI,.d)I JutJt
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• Dr Helmut Meier and his wife, Gisela, are planning a party. Look at their
To Do lists and the pictures of their kitchen and dining room. Cross out the things
they have already done. Then write sentences about each Item on their To Do lists.

(
,

To Do - GIsela
To 00 - Helmut
vacuum the carpet
• -ttl buy flowers
be e the uke . wash the windows
put the turkey In hang the balloons
the o~en wrap the present
mop the floor
,
, wash the dishes
~j
I,I
. -----.-....
, ... .....
.. " .
'
- "'l. t.. •
-. ~-~
~ .... .
, .. •

1. Helmut has already bought film.

2. Gisela hasn't vacuumed the carpet yet.

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

EDIT • Read this note from Gisela to Helmut. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of
the present perfect with already and yet. The first mistake has already been corrected.

}ee
Helmut -I'm in a hurry, I haven't went shopping already but I'll do it on the way home. RitCl

have just had dinner and she's already had her bath. Have you call Mr JacofJsorl yd? He':,>

called already three times tOday. His daughter has had het" flu shot yet. Is if roo Ilt l"? ~)t:t:
you later.
( J.
TUne in to Channel l/ tonight ~---.... . . . .
I've moved
at 8:00 and find out! in with my
parents.

I've been
to India! , HEC POINT
I've met
'r, ,~o\l
someone new.
, .. Agai n. The cast of 'Family' is talking
I
Have you ever ':.',
, . ~ about things of importance to them
met anyone like
us before'? o now.
o in the past.
1.

CHART CHECK 1 I
<0 ( , r I SUBJECT HAVE (Nor) PAST PARTICIPLE I

F (F( ,
They ave 2.
T F You can use appeared
(not) on TV.
the present It has been
perfect without
mentioning a For a complete presentation of present perfect forms,
specific time. see Unit 11, pages 46-47.
-

I -
CHART CHECK 2 STATEMENTS WITH
Tick UI(1 (Ort ( SUBJECT • HAVE (Nor) ADVERB •, PAST PARTICIPLE
answ('r , ,."

,
I They have
Never comes: I
, never
I appeared on TV.
o before the past It has
participle
o at the end of the i They have (not)
red on TV
statement It has (not) h en
- i
-

54
Present Perfect: Indefinite Past _ 55
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

3
arc/e T (True) or PAST
F (False). HAVE (EVER) PARTICIPLE AFFIRMAIIVE NECATIVE
T F Ever must be Have they ? they have. they haven't.
used in yes/no (ever) •
Yes, No,
questions. Has she won? she has . she hasn't.

WH- QUESTIONS
WH- WORD HAVE SUBJECT PAST PARTICIPLE
• •

I How often have they act d on this show?


I Why
• -
has it won an award?
I
. ~
7 _

EXPRESS
Um "ramble tllese words to form a question. Answer tile question.

you • watched • Have • 'The Simpsons' • ever

-------------------------------------? ------------------------------------

Grammar Explanations Examples


1. Use the pr to talk about things _ They've won several awards.
that happened at an indefinite time in the past. _ I've interviewed the whole cast.
You can use the present perfect when you don't _ She's been on a documentary.
know when something happened or when the _ I've seen his chat show.
specific time is not important.

2. You can use . . with the " . '. . - - _ to A: HiiI Ie you . on an award?
ask questions. It means at any time up until now. OR
Have you ever 0 an award?
Use nev' to answer negatively. B: No, I've nel'er Non one.
OR
No, never.

3. BE CAREFUL! The past participles and .ne _ Tom hiU bee.. to India.
have very different meanings. (He went and now he's back.)
_ Tom . ~ gOl . to India.
(He went to India and he's still there now.)
--
4. Use the ,'.' .·rfeet

with ' or y !cently sl_I" a contract to write a book.
to talk about events in the very recent past. sn't had time •

BE CAREFUL! Do not use ' , or '. with • I' · ecently 9 back from Los Angeles.
the present perfect and a specific past time NOT I've recently got OdelE (,-om l.os Angt'les
expression. last Monday.
. . 56
............. ,. ........ .
Uni 3

TRUE OR FALSE. Read co " numbered sentence Write T (True) or f (Folse) for the
follows.

1. I\'e recently joined the programme. Someone asks you, 'Have YOu
any good books lately?' read
T I am a new member of the cast.
They want to know b
2. I haye never been to Scotland. a book you read last Out
year.
I went to Scotland a long She's visited New York several
time ago.
This is her first visit to
He's gone shopping. New York.
He's shopping now. She has become very popular.
Have you ever seen this film? She is popular now.
I ":ant to know when you
saw the film.

CHOOSE & COMPLETE. "lead this script from a scene from 'Family'. Complete it with the
e 1 cl. O. I , of the verbs in the box.

try (x2) have eat want (x3) be travel

CAROL: This is a nice restaurant. _ _ _. . H.:..:a:.:v.:::.8


:. _ __ you ever _ _ _..::..:tr~ie:...:.d,--_ _
the steak? J

JIMMY: No, but I _ _ _---=_- - - - the spaghetti. I always have it. Actually. I
-
- - - - - - - - never _ _ _----::---_ _ _ meat. I think it's cruel to
animals. I bet you _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ never _ _ _ ----:;-_ _ _ out with a
4.
vegetarian before, have you?
CAROL: No, I haven't actually. Tell me, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you ever _ _ _-;:----
S.
to live out of London? You know, out in the countryside somewhere.
JIMMY: Out of London? Are you crazy? No, seriously, I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ never

---~----
6
to leave London. I love it here.
CAROL: But - - - -_ _ _ _ you ever _ _ _----;:;--_ _ _ to move to another
7.
country or another city at least?

JIMMY: No, why should I? I've got everything I want here. You like London too, don 'tyou?
1
CAROL: Well, yes, it's OK. But I all over the world and other
8.
I
places are just as nice.

JIMMY: You may be right. Anyway, - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you ever 9. -

the new Mexican restau rant on the High 8tl'oot? How about going there
Pr_nt Perfect: Indefinite Past til
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

, • Complete the Network Online (NO) Interview with lake Stewart, the
octor who ploys the part of Gary. Use the words In brackets and the present perfect
form of the verb.

NO: Welcome to Live Studio, Jake. You've become very famous.


How many onllnl!t,!nti!!rylewe have you done! __ ~.-::-::-::_•.-:-;-;-:-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1. ll~, w m, ny urol,r'lf' In1 (rvlew I (j",>

JAKE: None! __
.______'--;;'-:-:::',-:-:-::-',--_.--;-;:':'"':"';:--:--:---:--------. Very exciting!
2, (n VI r r • '1 ' Iu I Itl d tiMl Illorll)

NO: -----------------.-------~~~~~----~~-------------------
J. (How I (hilllg! /lS 1'1 detor')

JAKE: I work with a group. so -------~-;;-_____--=:-:-~~'"'77"-------


• 4. (becolne , mar' toluant)

NO: AR 11 comic actor, ________--;:~_:____;_;_--;--_._:_-__;_;:;:---------


5. (who I be I your rolf mod n l7)

JAKE: Hard to say _________~~~~~~--~~~~----~-----------


6. (Charlie Chaplin I have I gr€'at influence on mt·)

NO:
7. (What I be I your best moment on this showl)

JAKE: Well. you know, _ _ _ _ _---=--;:--;--:--:-:-_ _;:--_ _ _ _ _ • That was fantastic.


8. (I I win I the award)

NO: All in all, _ _ _ _ _---=--:--:-_-,,--.,-,--_ _---:-:_-:----:-_ _ _-=-_ _ _ __


9. (what I find I most rewarding about the experience?)

JAKE: Free coffee! No, really, _______-=-=--;-_:-:-_--;---:--:-:-_---:~-------


10. (meet I some fantastic people)

EDIT • Read this message from an online message board. Find and correct seven mistakes
in the use of the present perfect. The first mistake has already been corrected.
,

----- --
---
, ,

-
---.-- .. "--
-- - "-
--
- .
,
----
- - - - , - Family Fan Chat

Subj.: Re: Gary's Blind Date


From: Yikes123
, :aughed
I ve never laugh so much in my life! Did you see the blind date episode on
Family? Have you never seen anything so funny? I LOVE the show! It's the best

Show I have ever saw in my life. I really enjoyed it lately. By the way, have you
notice that Gary and Alison are beginning to get on? I think Gary have started to
fancy her. Last night, Alison has moved next door to Gary but he doesn't know
yet! I can't wait to see what happens in the next episode, Does anyone know
When Gary's book is coming out?
• •

and

- 1

,.

- Yes ...
I can't This month has been
stand this commuter bad ... But last month was
marriage! I've only seen you J- better. We saw each other
twice this month. four times!

I
C EC POINT
Circ/o T I i •• f'. 0, ;:. ;:alse).

T F The husband and wife


live in different cities.
- - - - - - - - - -,
CHART CHECK 1 AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS
It:' correct PRESENT PERFECT I PAST SIMPLE

Use t o for to ne the business since 2001. I She the business from '01 to '03.
met twice this month. They e twice last month.
o the past ,
I

simple.
NEGATIVE ST
o the present
perfect. •
I I
PRESENT PERFECT
__ _ P~ST_S~::P~LE=--_ _--",
She "n ' own the business for long . . She 't own the business for long.
They ven't me this month. They .dn 't me t last month. •

- - - - • 0 -
I

CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS


Tick the corr .
PRESENT PERFECT
,wer: ___._.!:P~AS~T--=S~IM~PLE~.'-~_ _ _'

Questions in the she t: it for long? I D' she wn it for long?


present perfect are H v they e this month? they me t last month?
formed with: ,
I
L-_
-- - :
o have + base form WH-
of verb
PRESENT PERFECT
o have + past PAST SIMPLE
participle How long has she owned it? 't 7
How long did she own I . t/I?
How ~ften have they met this month? How often did they meet last /'110
11
. ~ ------------
58
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXl'RESS
Circle the correct word to omp/eff' these sentences.

They in 1999. They married since 2000.

Gr m Ex I n I n xml
1. The P rf c is used to talk about • Thcy'v d cld d to live apart for a few years
things that started in the past, continue up to (We clon't know when they decided; the time is not
the present and may continue into the future. important.)
• They t • v • liv d apart for the past three years.
••• (They started living apart three years ago, and
t ···e····· ....··········.. ········!······

, .
.... ··············· ....... Futur they are still living apart.)

have lived i • They've I"v d apart since 1998.
(They are stil/living apart.)

The p s Impl is used to talk about • They rYe apart until 2000.
completed actions in the past. (They don't live apart any more.)

2. The present pe is used to talk about • I' e ad three cups of coffee hh mor ing.
things that have happened in a period of time (It's still this morning. I might have more.)
that is not finished, such as ,', ,
thi or.
The p st is used to talk about things • I had three cups of coffee y sterdoy.
that happened in a period of time that (Yesterday is finished.)
is finished, such as . . I ' •I
• I had three cups of coffee ' . g.
lost year and Imin when it is
after 12 p.m. (It's now 2 p.m. This morning is finished.)
60 • 14
•••••••••••••••••••••••••

..nple verbs .

and Maria, for example, Q:!ave bee1y married since 1995. Mter their wedding, the
couple settled
__ _ down in Ipswich, where Maria opened an accounting business. Th .
en,ln

consider moving. Joe never found a new job in Ipswich but in 1998, he got an eXC1lng
't'

offer on the other side of the country - in Bristol. The couple have lived apart eVer
since. How have they handled this 'commuter marriage' up to now? Joe notes, 'It
certainly hasn't been easy. We've been geographically separated for a few years but
we've grown a lot closer emotionally. For that reason, it's been worth it.'

TRUE OR FALSE • Now write T (True) or F (False) for each statement.

F 1. Joe and Maria are divorced.

2. Maria started her own business in Oxford.

3. The couple used to live apart.

4. In 1997, they thought about moving.


5 The couple are now closer emotionally.

COMPLETE • Joe is calling Maria. Complete their conversation with the correct form of
the verbs ~n brackets and with short answers. Choose between the present perfect and
the past SImple.

JOE: Hi, Maria. ---~=---


Did ___ you finish that report yesterd ay.?
MARIA: No, I didn't 1. (finish)
--~~~~--. I'm still writing it and I _ _ _ _ _......,.--- worrying
3. (not stop)
about it all week.
JOE: Apart from that, how

5. (slet'p)
night.
JOE:
6. (nol II .. t·)
much rest this week. Listen - we
each other only twice this month. I'll come tomorrow-
7. (,,(,()
MARIA: OK, but I'll still have to work L t t' aDY
. as Ime you came I .
work. 8. (not do)
true, but it __ us at all, remember?
you relax now? _ ' '_ _ _ _ _ _ you _ _-:::-::'--::--:--__ that
10. (try)
tea yet?
_ _ _~____ . In fact, I _'-::-:~~-:--:---:-__ five cups so far today and it's
11. J
only 3 o'clock. Yesterday I _ _---.:-:::---:--:-___ at least six cups.
1 J (."" l

ASK' ANSWER· Lif tyl Md9Min (l M) I ;nl rviewing/oe and Maria. Complete the
Interview u i"9 Ih word in #Jrac k ts and Information from Exercise 1. Choose
between the pr sent p rfc t and till' po I simple.

When did you get married?


LM: ,• 7 7
F.. =

JOE: We got married In 1995.


• 7 ,

2.
LM: Did Y0l:l_lIve1n Ipswich after that?
3, ,I, I
Vee. we did.
4.
LM:
S. (st rt your busmess I bEfore your marriage 1)

6.
LM:
7. (How long I own your own bus,ness?)

8.
LM:
9. (When I you I f,nd your job In Bmtol?)
JOE:
10.
LM:
11. (your commuter marrrage I be very difficu' t?)
MARIA: I
----------------~-----------------------.
12.

EDIT· Read this entry from Maria's diary. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the
present perfect and the past simple. The first mistake has already been corrected.

28 December
'6 bee
It's 8:00 P.M. It tt'tlS a hard wcck and it~., l10t over!Jet! / sMI havc to ji'nish tlmt report. /'Vt' started

it last Monda!! hut so far I'v<~ wrote 0110 ji've pa.!lt's. And it's due He;d ,t'tJt·k! Wvrk W.lS SV di/l,'.,llt
late(y. I've worked latc cvcr.,o/ n(ght this Il'ak. I'm tir.·/I ,wd I /wvm't 3<7t mll.h .~/t't'1' hlst 1I~,ht.

I miss Joe. I've seen him lust wt'ekclld tltlt it s,'ems like ." 10113 timc n"qv,
-, .-
• ••

ect
ntinuous

We've been
ng with Bea
Babies since we
were four!

leH POINT
Tick the correc c e eI'Jre

D The girls don't play with Bearue


- Babies any more.
D The girls are still collecting
Beanie Babies.
Jane, Lou ise and Sarah have been collecting Beanie
Babies for years.

CHART CHECK 1 STATEMENTS


C 'c e T (TrUe) or BASE FORM OF
F (Fe '"e SUBJECT HAVE (Nor) BEEN VERB + ·INC SINCE/foR
T F The present l/WelYou* /They have (not) •

perfect collect toys since 1992.


been
can tin uous is He/She/It has (n't) playin with them for a long time.
always formed
with the word *You is both singular and plural.
e .

CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS


Chec/< he (0 n.
BASE FORM
answer HAVE 1 SUBJECT BEEN + ·INC . SINCE/FoR
In questions, which - . . -
Hav i you
parts of the verb come •

been collecting toys since 1992?


I
. ?
after the subject? Has for a long time.
I he i playing with them
o have been I

o been + SH ANSWERS
AFFIRMATIVE
NEGATIVE
we have . we
V , . haven' t .
No, - .
he has . he hasn't .
- . _ J.

62
~
,
.............••.•.•.••••••••••••• ••
• <
; .
~

BAn FORM
WH- WORD HAVE SUBJECT BEEN + -INC

have you coli cttn9 toys?


How long pi ylng with them?
has he

EXPRESS
Compl tt til n.
A: How long _,______________ he been living here?

B: =' ,
_ L. , n long time.

A: I've collecting coins since last year.


B: Renlly? Have you been foreign coins?

Grammar Explanations Examples


1. Use the pres - . to • I've een col e ...tin Beanie Babies for four years.
talk about things that started in the past and (/ started collecting them four years ago, and I'm
continue up to the present. The situation is still collecting them.)
usually not finished, and it will probably
continue into the future.


v·..·
••
.,................................(.............................~ 'uture

.?Qve been coilect\r~


REMEMBER! Stative verbs are usually not used in • I· 'e . f>this doll for years.
the continuous. NOT I've been owning this doll for years.

2. Use the to • The kids , . •. e _ »yln~ here. Their toys


describe things that have stopped very recently. are all over the room.
The action is not happening now but you can • It > -1'1 • The streets are still wet.

still see the results of the action.

Check it out!
For a list of common stative verbs, see Appendix 2 on page 337.
For the. difference between the present perfect and the present perfect continu()u!'1.
see DOlt 16.
()4 • Unit 1

... ••••••••••••

.rl \i atCftlCllt. rll 'II cil /£' the fr tt C'r of til· SCflt(';,C('

~ ) tlwt !Jest de u e~ If


(iinn hns bU'Jl collecting' HLHll1pl::l Hillel'
naJlir·1 look(!u ouL of" lhe wi 1
Hlli d , ' tL'H bO<' 1l ruining.' n(ow f~nd
8tH' waH <-It. Hch()ol.

niun stop ped coil cLing sLU1l1JJs. lL'/; HLiII raining.

bJ Gi nu s till collocLs sLn mps. b lL Htopp('d rnining a fi horl who


ago. li()

Edward has been writing un urticle


n bou t. t.oys. 5. Ws been raining since 6:00.

The articie is finished. It's s Wl raining.

The article isn 't finished yet. b It stopped raining a short while
ago.
3 They've beon selling a lot. of Pok.6mon toys.
6 They've been playing for houTs.
a People are t.iLl buying Pok6mon toys.
a They've s topped playing.
b The Pokemon craze is over.
b They're sLill playing.

COMPLETE • Edward Simpson (ES) interviewed the manager of Toys and Us (TAU)
ecently. (omp/ete the interview with the present perfect continuous form of the verbs
in brackets. Use short answers when appropriate.

ES: So, ____h_av_e_ _ _ you _ _b_B_e-:-n-;6_B-;;:II_ln....:{3=--_ a lot of toys this season'?


I (',lll)
TAU: _ _Yt_e6_, _w_e_h_av_B_ _ , Edward. In fact, Pokemon toys and games
..
---:-;-~---
( .f II)
very fast. They're our most popular item at the moment.
ES: In case one of our viewers ___~-;;:--:-___ on Mars, could you explain
4. (IiVl)
what Pokemon toys are?
TAU: Ha ha. I bet the company _ _---;-;-'--;-:_ _ _ Pokemon to Mars. too. This product
\. (wnd)
st.arted out in Japan as a computer game. Since 1996, the characters
---:-7'::--:---
, . (, ppt .Ir) in collectors' cardR, board games - you name it.
ES: Why . - - - - ____ this cruze , people all overthe
7 ("rtr <l I)
world?
TAU: Well, my husband . c. several
----;i'IT:::::7---
H. (buy)
theRe products for our chIldren Jor
years becau~e the characters ure not violent. Maybe that's why.
ES: up
- - - - -__ people •
for them?
TAU:
- - - -lUO
'. - - _.. , People --11'"i:::~~-- for Power Rangers very
much lat.ely. 11. (nnl 1 k) ,
Pre. .nt Pel reot Contlnuoua _ '8
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• Look at the two plctur~s of journalist Edward Simpson. Write sentenus


describing what has been going on. Use the present perfect continuous form of the
verbs In brackets. Choose between affirmative and negative forms

1:::1

He's been doing re search on new toys.


1. - , ~----~----~~-------------------------.----
(, j , reward) on new toys)
2. _ ________________________~~~~~~~----__- -__________------_
(tHt the roller blades)
3.
(play basketball)
4.
(eat plua)
5.
(drink Coke)
6.
(build a racing car)
7.
(play video games)
8.
(send emails)

EDIT· Read the thank-you note. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the
'Jlelent perfect continuous. The first mistake has already been corrected.

Dear Aunty Sally, •


pia y' 11£1
Thank you very much for the Pokemon cards. My friend and I have been

w ith them all day. So far , 1 am been winning. I really love Pokemon. Mf} mum been
buying the toys for us because she thinks they're fun, too. All my friends were

collecting the cards for months now. Tonya loves the computer game you sent.

too. She've been asking me to play with her but I've been having too much fun
with my cards.

1 I hope you are well. I've been thought about you a lot I hope yo u c an co me

i, and visit us soon. Love.

_ . . ... - ---~-----
--
a- ~


o 01'. 9 .... a - ..
5 . - ',"

- ", '
- 5 - ...
.. .... ;,..e ... _ . .
::;.' " ~ a - ' - ~ ;',.-:,:
- !) ....... ..

r.;(=u.=-r.ClI POINT
T •

The w man ha-s -mshed


T F following the elephant.
T F taking 100 rolls of film .
~

CHART CHECK PERFECT


c Eleph nt h v the e rt f rt
1 ut eJe hant .
In :;001 rtt article'
~. ntence:. \ ' OU

can u -e eith r In man c untri .
the present
perti t or the PRESENT
present pene t
continuous. EI phants h "
n
- ' " mce 1 ndd .
She
article ince 1 O.
e "Ii In Fran e f r a ear.
- - ----~

66
Present Perfect, rid Present Perfect • 61
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••••

EXPRESS
Complete this conversation wi th the correct form of a,e verb eat and one short answer.

