0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

6 Ansichten7 SeitenA Basic Filter Building Block

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

A Basic Filter Building Block

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

6 Ansichten7 SeitenA Basic Filter Building Block

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

2 0 0 2

NEWS

ELECTRICAL

MANUF

AL A

IC C

TR

TU

ELEC

RIN

MANUFACTURING

G

CO

ON

IL

TI

& COIL WINDING

A

W

IN I

DI C

NG ASSO

EMCWA is a non-profit volunteer organization dedicated to the furtherance of the conception, research,

design, manufacturing, marketing and use of electrical/electronic products. The Association provides educational

opportunities that enhance the development, knowledge and use of electrical/electronic technology/products

and provides forums to display/introduce products, ideas, innovations and emerging technologies.

IN THIS ISSUE:

(ADTEX) NEW NAME/STRONGER FOCUS PG. 2

INSTITUTIONS EVALUATED PG. 3

MOTOR USED IN A CPU COOLING FAN PG. 4

FILTER BUILDING BLOCK PG. 10

PRAISES EIC/EMCW EXPO 2001 PG. 16

Cincinnati, Ohio

NEWS

MA NU

AL FA

IC C

TR

T

UR

ELEC

ING

CO

ON

IL

TI

A

W

IN I

DI C

NG ASSO

COUPLED INDUCTORS –

circuit of Figure 1 as an integral part of a

converter, missing the point that it is a lin-

ear two-port which can be analyzed inde-

A BASIC FILTER BUILDING BLOCK pendently and added to a wide variety of cir-

cuits. This points to a need for analysis and

ROBERT BALOG inductors) and a dc blocking capacitor. modeling, to allow the routine application

PHILIP T. KREIN Together, they form a basic filter building of such circuits.

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT block shown in Figure 1.

URBANA – CHAMPAIGN PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

DAVID C. HAMILL The coupled inductor is schematically

represented in Figure 2.

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY

GUILDFORD, UK

coupled filters can provide smooth-

ing in power converter applications. Because these components form a linear

This paper describes a general-pur- two-port filter, the building block can be

implemented in any dc circuit to reduce the

pose coupled inductor filter building

ripple current wherever a choke is current-

block. The coupled inductor circuit The addition of a dc blocking capacitor

ly used. Thus it may be applied to the dc

model is presented, starting with forms a two port linear filter. The goal is to

input of a converter, its dc output, or an

produce a low ac current (ideally zero) at

the basic topology with ideal circuit internal dc link (in applications such as

the quiet port. It can be misleading to think

elements. Real circuit elements are motor drives or HVDC transmission).

of the smoothing transformer’s windings as

then substituted for the ideal ele- The concept described here is not a new

a primary and secondary. Hence we label

one. It has surfaced in many forms over the

ments and the effects of ESR dis- them the "dc" and "ac" windings to indicate

years, but it nonetheless appears to be little

cussed. Experimental results are known, and is not well understood.

their purpose in the circuit. The dc winding

provided for a typical application. carries a heavy direct current (like a

Lastly, the effect of a turns ratio smoothing choke), while the ac winding

The purpose of this paper is fourfold:

carries only a small ac ripple current.

between the "ac" and "dc" windings • To bring the technique to the attention

The port labeled Vn in Figure 1 is con-

is explored. of a wider audience;

nected to the noisy, unfiltered, source

• To give a simple explanation of its opera-

represented in as a dc source with ac

tion, avoiding magnetic theory;

INTRODUCTION noise (Figure 2.) In the case of a power

• To show how it can be usefully applied

Coupled-inductor and other integrated- supply, this could be the output of the

in practice;

magnetic techniques have existed for many switching circuit. Superposition allows

• To give an indication of broader possibil-

years, but most power electronics engineers Vn to be expressed as the sum of a dc

ities for coupled magnetic devices.

are uncomfortable with them. This may be component (Vdc) and an ac component

because of limited experience with coupled (vac). The port labeled Vq in Figure 1 is

magnetics. Or it could be explained by the HISTORY AND REINVENTION the filtered "quiet" port.

level of complexity in many treatments of Coupled magnetics were more common

coupled magnetic devices. Unlike most net- early in the history of rectification. The cir- If C is large then the ac voltage (vac) across

works, coupled-inductor techniques involve cuit of Figure 1 was known in 1930 [1], [2]. it due to ripple current becomes zero.

simultaneous parallel energy-transfer path- Since that time, it has been described in

ways: electrical and magnetic. Despite the various texts [3], [5], yet authors have

difficulty, the circuits are useful and claimed to "invent" it on multiple occasions

deserve to be better appreciated. since then (refer to PESC paper [6].) Even

The technique described in this paper as recently as 1998 [7], the circuit was

replaces a series smoothing choke with a introduced as new. The recent power elec- Applying KVL, the ripple voltage, vac, must

"smoothing transformer" (a pair of coupled tronics work seems to treat the smoothing then appear across the inductor Lac.

