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Seismic 13 583

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V6, KM /SEC

I KOERPERICH, 1979, SILTSTONE, SONIC LOG (15 KHz)


DEASTWOOD AND CASTAGNA, 1983, WOLFCAMP SHALE, SONIC LOG (10 KHz)
A OIL SHALE, SONIC LOG, (25 KHz)
+ LINGLE AND JONES, 1977, DEVONIAN SHALE, SONIC LOG
HAMILTON, 1976, PIERRE SHALE
HAMILTON, 1976, GRAYSON SHALE
8 HAMILTON, 1976, JAPANESE SHALE
a LASH, 1980, GULF COAST SEDIMENTS, VERTICAL SEISMIC PROFILE
A SHALE, SONIC LOG, INVERTED STONELEY WAVE VELOCITIES, (1 KHz)
..*. HAMILTON, 1976, MUDSTONES
_-- EBENIRO, 1981, GULF COAST SEDIMENTS, SURFACE WAVE INVERSION
$ TOSAYA’S “CLAY” POINT (EXTRAPOLATION FROM LABORATORY DATA)

FIG. 1. Compressionaland shear-wave velocitiesfor mudrocks from In-situ sonic and seismic measurements.

concentrationsof elongate pores would tend to plot along Discussion


this line.
Assumingdry bulk modulus equal to dry rigidity, Gass- In recent yearsthere has been movementtowardsthe use
mann’s equations allow the computation of V, given V,,. of V,,, V,, and V,,/V, in seismicexplorationfor estimationof
porosity, and the grain and fluid densitiesand bulk moduli. porosity, lithology. and saturatingfluids in particularstrati-
We computed shear-wave velocities for sandstone core graphicintervals. The above analysisboth complicatesand
porositiesand sonic log compressionalvelocitiesfor depths enlightenssuch interpretation. It is clear that clay content
from 2 500 to 14 500 ft in two wells 500 ft apart in Brazoria increases the VP/V,. as does porosity. The analyses of
County, Texas. The resulting V,,-Vr relationshipis in excel- Tosaya (1982) and Eastwood and Castagna(1983) indicate
lent agreementwith our sandstoneobservations.Similarly, that while I’,#, is lesssensitiveto variation of clay content
we compare the calculated shear velocities to measured than of porosity, the range of variation in clay content may
laboratory values. The differencesare usually less than 5 be larger. Thus, V,,/V,, can be grossly dependenton clay
percent,demonstratingexcellentagreementwith the theory. content.
Since part of thesedifferencesmust be due to experimental The compressionalvelocity and porosity data given by
error and due to our assumption that the matrix is 100 Gregory (1977) are used to establishthe Gulf Coast VJV.,
percent quartz, we consider the agreement remarkable. variation with depth. Equation (I) is used to predict V, for
Cdmbination of Gassmann’s equation and the time-average the shales. and Gassmann’s equations are used for the
equation yields a line which describesthe water-saturated sandstones.At a given depth, shalevelocity ratiosare on the
laboratorydata extremely well. The resultsof crack model- order of 10 percent higherthan sandstonevelocity ratios.
ing indicate that one explanation for the validity of this These conclusionsare somewhatat odds with the “con-
empirical formula would be the dominance of high aspect ventionalwisdom” that Vp/V,s equals I .5 to 1.7 in sandstones
ratio pores. and “over 2” in shales.Clearly, mappingnet sandfrom V,,/
Seismic 13
V, is not as straightforwardas this conventional wisdom vertical shear (SV) wave internal transit times through a
would imply. formation using standardprocessedthree-componentCDP
seismiclines. If At,. htsl,. and Atls_,sL.
are two-way P-wave,
Conclusions SH-wave, and mode-convertedP-to-SV-wave transit times
To first order, we conclude that shear-wave velocity is acrossthe formation. then it can be shown that the travel-
nearly linearly related to, compressional-wavevelocity for time ratios between these wave types are mathematically
both water-saturatedand dry elastic silicate sedimentary equivalent to the interval velocity ratios VIJVsr,and VP.&
rocks. Water-saturatedvelocities for mudrocks and sand- Vs,. Lateral variations in the ratio of the mode-converted
stonesfall within an elongate triangular region defined by SV-wave velocity to the SH-wave velocity provide an esti-
clay-water, clay-quartz, and quartz-water curves. For a mate of the degreeof shearwave anisotropypresentwithin
given VP, mudrockstend towards slightly higher V&V, than the stratigraphicsequence.Variations in Vp/VsH have been
do clean poroussandstones. shownto correlatestronglywith known changesin geologic
For dry sandstones,V,/V,s is relatively constant. For wet cross-sectionand thereforeserveto directly relate observed
sandstonesand mudstones,V,,/V, decreaseswith increasing lateral changes in the shear wave velocity ratio Vp.svl
V,,. Water-saturatedsandstoneobservationsare consistent V,\,, to lateral variation in lithology.
with shear-wavevelocitiesobtainedfrom Gassmann’s equa- The formation chosen for the case study is the lower
tions. The water-saturatedtrends begin at V,, slightly less PennsylvanianMorrow formation, which producesgasfrom
than water velocity and V,, equal to zero, and terminate at isolated channel sand deposits. A detailed geologiccross-
the compressionaland shearwave velocitiesof quartz. The sectionof the producinghorizon hasbeen mappedalongthe
linear dry trend beginsat zero velocity and terminatesat the strike of the multicomponent seismic line. A correlation
quartz point. Dry rigidity and incompressibilityare about observedbetweenchangesin lithologyalong the seismicline
equal. and lateral changesin the observedmode-convertedP-to-SV
Theoretical models based on regular packing arrange- waves versusthe SH-wave velocity ratio strongly suggests
ments of spheresand on cracked solids yield trends which the presence of lithologic anisotropy within the Morrow
are consistentwith observeddry and wet lines. formation.

