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Catholic Information

Table of Contents
Canon of Scripture.....................................................................................................................................2
Jewishness of the Office of the Pope.........................................................................................................4
Purgatory....................................................................................................................................................6
Praying to the Saints..................................................................................................................................6
Praying to the Saints as Part of the Divine Plan........................................................................................8
Reading Scripture.......................................................................................................................................9
The Ten Commandments.........................................................................................................................11
The word "Easter"....................................................................................................................................25
Protestant doctrine on righteousness & Justification...............................................................................33
On Peter’s Primacy..................................................................................................................................34
primus, prima, primum...................................................................................................................35
primus, primi..................................................................................................................................35
More Greek Sources.................................................................................................................................38
The Sign of the Cross...............................................................................................................................47
The Seven Sacraments.............................................................................................................................48
Canon of Scripture

The Canon of Jewish scripture during the time of Jesus Christ was codified in prior to 220 BC
and this is the Second Temple canon (STP). During this second temple period most Jews did not speak
Hebrew as it was a dead language and only used in a religious setting. The language spoken by Jews in
general was Greek which was the lingua franca, and those living in and around Jerusalem and Palestine
spoke a Syriac language called Aramaic. The Jewish Hebrew canon was translated into Greek by 72
Jewish scholars in Alexandria by between 210 – 190 BC and this text was in wide spread use among
the Jewish people and was called the Septuagint (ⅬⅩⅩ). This is the scriptural canon used by Jesus
Christ. According to scholars during the time of Jesus, both the Hebrew and Greek canon were
considered co-equal and of equal veracity, in fact both versions were used in worship and by the
Rabbis.
When Jesus is quoted in scripture or the apostles speak they use the ⅬⅩⅩ not the STP canon.
The slight variations between the ⅬⅩⅩ and the STP canon are born out in the New Testament. Jesus
Christ and his apostles used the ⅬⅩⅩ and that is the reason why the Catholic Church uses the ⅬⅩⅩ – if
it is good enough for Jesus… The ⅬⅩⅩ did not include the Apocryphal books – by this I mean the real
apocryphal books not the Protestant equivocation of the term. None of the Catholic nor Catholic
Orthodox Bibles include any apocryphal books, not a single one. The Catholic Church uses both the
Western and Eastern canon and this is dependent on the rite to which one may belong. Western
churches include only the formal ⅬⅩⅩ canon which is used in the liturgy whereas the Eastern churches
(including Eastern Catholics) use the general canon of the ⅬⅩⅩ. The Western ⅬⅩⅩ canon is
sometimes called the Carthaginian canon. As for liturgical purposes both the Eastern and Western
Churches can get by with the formal canon used by the Western Churches.
When the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed during the First Jewish Roman War. The Roman
army sought and destroyed all Hebrew writings they could get their hands on. All throughout Palestine
synagogues were raided and the writings were destroyed. The Temple of Jerusalem was so integral to
the living of the life and faith of Judaism. It was centered not on the reading and studying scripture but
on liturgy and sacrifice administer by the priests and Levites (deacons). The destruction of the Temple
resulted in the Jews not being able to practice the faith, as without the Temple no Jew could practice
their faith, Judaism was essentially dead and there was no longer a requirement for the Jewish
priesthood.

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The Bar Kokhba Revolt is seen as a turning point in Catholic Jewish relations as Jewish
Catholics did not join in the revolt against the Romans; given that the Jews considered Simon Bar
Kokhba the messiah it is not hard to understand why Jewish Catholics would not join their kinsmen in
the revolt. After the revolt was put down the Jewish Rabbis branded Bar Kokhba a heretic and a false
messiah, however, the Catholics were continued to be considered traitors.
Once the situation had calmed down somewhat after the Bar Kokhba Revolt (Second Jewish
Roman War) the Jewish Rabbis (not the Levites or the priests) came together to seek to re-found
Judaism in around 170 AD. A decision was made at this council that all only the Jewish scripture in
Hebrew have canonical validity. Due to the destruction of the Jewish writings, the only Hebrew texts
available at this time was the pre-Babylonian canon in Hebrew which was dispersed in areas of the
Middle East, which was supplemented by the ⅬⅩⅩ in its usage. This decision to accept only the then
available canon in Hebrew essentially stripped the post-Babylonian books knows as the
Deuterocanonical books from the Jewish Bible which were once available in Hebrew but no longer
available when the Jewish canon was formalized for the second time in the 7th century. This new canon
is called the Masoretic canon and is used by Jews today. While the Orthodox Jews of today do not
consider the Deuterocanonical books a part of the canon they consider these book helpful in following
the faith and not heretical in any way. The earliest Masoretic manuscript available is from the 11th
century.
In the very early 1500’s two streams, humanism and biblical criticism flowed into a confluence.
The humanists required that all work should be translated from the earliest sources and already has
some scholarship. Biblical criticism on the other hand was just in its nativity. Humanism scholarship
favored that translation from the source languages, namely Greek for the New Testament and Hebrew
for the Old Testament. When the Protestant following the scholarship of the day decided to choose the
Masoretic canon as it was in Hebrew, the original language of the OT. Since the deuterocanonical
books were no longer available in the Hebrew, these were not included in the Protestant Old Testament.
The ancient Churches, which were all Catholic continued to use the ⅬⅩⅩ, not following the
then modern scholarship, but rather, following their tradition. This tradition provided an alternate
historical narrative which provided a contrary counter narrative of historic usage within the Early
Church to that of the newly minted scholars looking at scripture without the guide of tradition.
Fast forward to 1946 and the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. We have to complete Jewish
Canon of the STP in Hebrew. Some Jews hid away the Jewish scriptures from the STP in some caves