Assuming perfect coupling and a one to one The transfer function of the equivalent cir- appears. We can take advantage of the cou-

turns ratio, the ac ripple voltage in the Lac cuit in terms of Figure 1 is: pled inductor in this mode as a notch filter.

winding will transfer to the Ldc winding. For values of k >knull, there is no notch and

Applying KVL on the quiet port confirms worse high frequency attenuation than a

that Vq contains only the dc component of simple second order filter. This mode of

the noisy port voltage Thus, the coupled operation is not useful.

inductor can be thought of as serving two The structure of the transfer function

functions: appears to be similar to that of the second C. Ideal capacitor with finite load resistance

order filter with a frequency dependent

1) An energy storage element for the term s2CLac appearing in both the numera-

switching power supply. tor and denominator. The location of the

2) A "signal transformer" for ripple current transfer function zero depends on the value

steering. of the coupling coefficient k. At low fre-

Our goal is to take advantage of this current quencies, the gain is unity and at high fre-

steering ability. quencies the gain in dB is given by the

expression: In practice, the filter will be connected to a

ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION finite load impedance as in Figure 4.

We begin the examination of the perform- Assuming that the load is purely resistive,

ance of the coupled inductor with the basic the transfer function is realized as:

B. Second order low pass mode

model and add elements one by one until

An interesting mode of operation occurs

we have the full realization, including

at the null condition. The location of the

imperfections such as ESR effects.

zero in the transfer function depends on

the coupling coefficient, k. There exists a

A. Finite blocking capacitance

k that causes the infinite frequency gain When the load resistance is large, the limit

The standard "T" equivalent for magnetic

to equal zero: becomes equation (3.)

circuits can

be used to aid

D. Second order notch mode

in analyzing

Consider the numerator of equation (3.)

the coupled

When k=knull, the s2LacC term disappears Lac and Cac form a series resonant circuit,

inductor:

from the numerator. The coupled inductor reducing the impedance of that leg to, in

degenerates into a second order filter with principle, zero for the frequency given by

Figure 3: Equivalent "T" model

the characteristic -40 dB/ decade rolloff. equation (8) obtained by setting the numer-

plus the capacitor

M is the mutual inductance of the two coils ator of the transfer function to zero

and is related to the coupling coefficient.

second order low pass filter is composed of

Lac and C rather than Ldc and C as one The value of k√(Ldc/Lac) must not be too

The factor k, the coupling coefficient repre-

might expect in a typical low pass filter. close to unity, or the notch frequency will be

sents the flux linkage between the two

Since Lac is typically less than Ldc (see sec- extremely sensitive to changes in k, Ldc and

windings. Permissible values of k are

tion IX on construction of coupled induc- Lac. On the other hand, k√(Ldc/Lac) should

0<k<1. A value of 1 means that all the flux

tors), the cutoff frequency for the null con- be close to unity for good attenuation of fre-

linking coil Lac, also links coil Ldc. In prac-

dition will be slightly higher than that of the quencies above ωnotch as the asymptotic

tice, values of k >0.9 are easily achievable.

simple second order filter Ldc and Cdc. high frequency gain is 1 – k√(Ldc/Lac). In a

Since the coupling coefficient depends on

practical design, a compromise is required.

geometry, changes in wire spacing or incon-

sistent winding techniques can cause varia- Further, it turns out that knull is a boundary When k = knull, wnotch moves to infinity, giv-

condition for the formation of a notch. For ing the low-pass mode. If k = knull there is

tions from sample to sample. As we will see,

values of k < knull, the zero frequency is no real value of ωnotch and no notch

the operating regime of the coupled induc-

greater than the pole frequency and a notch appears.

tor is dependent on k.

NEWS

MA NU

AL FA

IC C

TR

T

UR

ELEC

ING

CO

ON

IL

TI

A

W

IN I

DI C

NG ASSO

Figure 5 compares the effect of a terminat- We have observed some of the affects of cir- the high frequency response flattens out

ing load resistance for various values of k cuit resistance in Figure 5. In addition to (equation (4)) while the simple second

using a coupled inductor with Lac=240 µH, providing another system pole (high fre- order filter continues to roll off at 40 dB per

Ldc=250 µH and a capacitor C=100µF. quency roll-off), the load resistance also decade.