References
Domenico,S. N., 1976,Effect ofbrine-gas mixtureon velocityin an Introduction
unconsolidated sandreservoir:Geophysics,41, 887-894.
Eastwood, R. L., andCastagna,J. P.. 1983.Basisfor interpretation The seismicliterature definestwo distinct types of anisot-
of V,iV, ratios in complex lithologies:SPWLA 24th An. Log. ropy: (1) transverse isotropy used to refer to anisotropic
Sympos.Trans. media exhibiting hexagonal anisotropic symmetry with a
Ebeniro.J., Wilson. C. R., and Dorman, J., 1983.Propagationof
dispersedcompressional and Rayleighwaveson the Tdx& coastal symmetryaxis normal to the free surface;and (2) anisotropy
plain: Geophysics.48. or azimuthalanisotropy for all other symmetrysystemsand
Gassmann,F., 195I, Elastic waves througha packingof spheres:
Geophysics,16, 673-685. for other orientationsof hexagonalsystems.In either case,
Grenorv,A. R., 1977.AsDectsof rock uhvsics from laboratoryand anisotropyhasdistinctiveeffectson shearwave propagation
loi datathat are impoitant to seismjcInterpretation,in seismic which distinguishthe mediumfrom the more familiar isotro-
stratigraphy-Applicationto hydrocarbonexploration:A.A.P.G.
Memoir26. pic material. In particular, in an anisotropicmaterial shear
Hamilton. E. L.. 1971.Elastic oroDertiesof marine sediments:J. wave splittingoccurswith the resultingtwo orthogonalshear
Geophys.Res., 76, 579-604. ’ ’ componentstraveling with different velocities.If the materi-
Hamilton, E. L., 1979, VP/V.,and Poisson’sratios in marinesedi-
mentsandrocks:J. Acoust. Sec. Am. 66, 1093-1101. al is transverselyisotropic,thesecomponentsare simply the
Koerperich. E. A., 1979,‘shear wave velocities determinedfrom horizontal shear (SH) wave and the vertical shear (Sv)
long-and short-spacedboreholeacousticdevices:SPE 8237.
Lash, C. E., 1980,Shearwaves,multiplereflections,and converted
waves each traveling with its own separate velocity of
waves found by a deep vertical wave test (vertical seismic propagation. The polarization of the shear waves in the
profiling):Geophysics,45, 1373-141I. azimuthalanisotropycaseis lesswell defined,and polariza-
Lingle, R., and Jones,‘A. H., 1977,Comparisonof log and labora-
tory measuredP-wave and S-wave velocities:SPWLA 18thAn. tion diagrams derived from 3-component recordings are
Log.Sympos.Trans. necessaryto define their orientation. Nonetheless,the ve-
Pickett,G. R., 1963,Acousticcharacterlogsand their applications locity of the shear wave motion, as recordedon the trans-
in formationevaluation:J. Petrol. Tech., 15, 650-667.
Toksiiz, M. N.. Cheng, C. H., and Timur, A., 1976,Velocitiesof verseand radially orientedshearwave geophones,will show
seismicwavesin porousrocks:Geophysics,41, 621-645. shearwave birefringenceeffectsin an anisotropicmedium.
Tosaya, C. A., 1982,Acousticalpropertiesof clay-bearingrocks:
PhD.,thesis,StanfordUniv. Thus, the important characteristicin detectingthe presence
of any anisotropic,mediumis that the propagationof shear
wave energy is split into two mutually perpendicularsec-
tions of particle motion. each propagating with its own
Lithologic Anisotropy in the Pennsylvania S13.2
velocity.
Morrow Formation of Southeastern New
Mexico Causesof anisotropy
M. G. Justin, M. D. McCormack, and S. S. Lee, Arco Oil Crampin et al. (1984) suggestanisotropy in rocks may
and Gas Co. conveniently be divided into three basic classes:inherent
Surfacerecordedmulticomponentseismicdataare usedto anisotropy,inducedanisotropy,and long-wavelengthanisot-
infer the presenceof shearwave anisotropywithin a subsur- ropy. A clear understandingof the first two of thesephenom-
face stratigraphic unit. The analysis technique employed ena is particularly important when looking for anisotropic
requiresdeterminingthe compressional(P) wave, horizontal effects using shallow crustal seismic reflection techniques
shear (SH) wave, and mode-convertedcompressional-to- suchas thoseemployedby the oil indeusty Briefly, inherent