A: He's been _____", ____ all morning!


B: What ________, ___ he _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ eating?
A: Peanuts. He _,"_. ________. eaten five bags of peanuts!

B: _ _ _ _ _ _ '~_ he eatcn the whole supply?


A: __._______ , he _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . There are still ten bags left.

Grammar Expl n tions Examples


1. The p often shows that _ I'vt' - .<'if a good book about elephants.
something is finished. It focuses on the result (I've finished reading the book and now I know a
of the action. lot about elephants.)
Now _ She's riten the article.

••
P t ................'\: ................. ~................................. Future (She's finished writing the article.)
••

have read •

The :,- ' often shows _ I've been reading a book about elephants.
that an activity is unfinished. It focuses on the (I'm still reading it.)
continuation of an action.
_ She's been writing an article.
" ,

••
(She's still writing it.)

Pd! .................................. ~... ~ ......................... ~ ,-'uture

2. We often use the to talk about


- how much someone has done. _ I've read a lot about it.
- how many times someone has done something. _ I've been to Africa wee.
- how many things someone has done. _ She 's w 'itten se"er really good articles.
We often use the 5 _ I've been readi g books on elephants 0
to talk about how long something has been two months.
happening.
BE CAREFUL! We do not usually use the present _ I ' r . that book t ''- .
perfect continuous when we mention a number NOT ~
of completed events.

3. Sometimes you can use either the 'esent _ She tudlr elephants • two years.
perf OR the ntinuou~ . OR

The meaning is basically the same. This is • She eleph.mts Ir two ye,l/'s.
especially true when you use verbs such as (In both cases, she ~IC1l ted ,\ (!ldYIIIC] t'lt'pllant\
live, work, study and : I with or ICC. two yean ago and \he i\\till ,ltwfyillC] thl'II1,)

, ... . 68
. ....... .
Unit 16
.,.

TRUE OR FALSE. ' cad eac" numbered sentence. Write T (True) or F (Fal se) for the
~ • t III follows.

P ro fiessor 0 wen h as been r eading a book about elephants.


F She has read the whole book .
She's read a book about elephants.
She h as read the wh ole book.
3 She's written a magazine article about th e rain forest.
She has written the whole article.
'. She's been waiting for some supplies.
She has got the supplies now.
5. They've lived in Uganda since 1992.

They are still in Uganda.


6. They've been living in Uganda since 1992.

They still live in Uganda.

CHOOSE· Here are some statements about Professor Owen's work. Circle the correct
form of the verbs to complete these statements. In some cases, both forms are correct.

, Professor Owen is working on two articles for National Wildlife Magazine. She
these articles since Monday.
2. National Wildlife Magazine has published / has been publishing its annual report on
the environment. It's an excellent report.
3. Five hundred and sixty African elephants have already died / have been dying this year.

4. Professor Owen has given / has been giving many talks about wildlife preservation 111
the last few years.

5, She has spoken / has been speaking at Ollr school many times.
6. Professor Owen was late for a meeting. When she arrived, the chairperson said,
'At last, you're here. We have waited / have been waiting for you.'
7. Professor Owen has lived / has been living in England for the last two years.
8. She has worked / has been working with environmentalists in England and
Fr8Ilce·
9.

endangered animals. The group has already met twice.


Present and Present Perfect Contlnuoua • 69
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• Read this entry from Dr Owen's field Journal about an elephant she calls
Grandad. Use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous form of the verbs
In brackets.

. __·_V6_. _be':""e_n::--,,~h_-:
We ____ ea~r_ln....;g~._ _- about Grandad sInce we arrived here in
1. (hl' r

Amboseli Park. He is one of the last 'tuskers'. tWO days ago, we finally saw him. His tusks
are more than two metres long. I __ _ never _ anything like them.
2. (·-'·f·)
Grandad ____-~_.~.._ __ _ _ _ here for more than sixty years. He
3.lb'.!·)

_ ___.~:----"__;_-"-- everything and he _ _ _ _--=---:_ _ _ _ __


4.( P '"'' ,) S.(\urvl\ll'}
countless threats from human beings. 'foung men _ _ _ _----::----:-----:-_ _ _ _ their I
6. (test)
courage agaInst hIm and poachers him for his ivory.
7. (hunt)
His experience and courage ------=---c,..-.....,------ him so far.
8. (save)
For the last two days, he -------=--:--""""7"---- sloWly through the tall
9. (move)
grass. He _ _ _ _----::-:::--:---:-:--_ _ _ _ and -------=-=---0-------.
10. (eat) 11. (re:.'_)
Luckily, rt _ _ _ _----:::-::---:---:--:-_ _ _ _ a lot this year and even the biggest elephants
12. (rain)
_ _ _ _---=-=---=---::-_ _ _ _ enough food and water.
13. (find)

EDIT • Read this student's report. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the present
perfect and present perfect continuous. The first mistake has already been corrected.

living
Elephants a.nd their ancestors have been mre on this planet for 5 million years.

SCientists have found their bones in many places, from Asia to North America.
Present-day elephants has also survived in different kinds of environments, including
very dry areas in Niger, grasslands in East Africa and forests in West Africa.
Because of their great size and strength, elepbants have always fascinating
hUmans. Our fascination has aJmost caused African elephants to become extinct. Poachers
(illegal hunters) have already been killing hundreds of thousands of elephants for the
ivory of their tusks. After 1989, it became illegal to sell ivory. Since then, the elephant
population has been grown steadily. Recently, several countries have been protecting
elephants in national parks and herds have became large!' a.nd healthier.


••

By the time I was


twelve. I had already dec ided
on a career. I wanted to
be paid to talk!
--:;

CHEC POINT
Tick the everf ho hapfJened iirst

o Oprah had her twelfth birthdavo



o Oprah decided on a career.
Chat show host Oprah Winfrey with her TV audience.

CHART CHECK 1

STATEMENTS ,
,•
c ~C/e "T" (Tr' eJ o. SUBJECT HAD (NOT) PAST PARTICIPLE
F (Fa'se,
I/He/She/We/You* /They 'd decided by then . .
T F The past
perfect uses had (not) •
It been easy. ,
or. for all hadn't
I
subjects. *You is both singular and plural.

CHART CHECK 2 YES/ NO QUESTIONS SHORT


ir k
e c ) . ·e<.
I HAD SUBJECT PAST PARTICIPLE
r 'wer -
.

she
. .

- . . - .

In past perfect decided by then? she she !hadn t


Had . .
. - ---- -- , Ye , '----, had. No,
questions, where it
-

it
been easy? it
does go? . .
. ---- -

o before the subject


WH- QUESTIONS
o after the subject
WH- WORD HAD J
-- - - - -
- ~ ~

-.-
---- -. .
PAST PARTICIPLE
.
- -
hOst?
Why
sh e decided to be a chat shoW
had
it been easy?
- ---- ------

• 70
Paat • 71
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXPRESS
Complete this conversation with the \I rb arrlv
A: Had she _ _ _ _ _ _ _ by 9:00'1
B: No, she _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

G r Explanat ons Examples


1. Use the t p rf ct to show that something • By 1988, Oprah Winfrey I b come famous.
happened before a specific time in the past. • It was 1985. She already ) -en in a
Now Hollywood film.
became
famous ••
P t •. u •• *............*.......... ~ ................................ Future
••

1988 •

2. The past p always shows a relationship • In 1990, Oprah 'nv;fe Matt on the show.
with another past event. He had been an author for two years.
(He was an author before 1990.)

Use the past perfect for the earlier event. Use • By the time Jill got home, 'The Oprah Winfrey
the past simple for the later event. Show' had finished .

BE CAREFUL! In these sentences with • When the show ended, she e· .


notice the difference in meaning between the (First the show ended. Then she left.)
past simple and the past perfect.
• When the show ended, she . , •

(First she left. Then the show ended.)

3. Already, yet, e\' and ' .. ' are often used • I saw The Color Purple last night.
with the to emphasise the event I ad never seen it before.
which happened first.
• Jason had alreaay se , it.

4. When the time relationship between two past • Ali ' Oprah h pp ' . in The Color Purple,
events is clear, you can use the she go a part in another film.
for . The meaning is OR
usually clear when you use , or • ~, Oprah in The Color Purple,
as soo I to connect the events.
-.-. she a part in another film.
--,---~--

5. We often use the st p rfee with by • By J 9C! ,Oprah d d cld on a career.


(a certain time).
--
72 • u t 1r
... " .................... .
TRUE OR FALSE. ?ead each numbered sentence. Write r (True) or F (False) f or the stot
ernerlt l/Jot

When I got home, 'The Oprah Winfrey Show' started.


F First the Oprah show started. Then I got home.
2 When I got home, 'The Oprah Winfrey Show' had started.
First the Oprah show started. Then I got h ome.
Oprah's guest had lost 25 kilos when she interviewed him.
The guest lost th e weight before the int erview.
i. By the end of th e show, I had fallen asleep.
I fell asleep aft er the show.
When I went to bed, I had turned off the radio.
I turned off the radio after I went to bed.
6 By midnigh t, I had finished the magazine article.
I finish ed the article before midnight.

I
1954 1957 1971 1973 1983 1988 1998
1985 1986
,•
••
• By 1958, Oprah had already given
I
her first speech.

!

2. By 1971, sh e

her first TV job.

• 3 By 1972, she
,

her first radio job.
4 By 1973, sh e
, her first TV job.
s. By 1985, she
her own TV show.
6. By 1986, she
in a major film.
7. By 1987, she
her own studio.
8. By 2000, she
Paat Perfect _ 73
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ASK &ANSWER • Look at this typical 7:00 a.m. Arrive COIl st/.uAio
timetable for a TV chat show host.
Complete the questions about IJIs 8:00 Review dav~ filming

timetable. Use the past perfect and


give short answers. 2:00 p.m. Hair ana make-~Qoo __ .
2:30 Meet the day's g!4ests o . _ _ _ _• _ _ _

3:00 Recora the show '--

4:30 Work out with trainer

1. It was 7:45. The host was on schedule.

A: Had he arrived at the studio yet? B: Yes, he had.

2. At 7:30 the host was at his desk.

A: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the day's filming yet? B:


3. At 10:55 he was having coffee.

A: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the day's filming by that time? B:


4. It was 2:00. He was on his way to make up.

A: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the day's guests by then? B:


S. At 4:00 he had a late lunch.
A: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the show yet? B:
6. He went to bed at 10:30.
A: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ with his trainer that day? B:

EDIT. Read this student's report. There are six mistakes in the use of the past perfect.
Find and correct them. The first mistake has already been corrected.

had
Oprah Winfrey is an aroazing personl By the ti roe she was twelve, she has already

decided on a career. Not long afterwards, she got her first radio job. Although she hadn't

have any experience, she beca.me a news reporter. When she got her own TV chat show,

she has already acted in a major Hollywood film. By the late 1980s, 'Oprah Winfrey'

hM became a household word. Then in 1994, she decided to improve the quality of

chat show themes. She also made a personal change. She had always had a weig'ht

problem but in 1995, TV viewers saw a new Winfrey. She had losed almost 40 kilns

as a result of dieting and working out. She had also oompet,e In lL 11111.1'lltlU)l\.

She has really been an inspiration to many people.



•• •

ct
- u
on In

By the time
- th,e ,Ia~t runner crOSSed
the fmlshmg line. he had b
.
runnrng orf 7 hOurs 16 .....,·In een
. '" utes
and 24 seconds, .

Circle T (T~t , ur ,False.


T F The race' fini hed.

I
I CHART CHECi'; -..

TicK lI,
BASE FORM OF
r
VERB + -INC;
- I' •

SUBJECT HAD (NOT) BEEN I


- 1 ' - 1- - .----- - - - - - - - - l
What form of e
does the past ad (no) , running
I/He/She/lt/We/You* /They I been all day.
perfect continuous had(n't) working
- - -----~--~~--------~--
always use? *You is both singular and plural.
.

o or ere
D is, " or are YES/NO QUESTIONS SHORT
,
o been ,

BASE FORM
I
I

J ; HAD i SUBJECT BEEN + -INC; AFFIRMAnVE NECiATIVl
-
running
Ha she been all day? v s, she had. No, she had" l
working

WH-
WH- WORD HAD BEEN
. . 7
BASE FORM + -INC;
How long
she running?
Why been
- working?

74
Past Perfect ContlnUOUtl • 18
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXPRESS
Complete this conversation witiJ the past perfect continuou\ form of the verb practise.
k How long ____________ she when she entered

the race?
B: She _._______. __._._. ~__."_.____ for more than two years.
. _ _ _ alone?
she _________ "" __
A: 50 •
..

_ _ _ .She _ __ ~_______ with a partner.


B: No, she ---------~---

Gr mm r pi n Ion Example

1. Use the past p rf ct con 'f to talk • It was 2:00 p.m. The runners had been running
about an action that was in progress before a since 10:48 a.m.
specific time in the past. The continuous • I finally saw Rob at 4:00 p.m. I had been
emphasises the continuation of an action, , . in for hours.
J

• One runner fainted during the race. She hadn't


not the end result.
t:'n - nldng enough water.
Now
• ••
10:48 2:00 •

p st ...............)(............... ~.............................. ~ Futu r€'


REMEMBER! Stative verbs are not usually used in • It was 5:00 p.m. He ad had a headache all day.
NOT He had been having a headache all day.
the continuous.

2. The , J . always shows a • She haa been tra'ning for three years
relationship with another past event. when she entered the race.
(First she trained. Then she entered the race.)
Use the past perfect continuous for the
earlier event. Use the past simple for
the later event.

3. We often use the . • She was out of breath. It was clear that she
to draw conclusions about past events based n g.
on evidence.
• The streets were wet. It " d been raining. ~~

4. BE CAREFUL! In these sentences with ., • . 'I . the race started, it . s raining and the
notice the difference in meaning between streets were wet.
the past continuous and the past perfect (It was still raining during the race.)
continuous. nlng
• , in the race started, it
J

and the streets were wet.


(It wasn't raining dUring the racc. It had
already Slopped.)
76 . s
. .....
•• • • ••• • •• • • • • • ••

• 'th the correct couse.
MATCH •
atch each resu It WI
Cause
Result
H e h ad been reading.
She wa_ t
ou 0 fbreath.
b. She had been running.
2. The ground ".. as wet.
c. They had been '·'atching thE: r~
3. Her eye wer e red.
She had been crying.
4. There wa fl
t . box on the oar. e. It had been raining.
5. There wa an emp .)
f. They had been eating pizza.
6. The T\- wa on.

. rna aZI'ne article. Complete it with the past perlec


p . for.m of the verbs m brae e s.
ogfesllve
,
-

BY BERNA£> t

n 23 October, I ran '+-e 805' ~

Marathon wi a parmer, rca Dc 5

had been training


We -~":':"'::"---;-1-
, -::,.::::---=---
tose er for a ear. In fact,

2. ' ,~

the race ever since e wa ched


the Wasnlngton Marathon. The start of the race was dramatic. Up to that poin I e
---::---;------- but we were very senous when we lined up. I was so
3, for
I CO\..J!dn't breathe, MarCia and I on those same streets a
. tr d 1 ill
Couple of weeks, so at the beginning we did well. By the time we got to Hea

we S. '.J for almost three hours and I really believed we could


finish. Then, halfway up the hill, MarCia stopped. She Just couldn't run any more.

• 00 or ar )

7. d} for me for two hours. First we cried. Then we started


about next year's marathon.
Past • "
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• •••

, • The magazine Runner's World (RW) Is interviewing marathon


winner Paolo Esposito (PE). Complete the interview with the past perfect continuous
form of the correct verbs from the box. Use ~hort answers where appropriate.

go out expect live run

RW: You've just won the mara th on. Con gra t u Ia ti 0 n s! ___H_a_t:l~y:.o...:
.: . u..:t-7:e:.e:..:..
.: . n..:t..:.:ra:.:l.:.:
n:.:.:
1 n:.:!g~_
1_
for it for a long time'?
PE: _ _ _ _ _-.;.
'VI;ee
:;..." ','='I....;.h.;..:a.;..:t:I. :-_ _ _ _ _ • For more than five years. First in Madrid,
2.
then in Rome.
RW: You tripped during the race. How long _ _ _ _ _ _--::-_ _ _____ when
3.
that happened?
PE: It was in the last hour. Luckily it didn't keep me from winning.
RW: I understand that you recently married your trainer, Emilia Leale. How long
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ together when you decided to get married?
PE: About six months. We met in Rome and knew straightaway that we wanted to
be together.
RW: _______________ in Rome for a long time when you met?
5.
PE: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . In fact, I had just moved there.
RW: You looked very calm when you crossed the finishing line.
_______________ to win?
7.
PE: _ _ _ _ _ _---,-_______ ! I was really surprised. And very happy.
8.

EDIT. Read part of an entry from a runner's diary. Find and correct five mistakes in the
use of the past perfect continuous. The first mistake has already been corrected.

1.9 Odober
I'vejust!fat back fom the marati10m I'm tired but very IlapP.!l When I crossed the ft~li.slllj~q
"
-.
line, I hd-Yc been runnri1!f for four hours and twellf:!J-ftve minutes, jerem.!f was stmuiJi!tJ

fi1ere. He had been waii:J1d for me the whole time. We were both soahi~tJ II'd - /, b"~"/llse I
11I.:,d been sweatti1!f; he, because it has beel1 rdillli!!J./ust a little wll/fL' btf~r<" J U'''s -"'.1/1.1,1 f,'

see him. I had beell look /ortl'<mi to this dt1.!f /';1" sa 1(}I!tJ tlflll h''Pli!'1 fll,1I I ""11/.1 ft~J1:,11 flit"
race if[ less t/l&W /ollr tUld tl Iwl(110111":;. /1/11"1/ ' ! /Llt Ilvll"', , .-al/,·" 1I!111',,,-,·III.,. TII'?I h,l.I
,·Ii'.'.' lit,' /1~JJ:.JlIi~,/ IJild
, watching tlte tlltlralll/JlI Otl TV and It"d lldll,r/(tI'">"OJ JJJ, '
______~i__~~________--__--~__ -___----__--.___._, ___-'''~--____----

to complete each sentence.


Om th lett r of til torrect answer .-
__ _ -
- -~ -.~-

EXAMPLE:
Jennifer never ____ coffee.
(e) is drinking
(A) drink
(D) was drinking
(S) drinks
7 •
- --- --~~~~

He for the Olympics since 2002.

(S) practises (D) was practising


We've known Sally _ _ _ _ a long time.
(A) since (C) while
(S) by (D) for

We've been living in London since we . ABC D


(A) have graduated (C) graduated
(S) have been graduating (D) graduate

. They haven't _ _ _ _ an AIDS vaccine. ABC D


(A) yet developed (C) developed already
(B) developed yet (D) already develop

- - - - you reserved your hotel room yet? ABC D


(A) Did (C) Do
(B) Have (D) Has
She hasn't _ _ _ _ very often. ABC D
(A) flew (C) flown
(B) flies
(D) flying
It - -__ and the ground was still white.
7. ABC D
(A) snows
(C) would snow
(B) had been snowing
(D) has snowed
8 Tina _ _ _ _ last week.
ABC D
(A) has arrived
(B) arrived (C) has been arriving
(D) arrives
ABC D
(A) live
(B) have lived had lived (C)
have been living
(D)
10. The show has
- -- - Won an award. ABC 0
(A) just
(B) ever (C) lately
(D) yet

78
• 19
•••..••••••••••••• . ....
~

"- Professor Kidd - -__ three books since 1999, and she's working A C D
on her fourth.
(A) has been writing (C) wrote
has written (0) writes

12. We to buy that car yet.. A C D


(A) haven't decided (C) have decided
(B) decided (0) nre deciding

13. - Has Maria called yet'?


- Yes, she ... . Hut sht' didn't, h'nvc a message. ABC D
(A) did Ic) hmm't
(B) called (0) has

14. Since I __._._~


.. _ university, I haven't had much spare time. ABC D
(A) started (C) have started
(B) was starting (0) start

ISECTIONI TWO
Each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts of
the sentence are marked A, 8, C and D. Circle the letter of the one underlined word
or phrase that is NOT CORRECT.
• • . . .. -

Mike usually drives to school but today he walks. ABC D I


A C
I
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -_ _- -_ _ ~I

1 S. When she was younger, she has played tennis every day. ABC D
BCD

16. It~ already 10:00, but Jane hasn't finished her homework already. ABC D
B C D

17. I've been worrying about you because you haven't been seeming ABC D
A B C
well lately.
o
18. I've read a good book recently, but I haven't finished it yet. ABC D
A _ C 0
19. Did you done your homework, or have you been watching TV? ABC D
A B C 0

20, Karl has been driving since ten years. ABC D


t 0
21. We've been here only one day, but we've three rolls of film. ABC D
A <:
22. This hotel has been already in business for fifty years. ABC D
" C )
23. How much coffee did you been drinking last night? ABC D
A -

24. I'ye been stndying French since I've started school. ABC D
A ~ u

25. Before she became a film star->.. she has been a stand-up comedian. ABC D
ABC [
Future:

Din to and ill

Oh, no.
It's going to ra in!
1'/1 get wet!