The null condition occurs when k= 0.98 helps to dampen the overshoot at the cutoff

(from equation(4).) The graph illustrates frequency of the filter. Both of these effects REAL CAPACITOR

the sensitivity of the notch to the coupling are beneficial in a filtering application AND OUTPUT RESISTANCE

coefficient k. Adding output resistance to the circuit

In the previous section, the circuit model model does not affect the filter perform-

The value of the coupling coefficient k is used an ideal capacitor. The resonance set ance significantly provided that at the fre-

affected by the manufacturing process of the up by the series Lac and Cac is the mecha- quencies of interest, and well above dc, the

inductor and can vary from lot to lot. To nism responsible for the formation of the impedance of the ac branch is much less

ensure that the coupled inductor always notch. From circuit theory, we recall that than the impedance of the dc branch such

operates in the notch mode, the design of the series resistance in an LC circuit dampens that the ripple current diverts predomi-

inductor should place k well below knull. out the sharp resonance. This has the nantly into the ac branch and away from the

potential of reducing or eliminating the load. Practically, this translates into a

attenuation benefit of the notch. required minimum load impedance.

FOURTH ORDER MODE

include the ESR of the capacitor and resist-

At frequencies above the notch, the second

ance of the inductor winding.

order mode response is governed by the

pole formed by Ldc and Rload. A second pole

can be introduced by connecting a capaci-

tor Cdc across the "quiet port."

appears to offer an alternative to the second

order filter. However, the penalty paid for Figure 7 examines the damping effect of the

the deep notch response is a reduced high ESR in the capacitor. Notice that for ESR

frequency response. values as little as 0.1Ω, the notch disap-

Table 1 pears.

Attenuation at

Mode of operation frequency of notch

Second order filter -40 dB The true benefit of the coupled

Notch w/ k= 0.97 -120 dB inductor now becomes apparent:

Difference 80 db more than one inductance is inte-

grated into one magnetic structure,

If the notch can be designed at an arbitrary which makes a fourth order filter

frequency, the fundamental switching fre- possible using only three compo-

quency of a power converter for example, nents.

significant attenuation can be achieved.

In a practical circuit, the windings of the

inductor will have copper loss and the

capacitors will have equivalent series Without a notch mode, our simple model of

resistances (ESR). These losses add damp- the coupled inductor offers no benefit over

ing and affect the ripple attenuation. the simple second order filter. Even worse,

The value of Cdc should be chosen such that only one magnetic component. However,

the Cdc, Ldc pole is placed at a higher fre- the design is extremely sensitive to values of

quency than the pole formed by Cdc, Ldc. k. In this case k=0.98 is the null condition.

k=0.97 and 0.99 eliminated the fourth order

The equation for the circuit model with behavior and in fact, as depicted on the

ideal components is: graph, may even move a peak into the fre-

quency range that we are interested in

attenuating the most.

EXPERIMENTAL

With Cac set to zero, the coupled inductor TEST AND COMPARISON

becomes a simple second order filter with We examine the complete model of the cou-

Ldc and Cdc as the circuit elements and is pled inductor including capacitor ESR and

shown in Figure 10 for comparison purposes. load resistance:

less than the null condition, there is the

appearance of the frequency notch. At high

frequencies, the filter slope is governed by

the Cdc, Ldc pole and rolls off at –40 db /

decade. If the frequency of the notch can

be arbitrarily designed, then the coupled

inductor can yield better results than the

simple second order filter while using the

same magnetic volume. A word of caution:

TYPICAL APPLICATION:

a frequency peak occurs just below the

BUCK CONVERTER

notch frequency. If the fundamental

Although not the only application for the

switching frequency of the converter varies

coupled inductor, the buck converter is an

then the proximity of the peak may actually The parameters of the coupled inductor ideal choice to demonstrate the usefulness

worsen the performance of the output filter. used were Lac=240µH, Ldc=250µH, and of the coupled inductor. Figure 14 illus-

k=0.98. The inductor's coupling coefficient trates the power electronics portion of a

Imposing the null condition once again is below knull=0.9997 indicating notch mode buck converter topology.

presents an unusual condition. After the regime. The capacitors were selected such

second peak, the filter slope is now gov- that Cdc=Cac= 10µF and provided a simple

erned by four poles and rolls off at the –80 second order cutoff frequency of 3kHz. The

dB per decade slope of a fourth order filter. value of the ESR was determined based on

This operating condition may be used to the coil dc resistance and the ESR of the

provide a fourth order filter effect using capacitor.

