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LEADERSHIP ATTITUDES refers to the extent to which the leader takes charge to get the job

Successful leaders have positive and optimistic attitudes, for
them attitude is the most important thing in life, being positive or Employee centered style:The job-centered style has scales
negative about people, things and problems. about people, things measuring two job-oriented behaviors of goal emphasis and work
and problems. facilitation; refers to the extent to which the leader takes charge to
get the job done. Refers to the extent to which the leader focuses
Theory X versus Theory Y on meeting the human needs of employees while developing
What is each one? What does each imply in a leader’s
attitudes towards the people he of she works with? Theory OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
«X» corresponds to the «old management paradigm». And
Theory «Y» corresponds to the «new leadership paradigm». Initiating Structure Behavior:Is essentially the same as the job-
centered leadership style; it focuses on getting the task done.
Theory «X»: In theory "X" the attitudes of employees are based
on material motivations, such as money; they do not like work; Consideration Behavior:Is essentially the same as the
doing things well is not important to them. It is necessary to employee-centered leadership style; it focuses on meeting
control them closely and supervise them constantly. people’s needs and developing relationships.

Theory «Y» In theory "Y" the skills of employees are based on BLAKE MOUTON LEADERSHIP GRID
doing things well and achieving objectives; not being necessary
Concern for People and Concern for Productivity
to monitor them constantly, because there is a good
communication and the work environment will improve self- Positions on the grid: 1,1; 9,1; 5,5; 9,9
What do they mean?Is two leadership dimensions, which Blake
The Pygmalion Effect and Mouton called concern for production and concern for people.
The concern for both people and production is measured through
How does a leader’s expectation affect followers? If the a questionnaire on a scale from 1 to 9. Therefore, the grid has 81
expectations of a leader are high, followers can feel conditioned possible combinations of concern for production and people.
on their performance, seeking to give their best to be superior and However, the Leadership Grid identifies five leadership styles: 1,1
excellent; Also if a leader has low expectations of his followers he impoverished; 9,1 authority compliance; 1,9 country club; 5,5
will create poor performance conditions. middle of the road; and 9,9 team leader. See Exhibit 3.4 for an
Self Concept adaptation of the Leadership Grid.

What kind of “self concept” characterizes a good leader? If a HOUSE AND DRESSLER PATH AND GOAL THEORY
leader believes in his ability to perform his tasks in an outstanding What behaviors characterize each? / ¿Qué comportamientos
way, the followers will see that attitude in him, knowing that the caracterizan a cada uno?
leader is sure of himself and his decisions, as well as the
predisposition to interact with others in a way integrated and Directive Style:The leader provides high structure. Directive
communicative with the followers. leadership is appropriate when the followers want authority
leadership, have external locus of control, and the follower ability
University of Iowa: Supportive Style:The leader provides high consideration.
WHAT ARE THEY? WHAT CHARACTERIZES EACH? They are Supportive leadership is appropriate when the followers do not
two basic leadership styles two basic leadership style want autocratic leadership, have internal locus of control, and
follower ability is high.
Autocratic Leadership:The autocratic leader makes the
decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises Participative Style:The leader includes employee input into
workers. decision making. Participative leadership is appropriate when
followers want to be involved, have internal locus of control, and
Democratic Leadership:The democratic leader encourages follower ability is high.
participation in decisions; works with employees to determine what
to do, and does not closely supervise employees. Achievement Oriented Style:The leader sets difficult but
achievable goals, expects followers to perform at their highest
Laissez – Faire Leadership:Laissez-faire is the most passive and level, and rewards them for doing so. In essence, the leader
therefore least effective of leader behaviors. Management by provides both high directive (structure) and high supportive
exception—active or passive—is slightly better, but it’s still (consideration) behavior.
considered ineffective.
Can a leader use more than one? When? Why? / Yes, because
University of Michigan: the leader can select the most appropriate leadership style by
using the four models are based on two factors: individual or group
Job centered style:The job-centered style has scales measuring decisions and time-driven or development-driven decisions.
two job-oriented behaviors of goal emphasis and work facilitation;
LEADERSHIP TRAITS group. One seeks to balance the concerns for self with those of
others and the common good.
What are the different ways that people use to “justify”
What are they?/ There are 5 traits that everyone has to a greater unethical behavior? A person can "justify" unethical behavior
or lesser extent in their personality as a leader through a displacement of responsibility; another is the diffusion of
responsibility; the advantageous comparison comparing ourselves
How do they manifest themselves in a Leader? They manifest
with others that are worse and underestimating or distorting the
through Surgence, Agreeableness, Adjustment,
consequences, which minimizes the damage caused by unethical
Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience. Through
influence, get along with others, have self-control, responsibility
and be willing to accept changes. CULTURE AND DIVERSITY
“LOCUS OF CONTROL” What is “Culture”? Why is it important? Culture is the
aggregate of beliefs, norms, attitudes, values, assumptions, and
What is an “external locus of control”? It’s the way in which the
ways of doing things that is shared bymembers of an organization
individual interpreting the reinforcement or help of someone as an
and taught to new members. It's important because an
external force, meaning "Something or someone else caused the
organization’s culture determines the way that it responds to
success or failure" and not taking responsibility if everything goes
problems of survival in its external and internal environments.
wrong or good.
What is an “internal locus of control”?/ It’s the way in which the
individual sees that the reinforcement he receives depends on his High performance cultures? A weak culture symbolizes a lack of
own actions, in that sense he understands "I was the cause of the agreement on key values and norms
success or failure of the change"
Low performance cultures? A strong culture symbolizes
Which one characterizes a true leader?/ A true leader can also widespread consensus
have other characteristics such as sensitivity to others, high
energy, self-confidence among others. CULTURAL VALUE TYPES: KNOW WHAT THEY ARE AND
Cooperative Culture:Represents a leadership belief in strong,
What is “n-Ach” – Need for Achievement? mutually reinforcing exchanges and linkages between employees
and departments.
It's the unconscious concern for excellence in achievement,
through individual effort. is defined as “behavior toward Adaptive Culture:Represents a leadership belief in active
competition with a standard of excellence" monitoring of the external environment for emerging opportunities
and threats
How does it manifest itself in Leaders
Competitive Culture:Represents a leadership that encourages
This manifest itself in Leaders through (1) a tendency to set
and values a highly competitive work environment.
moderately difficult goals, (2) a strong desire to assume personal
responsibility for work activities, (3) a single-minded focus on Bureaucratic Culture:Represents a leadership that values order,
accomplishing a task, and (4) a strong desire for detailed feedback stability, status, and efficiency.
on task performance.
What is “Diversity”? Why should organizations “embrace”
ETHICS AND ETHICAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR diversity? Organizations should "embrace" diversity because it
provides diverse points of view to face problems.
WHAT IS “ETHICS”? Moral principles that govern a person's
behavior or the conducting of an activity.


What does each level represent?/

Pre-conventional: Self-interest motivates behavior to meet one’s
own needs to gain rewards while following rules and being
obedient to authority to avoid punishment.
Conventional: Living up to expectations of acceptable behavior
defined by others motivates behavior to fulfill duties and
obligations. It is common for followers to copy the behavior of the
leaders and group. Peer pressure is used to enforce group norms.

Post-conventional: Behavior is motivated by universal principles

of right and wrong, regardless of the expectations of the leader or