, ,'
II .
'("1
' .,"
"l, •,• ' ,
• I," 'I , . It I
" I. ',':, I' I I : I • I', '( ",,/, 1,' _ I '
I , ~
,,
I I(
"." ," 1, ,I,' I"
\ ,I'\"" ' I"( l l t,' til' tI
"", 'It ( l '" I ~ I.fC' "' ~.!/
, I
I I ,I(
,',
I
Itl\ I " " el\
~
• I
"~' I ,'
". , f.. . \
t .
POINT
,,
I
I t, (I
, "_ ' , ,
.
'I 1 1, " ' t
,, Tick the main POin' of the ~
c .. I ,I' C~rtoor

'lIlfc\
IUII I ' I I , t l \ , / ,
Ie
o The man has forgotten hi
s umbrella.
"(( I , lit!
o

CHART CHECK 1 STATEMENTS: BE GOING TO 1


T C e correct BASE FORM I
SUBJECT BE* (NOT) GOING TO OF
How many forms am
does be have in I (not) going to
'm
I
e g o? ,

o one He/She/It

IS
(not) going to leave ', soon. '
,

's
o two
! I,
,,

o three We/you* /They


are
(n't) going to
're I

*You is both singular and plural.

I CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS: BE GOING TO SHORT


Ci rele T (True) or BE NE~nvt
SUBJECT GOING TO BASE FORM AFFIRMATIVE
F (Folse). ~ ,
. ..j..
I L
Am I you arel1
T F In questions, you are.

a form of be he bill.
Is he going to leave soon? Yes, he Is. No,
goes after - .

'111 1101.
the subject. Ar' you am. I
I
------- - --- - -
-
WH- BE GOING TO

80
Future: B gOIng to and WIN • 81
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

3
Circle T (True) or SUBJECT Will (NOT) FORM
F (Folse).
will (not)
T F The fOlm of I/He/She/lt/WeIYou/They leav soon.
(won't)
is the
same for
all subjects. YES/NO WILL SHORT ANSWERS

~-
W,LL SUBJECT BASE FORM AFFIRMAnVE NEGAIIVE

l Will he I soon? No, he won't.

WH- ONS: WILL


I WH- WORD WILL SUBJECT BASE FORM

When will he Ie

EXPRESS l":~~~
Unscramble these words to form two sentences.

to • rain • It's • going ---------------------------.


an • get • I'll • umbrella _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

Grammar Explanations Examples


1. You can use e . - to talk about future _ Professor Fox .s going to atte a conference
plans and intentions. next week.
_ I'm gomg to go with him.
You can use " to say what you think or guess _ I think it ill e very interesting.
will happen in the future. _ I suppose he II a - about his new invention.
_ The cars of the future 0 .- on petrol.
I

2. Use be going when something in the present _ Look at those dark clouds! It _ -ain.
leads you to predict something in the future. NOT

_ Watch out! You' . ~O l

Use will to give information about the future. _ Professor Fox's books on sale at the
conference.
Use w I when you decide something at the
moment of speaking. A: Professor Fox is speaking at noon.
B: Oh. I think 1- I to his talk.

Checlc it out!
There are other ways to talk about the future. See Unit 20, pages 84-85.
82 . t
.........................................

READ. ook at ProfeHor Harry Fox's email message.

Harry's Travel Plans


0
-~
Ir
Greg - Just a quick note to let you know my plans. I hear you're going to be in L 4
, h
next weekend. Unfortunately, I won t b.e t ere. Th t I ' b ondo
a ~~ans won t e able to go fish In n

Transport conference. I go every year but this IS the first time I m gOing to speak t.
The conference finishes on Saturday but I d on 't th'
In
k I' . a
m gOing to go back to Lond It.
h " d
until Sunday night. I'm probably going to take t e train Instea of driving so I can get on
some work done. So, it doesn't look as if we'll get to see each other this time. I hope
next time works out better. Harry ~

IL

- ;;;:;;-

ANSWER • Tick all the things Harry Fox is going to do next weekend.

o be in London 4 0 attend a conference 7. 0 drive to London


2. IZI be in Newcastle 5. 0 give a speech 8 0 see Greg
3. 0 go fishing 6. 0 return on Saturday

DESCRIBE • Look at the pictures. They show events from a day in Professor Fox's life.
~ 'rite predictions or guesses. Use the words below and a form of be going to or
not be going to.

answer t he phone drive give a speech :. "" ( go on a journey watch TV

-- - - ----
---
- .- ,/

1. It'e going to rain. •


2. 3.

4.
s. 6.
Future: Be going to and Will •
•.•••..•••••••••••• , •••••••••••••••••••• ~

• After his speech, Professor Fox answered questions from the audience.
Complete the questions and answers. Use the words in brackets and will or won't.

1: My question is this, Professor Fox: ____W


~II.:...-
1 _ __ the car of the
future _ _ _-=-'""'
ru;:..:.n~--_. on petrol?
1. (llIll)

Fox: No, it won't . It ________ probably


2.
_ _ _=--:---::--_ _ solar energy.
3. lU\p)

WOMAN 2: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ we still _ _ _-:--:,..--,,--.._ _ flat tyres?


4. ('1"1)
Fox: No, we _ _ _--=-____ . By the year 2010, tyres _ _~~_ __
5. 6. (hllvC)
a special seal so that they _ _--=::-:-_,...,-_ _ themselves.
7. (rep,)ir)
MAN 1: In what other ways ___ _ _ __ _ cars _ _ _--=--,--_ __ different?
8. (b,·)
Fox: Well, instead of keys, cars _ _ -----,=---:-:_..,.--_ _ smart cards. These
9. (hav(-)
_ _---=--=---=::--:-:--_ _ a lot like credit cards. They _ _----,-_ _ _ _ _ doors
10. ' look) 11. (or,en)
and they _ _----,-_-,..-_ _ _ the seats, mirrors and steering wheels. They
12. (.ldjust)
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ even _ _--,,--,,----:-_----::-_ _ the inside temperature.
13. (control)
MAN 1: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ they _ _-::-:---;--_-,-:--__ car thefts?
14. (prevent)
Fox: Yes, they _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ! Next question? That gentleman at the back.
15.
MAN 2: How much _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ these cars _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ?
16. (cost)
Fox: I don't know exactly but they certainly _ _-----::=-::-:-_ _ _ cheap. Nothing
17. (be)
ever is!

EDIT. Read this email message to Professor Fox. Find and correct nine mistakes in the
use of the future with will and be going to. The first mistake has already been corrected.

-- -
He: Travel Plans ,• .
.

.-C_ - _
---- ---
. . . -----
,__• . _.-------- 08
-.-- • • _
______ --
_
-- ._-_._----
.-_.--------------
--
- --
.- - .-- -
- - -- - - - -
- .._- --
- -
,
- - -- -- - . -- --.~

won't,
Harry - I' m sorry that we will A& be able to get together in London. Martha will misses
you, too. Perhaps we can get together sometime next month. Martha and I am going to
be in Birmingham until 15 July. After that, we are going visit our son in Brighton. His
wife is pregnant and will have a baby in July. It's hard to believe that we going to be
grandparents!

How exciting that you going to talk at the conference! I'm sure it wills be great.

I've got to run now. The sky is getting really dark and th ere'll be a storm. I want to get
out of this office before then. More later. Greg
Putu...., ContraM •
.•....••.•••.•••••• ••••
~

EXPRESS
Tick the sentences that refer to the futl"e.
LJ I'm leaving in five minutes.
LJ What time do you nOl'mally leave the office?
LJ Are you going to the conference in May?
LJ I'm working on a report at the moment.

1. Use be gomg to, 1/1, the • I'm q I to fly to Mars next week.
and the pr nt imp to talk about things in
• By 2080, people 0 ' t drive. They' I fly
the future. everywhere instead.
ow

1 fly • Pete's got his ticket. He' flying to New York on




Pt ·.. ·······························.;.········· . ..................~ future Tuesday.
• •
j• next week • The plane es ($ at 10:05 and and~ at 16:15

2. USAGE NOTES: Sometimes only one form of the


future is appropriate but in many cases more
than one form is possible.
a. Use be going to to make predictions when • Look at that spaceship! It's oing to land.
something in the present leads you to NOT It'll land.
predict something in the future.
b. Use will to say what you think or guess will • In the future, people spem' their holidays in
happen in the future. space.
c. Use be going to to talk about future plans • We're going to listen .o Dr Green's speech
and intentions. tomorrow.
d. Use the -v J _. ' . to talk about • Dr Green Is giving a lecture at 10 o'clock in
fixed arrangements that have been made for Lecture Room A.
the future. You often mention the time
and/or place of the arrangement.
e. Use will to talk about information about the A: fill Dr Fisher be at the conference?
future. B: No, he but Dr Green •

• Each lecture ,I ~ one hour.

f. Use will when you decide something at the A: Dr Green is giving a talk tomorrow.
moment of speaking and to make offers. B: Oh! Maybe I'n . 'l .
A: Great! I 'll . you a ticket.

g. Use the pr . . to talk about • The shuttle to Mars at 10:00 a.m.


scheduled future events, especially • •

timetables, programmes, etc. • We I r at midnight.


6 . rit
••••••••••••••••••••••••

1/ G tJ; ott Tldlflg a COIlf! I fl ee this we k, Read he


I \ r. otl tJ \ It J ro e fotor
e,
, · . t)' l' \ '(){l c\J't;: YOU pre~enting a poper this week').
RrS8: Ellvll. I t 8 ml'l' ::; " .. .
. D '.J '~,
GREEN: HI. anti. lC't'.
r11 f",l' l't. my. talk stnrts at two o'clock. I

Rl ss: h . mayb I'll come, \\lU1t are you going to talk about? Robots?
, - I' d 1'1 with P rs nul robots for h u ... ehold work.
y

GREEN: .1. s. mall £.
Res~: I'd like on of those! \\11er 's yom' son. by th way? I he here with you?
'nO
1 . 'T'011\' ~tay ~ in orfolk ",ith his grandparent in the summer. I'm go'lng to
.1.'. • ~.

yisit him aft r tb conI' renee. So, what are you working on these day?
Rrs~: I'm still "ith the Mars Association. In fact \ e're holding a new conference
next month about the lVIars huttle laLUlch.
4.
GREEN: That's exciting. Ia~Tbe I'll ... ee you there.
Ru~s: Great. The conference begins at noon on the tenth.

(HOOSE • Circle the most appropriate words to complete these conversations.

GREEN: ,,\Yhich proj ect on next?


Rrss: I haven't decided for sure. Probably the Spacemobile.
2. Russ: Look at those dark clouds!
GREEN: Yes. It looks as if it's raining / it's going to rain any minute.
7
GREEN: I'd better get back to my hotel room before the storm.
Russ: OK. I'm seeing I I'll see you later.
• DESK: Professor Green, your son has just called,
GREEN: Oh, good. I'll call / I'm calling him back straightaway.
5, GREEN: Hi, Tony. How's it going?
ToNY: Great. I go I I'm going fishing with Grandpa tomorrow.
6. GREEN:
Have fun, but don't forget you still have to finish your project,
ToNY: to
I know, Mum. I post I I'm posting it tomOITm\'. I've already got the
envelope.
7. ToNY: How's the conference?
GREEN:
It's great. I'm giving / I'll give a talk this afternoon.
8. ToNY:
(}Qod luck. When are you / will you be here?
GREEN: you
at about 8:00.
Future: •
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• Read these conversations. Complete them with an appropriate form of the


verbs In brackets. (There Is more than one correct answer for some items.)

1. A: Hurry up! The shuttle _ _ _ _ _ _.:.;:Ie;=a~ve::..:e::....-_ _ __ _ in just a few minutes.


(I( ,'If£')
B: Oh, I'm sure they for us.
(w.lit)

2. A: Look at those storm clouds! Do you think it _ _ _ _ _ _-:--_ _ _ ____ ?


{r dIll}

B: I don't know. I - - -_ _ _,....,.....~---.___ the weather forecast.


(th ck)

3. A: When - - - - - - - - we - - -_ _~:____:_----- the shuttle?


(1)",1[0)

B: We _ _ _ __ _-;;;--;--_ __ _ _ _ first class, so we should be among the first


(fly)
to board.

4. A: Wow! This suitcase is heavy.


B: I _ _ _ _ _----,;----:-_ _ _ _ _ _ it for you. Give it to me.
(carry)

5. A: What time _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ we _ _ _ _ _ _--;:-----::-_ _ _ _ _ _ on Mars?


(land)
B: According to the schedule, at 9:00 a.m., but I think we
- _ _ _----,-_ _ _ _ _ a little late.
be'
6. A: I'm hungry. I hope we _ _ _ _ _ _--;---::--_ _ _ _ _ _ some food soon.
(get)
B: Me too. I _ _ _ _ _ _.".------,-_ _ _ _ _ _ the seafood special. I ordered it
(have)
in advance.

7. A: Look! The flight attendant is getting ready to announce something.

B: Great. That means we ______----:--:---:~------ boarding soon.


(start)

EDIT • Read this flight announcement on the shuttle to Mars. Find and correct seven
mi5takes in the use of the future. The first mistake has already been corrected. (There is
often more than one way to correct a mistake).
'Go 15
od evening, ladies and gentlemen. This vnll be your captain speaking. We be going
to leave the Earth's field of gravity in about fifteen minutes. At that time, you are
able to unbuckle your seat belts and float around the cabin. Host robots take orders
for dinner Soon. After these storm clouds, we are having a smooth trip. The shuttlt.'
arrives on Mars tomorrow at 9:00. Tonight's temperature on the plmwt is n mild
minus 20 degrees Celsius. By tomorrow morning th e tcmperatu 1'(' il'l 18 dt'gn'ps bu tit
is feeling more like 28 degrees. Enjoy your flight.'

Future la u

;
)
When I grow up.
I'm going to be a
ballet dancer. ,,

J

Ic EC POINT

o The child is talking about a present ha~.


o The child is planning her future.

CHART CHECK STATEMENTS


CIrcle T (True) or MAIN CLAUSE I TIME CLAUSE
F (Fe'
I I m go ng to be a ballet dancer when I grow up.
T F The verb in the I I I

main clause is
,
She •
)0 a ballet company I after she eaves school.
in the future.
T F The verb in the YES/NO S
time clause is
in the future. MAIN CLAUSE I TIME CLAUSE
1
I
you oing to a ballet dancer whe you grow up?
~-------------------------
she ' , a ballet company I aft r she leaves school?
________Lt ____~ ___________-


SHORT ANSWERS
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
- - -- .. .

I am.
I Yes, ..

No,
I' m not .
,,
she w II. she won't.
- ....
WH- QUESTIONS
M AIN CLAUSE TIME CLAUSE
- - •

are you going to b when you grow up?


what ,--- -
! will she do after she leaves school?
, « ,
- •

88
these words to form a question and an answer.
be • What • grows up • she • when • will • she

----------------------_._------.------------- . •
she'll • scientist • a • I • think • be

---------.-----.-.--------~---------------.~.--.----- ..----------.

Gr I r
1. When a sentence about future time has two m.:nrl"u If, I"
clauses, the verb in the main clause is often in • He'll look for a job when he leaves school.
the fu ur (will or be going to). The verb in the
time clause is often in the pr s nt .
l~jl:.;,'·'J,j· ('I'~f

CAREFUL! Do not use will or be going to in a • I'm going to work aher I leave school.
future time clause. NOT

The tim se can come at the beginning or • Before she applic5, she'll visit different schools.
the end of the sentence. The meaning is the OR
same. Use a comma after the time clause when • She'll visit different schools before she applies.
it comes at the beginning. Do not use a comma NOT She'll visit different schools, before she
when it comes at the end. applies.

2. Here are some commo 5


you can use to begin future time clauses.

a. Wh n, after and . often introduce • Whe'. I leave school, I'll look for a job.
the event that happens first. • Ahel I leave school, I'll look for a job.
• .' . j" I leave school, I'll look for a job.

• (First I'm going to leave school. Then I'll look for a


~• leave look for a job

P ~t ······· · ··~········· · ························· f ······· ......... ~ Future


job.)


••

b. Before, until and by t often • Bef I get a job, I'll finish school.
introduce the event that happens second. • Unt I get a job, I'll stay at school.
• . .. I get a job, /'11 be out of school.
I' ow
• (First 1'1/ finish school. Then 1'1/ get a job.)
~• finish school get a job
Pc. st .... h •••• ~ ••••••••• , • • • • • • • • "/' ••••••••••••••••••••••••• • ••• • •• ~ utLJrc
••
••

c. While introduces an event that will happen • . I look for a job, I'll continue to study.
at the same time as another event. (I will look for a job and study during the same
time period.)
"'ow •

Pdst ·· ........ i· ................................ .........,,........... ~ Future


•.t ...
••


• ook for a jOV
COntinue to stu6i
90 Unit 21
•• • • •• • • • •• •• •

TRUE FALSE. Read each numbered sentence. Write T (True) or F (False) for the
( follows.

1 Amber will open her own business when she finishes school.
F Amber will open her own business. Then she'll finish school.
2 Derek won't resign until he finds another job.
Derek will find another job. Then he'll resign.
John will retire as soon as he is sixty.
John will retire. Then he'll be sixty.
, Marisa will call you wh en sh e get s home.
Marisa will get home. Then sh e'll call you.
While Li-jing is at school, she'll work part-time.
Li-jing will leave school. Then she'll get a part-time job.
6. By the time Carol gets her degree, she'll be twenty-one.
Carol will be twenty-one. Then she'll get her degree.

. COMBINE· Read about Sarah and Jeff. Combine the sentences.

1. Sarah and Jeff will get married. Then Sarah will graduate from university.
_S_a_ra_h_a_n_d....:J:..-e_ff_w_il .....::g-!.....e....:.t_m-.-::..:.ar:....:.r....:ie....:.d~_ _ _ before Sa ra h grad uates.

2. Jeff is going to get a pay rise. Then they are going to move to a larger house.

------------------_____ as soon as __________________------


3. They're going to move to a larger house. Then they're going to have a baby.
-

4. They'll h ave their firs t child. Then Sarah will get a part-time job.
-

S. Their ch ild will be two. Then Sarah will go back to work full-time.

6. Sarah will work full-time. At the same time, Jeff will go to university.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - _ while
7. Jeff will graduate. Then he'll find another job.
".,.
...... 4.... . .... .
• Look at this student's worksheet. Complete It with the correct form of the
wrbs In brackets.

OAL PLANNING WO SHIIT


- - • - • =
_. .
• •

I. Write your major goal.


I 'II set a job after I
(q t)

II. List three benefits of achieving your goal.


1. When I _ _ _ _..,...-___ a job, I _ _ _ _-,-___ more money.
(1 I) rillY!')

2. When I ___--:--.___-_ enough money, I ___ ----:-:---_ _ _ _ a car.


(q t) (buy)
3. I _ _ _..,...--;-:--___ happier when I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a job.
(have qol)

III. How will you reach your goal? Write down smaller goals.
1. As soon as I ________ in the morning, I _ _ _----:-;-____ the
'CI,t \':,) (buy)
newspaper to look at the employment ads.
2. When I _ _ _ _----:--_ _ to my friends, I _ _ _-:--;-:,------_ _ them if they
\ SDl',l~ I (ask)
know of any jobs.
3. I ________ at the job noticeboard when I ---.....,........,....------ to
(go)
,
-
. " ,

the supermarket.
4. Before I ___---:-----:-_ _ _ to an interview, I __-------::,----_----:--__ my
(go) (improve)
computer skills.

EDIT. Read this dancer's diary entry. Find and correct seven mistakes in the LIse of future time
clauses. The first mistake has already been corrected. Don't forget to check for commas!

Tof!!orrow is m!lf/rst dance recital! By the time / JPi/1 write mfJ next d/~1J:jJn";'k it 1l'!II,dml'!1J.
be over! A---s !!.OOJ/ as we finish tlu: performance .!.h!!.'t: tIre ,qL'!!.i~q to .be a fl.!q pm1.. Lj.;" 11.... R"I,<"Tt''''''
I

_wdl be thereL when we el1ter the 1'00111. WIllie we w,ll a:lt'brtlfti tf,t' Prt'SS Il'dl,itft"l'lli-lI' 1IIj"/It"I"~'

ofthe dance.'1roup, As SOOIl as 1.'1et 1If! 011 SWllft!LJ /IIIJrllli!tJ 1'1111t!LJ tl't'I"'I" ·"''''.1 1',"'.1 tl,,'
. interviews , We'n'.'/vif!q tv pe'forlll thi.~ .~//tJ1I' /'1" til") 11',',-/.;.." I I.- " ,),'11 ,'.' if:, I'~II:'''I',I, w,' /",11111

a new pro.9n:unmt', 1'111 sa <"Xc/h,d EVL"I" ,..,i,.-/" /11'1/., lift/.', I'~t" 11 ,/111,''( I" I,,' 1/ /','//"1,1./11,-,,).
1

-------
-- . , - -_ .. -
-
ure Inuous
I'm sorry.
I won't be here at
12:00. I'll be taking
the dog for a wa I

I HE POINT
~'c/' the cO ....Pc a 15 'er
~
o,
When will Robo take the dog for a walk? ,
i -

o before 12:00
o at 12:00
o after 12:00

-,
CHART CHECK STATEMENTS
C :c.c ..,....,... e/ or I

. BASE •

~ "~
a se . SUBJECT W,LL (NOT) BE + -ING
T F You form the will (not) working •

I/You/He/She/lt/We/They

I future be • ,' tomorrow.


continuous won't commg
i
with • plus
e and the YES/NO QUESTIONS
base form of
the verb + W,LL SUBJECT BE BASE FORM + -ING

Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they working tomorrow?


be •
commg

SHORT ANSWERS

- _. - ' _ -------
I
1_
Yes, /
I you/he/she/we/they will. No, h
I/you/he/she/we/t ey won ·
II _

--
-- ' - - - - -

WH- QUESTIONS
WH- WORD BE/W,LL
-- BE + BASE FORM + -ING
Where
When will she be working?
Future
•••••••••••••••••••••••••

Unscramble these words to form two questions. Answer the questions.


working • be • Will • tomorrow • you

------------------------------------------------.
you. be • What • doing • will

------------------------------------------.--------------------?
------------------------------------------------------.