In Figure 12, at 50 kHz the coupled inductor The traditional inductor has been replaced

provides, theoretically, an additional 5 dB of with a coupled inductor and capacitor used

suppression compared to the second order in the previous section. The gate drive, gen-

filter. Notice that due to the ESR effects, erated elsewhere, has a fundamental

the notch is not apparent. However, the switching frequency of 50 kHz.

5dB increase in attenuation can still pro- Figure 15 shows the circuit waveform without

vide a filtering advantage. Cdc (only the coupled inductor and capacitor

from Figure 1.) As expected, the inductor

The plot from a network analyzer in Figure current (lower trace) is triangular. The

13 shows the performance of the experi- upper trace, the voltage across Cac, is also tri-

mental filter to closely match the perform- angular and includes an ESR voltage jump.

ance predicted by the model.

NEWS

MA NU

AL FA

IC C

TR

T

UR

ELEC

ING

CO

ON

IL

TI

A

W

IN I

DI C

NG ASSO

Using the parameters for the 1:5 coupled the buck converter from section VI with a

inductor from Table 3 and equation (8), the simple second order low pass filter. As

value of Cac needed to tune the coupled expected the 50 kHz switching frequency is

inductor filter for a notch a 50 kHz is 3.35 the dominant component.

nF. The theoretical filter response is shown

in Figure 16.

for three circuit configurations. The second

configuration is recognizable as the typical

second order output filter.

From the circuit model using ideal compo- damental frequency is severely attenuated.

nents (no ESR), the notch is calculated to The output waveform in Figure 19 now looks

have 35 dB more attenuation that the sim- significantly different. With the absence of

It is observed that with the addition of the ple second order filler. Including typical the 50 kHz components, the higher order

second capacitor, Cac, the output filter pro- ESR values, the 1:5 filter provides a 15 dB harmonics are more pronounced.

vides an additional 4.6dB reduction in the notch with respect to the simple second

output ripple voltage, consistent with the order filter.

5db predicted by the model.

COUPLED INDUCTOR

WITH TURNS RATIO

So far we have examined coupled inductors

with turns rations of 1:1, that is, the dc

inductor and ac inductor have the same

number of turns and therefore approxi-

mately the same inductance. With the addi-

tion of a third component, the "ac" side

capacitor, a reduction in output ripple volt-

age was achieved. Recall that the coupled

inductor may be thought of as a signal

transformer. It may be useful to exploit this The Bode plot of the experimental result is MEASURING K

fact and use a turns ratio to "scale" the shown in Figure 17 and confirms the theo- For successful implementation, it is vital to

required value of the ac side capacitor. retical model. The second notch around know the coupling coefficient k. Here we

250 kHz is the result of other circuit effects give two methods for measuring k experi-

Inductance is proportional to the number of and is not significant in the study of the cou- mentally. All measurements must be taken

turns squared. Therefore, in a 1:5 ratio, the pled inductor. at a low enough frequency that parasitic

inductance of the ac winding is increased capacitance is negligible. The methods do

by a factor of 25. It is desired to keep the A disadvantage of using a non-unity turns not need calibrated inductance measure-

same frequency response (i.e., same Lac-Cac ration is reduced high frequency attenua- ments, as they depend only on ratios,

resonant frequency). Therefore, the capac- tion. In practical filtering applications, the although it is useful to perform the meas-

itor must decrease by a factor of 25. advantage of notch frequency attenuation urements with a dc current source in place

Physical size is related to capacitance, so a must be weighted against reduced high fre- to set the correct bias level.

smaller value capacitor means a physically quency attenuation.

A. Open/short-circuit inductance method around the dc winding, followed by the ac [5] R.P. Severns and G.E. Bloom, Modern

DC-to-DC Switchmode Power Converter

The inductance of winding 1 is measured port winding. Since the ac coil carries only Circuits, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,

with winding 2 open-circuited (L1) and the ripple current it can be wound using 1985, Figs. 8.5A, 12.13, 12.14 and 12.16.

short-circuited (L1,sc). The coupling coeffi- small diameter wire. As a result, the cou-

[6] D. C. Hamill and P. T. Krein, "A ‘Zero’ ripple

cient is calculated from: pled inductor can typically use the same technique applicable to any converter" in

core as a single inductor depending on the Rec., IEEE Power Electronics Specialists

Conf., 1999, pp. 1165-1171.

fill factor and window size.

