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BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION (BEME); A CASE STUDY OF A 100 METERS ROAD. By Engr. Oladipupo S. OLAFUSI Ph.D., MNSE, MNICE, MACostE

(Delivered on Saturday 28th October, 2017)

1.0 INTRODUCTION

For all engineering works, it is required to know beforehand the probable cost of construction known as estimated cost. Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) also referred to as 'Bill'; is a tool used before, during and post-construction to assess and value the cost of construction works. This includes the cost of materials, labor, equipment and all/any other resource(s) required for the success of

any construction endeavor based on a pre-determined scope and specification.

2.0 OBJECTIVES OF A BILL

The objectives of a BEME are:

(i)

To provide sufficient information during construction planning, for tendering and contracting purposes or for the purpose of knowing the estimated cost of the proposed project (If the estimated cost is greater than the available funds to execute the project, then attempts are made to reduce the estimated cost by reviewing the scope and/or specification).

(ii)

To Facilitate the comparison of rates and prices between bidders.

(iii)

To provide priced Bill of quantities for use in the periodic evaluation of Works executed; for the purpose of payments and project control, during and on-completion of a project for disputes and compensation or to determine if the project was completed on-budget or otherwise.

(iv)

To provide rates and prices which can be used in the variation of additional works instructed by the Clients.

(v)

To enable the Clients to assemble actual tendered rates and prices to prepare for future estimating and budgeting.

In order to attain these objectives, the bill is often itemized such that the proposed work are broken down into classes of work with sufficient details for distinguishing between the classes of work, and between works of the same nature carried out at different locations or in any circumstances.

The BEME is usually presented in a tabular form and prepared in work packages or categories by a process of "taking-off" which involves identifying and breaking down all elements of a construction work that is measured; including their respective cost. The Bill should be simple, as brief as possible, all items should be covered by the bill and prepared such that would be understood by a layman as much as possible.

*Taking-off refers to the process of identifying and breaking down the elements of construction works that can be measured and priced. it helps extract the detailed quantities and measurement of elements of any construction works.

3.0

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BOQ & BEME

Although, BOQ and BEME tends to serve the same purpose and are prepared in the same manner or format; but BOQ is used basically for building works, while BEME is used for civil engineering works such as Roads and drainages, retaining walls, piling, underpinning, bridges and culverts, railway works, dams etc.

4.0 MEASUREMENTS AND ESTIMATING FOR BEME

4.1 Standard Method Of Measurements

There is usually a standard method of measurement (varies for countries or regions as in the Code of Practices); which helps in the classification of works, as it defines:

(i)

how works are to be broken-down into separate items in the bill

(ii)

the information to be given in item description

(iii)

the units of expressing the quantities of each item

(iv)

how the works are to be measured for

the purpose of calculating quantities

The Standard Method of Measurement provides detailed guidelines for the measurement of works; which reduces the possibility of measurement related disputes at the post-construction stage. The Standard methods of measurement also contains an exhaustive list of work items. This provided uniformity among the tenders and also reduces the pricing risks for the bidders and consequently more competitive tenders can be expected. The 4th edition of the NIQS' Building and Engineering Standard Method of Measurement (BESMM4) and the 4th edition of the Institute of Civil Engineers, United Kingdom's Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement (CESMM4) is currently in use for estimating and billing of quantities in Nigeria.

4.2 Estimating and Evaluation For BEME

The art of estimating and evaluation is influenced majorly on the ability to read and understand drawings without difficulty and the ability to calculate quantities such as single items or numbers, weight, time (hours, weeks) and dimensions such as length (linear meter), area (square meter), and volume (cubic meter). Accuracy in estimate is very important; and in preparing one, the quantities of different items of work are calculated by simple measurements which aids the calculated cost of the project. The process involves:

(i)

Interpreting plans, drawings and understanding the specifications.

(ii)

Developing a work breakdown structure of the construction project into segments or phases.

(iii)

Develop or clearly define the scope for each segment or phase of the project.

(iv)

Calculate and estimate the cost of materials, equipment, labor and man-hours required for each segment or phase.

(v)

Summarize the cost for each segment or phase into cost per required unit.

(vi)

Transfer the rate and estimated quantities into the BEME.

(vii)

Peruse the BEME thoroughly for errors and omissions.

5.0 PRESENTATION FORMAT FOR BEME

BEME typically comes in different tabular forms, depending on the organization or estimator. Although, there is a conventional (professionally acceptable) format of presenting BEME as shown in Table 1 below. But, a quantity estimator or cost engineer can be innovative in presenting a Bill for direct-labor projects, for himself or any other reason as shown in Table 2 or otherwise.