Grammar Expl n tions Examples


1. Use the futur tinu
with I ( ) and _ Robo III be takim the dog for a walk at
won 't to talk about things that will be in progress noon.
at a specific time in the future. _ He '0 't be cleanh the house.
No •
1

12:00


Past ··································i···········

J ••••••••••••• , •••

~ 'uture

1 .- ~\fo~
1 will' be to

2. USAGE NOTE: We also use e.:+ A: Robo 5 going to be taki '. the dog for a
"
be + base form + .' . but the structure with walk at noon.
~

wiJ is more common. B: He Isn't go ns to be cleani the house.

REMEMBER! Stative verbs are not usually used in _ I'll know my test results next week.
the continuous form. NOT

3. Remember that if the sentence has a _ I'll b(; coo In the robot •

, use the present simple or present NOT I'll be coolting ..... hile the robot will be
continuous in the time clause, not the future or
future continuous.
94
••• • •••••••••••

IDENTIFY. Read this paragraph. Underline all the fu ture continuous forms .
,.',

Todav we find most robots working in factories around the world. But wh t .
_ . ' . . a 'Nl11 the
robots of the future be doing? One deslgner predlcts that m Just a few ye
. ars, small
intelligent robots will be dealing wlth all th e h ousehold chores. This is g . \
. . Olng to mak
life a lot easier. While one robot is cooking dmner, anoth er one will be vac . e \
. . uurnIng the

wars? Scientists aren't sure. What is cer tain, however, is that robots will be 1 .
P aYlng a
more and more significant r ole in our lives.

(OMPLETE. ead these conversations. Complete them with the future conti I
a • ~c ords in brackets and with short answers. nuOUs form

1. STUDENT: _ _ _ Will _ _ _ you


~~ be having t d 3.
a. (Will ha"e, S u ent
hours today? I'd like to talk to you about my robotics paper. 4.

TEACH 1m: Yes, I will .I s.


b. - - - - - :c=-.7:
(W1
:::i·,",,;-:g=-=-o-;-
) ---- to lunch
6.
at 2:00. But drop in anytime before then.
7.
2. MRS GEE: When - - - - - - - - you - _ _ _::--;:-:-::;-;--;-:-------:____ the office?
MR a. (will {leave)
GEE: At 2:00. Why? Do we need something?
MRs GEE:

- - -h""r:::;:::::---:-:--;-:-----
b. (wont get)
home until late.
3. ToNY: Dad, what time I
- - - - -_ _ you _ _ _ _ _.,---~--
home t d ? I . iI. l will come)
o ay. need some help wIth my science project.
MR GEE: I _ _~~;;-::-;-;-_ _
b. (will takt-) Mia to the dentist after work but
I'll be back by 4:00.
ToNY:
- - - - - -__ we _____~~~-----runneroofure
Mum comes home? c. (WillI hJ e)

MR GEE:
d. . You know we always wait for MuIll·
4 SALESMAN: I'm caIl'mg from Robotronics Ltd. I _yout
•• (will / VI It)
area soon to de
monstrate our new robot
ROBO: I' .

for a while. b. (won't I buy)


Puture
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •

• Look at Robo and Robota's schedules for tomorrow. Complete


the statements.

Raba Robote
8:00 make breakfast 8:00 pay bills
9:00 dust bedrooms 9:00 vacuum sitting room
10:00 do laundry 10:00 repaint kitchen
12:00 make lunch 12: 00 recycle the rubbish
1 :00 give Mr Gee a massage 1 :00 Ghop for food
5:00 help Tony with homework 5:00 cook dinner
7:00 play chess with Tony 7:00 Lake the dog for walk

ie_m_a_ki_n~g_b_r._ea_k_f_a_st_ _ _ , Robota ____w_i_lI_b_e.Jp_a.::!y_in--"g~b=---I_1I6::......_ __


1. While Robo ____

2. Robo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the bedrooms while Robota _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3. Robota the kitchen while Robo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


4. While Robo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lunch, Robota _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

5. Robo a massage while Robota _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


6. Robota dinner while Robo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7. While Robo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ chess, Robota _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

4~ EDIT • Read this student's paragraph. Find and correct seven mistakes in the use of the
L. future continuous. The first mistake has already been corrected.

performing .
In the future, robots will be popfopm more and more tasks for hu mans. This

will be having both positive and negative effects. On the one ha.nd, while robots

will be doing the boring and dangerous jobs, humans will be devoting more time

to interesting pursuits. In this respect, robots be making life a lot easier for

humans. On the other hand, the widespread use of robots will creating a lot of
future unemploy ment. There is a risk that robots will taking on jobs that hu ma.ns
need in order to earn a living. And some robots could even become dangerous.
I'm afraid that in the not-too-distant future, robots will be operating nuclear power
stations! And before too long, robots will to be fighting in wars. Although, on
second thoughts, that will be better than hll rna,ns kllling each otherl
ure
ure e
ontinuous

By February,
I' ll have swapped
Piggy for a shi ny
By February, new car!
he'll have been saving
for three years and
I'll be rich!

ICHECKI POINT
.
.' Tick the correct answer.
•• o It's February.
o He hasn't been saving for three year
S•Yet

I
I FUTURE PERFECT STATEMENTS
CHART CHECK 1
,. ~c e ~ C e, or
r
- SUBJECT WILL (NOT) HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
F (Fa'se . 1-
will (not)
T F Both the future I/He/She/lt/We/You* /They have saved enough money by then.
I
perfect and the (won 't)
future perfect *You is both singular and plural.
continuous use
euee . FUTURE
SUBJECT W,LL (NOT) HAVE BEEN + BASE FORM + ·INC
will (not) have been saving for three years.
I/He/She/lt/We/You/They
(won't)

CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS SHORT


Circle T (Tru ) or NEGATIVl
F (Forse).
WILL SUBJECT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
- ----------
Will he No, he won t
T F Short answer have sav enough by then? Yes, he
forms are - -- - - - - - - -----------'
r--- - - -
,
I
the same for PERFECT
the future YES/NO QUESTIONS
perfect and the
future perfect HAVE BEEN +
continuous. W,LL SUBJECT AFFIRMATIVE
FORM + -INC
-_. -'-.--------~-----
Will
------------------
he
have been saving for long? Yes, he will.
------

96
. ..... . .. ....... .. .............•...........•.......•.••••.••••••••••••
Future
. Perfect
. .. . . nd Future Perfect ContlnUOU. • "

Complete these sentences with the v rb d r ive. U t' onE' word (or each gop .
• By June, I'll have been " my new car for a year.
• I'll have -"---~- -~ ~ ~- 10,000 miles bv t.hen . ~

Gr xpl tI n x mpl
1. When we use the fu , we imagine • By June, he will h v p Id his debt.
a certain point of time in the future, and we • We won't h v ,av d enough by then.
look back at events that will be completed by
that time.
N
••
( .......... , ..... y .................

~. . . . . .} ( • • • • • • • • • •

*............ Futur
1 paid June
i debt
Use by tim x to identify • y Jun , she " I h; '~ a car.
the point in time in the future. • She 'll he lfe ookf>;" at a lot of cars ')~I th~n.

Use "a to emphasise that an event will • By May, he T have already sav ~ £1,000.
have happened by a point in time.

.
2. When we use the . ,

, • We moved here in 1998. By next December we


we imagine a certain point in the future and will have been r ..·ng here for several years.
we look back on things already in progress.
• We're moving to Paris next year. By 2009, we
will have been I'lfan9 there for several years
1998 •
••

December
Past ................ ...... ~ ·uture and it should feel like home.
u •••••••••
· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . "1110.....-
~
. .- -- ••
-•
'

--- -
living
The . focuses on • You 'll have been speaki S French '0
how long and often includes the length of time. ten years by then.

REMEMBER! Stative verbs are not usually used in • By May, he 'll la e ed his car for a year.
the progressive. NOT he'll have been owning his car ...

3. Use the future perfect or the future perfect • By the time you am e, I II II ve "sh dinner.
continuous . to show NOT By the time you will arrive, I'll have
the order of events:

FIRST EVENT: future perfect (continuous) • By the time you jve, I'll have been reading
for an hour.
SECOND EVENT: present simple
, , .

~• finish start

~dinner to read arrive
:
Pas.t ................ ;........:, ..............." ..............., .......... futtJre
~

, .'

••
98 Unf 2
• •• • • •••••••••••

TRUE OR FALSE • Read each numbered sentence. Write T (True) or F (Folse) for the
ot follows.

1 By this time tomorrow, I'll have decided wh ich car to buy.


T I haven't decided yet which car I'm going to buy.
We'll have finished the shopping by th e time you get home.
You will get h ome while we are shopping.

• By next year, Mary will h ave been wor king at the school for five years .
Next year, Mary can celebrat e h er fifth anniversary at the school.
By ten o'clock, she won't have finished marking books.
She will finish marking books at ten o'clock.
5. We will have moved to a larger office by the year 2015.

We will move to a larger office after the year 2015.


6 By next year, we'll have been publishing the newsletter for fifteen years.
We started the newsletter less than fifteen years ago.

COMPLETE • Look at the time line and complete the sentences about Tom and Linda's LIJ
futLire accomplishments. Use the future perfect or the future perfect continuous form of
the words in brackets. Choose between affirmative and negative.

TC

I I
1
2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 2017 2018 2022
• •

1. By 2012, they _____',_,~ha::.:..:v~e___=b:..:o:..:u~g:..:...ht=____ _ _ _ a new car.


(bu. I

2. By 2015, they 'II have been living in their own house for three years.
(II '<')
3. By Steve's first birthday, Tom _ _ _ _ _--:----:-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
(qrarlll It oj I
at university for four years.
(study)

(buy)
another car.

(drive)

(open)
her business.
( " e) for two years by 2020.

