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drives in high precision turntables and hobbing machines.

Figure 14-12 presents the basic concept of a duplex lead


In the above table, W and W' are the tolerance units defined as:

The lead or pitch, PL and PR, on the two sides of the worm (15-1)
W= 0.56 W + 0.25m (µm) (15-2)
thread are not identical. The example in Figure 14-12 shows
The value of allowable pitch variation error is k times the
the case when PR > PL To produce such a worm requires a
single pitch error. Table 15-2 expresses the formula of the
special dual lead hob. allowable pitch variation error.
The intent of Figure 14-12 is to indicate that the worm tooth
thickness is progressively bigger towards the right end. Thus, it
is convenient to adjust backlash by simply moving the duplex
worm in the axial direction.
Gears are one of the basic elements used to transmit power
and position. As designers, we desire them to meet various
1. Minimum size.
2. Maximum power capability.
3. Minimum noise (silent operation).
4. Accurate rotation/position.
To meet various levels of these demands requires appropriate
degrees of gear accuracy. This involves several gear features.
15.1 Accuracy Of Spur And Helical Gears
This discussion of spur and helical gear accuracy is based
upon JIS B 1702 standard. This specification describes 9 grades
of gear accuracy - grouped from 0 through 8 - and four types of Figure 15-1 is an example of pitch errors derived from data
pitch errors: measurements made with a dial indicator on a 15 tooth gear.
Single pitch error. Pitch differences were measured between adjacent teeth and are
Pitch variation error. plotted in the figure. From that plot, single pitch, pitch variation
Accumulated pitch error. and accumulated pitch errors are extracted and plotted.
Normal pitch error.
Single pitch error, pitch variation and accumulated pitch errors
are closely related with each other.
15.1.1 Pitch Errors of Gear Teeth
1. Single Pitch Error (fpt)
The deviation between actual measured pitch value between
any adjacent tooth surface and theoretical circular pitch.
2. Pitch Variation Error (fpu)
Actual pitch variation between any two adjacent teeth. In the
ideal case, the pitch variation error will be zero.
3. Accumulated Pitch Error (Fp)
Difference between theoretical summation over any number
of teeth interval, and summation of actual pitch measurement
over the same interval.
4. Normal Pitch Error (fpb)
It is the difference between theoretical normal pitch and its
actual measured value.
The major element to influence the pitch errors is the runout
of gear flank groove.
Table 15-1 contains the ranges of allowable pitch errors of
spur gears and helical gears for each precision grade, as NOTE: A = Max. Single Pitch Error
specified in JIS B 1702-1976. B = Max. Accumulated Error
C = Max. Pitch Variation Error

Fig. 15-1 Examples of Pitch Errors for a 15 Tooth Gear

15.1.2 Tooth Profile Error, ff Shown in Figure 15-2 is an
Tooth profile error is the summation of deviation between example of a chart measuring
actual tooth profile and correct involute curve which passes tooth profile error and lead error
through the pitch point measured perpendicular to the actual using a Zeiss UMC 550 tester.
profile. The measured band is the actual effective working Table 15-3 presents the
surface of the gear. However, the tooth modification area is not allowable tooth profile, runout
considered as part of profile error. and lead errors per JIS B
15.1.3 Runout Error of Gear Teeth, Fr 1702-1976.
This error defines the runout of the pitch circle. It is the error 15.1.5. Outside Diameter
in radial position of the teeth. Most often it is measured by Runout and Lateral Runout
indicating the position of a pin or ball inserted in each tooth To produce a high precision
space around the gear and taking the largest difference. gear requires starting with an
Alternately, particularly for fine pitch gears, the gear is rolled accurate gear blank. Two criteria
with a master gear on a variable center distance fixture, which are very important:
records the change in the center distance as the measure of 1. Outside diameter (OD)
teeth or pitch circle runout. Runout causes a number of runout.
problems, one of which is noise. The source of this error is 2. Lateral (side face) runout.
most often insufficient accuracy and ruggedness of the cutting The lateral runout has a large
arbor and tooling system. impact on the gear tooth
15.1.4 Lead Error, fβ accuracy. Generally, the
Lead error is the deviation of the actual advance of the tooth permissible runout error is
profile from the ideal value or position. Lead error results in related to the gear size. Table
poor tooth contact, particularly concentrating contact to the tip 15-4 presents equations for
area. Modifications, such as tooth crowning and relieving can allowable values of OD runout
alleviate this error to some degree. and lateral runout.