Table 1: Conventional Bill

Amount

Item

Item Description

Quantity

Unit

Rate

Table 2: Innovative Bill

Item

Description

 

Materials

   

Labor

Other

Total

Notes

Qty

Unit

Rate

Amount

Qty

Unit

Rate

Amount

Cost

6.0 100-METER ROAD CASE STUDY

Assume a 100 meters long road of 10 meters width carriageway and drainage on both sides is to be constructed according to the drawing presented in Plate 1 below.

width carriageway and drainage on both sides is to be constructed according to the drawing presented

6.1

Estimation and Evaluation

Prior to the preparation of the Bill, as discussed earlier; steps are taken to breakdown the proposed project into stages or sections. In the case of this case study, the project is broken- down into Site Clearing, Earthwork, Drainage Works, Road Stabilization and Pavement Construction.

6.1.1 Site Clearing

Often times a lump sum or provisional sum is provided for the cost of clearing based on the Engineer's experience and the current state of the site to be cleared (having visited the site for a detailed assessment).

For the purpose of this project, I assumed a provisional sum of 500,000 (Five Hundred Thousand Naira) would be adequate for the clearing of the site and removal of topsoil and other unsuitable material.

6.1.2

Earthwork

This seems to be one of the most difficult task on road work estimations. It involves the excavation, filling and leveling of ground surface for the road construction. The cutting and filling of soil during earthwork is carried out with respect to the formation line (an imaginary line which indicates the earthwork's finished surface from the road design provided). The portion of soils above the formation line indicates that the soils need to be cut (excavated), while the voids below the formation line indicates that the soil needs to be imported to fill-up the voids (filling); to achieve the formation level as presented in Figure 1 below.

Existing Road Profile Cut Formation Line Fill Figure 1. Road Profile
Existing Road Profile
Cut
Formation Line
Fill
Figure 1. Road Profile

The volume of earthwork can be calculated manually or using computer applications such as MS Excel, AEC CutFill, etc. In estimating the cost of earthwork, the cross- sectional area of the road is assumed to be trapezoidal in shape as in Figure 2 below; and detailed measurement from site assessment (such as the depth and width of cuts and fills as discussed in Figure 1) is required as inputs in the estimation.

B S d S Sd Sd
B
S
d
S
Sd
Sd

Figure 2. Typical Cross-section of a Road

B is the breadth or width of the road in meters = 10 m

d is the depth of fill, which varies from point to point ac in Column C in Table 3. below S is the slope (usually assumed to be 2)

Table 3. Estimation of Earthwork

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

 

I

               

Quantity

Points

Chainage

Depth,

Breadth,

Center Area (m 2 )

Side Area

Total Area

Length

 

(m

3 )

d (m)

B (m)

(m

2 )

(m

2 )

(m)

   
   

Cut

 

Fill

 

1 0 - 0+30

0.5

11.4

5.7

0.5

6.20

30

   

186.0

 

2 0+30 - 0+45

1.3

11.4

14.82

3.38

18.20

15

 

273.0

 

3 0+45 - 0+85

0.7

11.4

7.98

0.98

8.96

40

 

358.4

 

4 0+85 - 0+100

1.2

11.4

13.68

2.88

16.56

15

 

248.4

 

TOTAL

 

1065.8

Points-

these are the points on the road, where measurements of fill were

Chainage-

taken. is the distance between points of measurements taken on-site.

Depth-

is the depth of fill, which varies from point to point on the road profile.

Breadth-

is the same as width of the proposed road.

Center Area-

is the area of the rectangular cross-section of the road.

Side Area-

is the area of the triangular (sides) cross-section of the road. it is

Total Area-

usually calculated by the product of the slope and square of the depth of fill (Sd 2 ). is the sum of the center area and the side areas (summation of columns E and F).

Length-

is the distance covered by the chainage at each point along the road

Quantity-

is total volume of earthwork required at each point on the road (i.e. product of columns G and H).

However, for the purpose of this case study, 1065.8 m 3 of earthwork is estimated to be carried-out on the road construction work (given the depths and lengths of fills along the 100 meters road from the project site assessment), and I assumed a rate of 3,200 per cubic meter would be adequate for the earthwork. Note also that the earthwork is

carried out on the entire right of way (ROW); which is 11.4 meters and not just the carriageway of 10 meters.

6.1.3 Drainage Works

For the estimation of the cost of drainage, usually it is estimated in linear meters in the BEME. Although, a detailed calculation of the volume of concrete, reinforcement and the cost per linear meter of completing the drainage according to the designed

specification would have been carried out (including all other cost element such as curing, handling if precast, transporting, concrete drainage cover, etc). And the approximate cost of completing 1-meter of the specified drainage as shown in Plate 2 below is computed in the BEME.

For the purpose of this case study I assumed 45,000 (Forty Five Thousand Naira) per linear meter for the completion of the specified drainage in the BEME.