(accomplish)
~~~~ ~~I. !~.C:~. ~d Future Perfect _ "
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• Read Linda Leonard's (lL) Interview with Teenage Couples Magazine


(Te). Complete the Interview with the correct form of the verbs In brackets. Use the
continuous form when possible. Use already when appropriate.

TC: You two amazing! By the time you ______~~~et=-::-_-____ mal'l'ied,


1. (<)1 t)

you _ _ _'I_I _h8_"'_.B_8-;;I:-N-;-a-;-d~'J:-'-f?_18_.,"_"_B_d_._


..._._ your whole life together!
2. (pldn)

LL: Well, we've been going out together since school. By the time we
. from university, we __
,

J. (ql.ldll, ld
our mal"riage for a long ti me.
TC: When Steve _ _ _ _ _~;:-:'";':-::-:-::-_;___---
S. (be born)
, Tom ----6:::"'.~(r-
,,.,--:-
t ·-
CJ-
r ·~
rjl-
' )-, -) - - - -

• from university. How will you manage with Tom still studying?
LL: It won't be cn~y but we've got a plan. Tom _ _ _ _ _--=~---:------- most
7. If~'~h)

of his courses by then. He'll stay home with the baby during the day and go to
evening classes.
TC: By the time you _ _ _ _ _- - = - - : - - : : - : - - - - : - - - - - - your tenth wedding anniversary,
8. (celebrate)
you _____--=--;---:--:--:-;_ _ _ _ _ _ yonr business. You have a lot of patience.
9. (nol ~l.lrt)

LL: Not really. I _ _ _ _ _---::,..".-.,.--:------- years of practice in my job


10. (get)
by then. When I the doors of Linda Ltd,
11. (open)
I _____-=-=--::-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ a very experienced web page designer.
2 " ~

TC: Well, good luck to you and thanks for the interview.

EDIT. Read this diary entry. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the future
perfect and the future perfect progressive. The first mistake has already been corrected.

('? it;; t7
By August l'll -l7e- a secretary for ten years . Ana I'll eam almost the same salary for three

years I That's Why I've maae a New 'lear's resolution to go back to GOllege this year. First, I'm

gOing to write for GOllege maga2Jnes ana start saving for tuitIOn . By March, I'll have work out

how much tuition will cost. Then I'll start applying . By summer, I had received acceptance
letters. In August, I'll talk to my boss about working part-time ana going to college part-time.

By that time, I'll have saved already enough to pay for a term's tuitIOn . By next New 'lear's

Day, I'll have been study for a Whole terml


~"
ONE
mplete each sentence.
I I th I tter t tilt orrect answer to co __
- -- -
EXAMPLE: coffee.
Jennifer never _ _ __
(C) is drinking
(A) drink
(D) was drinking
(B) drinks
- ---~-~

1 It - - - - tom on-ow. . t .
(C) 's gomg 0 ram
(A) rains (D) 's raining
(B) rained
. The package will _ _ __ on Monday.
A 8 CD
(A) arnve

(C) arriving


(B) arrIves (D) be going to arnve

Goodnight. I _ _ _ _ you in the mormng.


• of
A 8 CD
(A) '11 see (C) 'm seeing
(B) 'm going to see (D) see
, Hu fry up. Th e n ext bus at 7:15. A 8 CD
(A) leave (C) leaving
(B) leaves (D) will have been leaving
Bill will be _ _ _ _ to Taipei tomorrow. ABC D
(A) flies (C) fly
(B) £lying (D) have flown
1
6 We a new DVD soon. ABC D
(A) have owned (C) 're owning
(B) '11 own (D) own
7 They'll be making copies while he the report. ABC D
(A) finishes (C) 'll finish
(B) 'll be finishing (D) 's been finishing
21
8. She'll almost £1,000 by then. ABC D
(A) save (C) have been saving
(B) have saved (D) be saving

9. By next year, Roger will _ _ _ _ here for ten years. ABC D


(A) live (C) have been living «.
(B) be living (D) be going to live
~.
10. Will you buy an electric car when they available?
(A) become (C) are becoming
(S) became (D) will become

100
••••••

She'll be man'ied ____ June. A 8 C D


(A) already (e) since
by (D) until
A C D
12. Where _ - - - be living?
(e) will they
(AI they
(D) are they
they will
ABC D
u. Look at those cars! They ._ - - - !
(AI will crash (C) 're goi ng to crash
(S) will be crashing (D) will have crashed
ABC D
14. How for college?
(A) should pay (C) she pays
(S) will she pay (D) she's going to pay

SEcno
Each ntence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts
of the entence are marked A, B, C and D. Circle the letter of the one underlined
word or phrase that is NOT CORRECT. ..
-
_ _ _ _ _ L __ ===---~-~----,

-- --~
-~ -

EXAMPLE: C D'
A
Mike usually drives to school but today he walks.
A
-- ~-- ~--------------------- ----------'

to the supermarket tonight?
ABC D
1 S. Will you been o
A
ABC D
16. The film starts at 7:30, so I think I gQ.
c 0
17. We are going to tonight until we will finish this chapter.
ABC D
f e D
ABC D
18. By April, I'll have been driven my new car for a year.
A
ABC D
19. We'll travel for a couple of days, so you won't be able to call us.
, C
20. Jan finished school by next summer, so we're going to visit her.
ABC D
ABC D
21. Which project will he works on after he finishes this job?
ABC D
22. BY
A
January, he'll have yet saved £1,000.
-
ABC D
23. Where you will be staying when you gQ to Morocco?
ABC D
24. I'll be studying while Anna will be sleeping.
A -
ABC D
25. She will not graduated Qy June.
I
- • uestions:

What happened
on t.he night. of 12 May?
--.. ""-_.
Where did you go? Who did
you see? Who saw you?

Why did I
ICllEe POINT get out of bed
"'ick ~he correct a·lswers. this morning?

The lawyer wants to know


o the events on the night of 12 May.
o the witness's profession.
1. VJhen
o the names of people who saw (Usually
the witness. who
word

QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SUBJECT


CHART CHECK 1
C CIt. T \T e/ or 3. When
WH- WORD
VERB PREDICATE (usually
F (False). SUBJECT
T F , - questions Who saw you? order
about the
subject have
the same ANSWERS (STATEMENTS)
word order as
SUBJECT VERB PREDICATE
statements.
He saw me.

CHART CHECK 2 QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ICATE b. a


· Circle T (True) or WH- WORD AUXILIARY as
~ F (False). PREDICATE SUBJECT VERB


I T F Wh- questions Who(m) did you see? 4. USAQ
about the
predicate have about
the same ANSWERS (STATEMENTS)

word order as
SUBJECT VERB PREDICATE
statements. --- ---- --, - - "
- -

T F Questions I saw him .


--
about the
predicate can
include a form
of the verb do.

102
-------------.------___________ 1
• • OU ___._
--- . _---------------_1
I
for tnfonnatlon _ lei you
Jld you q th r )
begin with
w m 'I f opl \dW you th rt'?
- H I ( dl you \ tily th 'r ?

When you re I t Someone saw you.


the first part of the entence), us a
who que tlon word In place of the ubject. The • Who saw you?
word ord~r i the a in a tatement.

J. When you are t c t You saw someone.


(usually the last part of the sentence), the Did you see someone?
question begins with a wh- word, but the word
order i the same as in a yes/no question.
• Who did you see?

~ BE When you ask a who question about


something in the predicate, you need either
•• a forlll of the verb b .
OR

b. a form of an u Ii ry ('helping') verb such


as

4. USAGE Non: In very formal English when asking VERY FORMAL


about people in the predicate, whom is • Whom d id you see?
sometimes used instead of who.
INFORMAL
• Who d id you see?

CAREFuL! If the main verb is a fon n of , • N OT


. the next witness?
Whom is the ne)(t witness?
you cannot use rhom .
104 • Uni 24
••••••••••••••••••••••••••
. oes with an answer. Match each ques tion with th
MAT(H. Each que lion 9 e
an wer.
Answpr
lie t •(\n
1
f Who did you see? a His wife saw me.

Who saw you? h Sh e hit a car.



What hit her? I gave the money t LT
o n.arry.
What did she hit? A car hit her.
Which man did you give the money to? e Harry gave me the m
oney.
. Which man gave you the money? I saw the defendant.

COMPLETE. Read this cross-examination. Complete it by writing the barrister's questions.

What time did you return homer


1 BARRISTER:
(What time / 'ou I return home?)

WITNESS: I returned home just before midnight.

2. BARRISTER:
(How / you I get home?)

WITNESS: Someone gave me a lift.

3. BARRISTER:
(Who / give / you I a Iitt?)

WITNESS: A friend from work.

4. BARRISTER:
(What I happen I nexP'
WITNESS: I opened my door and saw someone on my sitting room floor.
5. BARRISTER: •

(Who / you I ee 7)
WITNESS: Deborah Collins.

6 BARRISTER: •

(Who I tw I [)f>bOrdh (olllnsJ)


WI'l'NESS: She's my WI'fi' b ' d d noW.
e s oss. I mean she was my wife's boss. She s ea
7. BARRISTER:
(What I you I do?)
WI'l'NESS: I called the police.
8. BARRISTER:
(How m,)ny I people I call / you?)
WITNESS:
Noone called me. Why?
••• • ••• ••••• •

statements. Then ask questions about the underlined words.


recognized Adalfis.
Who l"IooenlZ&'J Harry Adame1

The witness recognized


Who did the witness ,..,c06nlz81

The court session begins at 9:00 a.m.


• " 7

4. Fiye witnesses testified.

, ' 7

5. The jury found Adams guilty because he didn't have an alibi.

6. Something horrible happened.

7. The trial lasted two weeks.

8. The jud~ spoke to the jury.

9. Adams paid his barrister £2,000.

10. The prosecution questioned

EDIT • Read this list of questions. There are


six mistakes in the use of wh- questions.
What trme "the suspect retum home?
Find and correct them . The first mistake
has already been corrected. Who all:l see him? Were there

any wrtnesses?

Whom Was at home?


Why ala he call A. 5mIth?

What ala happen next?

Where he eM go?

How mUch money he took wrth hlm ~


\.

,.. -
- - ,..
" r""

It's a nice
, .
day, isn t
, POINT
T:C'" the corree 0 '~wer

o The man is asking about


the weather.
I

o The man is commenting on


the weather.

WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB

CHART CHECK J. ' AFFIRMATIVE I NEGATIVE I NEGATIVE


(,me 7" ""'": e) or STATEMENT I QUESTION TAG STATEMENT QUESTION TAG
F 'Folse
You e from York, aren't you? You're not from York, are you?
T F If the
statement
is affi I"lOative, I -
the question
tag is WITH All AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO
a ffi I'mative.
AFFIRMATIVE " NEGATIVE TIVE
I
, STATEMENT QUESTION TAG STATEMENT " QuESTION TAG
. You " moving, ,

aren't you? \ You're no moving, I are you?


I -
••

H: been here, I hasn't he? He hasn" been here, has he?


I , •
They c move, ' can't the?y can they?
I They can't move, ~

• - __ --1 - • •

WITH DO AS AN AUXILIARY VERB


~.
-, - E •

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
I
NEGAnVE
L STATEMENT
- ! QUESTION TAG ' I
• .

, You liv here


.
t -, " . ---
I , don' you? You don't live here, do you?
II They mOved
- I

did theY?
. "---_.- ,
didn't they?
..

They didn't move,

106
these words to form a sentence with a question tag.

?•

Grammar E pi n I n
often use question tags to:

e. check information we believe to be true


• Tom lives in York, doesn't he7
OR (The speaker believes that Tom lives in York and
wants to check this information ,)
b. comment on a situation • It's a nice day, i\n' it?
(The speaker is commenting on the weather.)

,1,11"11" III - 'JE'sllon tog


2. Question tags follow t t m . The • You're not from York, ' re you?
statement expresses an assumption, The • You're Jack Davies" . 't you?
question tag means Is that right? - You don't drive much, Jo you?
- -
lrtlrma -IV' ,I' -
a. If the verb in the statement is affirmative, the _ You work on Fridays, ) , you?
verb in the question tag is negative.
negative
b. If the verb in the statement is negative, the - You don't work on Fridays, do you?
verb in the question tag is affirmative.

3. The ques always uses a form of f or _ It's a nice day, isn t it?
an auxiliary verb ( , or or a _ You've lived here a long time, ite you?
modal such as I , 'ou or _!) . _ You come from London, do you?
_ You can drive, can't you?

USAGE NOTE: Notice the question tag for m. _ I'm next, a 'en I?
NOT I'm ne)(t, amn't I?

BE CAREFUL! In the question tag, only use _ Tom works here, doesn't he?
pronouns. 7•
NOT

When the subject of the statement is or _ That a good idea, isn't ?


that, the subject of the question tag is . NOT That's a good idea, isn't that?

4. When you use a question tag to eck A: It's getting warmer, .s ?


inf ) i - . or to -, B: Yeah. Seems more like summer.
your voice falls on the question tag. You expect
the listener to agree or just show that he or she
is listening.
A: You ' re not moving,
--...;"7
Question tags can also be used to
B: Yes. We' re going back to York .
. As with yes/no questions, your
OR
voice rises at the end, and you expect to get an
answer (Yes or No). No . We're staying here.
-
108 • Unit 2
••••••••••••••••••••••••••

t · n Underline all the question tags.


IDENTIFY • ead this converso 10 •

. , .t?
KAy: Hi Tom. It's a nice day, Isn t 1 .

, . . N t I d in the sky. How are you doing?


TOM: It certamly IS. 0 a c ou
Yi d 't know of any flats to rent, do you? My Son is 10 ki
KAy: Fine, thanks. ou on 0 ng for

one.
TOM: Is he? I thought he was staying with you .

.KAY: Well, he really wants a place of his own. Do you know of anything?
TOM: As a matter of fact, I do. You know the Simpsons, don't you? Well, I've just
found out that they're moving to Cheltenham next month .
.KAY: Are they? What kind of flat have they got?

TOM: It's a one-bedroom flat.


KAY: It's not fu rnished, is it?
TOM: No. Why? He doesn't need a furnished flat, does he?
KAY: Well, he hasn't got any furniture. But I suppose he can always buy some, can't he?
TOM: Why don't you give your son my number and I'll give him some more information?
KAY: Will you? Thanks, Tom.

MATCH • Each statement goes with a question tag. Match each statement with the

correct question tag. •

Statement Question Tag



I

You've phoned the removers , a. can't we?
I,
,
,,
,

2. They're coming tomorrow, b. do we?


3. This isn't going to be cheap, c. is he?
4. You haven't finished packing, d. isn't it?
S. We don't need any more boxes
, e. are they?
6. Paul is going to help us,
f. have you?
7.
g. isn't he?
8. Jack isn't bUying Our bookcases
, h. is it?
9. The removers aren't ki
pac ng the books for us , I. haven't you?
10. Moving is hard ,
'0
tf'NIlo chat show host Is Interviewing on~ of her guests, a
th' Int~rvlew with approprlat~ fags.

You've lived in London for many years, haven't !fou 1


1.
Since I was eighteen and came here to write my first screenplay.

HOST: You didn't know anyone here at first, ______-__-:::._______ ?


2.

GuPI': No. And I didn't have a penny to my name. Just some ideas and a lot of hope. It
soundscraz~ _____. ___. ______~------------ ?
~.

HoST: But things have worked out for you, _______--,,--______


. .?
4.
You're working on another screenplay now, ____________________ ?
5.

GUEST: Yes. It's a comedy about some kids who become invisible.

HOST: Speaking of kids, you've got some of your own, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ?


6.

GUEST: Two boys and a girl - all very visible!

HOST: I know what you mean. Do you ever wish they were invisible?

GUEST: Now, that's an interesting thought, ______--,::--_ _ _ _ _ _ ?


7.

EDIT • Read this part of a film script. Find and correct seven mistakes in the use of
question tags. The first mistake has already been corrected.

hae;n't
Ben: It's been a long ti me, Joe, h&van't it?
JOB: That depends on what you mean by a long ti me, doesn't that?
Ben: What are you doing round here, anyway? It's da.ngerous.
JOB: I can take care of myself. I'm still alive, a.mn't I?
Ben: Yes, but you're still wanted by the police, are you?
JOB: Look, I need a place to stay. You've got a place, haven't you? Just for one night.
Ben: I have to think of my wife and kids. You can fmd somewhere else, can you?
JOB: No. You've got to help mel
Ben: I've already helped you enough. I went to prison for you, haven't I?
JOB: Yeah, OK, Ben. You r ememb er what h a ppened last June, do y ou?
Ben: OK, OK. I can make a ph one ca ll.
eit er an . .

HI R. \ lJ) S l,; "I

ICHEC POINT
Tick the correct ans 'e"

Mark likes hunting, fishing and Chinese food. a The men like different things.
So does Gerald. a The men like the same things.

WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB

CHART CHECK A NEGATIVE


,.. " P
_ _ T T _u e, or STATEMENT ADDITION STATEMENT ADDITION
F (Fe ' e .
and so s Sue. eit er is Sue.
T F There is more Amy s a twin very tall
and Sue is, too . Sue 'sn , eith r.
than one way
to make
an addition. WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO
T F Use or ' •
,
with negative I AFFIRMATIVE •
statements.
I STATEMENT ADDITION STATEMENT
I
~A~~D~D:IT::IO:N=-_-;::.
T F When a - -
statement does ' Amy i and 0 n Sue. •
and neither can Sue.
I sWim Amy n 't ski and Sue can't, eitllel'·
not have a an Sue o.
form of ' or I ____ _
an auxiliary
verb, use a WITH VERBS USING DO AS AN AUXILIARY VERB
form of do in - _- -- ~--- ..

the addition. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE


,-. -_. ----- .
STATEMENT ADDITION ADDITION
-. . . - STATEMENT
Amy likes does sue.
and so does Sue. Amy doesn't and neither tftet.
dogs n 't ei
and Sue does, too . like cats and Sue does

110
ml
• Is a firefighter 10 al MarIe.
(Gerald is a firefIghter and Marie is a firefighter.)

• Gerald Is a firefighter and so Is Mark.


OR
• Gerald 15 a firefighter and Mark Is, too.
If the addition • Gerald didn't get married. NeIther did Mark.
or DOt
OR
negative statement.
• Gerald didn' t get married. Mark didn't, eIther.

Notice the word order after so and • So is Mark. NOT So Marlt is .


. The verb comes before the subject. • Nor did Mark . NOT P.~or Marlt sis.

always use a form of be or an


verb (be, have, do, will or a modal
verb such as can, could, should, would}.
• I'm a twin and so Is my cousin.
.. If the statement uses a form of be, use a
form of be in the addition, too.
• Gerald had resigned and so had Mark.
b ••f the statement uses an auxiliary verb,
• I c n 't drive and neither can my twin.
use the same auxiliary verb in the addition.
• Gerald owns a dog and so does Mark.
c. If the statement has a verb that uses do as
• Gerald bought a jeep and so did Mark.
an auxiliary verb, use the appropriate form
of do in the addition.

A: I've got a twin sister.


4. 'n conversation, you can use short resp nses
s: So have I. O R 1 have, CO) .
with so, too, neither/ nor and not Ith r to A: I haven 't got any brothers or sisters.
agree with another speaker. B: either h ve I. OR hayent , either.
I

A: I'm left-handed.
USAca NOTE: In informal speech, people say
Me too and Me nelth r or Nor me to express B: 1\ .
A: I've never heard of these twins.
similarity or agreement.
B: II ·it I.:r .
112 • Unit
• •• • • • • •• • • • • • • • • •• •• •••••

I l converso t10 • n between reunited


• twins. Write T (True)
TRUEOR FALSE· cod thele S lor Ii /lows each conversatIon.
• ... , the statement tllat 0

1. MARK: I like Chinese food.


GERALD: So do 1.
T Gerald likes Chinese food.

2 ANDREA: I don't want to go out.


B ARBARA: Neither do r.
,;

Barbara wants to go out. \•


5
\1
3. JEAN: I'm not hungry.
JOAN: I'm not, either. •
I /
Joan isn't hungry.
, .
4. AMY: I've always felt lucky. 7 NORA: I can t SWIm.
KERR I 1':: So have r. DINA: Nor can 1.

Kerrie has felt lucky. Dina can swim.

s. MIA: I don't eat meat. 8. JACK: I shouldn't work so much.


BOB: Nor me. TIM: Neither should 1.
Bob eats meat. Tim wants to work less.

6. JIM: I've got a headache. 9. JASON: I'd like to leave now.


BIU.: So have 1. TYLER: Me too.
Both Jim and Bill have got Tyler wants to leave.
headaches.

CHOOSE • Circle the correct words to complete this paragraph.

Sometimes being a twin can cause trouble. At school, I was in Mr Jacobs's history
class. Neither
1.
IrS,9Jwas my brother. One day we took a test. I got questions 18 and
20 wrong. My brother did, so I too. I didn't spell hippopotamus correctly and

in the test and so did I got my brother. We tried to convince Mr Jacobs of our

Guess what? Nor I So did my brother. Our teacher was astounded. So I Too w8$ the
6. 7.
headmaster. We weren't. We were just amused.
with
••••••••••••••••••

and Carla are twins. They agree on everything. ComplM.


(tHIVlfSation with responses.

I'm so happy we finally found each other.


am~I---.
So ____ 1.
I always felt as if something was missing from my life.
So 2.
. I always knew I had a double somewhere out there.
CARLA: I can't believe how similar we are.
Neither J. • It's like always seeing myself in the mirror.
CARLA: Not only do we look identical but we like and dislike all the same things.
That's true. I hate lettuce.
CARLA: I _ _ _-:-_ _ _ . And I detest liver.
4.
MARTA: So . I love pizza, though.
5.
CARLA: So . But only with tomato and cheese. I don't like pepperoni.
6.
MARTA: Neither _ _ _----==--___ .
7.
CARLA: This is a II) azing! I feel as if I've always known you.
~TA: Me ____-=_______ !
8.

EDIT • Read this student's composition. There are six mistakes in the use of sentence
additions. Find and correct them. The first mistake has already been corrected.

My brother a.nd I

My brother is just a year older than I am. We have a lot of things



ill common.
16 he
First of all, we look alike. I am 1.Bm and so he is. I have straight black
hair and dark brown eyes and so does he. We share many of the sa.rne interests,
too. I love playing football and he, too. Both of us swim every day but I ca.n't dive
and either can he.

Sometimes being so Sjmilar has its problems. For example, last night I
wanted the last piece of chocolate cake and so does he. Often I won't feel like
dOing the washing up and neither won't he. Worst of all, sometimes I'm Interest.ed
in a particular girl and so he Is. However, most of the Lime I feel 0111' $lmllnl'ltles
are really nice. So does my b!'other.
ONE
Circle the leUter UI HIt correct answer to complete each sentence.
- -- -.- - - - - - - -
r

I Jennifer never _ _ _ _ coffee.


(A) drink (C) is drinking
(B) drinks (D) was drinking
- - ----,'---
.
7 7

- •
-
Where _ _ _ _ ? ABC D
(A) does she live (C) she does live
(B) she lives CD) she lived

• _ _ _ _ has lost this wallet? ABC D


(A) Whom (C) Who
(B) Whose (D) Who did

You're Cynthia, _ _ _ _ you? ABC D


(A) aren't (C) didn't
(B) are (D) were
Laura loves soap operas and _ _ _ _ . ABC D
(A) Jane does, too (C) Jane loves too
(B) so Jane does (D) so loves Jane
s. I didn't like sports and my brother. ABC D
(A) either did (C) so did
(B) neither does (D) neither did
6. That isn't Sam, is it? ABC D
-N 0, . Sam's taller.
(A) it is (C) it wasn't
(B) it doesn't (D) it isn't
7. We didn't eat here last week, _ _ _ _ we? ABC D
(A) didn't (C) do
(B) haven't (D) did
8. Who _ _ _ _ your bike? ABC D
-Mike did.
(AI did give you (C) you gave
(B) did you give (Dl gave you
9. Who _ _ _ _ at the party? ABC D
-I saw Stefan.
(A) saw you
(C) you saw
(B) did you see (D) you see

114
hat& cabbage. A
Me ,
, i" ' . I can't even look at it.
(A) too (e) neither
either (0) do too

11. washing up tonight? A C D


(A) Whose (e) Who are
(8) Who's (0) Who does

12. Liam was born in Ireland. So _._ _ _ hit,; brother. A C D


(A) was (C) wasn't
(8) didn't (0) did

Each entenc has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts
of the entence are marked A, 8, C and D. Circle the letter of the one underlined
word or phrase that is NOT CORRECT.
- -.- --
EXAMPLE:
Mike usually drives to school but today he walks. A C D
A B C D
- - - - -- --~-------------------------------~------------_--_ _~I
13. This is f! good school, wasn't itl ABC D
ABe 0

14. Yi~ went to Stan's party last year, hadn't we? ABC D
B e D

15. Kevin has always been a great student and so his brother has. ABC D
e D
16. My sister has never skiing and neither I. ABC D
e
17. Where you worked last year when you were going to school? ABC D
A B e D

18. That sign is too small to read, isn't ? ABC D


B e
19. English isn't an easy language to learn, is it..!-
ABC D
BeD

20. My parents are both good cooks and me, too. ABC D
, r D
21. Tom and Fred hadn't been to Italy then, had he? ABC D
c
A C D
22. I'm usually right about the weather, amn't 17
A ~ C D
ABC 0

ABC 0
24. ~ere did they went yesterday?
ABC 0
25. WhyA
you call
,
me so late
-
last night?
D

, Be able to
P

Ca n you d o "" .
-G
I

spreadsheets'? I

I POINT
Circle T {T_ PI 0 {-
r o l.p

T F The father Wants t


know if his daugh~r
has permission to do
spreadsheets.

CHART CHECK 1 STATE NTS: CAN/ COULD


,. ~ -; (True) or BASE FORM