Table 15-3 The Value of Allowable Tooth Profile Error,

Runout Error and Lead Error, µm
Tooth Profile Error Runout Error of Gear Groove Lead Error
Grade ff Fr Fβ
JIS 0 0.71m + 2.24 1.4W + 4.0 0.63(0.1b + 10)
1 1.0m + 3.15 2.0W + 5.6 0.71(0.1b + 10)
2 1.4m + 4.5 2.8W + 8.0 0.80(0.1b + 10)
3 2.0m + 6.3 4.0W + 11.2 1.00(0.1b + 10)
4 2.8m + 9.0 5.6W + 16.0 1.25(0.1b + 10)
5 4.0m + 12.5 8.0W + 22.4 1.60(0.1b + 10)
6 5.6m + 18.0 11.2W + 31.5 2.00(0.1b + 10)
7 8.0m + 25.0 22.4W + 63.0 2.50(0.1b + 10)
8 11.2m + 35.5 45.0W + 125.0 3.15(0.1b + 10)

where: W = Tolerance unit =

b = Tooth width (mm)
m = Module (mm)

15.2 Accuracy Of Bevel Gears
JIS B 1704 regulates the specification of a bevel gears
accuracy. It also groups bevel gears into 9 grades, from 0
The equations of allowable pitch variations are in Table 15-6.
to 8.
Besides the above errors, there are seven specifications for bevel
There are 4 types of allowable errors:
gear blank dimensions and angles, plus an eighth that concerns the cut
1. Single Pitch Error.
gear set:
2. Pitch Variation Error.
1. The tolerance of the blank outside diameter and the crown to
3. Accumulated Pitch Error.
back surface distance.
4. Runout Error of Teeth (pitch circle).
2. The tolerance of the outer cone angle of the gear blank.
These are similar to the spur gear errors.
3. The tolerance of the cone surface runout of the gear blank.
1. Single Pitch Error, fpt
4. The tolerance of the side surface runout of the gear blank.
The deviation between actual measured pitch value 5. The feeler gauge size to check the flatness of blank back surface.
between any adjacent teeth and the theoretical circular 6. The tolerance of the shaft runout of the gear blank.
pitch at the central cone distance. 7. The tolerance of the shaft bore dimension deviation of the gear
2. Pitch Variation Error, fpu blank.
Absolute pitch variation between any two adjacent teeth 8. The contact band of the tooth mesh.
at the central cone distance. Item 8 relates to cutting of the two mating gears' teeth. The
3. Accumulated Pitch Error, Fp meshing tooth contact area must be full and even across the profiles.
Difference between theoretical pitch sum of any teeth This is an important criterion that supersedes all other blank
interval, and the summation of actual measured pitches requirements.
for the same teeth interval at the central cone distance. 15.3 Running (Dynamic) Gear Testing
4. Runout Error of Teeth, Fr An alternate simple means of testing the general accuracy of a gear
This is the maximum amount of tooth runout in the radial is to rotate it with a mate, preferably of known high quality, and
direction, measured by indicating a pin or ball placed measure characteristics during rotation. This kind of tester can be
between two teeth at the central cone distance. It is the either single contact (fixed center distance method) or dual (variable
pitch cone runout. center distance method). This refers to action on one side or
Table 15-5 presents equations for allowable values of simultaneously on both sides of the tooth. This is also commonly
these various errors. referred to as single and double flank testing. Because of simplicity,
dual contact testing is more popular than single contact. JGMA has a
specification on accuracy of running tests.
Table 15-5 Equations for Allowable Single Pitch
Error, Accumulated Pitch Error and Pitch Cone
Runout Error, µm

In this technique, the gear is forced meshed with a master gear

such that there is intimate tooth contact on both sides and, therefore,
no backlash. The contact is forced by a loading spring. As the gears
rotate, there is variation of center distance due to various errors, most
notably runout. This variation is measured and is a criterion of gear
quality. A full rotation presents the total gear error, while rotation
through one pitch is a tooth-to-tooth error. Figure 15-3 presents a
typical plot for such a test.
For American engineers, this measurement test is identical to what
AGMA designates as Total Composite Tolerance (or error) and
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Tolerance. Both of these parameters are
also referred to in American publications as "errors", which they truly
are. Tolerance is a design value which is an inaccurate description of
the parameter, since it is an error.
Allowable errors per JGMA 116-01 are presented on the next page,
in Table 15-7.
Table 15-6 The Formula of Allowable 2. Single Contact Testing
Pitch Variation Error (µm) In this test, the gear is mated with a master gear on a fixed center
Single Pitch Error, fpt Pitch Variation Error, fpu distance and set in such a way that only one tooth side makes contact.
Less than 70 1.3fpt The gears are rotated through this single flank contact action, and the
70 or more, but less than angular transmission error of the driven gear is measured. This is a
1.4fpt tedious testing method and is seldom used except for inspectiop of the
100 or more, but less than very highest precision gears.
More than 150 1.6fpt