Plate 2. Drainage Specification Details

Plate 2. Drainage Specification Details

6.1.4

Road Stabilization

The stabilization is often estimated in volume or area of coverage (i.e. cubic meters or square meter respectively). Although, the cost of providing, laying and compacting the specified material (sand, crushed stone, hardcore, etc.) would have been calculated before computing in the BEME. The calculated cost per unit and the estimated quantity required are then transferred to the BEME. For the purpose of this case study, we had two layers of stabilization; 150 mm thick granite crushed stone to serve as base course for the road pavement and 50 mm thick sharp river sand bed to receive the paving stone (pavement). The stabilization materials are to be spread across the entire carriageway along the length of the road as shown in the designed road section in Plate 1. Although, the rates for the granite crushed stone and the river sand would differ based on the cost of completing each of them, but the quantity would be the same (i.e. 10 m width x 100 m length = 1000 m 2 ). However, an estimator can decide to group the entire stabilization together or separate the granite crushed stone from the sharp river sand bed in the

BEME.

For the purpose of this case study, I separated the granite crushed stone from the river sand bed and the rates were 4000 (Four Thousand Naira) and 1,000 (One Thousand Naira) respectively to complete a square meter for the stabilization.

6.1.5 Pavement

The pavement which is the last course of the road section may also be estimated in volume of area covered (i.e. cubic or square meter respectively); depending on the pavement type and as required by the bill.

For the purpose of this case study, the pavement is a 80 mm thick paving stone, required to be estimated in square meters. Like the estimation of the coverage area in those for the stabilization; the quantity is the same because we have to pave everywhere that was stabilized, otherwise the quantity would differ. Thus, 4,800 (Four Thousand Eight Hundred Naira) was estimated to complete a square meter of the specified pavement.

Please read up on:

(a)

The estimation of reinforced concrete structures, concretes, reinforcements for a detailed understanding of the drainage estimation.

(b)

The estimation of road materials for a detailed understanding of the estimation of stabilization.

(c)

The estimation of road pavements for a detailed understanding of the estimation of pavement.

6.2 Summary of BEME For 100 Meters Road:

Table 4 below presents the detailed Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation for the 100 Meters road case study. Please recall that:

(i) I assumed a provision of 500,000 for the entire clearing of the site

(iii)

The estimated cost of drainage per linear meter is 45,000 and total quantity is 200 meter (both sides of the road).

(iv)

The estimated volume of stabilization was 1000 m 2 , while the rates for granite crushed stone and sharp river sand were 4,000 and 1,000 respectively.

(v)

The estimated volume of paving stone required for the pavement is also 1000 m 2 and the rate of completing the pavement (all cost inclusive) is 4,800.

Table 4. Bill of Engineering Measurement and Estimation; Case Study of 100 Meters Road

Item

Item Description

Quantity

Unit

Rate ()

Amount

()

(Kobo)

1

Clear site, remove all unsuitable sub- grade material and cart away all unsuitable materials off-site (haulage inclusive).

     

500,000

 
 

Provide, spread and compact approved

         

2

Laterite material to fill and shape the road to formation line.

1065.8

m

3

3,200

3,410,560

 

Provide and install 125 mm thick reinforced concrete (grade M25) 450 x 450 mm drainage with 100 mm thick

         

3

reinforced concrete 600 x 600 mm drainage cover (according to the specifications of the designed drainage).

200

m

45,000

9,000,000

 

Provide, spread and compact approved granite crushed stone base to a compact

         

4

thickness of 150 mm. (haulage inclusive).

1000

m

2

4000

4,000,000

 

Provide, spread sharp river sand, Shape, Level and compact to a compact

         

5

thickness of 50 mm in preparation for paving.

1000

m

2

1000

1,000,000

 

Provide and lay 80 mm thick paving

         

6

stone (cost of handling, transporting, damp-proofing and grouting inclusive).

1000

m

2

4,800

4,800,000

 

Sum of works (Item 1-6)

     

22,710,560

 
 

Provide 5% VAT

     

1,135,528

 
 

TOTAL

23,846,088

 

Note:

Sometimes provisions are made for overhead (the assumed cost of executing the project by the contractor, which varies for individual contractors) after the sum of works, before adding the 5% VAT; but in this case study, I have considered the contractor's overhead in the individual cost element for the categories of work. However, the estimated cost of the 100 meters road construction is 23,846,088 (Twenty Three Million, Eight Hundred and Forty Six Thousand, Eighty Eight Naira Only).

Additionally, the bill can also be broken further down into subsections like our resource person Engr. B. Jolayemi Oyinloye presented on Saturday 21st October, 2017 as below:

Oyinloye presented on Saturday 21st October, 2017 as below: Plate 3. Engr. Oyinloye's BEME Sample (showing

Plate 3. Engr. Oyinloye's BEME Sample (showing sub-sections in a Bill)