F (F( . .;: SUBJECT CAN/COULD* OF VERB
-+
T F The form for can
c and c . cannot do spreadsheets now.
I is the same for can't
all subjects. I/He/ She/lt/We!You/They
could (not) use
I a computer last year.
couldn't ,
*Can and could are modals. They do not have -s in the third person singular.

YES/NO QUESTIONS: CAN/COULD ANSWERS


BASE
CAN/COULD SUBJECT FORM AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
Can she do them? she an . • she can .
Yes , ~---­ No, ,
Could they use one? . they could. . they couldn't. ,

r

·
WH- QUESTIONS: CAN/COULD
I . I
WH- WORD CAN/COULD SUBJECT BASE FORM . !
~ ~ ~ --.-'-~ -~---
ca 1 I
• •
she _ ~ _ _~ _ _ ~ spreadsheets?
How well - - -. -

.
cou
--
ld
- -- --- ~ they
-- use J. a computer?
-
--- --- -- -
~
~- . ~
-
~--. ~ ~ - - - .,
I CHART CHECK 2 AFFIRMATIVE: BE ABLE TO NEGATIVE: BE ABU TO
Tkk I he correct answer. BASE BASE
SUBJECT BE
Which part of be ~

- - ---- ABLE TO
-- -
FORM
-- SUBJECT BE + NOT AILE TO FoRM
able to changes for I am
am not
different subjects? 'm I
'm not
o be 0 able to He/She/It
Is
able to
c_ - - -
Is not
-

's do graphs. graphS-


He/She/ It Isn't able to do
WelYou/ are 's not
They 're
t-~- -
are
WelYoul aren't
They 're
116
Oan, Could,
••••••••••••••••••••• ••
3 Sf

Qnswer. BE SUBJECT ABLE TO FORM


AFFIRMATIVE
with be 1------
In Are you
I am . I'm not.
to, what comes able to do spreadsheets? Yes, - - - No, t - - - - -
before the subject? Is she
she Is. she Isn't.
o a form of be
o a form of able to WH- : BE ABLE TO
WH- WORD BE SUBJECT ABLE TO BASE FORM
-- f- -_ _ _ _ _
arc you
How well -... .. .
able to do spreadsheets?
Is she
----.. -- •... . -- -_. - --- .• --- __. ..l.. _ _ _ __

EXPRESS ~~
Complete these sentences with can or be able to. Use one word for each gap.

A: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ she already able _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ use a computer?


B: Yes, she _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and she _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ type and do spreadsheets, too.

Grammar Explanations Examples


1. Use ca or able' to talk about ability in • She can do computer graphics.
the present. • She's able to do computer graphics.

In everyday speech, ::. . is more


USAGE NOTE:
common than . e _ ~ . in the present tense.

2. Use either 'J' or ' ' . ' ,e " ..


Ie . to talk • Sam could read when he was four.
about ability (but not a specific achievement) in • He was able to use a computer, too.
the past.

BE CAREFUL! Use .. or /' ~ p • She managed to delete the virus from her
ablr.: ' to talk about a specific achievement or computer.
a single event in the past. • He '} ble to ix his computer when it broke
down.
NOT lie could filE his computer when it ...

,
Use either _. or I / In • I ,-ouldn'l dG spreadsheets.
negative sentences about past ability. • I wasn't abl (0) 0 one problem .

3. For forms and tenses other than the present or • len wants be ble to wr softw.UL'
past, use •
(infinit ive)
• By June ~h(' II ,Ie to com pi ' bpI
computer c la~\. (11Itllfl')
lIB • ~
"" " " """ "" """"" """""""""""

IDENTIFY. Rwd part of an at tide ahout WnIC lCllented yOllng business people.
rlin the w rd that express ability.

n amazing number of tee nagers have enjoyed most: playing computer gam
es. In I
managed to set up highly successful 1999, he was abl e to sell five games he'd I

internet businesses. Take John Davidson, for developed t o a famou s software comp
. an~
example. Joh n could surf the net Now Jim can earn up to £1000 a
WEB USINESSES
by the time he was six and by the week by selling his programs.
FOR FUN
age of eight, he could design web Katy Fischer, an enterprising 18-
AND ROFIT
pages of his own. It wasn't long year-old from Manchester, was
before he was able to persuade the bank to also able to break into the dotcom world.
lend him enough money to start up his very Although she says she can't understand why
own business. At the age of sixteen he she's been so successful, her parents certainly
managed to persuade his parents to allow can. 'Katy was determined to prove she could
him to leave school, and his first business, start a business when she was just fourteen',
'Webmasters', was soon up and running. says her father, 'and through hard work, she's
Another teenager, Jim Leicester, very quickly managed to do just that.'
realised he could make money doing what he

COMPLETE • Read each description. Complete it with a name from the article. •

1. ____J_i_m____ sold games to a software company.


-
2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ got a bank loan.

3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ wanted to start a business at the age of 14.

4. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ left school at sixteen.

• Read these paragraphs. Complete them with can, could or be able to.
Use can or could where possible. Choose between affirmative and negative.

. Steven is enjoying his computer class. Two weeks ago, he couldn't even
use the mouse but now he edit his homework. By next week, he
- -- - - - - _ do research on the internet.
2. Eleni misses her family in Greece. She _ _ _ _ __ __ visit them for years, but
they've just got an email account, so now they keep in touch dailY.
3. I work out how to set up a presentation. The software
instructions don't help. I think I'll take a professional development course. In a feW
months maybe I - -_ _ _ _ _ _ do that presentation.
4. Mike and I get on since we started this business. He

group (l have to work alone). I hope we


AbIlity: Can Could. Sti lab"
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• R~od this odvertlsement. Complet~ It with the opproprlote form of can,


could or be able to plus the verbs in brackets, Use can or could wh~n possible,

B. py®
I Bevel t
,
Time Management Presentations
,

-
Career Development Teamwork

Were al118 to. pr8pa,:,


Think about your last presentation: - - - - - you • • it on time?
1. (prep 11)

you your ideas?


2, (communlQtC')

Will B, Happy® has helped others, and he _ _ _---::--,--_ _ YOU!


J. Ihp1r)

'Before I took Will B. Happy's course, my work was always late because

I _ _-:---:-::---:--- a schedule. I also had big piles of papers on my desk


4, lkllow)

because I __--::--:-:----:--:---_ _ what was important. Now I _ _-::--:--_-::-_ _


5. ( It (.d, 6. (manage)

my time effectively. Next month, when my workload gets heavy, I

________ it and do the important things first.' Scott Mathis, student


7. (OrQanlSe)

') didn't use to _ _--::-----:------:--,------_ _ in front of groups. Now I can!'


8. (speak)
Mary Wells, sales manager

EDIT • Read this student's diary. Find and correct seven mistakes in expressing ability,
The first mistake has already been corrected.

-- - -Ioda¥.in my 'Will B. Happy: teamwork course, I learnt about work styles - 'Driv
, ~
l ' .Enthusiasts: I'm a Driver so I can make decisions but I'm not able"listen to

people:sldeas. The Enthusiast in our group can communicates well but you canl ,

---- - ...rlepend..on her:...N.ow I understand what was happening in my business classJast year,
1-- _
--> hen I couldn't.got au wjth my j.elilll•...I thought that tb.e.y all talke.d..tQQ tnLiCh and didn't
" - - ab~ to work efilciently~ J could get an A fur .the course but it was bard, l can do a lot
, .. - - more.on myoWY1 but some jobs are too big for that Our instructor says that soon the.

DrbJers-will able to IlliteI'] and the EnthJ.lsiast could be m or e depend£lblc.


ission:
a .... auld, •

? f
.... 0 if. . • •

I POINT
I
Tick the sentence ~/IQL describes what's
happpning in the ("Mto,.. ...
o The student wants to know if his eye
will be better tomorrow.
o The student is asking the teacher to
allow him to take the test tomorrow.

CHART CHECK 1 QUESTIONS: MAY/CAN/COULD


...- r e( <?ct MAY/CAN/COULD* SUBJECT FORM OF VERB
I -+
-
May
Which modal is used start now?
Can I/we/he/she/it/they
in questions but NOT
in short answers Could
about permission? *May, can, and could are modals. They do not have -s in the third person singular.
o
ANSWERS
o can
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
o could _ . _ _•__ _ _-11
,

may. may not. •


you/he/she/it/they
can .
you/he/she/it/they I can't. •
1

- --- . . _.. _ _.. - - - - l l

.. ,,- .-. -. I
CHART CHECK 2 SHORT ANSWERS
circle T (True) or ,
~ Do YOU MIND IF SUBJECT VERB . AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
F (False). I -_ .. --

I/we/they tart" ot t
T F you Mter 0 Do you mind

mind if . ? he/she/it st. rts? No, I don't . Yes, I do.


the verb is the . -
same for all ... -
subjects. STATEMENTS: MAY/eAN
:
T F The answer SUBJECT MAy/CAN BASE FORM
• -
Not at all gives
• •
permISSIon. I/He/She/lt/We/You/They may (not)
start.
----------.-------- can{not)

120
Pet m18810n. May n Could Do yo mlncllf
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••
EXPRESS
Circle the correct word to complete this conversation.
A: Do you mind ifhe help I helps me with my homework?

B: He can help I helps you, but you should do most of the work.

1. Use m y, Jld and n to ask for permission. . My l .1 you next Friday?


• Co If we se your car?
• C he ( to class with me?

USAGE Non: M is a little more formal than • MDY I cave the room, Professor Lee?
can and could.
BE CAREFUL! Requests for permission always A: I I take the test (morrow?
refer to the present or the future. When you use B: Certainly. The test starts at 9:00 a.m.
ould to ask for permission, it is not past.

2. We often say when we ask for • Could I ask a question, p.ec 5 ,?


permission. Note the possible word orders. OR
• Please could I ask a question?

3. Use _ to ask for permission A: Do you mind if I clean up tomorrow?


when your action might bother someone. B: Yes, actually, I do mind. I hate seeing a mess.
BE CAREFUL! A negative answer to the question A: Do you mind if I leave the room?
gives permission to do B: Not at all.
something. It means /t's OK. I don't mind. (You may leave the room.)

4. Use or . in answers. Do not use '1IId. A: Could I borrow this pencil?


B: Yes, of course you can.
NOT Yes, you Eould.

BE CAREFUL! Do not contract Jy not. • No, you m - o .


NOT No, you mayn't.

We often use instead of A: 0 I I close the window?


modals to answer requests for permission. B: 'S, co JI'Se.
·rtalnly.
Sure.
Go ahead.
No, please don . It's hot in here.

S. When people , they often A: Can I please have a little more time?
give an apology and an explanation. B: , •

If :he rules are very clear, someone may refuse DRIVER: Can I park here?
Without an apology or explanation. OFFICER: f
-
, •
122 • Un t 28
•• •• •• • •• •• •• •• •• • •••• • • ••

MATCH. Each reque5t for pertni siol1 goes with a response. Match each request with the
( rrecl re pOllse.

Rea uest ReSDon se

May we come in now? a No, you can't. It's a bus stop.


Could I see your tickets, please? Not at all. There's plenty oftime.
3 Please may I speak to Harry? Yes, of course they can. We've at
plenty of room. g

4. Could they come with us? d Yes, you may. The test starts Soon.
5. Can I park here? e. I'm sorry, he's not in.
6. Do you mind if I have some more tea? f. Certainly. Here they are.

a test. Complete his conversations with his


• Mr Smith is supervising
s ·ude'1ts. Use a pronoun plus the correct form of the words in brackets and
short answers.

AHMlm: _ _ _ _----=:C,=.o. =:u: =ld.:. .,:. :w.: . e-=c,=.o..:..:m..:..:e=----____ in to the tes t room now?
1. (Could come)

MR H: Yes, ______c_e_rt-;;:a_i_n,=.ly_ _ _ _ _ _ • Please show your registration form


2.

as you come m.
SOFIA: My brother isn't taking the test. _ _ _~----;;::::_ _--;--:-:------:-____ in the
3. (Do you mind I stay)
room with me?

MR H: Yes, -----_--:;-_ _ _ _ _ _ . Only people with tickets are allowed


4.
inside.
ROSA:
-----.5'.r.(M
:Aa::-y:l/:-:-u:::-se~)----- a pen to write my name on the test
booklet?

MR H: No, - - - - - ----:;::--_ _ _ _ _ _ . You must use a pencil. And everyone


6.

please remember, - -_ _--;;~-.::;;--,--;-;~----- the test until I tell you to.


7. «(,m 't I start)

8. (do you mind If / borrow)


JAMIE:
. - - - - - - - . Take it. I've brought several.
- - - - - -Q9:-
MIt H: OK, ----lO:""r;;:;;;~~----
10. (m<lY I open) your test booklets and read the
instructions now.
JEAN: I'm late because my train broke dow in?
n. ________~~~__~-------
MIt H: No, - - - - - - -12: - - - - - - - 11. (Can / come)
12. . We've already started the test.
Ml him right
to in front of th um.
con rt, om r. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~---

ob up a fi w rows. Bob asks an usher.

All mpty. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-::--:.~------.-'- -


( Id)

to record th concert. Lucy asks the usher first.


brought a tape recorder. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _=-________
(Can)

Lucy the mu ie. he wants to leave.


mu ie i giving me a headache. _ _ _ _ _ _-:-:::-_ _-:-...,...., - - - - - - -
(Do you mmd I

EDIT. Find the mistake in each item and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter
of the incorrect word or phrase. Then correct the mistake.
come
1. Can he eomes on the train with me or does he need a ticket? ©®
B (' n
-
z. I'm sorry, he couldn't. Only passengers can board the train. ®®©®
B [)

3. 90uld I swapped seats with you? I'd like to sit next to my son. ®®©®
B C [)
4. Ye • you could. Go ahead. I'm getting off soon. ®®©®
s ( n
S. Mum, may I to have some sweets? I'm hungry.
-B ®®©®
( U

6. No, you mayn't. I'm sorry, but you've already had enough sweets. ® ® © ®
I ( D

7. Do you mind if he play his computer ga roe?


B ( 0

8. Yes, I do. He can play ifhe wants. It won't bother me. ®®©®
A !. ( [)

9. rm still hungry. Can we'll get a sandwich soon?


A L e 11

10. Not at all. We can go and find the buffet car. ®®®®
ABC II
e uests:
ill, , I I

aul In .... • • • ?•

-.::::::...:- - - --'- - - -~.- --

~ .

Ic EC POINT
Tiek the corree. an~. 'er.
The businessman is
-
1 o giving an order.
I
o asking someone to do something.

-.- o asking for information.

NOTE: 999 is the emergency telephone


number in the United Kingdom.
'Miss Fleming. would you mind dialling 999 for me?'

CHART CHECK 1 QUESTIONS: WILL/CAN/WOULD/COULD


C""',e T . Te • 0. WILL/CAN/ BASE FORM
F (Fc 're . WOULD/COULD* SUBJECT OF VERB
T F You can use WI
and \ Can
coul in
questions but
I

Would
you post I this for me? •

NOT in short uld I

answers to .
- - ,
,- __ _ p. __
.- . .

requests. *These words are modals. They do not have -s in the third person singular.
------- I . - '.

SHORT AN

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
Yes, sure
-- -
, (I will).
Of Course (I ,n).
- . -
---- '- -
I'm sorry, but I an 't .
Certainly.
l .__

-----.- -. -- -_. ----


--
WOULD YOU MIND . .• 1
WOULD YOU MIND CERUND

Would you mind posting this for me?

124
: n /I 1I1d.
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••

TICk the carre t an w r. AFFIRMA liVE NEGATIVE


Not at all means: No, not at all.
LJ OK LJ no I'm sorry, but I n' .
I'd be glad to.

EXPRESS
ompl t till tJ

A: __-__.'____~_ you mind filing these reports now'!


B: "
---- -. - - -___ ,_ _, at all.
~

A: Thanks. And ___ ,_._ _ _ _ _ you answer the phone, please?


B: Son·v. but I
o . My hands are full.

r ... ions Exampl s


1. Use I , ( r., would and cou to ask someone
to do something.

We often use will and ('( for informal requests. SISTER: you swe the phone?
you n l.o ' , the TV?
We use ' and u to make requests Boss: you this report?
more polite. you , ten copies?

2. We also use with and • Please co you close the door?


to make the request even more polite. OR
Note the word order. • Co you close the door, " ?•

3. We also use
A: for a few minutes?
(without please) to make polite requests. Mr Collins is still at a meeting.
Note that a means that you B: •

will do what the person requests. (OK. I '/I do it.)

4. People usually expect us to say to polite A: you take this to Susan Lane's office
requests. When we , we usually for me?
apologise and give a reason.
B: "an . I'm expecting an important
phone call.
BE CAREFUL! Do not use ou or uld to A: I'm cold. you shut the window, plea~e?
answer polite requests. B: •

NOT Yes, I would.


126 Unit 29
• •••••• • ••••••••••

IDENTIFY. Marcia has got a new co /league . Read their conversations. Underline aI/ th e
) )1 t (Jests .

1\5. ~
ll'.l.JU1.CIA: H'
1.
'\.T
.lOU
t
mus eb the new office assistant. I'm Marcia Jones. Let me kn Ow if
you need anything.
LORNA: Thanks, Marcia. Could you show me where the photocopier is?
MARCIA: Certainly. It's over here.
2. LORNA: Marcia, would you show me how to use the fax machine?
MARCIA: Yes, sure. Just put your fax in here and dial the number.
3 MARCIA: I'm going to lunch. Would you like to come?
LORNA: Thanks, but I can't just now. I'm really busy.
MARCIA: Do you want a sandwich from the coffee shop?
LORNA: That would be great. Can you get me a tuna sandwich and a coffee, please?
MARCIA: No problem. Will you answer my phone until I get back?
LORNA: Of course.
4. MARCIA: Lorna, would you mind making some tea?
LORNA: I'm sorry, but I can't do it now. I've got to finish this letter by 2:00.

(HOOSE • Lorna's flatmate, Jane, is having problems today. Tick the appropriate
response to each of Jane's requests.

1. Lorna, please would you drive me into town today? My car won't start.
ct. ___ Yes, I would. b. --=-_ I'd be glad to.
2. Would you mind lending me five pounds? I'm getting paid tomorrow.

ct. Not at all. b. Yes.


J. Lorna, can you take these books back to the library for me? I'm running late.

ct. I'm late, too. Sorry. b. No, I can't.


4. Could you lock the door on your way out? My hands are full.
a. Yes, I could. b. Of course.
s. Can you turn the radio down? I need to study this morning.
ct. Certainly. b. Not at all.
6. Will you pick up some milk on the way home this afternoon?
a. - __ No, I won't. b. - - Sorry. I'll be at work until 8:00.
Will. Can. Could )l04J ffJInd
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• • • •

& • Use the appropriate Imperative from the bax to complm


these requests. Use please when possible, and make any necessory changes.

some cereal. Can back later.


File these reports. Shut the door. Tum on the

1. Can It's frl'ezing in here.


2. Could ~~ ~~~~ I'Vt' finished rending them.
J . Would you mind - - - ---. 7 7 It.'s too dark in here.
4. Will ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - - We don't, have any left.

5. Could _ _-_. ____________ Ms Blake is on another call just now.

6. Would There's too much noise in the hall!

EDIT. Read these requests from Marcia'l boss and Marcia's answers (in bold type). Find
and correct six mistakes in making and responding to requests. The first mistake has
already been corrected.

....
--------
_. --.

..- . .. ---
.. --
_- -.. - -------...- - - ---
7
~
_ _
"
_

SUBj: Sales Meeting -Reply


DATE: 04-11-0312:14:39 EST
FROM: MarciaJones@dataline.com
To: JohnStone@dataline.com
CC: AnnChalke@dataline.com
>>> <JohnStone@dataline.com> 04/11/03 10:37am»>
could you
The meetings are going well but they have been extended by a day. Please you eould call
Doug Rogers to try to reschedule our sales meeting?
Not at all. I'll do it straightaway.

We'll need three extra copies of the monthly sales report. Would you ask Ann to see to
that?

Yes, I WOUld. (Ann Could you do this?)

I hate to ask but would you mind to work on Saturday? We'll need the extra time to go over
the new information I've got.
Sorry, but I COUldn't. My in-laws are coming to stay. But Rob Dixon says he can come
in to help out.

One last thing. I was gOing to pick up those new business cards but I won't be back in time.
WOUld you mind doing that for me?
Yes, \ WOUld. \'11 stop at the printer's during my lunch break.
T
' .. vice:

:...ad better
I really don't
-
mind starting at the
bottom and working my

I POINT
C ' -,. e rOt
o The interviewer is suggesting a Maybe you
type of job for the applicant. ought to consider
o The interviewer is telling the a job as a lift
applicant how to be successful. operator.

i
I
CHART CHECK 1 ~ STATEMENTS: SHOULD/OUGHT TO/HAD BETTER

r
'- ' C "T ( "T e, o. SHOULD/OUGHT TO/ BASE FORM
F (Fr r SUBJECT HAD BETTER* OF

T F The same form should (not)


I
of the verb I
I/He/She/We!You/They ought to look for a new job.
follows 0 ,
J and had bette (not
i
had be *Should and ought tlJ are modals. Had better is similar to a modal.
These forms do not have -s in the third person singular.
NOTE: For contractions of should not and had better, see Appendix 24 on page 346.

CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS: SHORT ANSWERS


,:rk hecorrer· SHOULD
I
( I 5 Vier.
BASE
In questions about SHOULD SUBJECT FORM AFFIRMATIVE NEGAnVE
- ,
advice, we usually use: ,
- i - - _ . - _ -.- ,
I
I ~ you
Shoul
o sho I
•,
he
10 7• Yes, ,

' he , hould. No, : you , shouldn't.

o ought to

1 - - he _:,_---'J
- . _.. -- .
-

o had better I
WH- QUESTIONS: SHOULD
- - I
WH- WORD SHOULD SUBJECT j BASE FORM I. __ ----~--
I I
Where should look for a new job?
he
--
,

~-- - __.._- __ L. ______---'

128
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •• •
EXPRESS

Complet fIJi conversal/()n

A: They're looking for a cashier at McDonald's. _ _ _ _ __ __ I apply for the job?

B: __. _ - - - - - - . ,you ~_______.. __ . You can get more money working at


the bookshop.

1. Use h I and t to say that something _ Mark hould get a new job.
is advisable. _ He )uldn't leave school yet.

USAGE NOTE: hould is more common than - He . the job ads.


tt . NOT COMMON lie ought not to quit.

2. Use ad for urgent advice - when you _ You better lea' . now you 'll be lote.
believe that something bad will happen if the
person does not follow the advice.

USAGE Non: We usually use the contraction for _ You et . ' apply for more than one job.
had better. NOT You had better apply ...

The negative of had better is d better not. _ You ' be late.


NOT You'd not better be late.

BE CAREFUL! Had better always refers to the _ We euer a e the bus •

present or the future, never to the past (even _ You better ca them back . mOflow.
though it uses the word had).

3. Use for questions. We do not usually use _ ..) Ilul l ap I for that job?
ought to or had better for questions. _ When oul I ?•

4. It is usually considered impolite to give FRIEND: I hands with the


interviewer?
(such as friends or bosses) unless they ask for it. You: Yes, you •

Boss: Where I ta our client to lunch?


You: I think you ould to Luigi's.

When we give unasked-for advice, we often _ Myra, r you ght 0 for this job.
soften it with , or .
f30 • Unit 30
•••••••••••••••••••••••••

READ • L( ok at these job search tips.

• You should tell all your friends that you are looking for a job.
• You'd better not leave your present job before you fmd a new one. I

• You shouldn't tell your boss that you are looking for a new job.
• You ought to apply for several jobs at once.
• You shouldn't immediately ask an interviewer about job benefits.
• You should always give the interviewer accurate salary information.

ANSWER. Tick the things that are OK to do, according to the tips.

1. f2J tell your friends about your job search 4. 0 leave your job during your search
2. 0 tell your boss about your job search 5. 0 apply for several jobs at once

3. 0 ask about job benefits straight away 6. 0 tell the interviewer your real salary

CHOOSE • Read this advice for job seekers. Complete it with the correct words.

Reader's Vo lu mell ~l~ss~u~e~23~ _____________________________________________

t or need a new job? When's the best time to start looking? Right now!
You 'd better not delay, or you'll start to feel 'stuck in a rut' .
1. (ought to / 'd better not)

These tips will help:

.. A lot of people wait until after the holidays to look for a job. That means there's less

competition for you at this time of year. You _____ --=----,-.,----,-,-_.,.......,-_ _ _ _ ___ wai t!
2. (shouldn't . should)
.. Too busy at work lO go lo imerviews? Early morn ing interviews have fewer inlelTIlptions. \Oll

-----:,--;-;::-::-:-:;-:;;-;-;-:;-;--:-:-----:7----
3. (. hould / 'd better not)
ask for i merviews before nine 0' clock.