[7] D.K.W. Cheng, X.C. Liu and Y.S. Lee, "A new

improved boost converter with ripple free

CONCLUSIONS input current using coupled inductors",

Power Electronics and Variable Speed

By integrating two inductors into one mag- Drives Conf., Sept. 1998, IEE conf. publ. no.

A second value of k can be obtained from netic structure, it is possible to achieve 456, pp. 592–599.

winding 2. The resulting two values of k can fourth order filtering using only three com-

then be averaged. This method is particu- ponents. The interaction between these Robert Balog received his BSEE degree at the

larly suitable when k is close to unity, as it two inductors has interesting properties College of Engineering, Rutgers University, in

then gives an accurate result despite possi- 1996. He began his profes-sional career as a

that vary with the operating regime. By tak- design engi-neer with Lutron Electronics. He is

ble difficulty in measuring L1,sc. However, it ing advantage of a turns ratio, the coupled currently pursuing a MSEE at the University of

is unsuitable when the winding resistances Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research

inductor becomes a tuned notch filter with interests are in the areas of power electronics and

are substantial. minimal component count. analog circuits.

B. Series aiding/opposing inductance method cal engineering and the A.B. degree in economics

In this method, four inductance readings Table 3: Sample coupled inductors and business from Lafayette College, Easton,

Pennsylvania, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in

are taken. First, with the other winding electrical engineering from the University of

Parameter 1:1 inductor 1:5 inductor

open-circuited, the individual winding self- DC Inductor

Illinois, Urbana. He was a design engineer at

inductances are measured (L1 and L2). Tektronix in Beaverton, Oregon. In 1987 he

Turns 25 26 returned to the University of Illinois, where he is

Then the two windings are connected in Inductance 151.9 µH 165.7 µH now Professor and Director of the Grainger Center

Wire Gauge 22 AWG for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics. Dr.

series and their combined inductance is

Resistance 0.074 Ω 0.077 Ω Krein is a Fellow of the IEEE. His research inter-

measured, in series-aiding connection AC Inductor ests are in power electronics and electromechan-

(Laid) and series-opposing (Lopp). (Note Turns 25 130 ics. In 1997-98, he was a Fulbright Scholar at the

Inductance 151.8 µH 4.095 µH University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

that Laid > Lopp always, and that Laid – Lopp

Wire Gauge 28

= 4M). The coupling coefficient is calcu- Resistance 0.252 Ω 1.578 Ω

David C. Hamill was born in London, England.

He received his bachelor's and master's degrees

lated from: Coupling Coefficient k .9802 .985 from the University of Southampton

(Southampton, UK) and his PhD from the

University of Surrey (Guildford, UK). After prac-

ticing as a design engineer and a consultant, he

was technical director of PAG Ltd (London, UK)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS for seven years. In 1986 he joined the University of

R. Balog is supported through the Grainger Center Surrey, where he is currently a Senior Lecturer in

for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics at the Surrey Space Centre. His research interests

An advantage is low sensitivity to winding the University of Illinois. P. Krein was supported include dc-dc conversion, space power systems

in part as a Fulbright Scholar through the and nonlinear dynamics.

resistance. This method is unsuitable when Fulbright Commission in the United Kingdom.

k is small, as in that case it depends on the Dr Hamill was an Associate Editor of the IEEE

Transactions on Power Electronics, 1994-96. He is

difference between two similar quantities. References a Senior Member of the IEEE, a member of the IEE,

and a Chartered Engineer.

[1] O.K. Marti and H. Winograd, Mercury Arc

CONSTRUCTION Rectifiers, Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill,

The coupled inductors used in this paper 1930, p.419, Fig. 221.

were constructed on a 2616PA250-3B9 pot [2] G.B. Crouse, Electrical Filter, US Patent

core. This core has an effective permeabili- 1,920,948, August, 1933.

ty of 78µº. Table 3 provides specs for the [3] R. Lee, Electronic Transformers and

coupled inductors used in this paper. Circuits. New York: John Wiley, 1947, p. 97.

The dc port inductor was wound onto the Electronic Designers Handbook,

McGraw-Hill, 1957, p. 15-21, Fig. 15.22.

core first. Dielectric tape was wrapped