.. If you are laid off, you - - - -:4I;::Ji:::;;-:::-,..-,-----;--;-;:-;----- take a lower-paid job just to get
4. ('d better ' shouldn't)
work. If your new salary is low, your employer won't appreciate your skills. If possible. you

-------;5•.'(';::;d:Lb~e::
tl-:-
er-r-:
lo-:-t~/-;sh-:o-u-;-ld::-)---- ask for a salary that matches your skills.
.. However, money isn't everything! YOll _ _ _~--;-:---:~--;-:-:-.,--_ _ _ _ _ _ take a position
. 6. (ought to 'd better not)
WIth a company you dislike, or you won't do a good job there .
.. Don't talk about salary too soon. You _ _ _--;;:-;;-;-;-_---:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ wait _ Jearn about
7. Cd better I houldn't)
the job and talk about your skills first.
Advice: Should OUght to. Had beffm- • 1ft
.........•...........••..•...••••.•••••••••••••••• ; , ,~

• Ken Lang's boss has Invited him to dinner at his home. Complete Ken's
conversation with his friend, Scott. Use should, ought to or had better and the
wordS (n hrackets. Choose b tweE't1 affirmative and negative.

KE N: How eh~ul,~ I dreee? _- 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _, _ _ _ • _ _ _ In a s uit?


-' 1.(H,1 Llr 1)

ScOTT: You don't have to wear a s uit. _,___ '_________-:;--;;-:-:-:-.-:-~-::-_-_.___-_ ,


2 (lu(,k, n ~I)
but you can wear casual clothes.
KEN: ---------.- -;
-,;-:'7('--w·" 11 '~,:;; "~I i\
SCOTT: It's really important to be on time. Your bOAS and hi s wife are expecting you
at 7:00, so ------.---=-~--:-:-__:__;_---_-_
4. ( .II',! " 1 " .'
. It's OK to be a little
II I I ,I'

late but don't make them wait too long for you!
KEN:
5. (II t .1 \jl:t''i

SCO'l'I': Yes, but get something small. _ _ _ _ _ _::;--;;::--_ _--:--:-_---;:-:______ .


6. (buy an expensivE- gift)
It would embarrass them.
KEN: ___________~~=-~~~------------
7. (What I buy?)
SCOTI': I think ------~---:--____;;_-""7"_------.
8. (gel some flowers)

EDIT· Read this letter. Find and correct six mistakes in expressing advice.
The first mistake has already been corrected.

We.are.ro to . 11.£1 jIMt Y<


't};lf work too wd. T~ uwrt . ~ jIMt Mur i£your rt.
Maybe.you- bettu work ° two ilutetui ofthree-. Auo) ~ )'oU:d
better Mkyour borr for ~ offduriltj ~ ~x.t:tm£. w-ay you:a of
~ to rt. . You- would better Jive- thM tV tot of car, tlwUj~ OK? pteM~ tak.e-
Jood C4.Y~ ofyourrelf You-'d Mt better rtart s . tUU.iyou- . ely
rho 't worked P.i: ~kt. Atyour ~~ you- rltaLt ofs . Do you- r Jee
Ited AAf fr0~ Iwut.e-? slwuLd ~ reitd aI1f' ofyour boola? Lee 1M /oww;

w~tov-e.J

M~ tu-t.d. Dad.·
ion ••

? .,
.... owabout.
--- •

r --
, Let's
Going to Germany?

HOS'II' LU NG
INTIlRNATIONAl. ,

Why not stay at a youth hostel?

How about a magnificent one


POINT
like Altena Castle? Altena is also

fun and cheap. So, why don't T F The questions in the


you make our castle your home?
advert are asking fo
. £ r
1\1!('l1cl (I'.. t Ie ( CI tncll' V
III ormation about
youth hostels.

,
~
I

CHART CHECK 1 COULD


~

e co 'ect
IG III

S e
(MAYBE) SUBJECT COULD* BASE FORM

(Maybe) I/he/she/we/you/they could stay in a castle.


The verb after rolo d,
do , n not, *Could is a modal. It does not have -8 in the third person singular.
I 'e or el-'s
WHY DON'T?
'I 0 changes for
different subjects. WHY DON'T SUBJECT BASE FORM
does not change for don't I/we/you/they
I different subjects. Why stay in a castle .
doesn't he / she

WHY NOT? LET'S


I
WHY NOT BASE FORM LET'S (NOT) • BASE FORM :
- f - - - - - ._- _.' - --- ------. -- ~
hy no stay there . _e_s lot) I there.
- - ,

--- -- =====----
CHART CHECK 2 HOW ABOUT? SHALL WE?
,

Circle r ( 1It U'/ Of


F (Fa/se).
,
I
How ABOUT GERUND/NoUN SHALL WE . BASE FORM IL-- -:-
- -- . -- - at Altena?
T F Suggestions in a castle? Shall we stay •
How about
with How a castle?
about? have --- - - -
only one form.

132
,n, ,
• •• • • • • • •• •• •• • •• •• • • • • • • •• • • • • • •• • • • • • • • •• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •

Add the orrect pUll t{lotio",


Let's take the train _ _ Maybe we could take the train _ _
Why not take the train _,- - How about the train _ _,

1. Use " A: L t ' 0 somewhere this summer,


I
, t and ut to B: M yb we ould qo to Germany,
make suggestions. A: , 't we sk Luke to go with us?
B: Good idea, Why doem't Tom call him
tonight?
A: him right now?
B: ;)wabout " at a youth hostel?
A: ow ab Altena Castle?
B: II e by train?

BE CAREFUL! When someone uses and SUGGESTION


h n to make a suggestion, these A: ' ..
you . ' Jill in Hong Kong?
expressions are not information questions. The B: That's a good idea.
speaker does not expect to receive information
INFORMATION QUESTION
from the listener.
A: 7 you "i! . . meat?
B: Because I'm a vegetarian.

2. t and ' . always include the speaker. • e to Hong Kong.


5
They mean: Here's a suggestion for you and me. (I suggest that we go to Hong Kong.)
• I f> 5 Jill?

3. Note the o to use with BASE FORM OF THE VERB


these expressions.
• ... the train.
• May we the train.
• Wh} we the train?
• J 1t1l -~ the train?

GERUND OR NOUN

•• How about the the train?


7,

4. Notice the i at the end of each STATEMENTS


kind of suggestion. • stay at a hostel
• we stay at a hostel

QUESTIONS

• we stay at a hostel
stay at a hostel
• Why
• Shall stay at a hostel
• How staying ilt il hostel
• How bo il hostel
134 • Unit 31
• •••••••••••••••••••••••••

IDENTIFY. Emily and Megan are visiting Hong Kong. Read their conversation. Underline
suggestiollS.

EMILY: Why don't we go to the races? I hear they're really exciting.

MEGAN: I'd like to but I need to go shopping.

EMILY: Then let's go to the Temple Street Market tonight. We might even see some
Chinese opera in the street while we're there.
MEGAN: That sounds like fun. If we do that, why not go to the races this afternoon?

EM I I.Y: OK, but let's get something to eat first in one of those floating restaurants.
MEGAN: I don't think we'll have time. Maybe we could do that tomorrow. Shall we get

dim sum at the Kau Kee Restaurant next door? Then we could take the Star
Ferry to Hong Kong Island and the racecourse.
EMILY: Sounds good. For tomorrow, why not take one of those small boats - kaido - to
Lantau Island? When we come back, we could have dinner at the Jumbo Palace.
MEGAN: Let's do that. It's a bit expensive but at least it floatsl

COMPLETE· Read these conversations. Complete them with the appropriate expression
in brackets.

1. A: I feel like having seafood for dinner but we went to Tai Pak for seafood last night.

B: Why not go again? The food's great and so is the view.


(Why not I Let's not)
2. A: I'm really tired. _ _ _ _----;;---:-;---:-:::---::----:--_ _ _ _ have a rest before we go out?
(Let's I Shall we)
B: That's a good idea. I'm tired, too.
3. A: I want to explore downtown Hong Kong.

B: ----;;-:-:-~~;-;;-~--;:-____;---- take a minibus? We'll see a lot more that way.


(Lt-r . not I Why don 't Wf':)

4. A: A group of foreign students has just checked in at the hostel.


B: ----,;-;-::--::-;:----:--;-;-~;__-__,:_::_-- ask them to join us for dinner.
(How ,liJ')ut I MdybE <Nf' could)
5. A: I still need to buy some souvenirs before we leave.
B: -----;;~_;_;:;:-;-;-;__---- go shopping after dinner.
(Let", I Sh,ill <Nf:)
6. A: I don't want to go home tomorrow. I'm having a really good time here.
B: SoamI. _______~~~\.n.~~----___ leave tomorrow.
(Let'~ not I Why 110t)
Suggestions: Could. Why don·t? Why not? Let's. Shall we? How about?
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •

& • Read these conversations. Complete the suggestions with phrases


from the box. Add pronouns and change the verbs a5 necessary. Punctuate correctly.

take a trip together try that new seafood place


go to the beach buy another one

1. A: There's an Oasis concert at the Hong Kong Convention Centre next weekend.
B: We're near there now. Maybe we could buy tlckete.
------------------
2. A: It's going to be hot tomorrow.
B: I know. How about ---------------________
3. A: These jackets are in the sale. Maybe we could buy one for Brian's birthday.
B: We got him a jacket last year. Let's not ___________________
4. A: I don't know what to do next summer. I'm sick of doing nothing.
B: Me too. Shall we _________________________

5. A: I'm hungry.
B: Let's ________________________

EDIT· "'ead these notes. Find and correct seven mistakes in the use of suggestions.
The first one has already been corrected. Don't forget to check the punctuation.

3:00 4:00
Megan
Emil.!!
7:00 for dinner i5 fine.
I'm going shopping. /'11 be back at
r:>a Shall We going to 5ee a film afterward5.
5:00. Let's 661til1.1 at 7.'00. OK?
See you later.
Megan
E..

Emil.!! 5:00 M- 6:00

I'm going to be too tired for a flm. Let'5 nat eat at the 5ame restaurant

Maybe we couldjust hanging around tonight? Why don't we trymg a new

the hostel after dinner. Let's talk ahout place? How about Broadway Seafood.
it later. I'm !}Oin..9 to have a nap. I'll meet you downstairs at 7:00 .

M.
E..
reference •• I

aul rather
I
~----------------
I d Teen Pastimes Around the World
~ 80~----------------------------~
Q)
00
'"
~ 60 ------------------------j
~ POINT
'"-
o 40-f-
Q)
00
T:~I- tr" main £) A thp hnr ~_,..
:J
'" 20 - - - - - - - -
1: o Teenagers like watching TV
~ '--
.... reading books and listening'to
~ 0 - L _____________________ '--' '--

watch TV read listen to shop mUSIC.

musIc
o Teenagers like watching TV more
Teenagers around the world prefer watching TV to all than they like doing other things.
other leisure-time activities.

,

CHART CHECK 1 STATEMENTS: PREFER/WOULD PREFER
I ro 'ect SUBJECT (WOULD) PREFER NOUN/GERUND /INFINITIVE
r -

I/We/You* /They prefer . -;e, : (to magazines).


Which word(s) can
readi _ newspapers (to reading books).
you use with all
subjects? He/She prefers (not) ~
newspapers.

o ~ ee
I/He/She/We/You/They
would prefer newspap (to magazines)
,

o would prefer 'd prefer (not) to r _' newspapers.


*You is both singular and plural.

-------------------------------- -- --.~---------
CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS: PREFER/WOULD PREFER

ICi< fl€,r!'J
DO/WOULD SUBJECT PREFER NOUN/GERUND/INFINITIVE
an,: 'rr - '-t --- ,
- .. --
o you/they ne r ?
Which two forms
of the verb can
-- ---- - readi
Does he/she prefer
follow ef r ? to
---
o the base form or Would you/they /he/she i
news 7•

the gerund
'---
,
1-
_ 1 to re_ newspapers?
--- -----
,0 the gerund or
,•
the infinitive SHORT ANSWERS
!
- AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
I/we/they
,
- • -
do. I/we/they don't.
- . -- - -+
v s, he/she doe . No, he/she doesn't.
-
-
I/we/they the/she would. I!we/they/he/she wouldn't.

136
Pr.f....nce.: p" " r W ulcJ
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

SUBJECT WOULD FORM OF VEIlB


-

would rl1th r d newspapers (than read magazines).


I/He/She/We/You/They 'd .. th j (not) r d newspapers.

YES/NO WOULD RATHER SHORT


I
WOULD I SUBJECT RATHER I BASE FORM I
AFFIRMAnVE NEGAIIVE
i,
Would ' she n: d ? No, she wouldn't .
I J Y , she would ,
She'd rath r not .
EXPRESS
Clrc!t' til ' rr t word t - letc n I nr e,
I'd rather rend I to rc{!d than / to shop, but Jo prefers shop / shopping.
m r pi n ons E

1. Use p r, ' and _ We usually . efE· /to ill fo u/ to French.


to talk about things that you like more than _ I' ' . ' 'r ' , Chinese food tonight.

other things. _ I' · er ("00 ( at home than at Jane's place.


USAGE Non: We often use for a general _ Which 0 you ,roe , - chicken or prawn?
preference and or _ you e chicken or prawn curry
for a preference in a particular situation. tonight?

noun
2. Prde may be followed by a noun, a gerund or _ I usually p 'efer vegetab 'e:> to " eat.
an infinitive. geru
_ Does Bill p 'efer stay; '!> in or . i, out?
.
Inlln, , e
_ I prefer to re 'C' whenever I have any free time.

Wo may be followed by a noun or an _ I think Sam . 'ould prefer the bo . ' to the CD.
infinitive. infini tiVE
_ We d both refer to go 01 tonight.
~ s e ro 'T

, can be followed by only the _ I'd rather stG at home tonight.


base form of the verb.

USAGE Non: We often use , by A: Would you like some dessert?


itself, to refuse an offer, suggestion or invitation. B: e, . I've had enough to eat.

• BE CAREFUL! The negative of I'd rather is


I'd rather not.
- NOT
• ..,. have dessert.

1 ,r
3. For . we can use after _ Jack f comedies action films.
prefer + noun or gerund. .11 ! If ,
• •
_ I'd pret walking sWimming.
I 1 ,

We can also use after • I . to stay at home tonight qo to a


would prefer + infinitive. restaurant.

We can use after • I' d raU wdtch football 111 pl"y it.
would rather + base form of the verb.
I

138 nit 2
.
" """ . . . ..
" " "" " "

TRUE OR FALSE. ;m ranked wmc activities (rom 1 to 8 accord ing to his preferences
e). Look at his /i.5t. Iflen read each numbered sentence a nd write

,.•
r (True) or f (Foi'ie).
I

Preferred Activities
T He prefers listening to music to playing the guitar.
:? listen to music
• • .. He'd rather go hiking than go swimming.
5 go sWImming

4
J' He prefers swimming to cycling.
go cycling

1 4. He'd rather not watch TV.


watch TV

8 cooking
He prefers cooking to reading.

G play the guitar


b. He prefers watching TV to reading.

7 go hiking
7. He'd probably prefer a concert to a walk in the
countryside.
2 read

CHOOSE & • Jim and Anna are discussing their evening plans. Complete the;r
co. e "so Ion. Use ould rather (not) with one of the verbs in the box or by itself;n
short answers.

have cook see ~4


J go

.ANNA: Would you like to go to the cinema tonight?


JIM: I'd rather stay at home and watch TV.
1.
.ANNA: Sounds good. Maybe we could make some dinner later.
----------;;:-_ _ _ _ _ _ tonight. I'm too tired.
2.

a restaurant instead?
JIM: Let's order some pizza .
.ANNA: How about a pepperoni pizza?
JIM: 4. . Pepperoni gives me indigestion.
r mushrooms than pepperoni if that's OK.
.ANNA:
JIM:
l. • I don't like his films .
.ANNA: Well ... there's a comedy on at 8'00 a d d
. n a ocumentary at 8:30.
JIM:
7. the comedy. I need a laugh.
Praferen
•••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••

• Read these conversations. Complete them with prefer, prefer or


would rather. Use prefer to state general prefer nee. Complete the compa,1 on
with to or than.

1. W...:.o.::.u=ld~,_ _ you
k We're going to Rome again next week. _"__.__. _.__
prefer to take the train or .. to fly this time?
B: You know me. I always __.__,_________. - - - ' the plane __"'~_._____._._ _ the train.

2. k I _ - - - - - - - - - have the aisle sent ____._______. the window scat.

B: Thnt's fine with me. I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the window scat. That way I can look out.

. A: Where would you like to stay? In a hotel or n pcnsiulU'?


B: Oh,l _________ to stay in a pensione this time. It's more personal.
4. A: I _ _ __ _ _ _ _ eating in small trattorias ________ eating in

big restaurants.
B: Me too. They're less expensive and the food is always delicious.
s. A: Speaking of food, you make the best spaghetti in the world.
B: Thanks, but I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ order it in a restaurant - - - - - - - -

make it at home!
6. A: When in Rome, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . g tea or coffee?
B: I definitely coffee _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ tea. You know what

they say, 'When in Rome, do as the Romans do!'

EDIT. Read Anno's report. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of prefer and
would rather. The first mistake ha5 already been corrected.

For my research, I interviewed fifty men a.nd women. There was no


difference in men's and women's TV preferences. I found that everyone prefers
watching TV taa<R going to the cinema. Men and women both enjoy news
programmes a.nd docllrnentaries. However, men would rather watching adventure
programmes and science fiction, while women prefer soap operas. Men also like
to Watch all kinds of sport but women would rather see ga.me shows to sports.
Readin g preferences differ, too. Men prefer to reading newspapers, while women
Would rather read magazines and books. When men read books, they prefer read
nOU-f"lCt·lon and adventure stories. Women are preferring novels.
ONE
t t ect answer to complete each sentence.

EXAMPLE:
/':
Jennifer never _ _ _ _ coffee. ABC D
(A) drink (e) is drinking
(B) drinks (D) \-vas drinking
- -
-Would you shut the door, please? ABC D

(A) Certainly. (C) Yes, I could.


(B) No. I can't. (D) Yes, I would.

2 Why a movie tonight? ABC D


(A) about seeing (C) not seeing
(B) don't we see (D) we don't see

Sonia can't speak German yet but after a few lessons ABC D
she speak a little.
(A) can (C) is able to
(B) could (D) will be able to

In 1998, Tara Lipinski win the gold medal in ABC D


figure skating at the Winter Olympics.
(A) can (C) will be able to
(B) could (D) was able to

s. I make new friends since I moved here. ABC D


(A) can't (C) haven't been able to
(B) couldn't (D) 'm not able to

She _ _ _ _ better not arrive late. ABC D


(A) did (C) 'd
(B) has (D) would

7. Do you mind if I borrow a chair? ABC D


- . - - - - Do you need only one?
(A) I'm sony. (C) Yes, I do.
(B) Not at all. (D) Yes, I would.
8. Would you mind _ _ _ _ me tomorrow? ABC D
(A) call (C) to call
(B) calling (D) if you call

9. I'd rather the film. I hear it's very good. ABC 0


(A) watch (C) watching
(B) to watch (D) not watch

140
VI.

10. You _ - - - miss the deadline or you'll have to pay a fine. A C D


(A) better not (C) 'd better not
(B) 'd better (0) had no better
11. - take the train instead of the bus? It's faster. ABC D
(A) How about Ic) Why don't
(B) Let's (0) Why not.

12. Could my sister -.-----. -- - to cluss wi th tomorrow'?


Illl' A C D
(A) come (C) coming
(B) comes (0) to COIl\(!

n. I _ _ . _ . hnvt' dessert. I'm tryi ng to lose Home weigh l. ABC D


(A) 'd ratlwr (C) 'd prefer
(B) 'd rather not (0) 'd prefer not
14. Jamil~ prl'fers working at home _ _ _ _ working in an office. ABC D
(A) more (e) that
(B) than (D) to

ISEC .IIONI TWO


Each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts
of the sentence are marked A, 8, C and D. Circle the letter of the one underlined
word or phrme that is NOT CORRECT.
.. - - -----------------------~-.~ ------~, .
I

Mike usually drives to school but today he walks . A B C (~


- .

1- When I was ten, I could swim but I wasn't able dive. ABC D
. 8 C D
r A C D
1 Why don't we have dinner and then gQ and see Possible Dreams.:..
- J e D
17 You drove for seven hours today so maybe you'd not better drive tonight. ABC D
~ C D

l' Will you mind . . your ca mera to the party tomorrow 1 ABC D
C 0
b Dad, may Jim borrows the car tomorrow or does MUlTI need it? ABC D
~ D
20 I can't h~lp you so maybe you should to ask Mary. A C D

2 - Should I bring flowers to Lisa's or should I giving her chocolates? A C D
c r-
22 Maybe you ought than just bring flowers. ABC D
- ~

2 ... Sarah celebrated last year because she could win the race. ABC D
, D

24 l~'s really late so let's w.e gQ out to dinner tonight. ABC D

2:.. Why would you rather stay at home to go out tonight? ABC D
I r - 0
ece ••
I •

an ust

I
POINT
Tick the correa answer.
Using a seat belt is:
o a requirement
o a choice
You must fas en your seat belt
It's the law.

CHART CHECK I AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS:


(lloe T (True) or HAVE (GOT) TO
F (Fa'se) HAVE TO/ BASE FORM
T F We use ~ a 'e SUBJECT HAVE GOT TO OF VERB CONTRACTIONS

go em
I/We/You/They have (got) to Have got to ::: 've got to
affirmative
go. I
and negative He/She/It has (got) to Has got to ::: 's got to
I statements.

STATEMENTS: HAVE TO
SUBJECT Do NOT HAVE TO BASE FORM
I/We/You/They don't
have to go.
He/She/It doesn't

CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO QUESTIONS: HAVE TO I


I• SHORT ANSWERS
T"ck _. e correa
,,


I n:, ''1er BASE

• Do SUBJECT HAVE TO FORM


- r- NEGATIVE

••
,
In questions with Oo
-
---
,

I ave ,what comes we


you don't.


, ~
have to you do.
••
,
-

,, before the subject? go ? No,


,• Does he doesn't . .

he does. he

I,0 a form of do -- " - , -- ' - - - - - -= -


, r-----~~~ ", ._
I
,,
0 a form of Iwve to STATEMENTS: MUST
, - --- --- -_._-----
SUBJECT ON
- . ------ MUST*
_. -
--
(NOT)
---
BASE FORM CONTRAcn
I/He/She/It/We/YoulThey must ( t)
-. - - -._----
- -- -- - '--, --. -'- '------
- -
no must not =
go. mustn 't

*Must is a modal. It does not -take' .s in- t'h--'-e--- 'tW-;:d person singular.

142
Necessity: Have (got) to and Must
••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

EXPRESS
complete this conversation. UH' one word for each blank
A: Why - - - - - - - she - - - - - - -- - - - - -_ _. wear her seat belt?
B: It's the law. Everyone - - - - - - - - - wenr a seat belt.

r E pi I n

1. Use hoy to, ha t to and InU t to


express necessity.
a. Hav t is the most common expression in _ Everyone I · ( a driving test before
everyday use. getting a driving licence.

b. Hav got to often expresses strong feelings more slowly. I'm afraid
in speaking and informal writing. he's going to have an accident.

c. Must is used in writing (forms, signs, notices). _ You completely at a stop sign.

Mu is used in spoken English, when


• the speaker is in a position of power. _ Jamie, you must ea your room today.
(mother talking to her young child)

• there is urgent necessity. _ You really must ta ( to your boss about a pay rise.
(friend talking to a friend)

BE CAREFUL! ' and _ You don' :> . a . here.


have very different meanings. (See Unit 34.) (It isn't necessary to park here.)
_ You MUS not pa here.
(You can't park here. /t's not allowed.)

2. Use the correct form of ve for all tenses _ After his accident, Gary ad to take time off
and forms. work. (past simple)
_ Sheila a glasses since she was
five years old. (present perfect)
_ I ~ 0 tomorrow. (future)

Use • I 0 wea
glasses all the time.
. . and only for the present !:JO
or the future. • Everyone m st an eye test tomorrow.

?•
3. Use . . for most questions. • Paul 1 to dr
0Ne rarely use or for questions.) • When he . ve to IC"'''' ?
144 . I
• • •••• •• •• •• • • •• •• • • •• •••

IDENTIFY. (n Leonord Imovlnq from London to Califomia. Read his telephone


n with ti,e Department of Motor Vellicles (OMV) . Underline the words thal
t Ik ubollt neceHity.

DMV: Department of Motor Vehicles. May I help you?


BEN: I'm moving to the States soon. Will I have to get an American licence when I move?

DMV: Yes, you will. Residents must have an American licence.


BEN: When will I have to get my licence?

DMV: You have to replace your old licence ten days after you become a resident.
So come in and apply for your licence when you get here.
BEN: Do I have to take any tests to exchange my British licence for an American one?

DMV: Since you already have a British licence, you won't have to take the full driving
test. You will only have to take the written test.
BEN: How about an eye test?

DMV: Oh, everyone has got t o take an eye test.


BEN: OK. Thanks a lot. You've been very helpful.

• 'lead this conversation. Complete it with the correct form of have to or


e go 0 and the verbs in brackets. Use have got to and give short answers
whenever possible.

BEN: When _ _ __ do_ __ _ you ______h_a_ve_ t _o_u.:..:5--=e_ __ _ _ the car?


. 'SI:

ANN': I - - --_::;-;---;----:-_ __ _ _ Jim's football gear pretty soon. Why?


2. (pI( k up)
- - - - - - - - you still _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the oil?
BEN: No, - - - -_ _--:-_ _ _ _ _ _ . I did it early this morning. Oh, and
4.
I bought some film.

ANN': Oh, you _ _ _ _ _-.:--~___;_:_----- that. I bought three rolls yesterday.


5. (not cia)
BEN: We
--------::--:-,-:-.- , - - - - - lots of pictures on the trip.
- - - - - -__ Jim still _ _ _ _ _---=_--:-______ ?

say goodbye. Why?


BEN: He
9. 'I. II ' me clean out the car. It's full of his stuff.
ANN': I'll call him again. It's difficult for him to leave his friends.

I -----~IO;;O•. T.:(r-:;dl7>I)- - - - - - him to come home twice already.


• •••••••••••••• • •••••••••••

, • Look at th ;gflS {J f' th from Ih bo to th~


t.nten 5 ahoUI 11I1"g\ you mu d and mu n c/o

EEP
RKJfT LEFT

ONLY 45
turn drive ride walk

~~~m
..:_~u et turn _ _ left.
1. You -
2 You _ _ _ _~______ dght.

. You _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ over 40 mph.


4 You _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ over 55 mph.
s. Cyclist:-; _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ on the left.
6. Pedestrians _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ on the left.

EDIT· Read Jim '5 letter to Sora. Find and correct seven mistakes in expressing necessity.
TIle first mistake has already been corrected.

Dear Sara,
How are you doing? We've been here about six weeks. It's strange living in
the United States.
There's no public transport, so you've get to drive everywhere. I had to signs up
for driving lessons so I can get my licence by the summer. It's the law here that
everyone musts Wear a seat belt. I used to hate wearing a seat belt but with the
traffic here, I have changed my mind. There are a lot of motorways and you've got
know how to change lanes with a lot of fast traffic. Even my mum have had to get
Used to it. Dad works from home, so he hasn't has to do a lot of driving.
Have you beaten those computer games yet? I'm having a lot of trouble with
'Doom'. "(ou got to write to me and tell me how to get past the fifth level!
Jim
hoi •• -,on't ave to
o oice: ust not
an
- -----
we
don 't have to
stop and ask for

I ,

L:I ::::..:..:::E;:::C:.:.:... POINT


("ee" the correct a'15Wer
The driver can choose to
o park on the zebra crossing. o stop to ask for directions.

~,--------------~i -'------__________________________________ ~,

CHART CHECK 1 DON'T HAVE TO


I flek tne correct SUBJECT Do NOT HAVE TO BASE Fo RM OF VERB
----- -~--
I/We!You/They don't stop
Which part of t
have to - here.
e changes for He/She/It doesn't
different subjects? park
- • I

o do 0 luve
-
- - --- --- -
CHART CHECK 2 MUST NOT
Circle T (True) ()f I

F (false).
,
I
SUBJECT
II MUST* NOT I BASE
.
FORM
+ __---1
I/He/She/lt/We/You/They
T F The form of must not 1stop _"_~ __ L-
he_r_e._
must not and
can't changes CANT
for different
subjects. SUBJECT CAN'T*
._------- FORM
I/He/She/lt/We/You/They can't
---- stop here.
"These words are modals. They do not take -s in the third person singUlar.

146
•••••• Don t to No 1I0t
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
••••• ••• •••
CHECK
unscramble these words to form two sentences.
stop • He • have • here • to • doesn't
••
"0

must • fast • You • not • drive • too

- ------.----'-----'".--.~-------~--.--------------------
- • =
" -

G In

1. Ho and mu t have similar meanings. They


t • You hav to stop at the stop sign.
both express the idea that something is • YOll mu\t stop at the stop sign.
necessary or required.
IJ t Ira to and mu t no have very
different meanings.
•• n t hav to expresses that • You ( on't have to drive. I can do it.
something is not necessary. It means that • He ( ()' ' i ( 0 ' ) turn here. He can turn
there is another possibility. There is a • at the next junction .
b. expresses . It means • You ) ,c the car without
• •
that something is not allowed or is against my permission.
the law. There is . • You so· e without a licence.
It's against the law.

2. Must not is used to express prohibition • You must not u"e your hooter unnecessarily.
in writing, including official forms, signs
and notices.
USAGE Non: In spoken English, we do not • We ca 't p- .. here. There are double yellow
usually use must not when talking to or about lines.
another adult. We use ' instead.
Sometimes people use .. to tell a child • Jane, you s , t '. . your seat belt
that there is no choice in a situation. while the car is moving.

3. You can use .ot have for all tenses • You n't have to driv _. (present simple)
and forms. • She '1 rem her driving licence
next year. (future)
• We 1 ...
a lot of parking fines
this year. (present perfect)
• They . ..' a written test
last year. Now it's compulsory. (past simple)
-

• Drivers on double yellow lines.


I refers only to the present or the
. (
.1 forg .. to fill up with petrol
future, not the past.
tomorrow.
.1 take a driving test when 1
To refer to the past, use I,ad/dldn 't "ave to.
moved here ten years ago.
• You' renew your driving licence next
To refer to the future, use :till/won t have to.
year.
148 • 4
•••••••••••••••••••••••••

IDENTIFY . ad thi article. Underline the words that show that there is a choice about
" thlnq. Circle the word5 that 5how t/wt there is no choice.

• problems , however. Members of c


ANew ternatlve ar-
• sharing groups have a car When they need
to Car () ers I one for either short trips or holidays but
New drivers are usually excited about their they don't have the high expenses of
new freedom: 'My mum doesn't hav~ to ownership. They pay very little to use a
dri ve me everywhere any more! I don't have shared car and they don 't have to Worry
to ask my friends for lifts to school!' When about servicing the car or paying the
you haven 't got your own car yet, any price insurance. Fees for short trips are only
seems worth paying. But once you buy a about £5.00 an hour plus 50p per mile.
car, you can't forge your car payments and Groups do not have strict requirements ,
insurance premiums or you won't be a either. Members must not have bad
driver for very long. You can't leave petrol driving records or poor credit and they
and servicing out of the budget, either. must not return the cars in bad condition
Car sharing offers an alternative to these or they will pay extra.

• Read this conversation. Complete it with can't or the correct form of


ae to and the verb in brackets.

JIM: Austin __..:::d=0.::.e6::.:n:..:..'..:::t...:..:h:;:a:.:;ve~to~6~it~_ in a child seat. Who do I have to? It's not fair.
. (sit)

ANN: Jim, you really -----=--:--::c------ like that in the car. Your father
2. (yell)
needs to concentrate on driving. Ben, turn left for the restaurant.
BEN: I - - - - : - .-_
. I III ..
_ _ _ _ left. It's a one-way street. I'll go round the block .
ANN: There's the restaurant. Uh-oh. You _ _ _ __ _-:--_ __ _ here. It's a bus stop.
. ' uk)
BEN: Maybe I'll park in that car park. That way we about
.,
our stuff while we're eating. Remind me to buy some petr~l after lunch.
ANN:
We 6. 'let) petrol, do we? The tank is still half full.
I know. But we -----;;--;;-::~----
BEN:
7. (uuy)
petrol for a long time. I'm not sure
the gauge is working.
AUSTIN:

JIM:
9 . (l1~teJl)
•••••••• • ••••••••

• Looit at thl sign at the hotel swimming pool Compl.re «1m


not or don't o and the ca"e t form of the verb In braclrns.

• ball playing
Swlmmlnc Pool R and Regulatlonl
• radios
Pool Hours J0.00 8 m.- J0 00 p m NO • diving
Children under 12 years NOT ALLOWED in pool • glass bottles
without an adult.
Towels available al fronl deslr. • alcoholic beverages

1. Children under 12 years old _ _ _ _..:.m~u~e~~~n~!?::...:t:....:e. ~w.:.:i.:.:.m!....-_ _ _ without an adult.


, 'nll

2. You ------7'::'":::7------ your own towel.


I)

. You __,_ _ _ _-:-:-~-_---- ball in or around the pool.


4. You into the pool.
s. Teenagers _ _ _ _ _ _---:--:--_ _ _ _ _ _ with an adult.
6. You _ _ _ _ _~~)_ _ _ _ _ the pool at 8:00 p.m.

ED" • Read Austin s postcard to his friend. Find and correct five mistakes in expressing
n cfssity The first mistake has already been corrected.

~.,
Holiday Hotel
Hi. Janetl

We got to the hotel late this evening because we got lost But we 22p
. : ~_,
. •
~.
_'·A·,
.
__

were lucky - they kept our room so we must Aot tind another

hotel. Jimmy is really happy because he don't have to go to bed


Janet Edwards
until atter 10:00, when the swimming pool closes. We mustn't
55 Amherst Lane
leave until 11:00 tomorrow (checkout time) so we can stay up
Harlow
later. Plymouth is only tour hours away so we won't had to drive
Essex CM20 2EJ
the whole day tomorrow. It's going to be exciting. My parents

say We absolutely must not to go to the beach by ourselves

because there are sharks there. I'd love to see a shark (from a

sare distance). I'll send a postcard Ot one.


Austin
••

ec ion ••

He'd better
Oh no! hurry up wit h these
---
I was supposed pictures. It 's supposed
to prepare a to rain.•
speech!

ICHEC POINT
Tick the correct a e.
The best man is thinking about
I
o something he has forgotten to do.
best man bride's brides- bride groom groom's
parents maid parents
o the usual way something is done
at a wedding.

CHART CHECK STATEMENTS SHORT FORMS


Circle - Tr'ue, or
I
BASE I I BASE
SUPPOSED FORM SUPPOSED FoRM
SUBJECT BE TO OF VERB SUBJECT BE TO OF VBIII
T F You can use I I I I I
e r ppo"e am I
I
in the present -
was I
Iwasn't
-- -
simple and is (not) (not) stand here.
stand He/ She/It supposed to be
past simple. He/She/It supposed here. asn 't
• was be
to
f-. • We!You*/ 're (not)

We!You*/ are They weren't
They w ·re I I
-
---.l
*You is both singular and plural.

r YES/NO QUESTIONS
I
! BE I SUBJECT SUPPOSED TO ! BASE FORM :
I .. .. -- - - -- . ~ - - -- +-1~--
Am
I
Was
Is
he Supposed to stand here?
s
f-- -- - ~

Are
you
Were

150
Be to ••1
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

AFFIRMATIVE
-- --
are. r n 't .
you you

I . isn 't .
Ye , he No, he
w ,, 't .

am. 'm not .


I I
w . !
w sn't.

EXPRESS =-0 '--4:

Compl te tlJ e

A: What _______ we supposed to wear yesterday?


B: Our suits. It _______ supposed to be a dress rehearsal.
A: Oops.

Gr mmar Exp anations Examples


1. Use be supposed to talk about different kinds
of expectation:

a. rules and usual wa of doing things • The groom .. o ' i ' , ·· at the
ceremony early. It's a custom.
b. pr dictions • It not . ,_e ,0 .- . tomorrow. I heard
the weather forecast on the radio.

c. he rs. - (what everyone says) • The beach ~, 0s _ beautiful in


August. Everyone says so.
d. pia or rangements • The ceremony - supposed to begil 'till noon.

2. Use supp"',~~,
only in the esent • The bride posed to we , white.
e or in the • • The ceremony s supposed _. at 12:00.
• It sed _ .
Use the p to refer to both the • I'm supposed to _ at the wedding rehearsal
pr s and the ur . •

NOT

USAGE NOTE: The ,. often suggests • Carl o rl flowers but


that something did not happen. he forgot.
152 • Unit 3 ,
•••••••• • ••••••••••••••••

IDENTIFY. ead thi article and underline the phruses that express expectations,

IT WASN'T SUPPOSED
-- - - TO-
BE A BIG-
W EDDING
Whe n Bill kissed hi s bride, the cycl ists
r
19 JULY The Strickl ands wa nted a qui et
wedding - that's why t hey we nt t o th e Isle b urst i nto lou d ap p lause and rang thei r
of Skye, an is lan d off the coast o f Sco tl and . b icycle b e lls. 'We were n't supposed to
The is land is qui te sm all so t he have fi fty we dding guests but we love
Strickla nds p acke d t heir bikes for t he fe rry cycling and we' re not sorry,' Bi ll said.
trip. The weather was suppose d to b e Whil e packing t he next day, Beth left
lovely and t hey had aske d th e Registrar to her wedding bouqu et at the hotel. Minutes
marry them on a hill ove rlooking the before the ferry was supposed to leave, Bill
ocean. jumped on his bike, got t he fl owers and
'When we got there, we found a crowd of made it back to the ferry on ti me. 'Cycl ists
cycl ists admiring the view,' laughed Beth . are supposed to stay fast and fi t,' he said .

TRUE OR FALSE. Read the article again, Write T (True) or F (False) for each sentence.

F 1. The Stricklands planned a big wedding.

2. The weather forecaster predicted rain.


3. The Stricklands invited fifty wedding guests,

. There was a scheduled time for the ferry to leave.


5. People generally think that cyclists should be fit.

• Read these conversations, Complete them with a form of be supposed to


and the verb in brackets. Give short answers. Choose affirmative or negative.

1. A: Nessie, Gary called while you were out.


B: Am I supposed to call him back?
,.«(111)
A: _ _ _ _ _N_o..:..,~y_o;_
u . .a---
:. re:..:n---·.:...--.----
t . He'll call you this afternoon.
h.

2. A: The bridal shop rang, too. They've delivered your wedding dress to your office.
- - - - - - - they that?
d . (,ft,)
B: - - - - - --.:-- - - - - - ! That's why I stayed at home today. They
b.
------=--;-:;--;::--:-----_
c. (d, IIv. r)
it here.
3. A: Come on, hurry up! The rehearsal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in a few
a. (~t<1rt)
minutes.

b . (stand)
You _ _ _' ----:--;:===:------_ here!

Dt not?
k yOu----------'hb~(~--------- Nessie until she gets to the cbmch. It's
bad luck.

5. k Sophie, could I borrow your handkerchief, plenRe? I _"_'_' ____--:~_:__:---_-


( r

something old, something new, sompthing borrowed and something blue. I haven't
got anything borrowed.
8: It ------------..,-b-. -~---------- today. Maybe I should lend you my
umbrella instead.
6. A:. I hear Gary and Ne~sie arc going to Egypt for their honeymoon.
8: Oh. that __
.' _,______---:-______ a really beautiful place.
. b ,)

EDIT. Read Sophie's letter to a friend. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of
be supposed to. The first mistake has already been corrected.

-
D,·",. K"ft/,

I'm SL' SOrt:J - / know I t~m~ supposed to let !Jou know about J1t.!;1 plans to visit.
/\1' bft'1/ llwfid(y bus.!). M!J fiend Nessie is !Jettin!J married soon and she's asked me

fl' br Itt'!' cl1I'tlbridesma/d. She and GaY.!f want a bi!] weddin.!l' The.!/re supposed to

/',n"t' "bIJut two lumdred!Juests. I've !Jot a lot ofresponsibilities. I will be supposed to
.'li~t' Nessie- 11 l'ef! purl!! before the weddin!J (that's a part.!J where eveY.!fone bn'n!Js
presnds for the bride). / am a/so suppose to help her choose the bndesmmds' dresses.
n,c best mans name is Jim. Hes !Joif1!J to help Gm:!}!Jet read.!l I haven't met him .!lei
but 11es supposes to be ve'!f nice.
I'd better sa!1 !ftlodb.!fe nou'. I sttppOse~1 to be at the rehearsal five minutes a!f0'

Love,
Sophie
P.S. About "'"1!f visit I'm supposin!f to !Jet some hil1C ofTill Ju&. t Vould that
be COnvenient?
- - -- " -
- -- ••
Future I I I
a ,

EUROPE' WEATHl·.R
-,~ - - -~r - ----
Stockholm -T
.* I
• Moscow -43 I
* -
1 . Warsaw "3
9
,
,...-I"":,London
• 2

-4

P.arls -t Budapest ¥-
· 0
-
• Rome 20
cr...;, ~o ".>--
!
Athens H- I EC POINT
·0
- , • 7
, Circle T ITr ~e 0 F Fr-Isel
Temperatures in London may drop as much as eleven degr~es T F It's definitely going
by tomorrow morning. We might even see some snow flurnes to snow in London
later on in the day. Winds could reach 60 kph. tomorrow.

CHART CHECK 1
c. c e T (True) or SUBJECT MAY/M/GHT/COULD* BASE FORM OF VERB
F (Fa/se).
• may (no)
T F , n. cold.
and co have I/He/She/lt/We/You/They might (not) get
only one form coul I
, - _, _, - ------------"----..1
for all subjects. *These words are modals. They do not take -s in the third person singular.
....' --'-- -- .. - -
.-. - - -_.' ----- -
CHART CHECK 2 YES/NO SHORT ANSWERS
Tick the orf' t I
Are you going to fly to Paris? ! may (not).
answer. I

When do you use I ! Are you taking the train? I/We : might (not).
I could.
may, migh or could , '- .
--
for future possibility?
WH-
o in questions
o in answers When are you going to Paris?
- .. . '-
may go tomorrow.
I/We might
How long will you be there? be there a week.
could

154
~~~~~ .~~~~~~!I.~. May. Might, Could •
•••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••• •••

EXPRESS
complete this conversation witl, might or might not.
A: Are you going home after this lecture?
B: I . It's possible. Why?
A; I call you about the Ul:lsignment. I don't understand it.
B: Maybe you should call Jean instead. I . understand it either.

m r i ns Example
1. Use ma , might and cou to talk about • It may windy later.
future possibility. • It mlgh cold.
• It could ra ' tomorrow.
Notice the difference between
CAREFUL!
may b and . Both express possibility.
Ma is a modal + verb. It is always • He may e late today.
two words.
, is not a modal. It is an adverb. It is • May e he'll take the train.
always one word and it comes at the beginning NOT
of the sentence.

2. Use and to express the • There are a lot of clouds but it ght
possibility that something will not happen.
BE CAREFUL! We don't usually contract • You may no need a coat.
and we never contract ot. NOT

3. are not usually A: When ," it stan snowing?


formed with maYt might or could. Instead, they B: It n; igh sta 1: around lunchtime.
are formed with the future (will, be going to, the A: A you cr • to work?
present continuous) or phrases such as B: I h the bus instead.
Do you think . .. ? or Is it possible that . .. ?
It's the that A: When you c ?
B: I . in about an hour or so.
often have v, m.. or I .
A: Will your office close early for Christmas?
In short answers to yes/no questions, use Jr,
or . alone. B: It 111 .

is the main verb, it A: t, our train going to be late?


USAGE Non: If a form of

IS common to include in the short answer. B: It . .
----
, .. ... . 156 Unit 3
• ••••••••••

IDENTIFY. Alice is a university student wllo works part time; Bill i~ ?~r boy!riend. Read
..;. >fenatlon. Underliue the words that express future possIbIlI t y or Impossibility.

ALICE: I've just heard that it may snow today. Are you going to drive to work?
BILL: No. I'll take the 7:30 train instead.
ALICE: I'll take the train with you. I've got some work to do in the library.
BILL: Great. Why don't you miss your afternoon class and have lunch with me, too?
ALICE: Oh , I couldn't do th at. But let's meet at the station at 6:00 and go h ome
togeth er, OK?
B ILL: I might h ave to work until 8:00 tonight. I'll call you and let you know.

ANSWER • What will Alice and Bill do together? Tick the appropriate box for each activity.

Certain Possible Impossible


Take the train at 7:30 a.m. o o o
1. Have lunch. o o o
3. Meet at the station at 6:00 p.m . o o o

• Alice is graduating from university with a degree in Early Childhood Education.


Complete this paragraph from her diary. Choose the appropriate words in brackets.

I _ _ _:;--;=:-::L'm:-:=--::g~o:.::in~gLt.::.:o~-:-:--_ _ _ graduate in June but I still haven't


1. (m'ght not I m going to)
got any plans. Some day-care centres employ stUdents before they graduate so I

- - - - - - :2;-.-:(c=-=0..,...
uO:;ld--:'-c-ou""7ld7"n"7't-:--
)---- apply for a job now. Or I

- - - --;-
3.-;':-::
'n:-:J::;:-t..,...
:- 'gT -, n