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several caches of these began to be found in the Judean hill country. Which goes to prove Catholics
were right all along, so much so that they were able to preserve Jewish Bible better than the Rabbinic
Jews themselves.
As for the term apocrypha when concerning the Bible, the Protestants are equivocating as usual.
There is an apocrypha but neither do the Eastern or Western Churches use these books in their
scriptural canons. The books of the STP/ⅬⅩⅩ canon which are not in the Masoretic canon are called
the deuterocanonical books, not by the equivocation of terms, the Apocrypha. The Apocrypha and the
deuterocanonical books different sets of books. Books belonging to the apocrypha are any number of
books (there is no standard at all) such as the Enoch, Jubilee, etc. The term apocrypha has been abused
so badly by Protestants in an attempt to validate their choice of the Masoretic that there is much
confusion in this regard. They are under the false impression that the books which appear in the King
James Bible’s (regarded today as the very worst mainstream bible by academics) apocryphal section
are actually Apocryphal books, they are not.
There was no canonized canon during the time of Jesus. The Sadducees only accepted the five
books of Moses. Flavius Josephus list of 22 books of the Jewish canon includes deuterocanonical books
such as Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon.

Jewishness of the Office of the Pope

Protestants and some Catholics are under the assumption that the Catholic Church came into
being on Pentecost. This is incorrect, as a Jew reading the Acts 1:15 (In those days Peter rising up in
the midst of the brethren, said: now the number of persons together was about an hundred and twenty)
will tell you that the Catholic Church existed as a synagogue/church prior to Pentecost. Jewish law
required 120 persons as members to establish a new synagogue. While Pentecost was the day on which
Catholicism was vivified and thus came into its nativity, it pre-existed through time. In the Jewish
telescoping of time of 40 days representing 40 weeks, from the Passover to Pentecost the Church was
in its gestation. On the assertion of Jesus Christ the Church is on earth, and is vivified and given life to
and takes Her first breath on Pentecost.
Judaism and Catholicism have the same birthday Shavuot/Pentecost. Fifty days after Passover,
Jews celebrate Shavuot which is the day Judaism as a religion took its first breath with the giving of the
Written Law (Torah) and the Oral Tradition was given to the Jewish people. Catholics celebrate on that

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Sunday, Pentecost, the day our Faith first took its first breath as it was vivified by the Holy Spirit.
Thus, Judaism foreshadows Catholicism. Notice, that on Shavuot 3,000 persons were slain by the Lord
for idolatry likewise on Pentecost 3,000 persons are baptized into the Church.
When Peter in Acts 1 stands up to speak, he does so as the nasi ( ‫ נְ ִׂשיא‬lit. Prince) of the new
congregation, as every new synagogue was required to have a nasi. He is at least at this time the head
of this first congregation. Also, we do know there were 70 members of the beit din ( ‫ )בית דין‬during the

time of Jesus and Caiaphas was the nasi, the Great Sanhedrin ( ‫ )סַ נְ הֶ ְד ִׂרין‬has 71 members (Caiaphas
included). This new congregation had a beit din of 70 disciples with Cephas (Simon Peter) as its head.
The nasi does not sit on the court but generally addresses it and gives it direction but yet is the highest
ranking member of the court though not sitting on the court itself. There is an office of av biet din (‫ָאב‬

‫ )בֵּ ית ִׂדין‬is the head of the court and is a member of and counted among the seventy of the Great

Sanhedrin. Furthermore, a synagogue outside the temple had only 23 members per beit din, but
following this we can see that Jesus Christ has a fully-fledged legal entity, which is not just a
synagogue but completely parallel replacement for the very court which condemned him. Could it be
that every one of those persons lost their authority to sit on that court the moment Jesus was
condemned to death and Jesus Christ creates the same body out of Peter and his seventy disciples?
Also very important to note that the High Priest was the head of the beit din at one time but then
he was rejected due to heresy in around 190 BC in a no confidence motion and replaced by the office of
ܵ ݁
the nasi but with Kêpâ [‫ܐܦܐ‬݂ ‫( ] ܹܟ‬Translit: Gr. Κηφᾶς/Cephas Translat: Gr. Πέτρος/Petros (Translit: En.
Peter) En. Rock), Jesus restores His Chief Priest to that position, in a sense Jesus is restoring this
confidence back in his own Church when He reinstates Peter the head of the Church to the office of the
nasi within the beit din. Jesus Christ brings closure to this controversy in Jewish history.
Since the restoration of the State of Israel the office of the nasi was restored within Judaism.
The nasi in Judaism is the President of the State of Israel who is the Head of State of the nation of
Israel. However, without the priesthood there is no longer a priesthood tied to this office as it was prior
to 190 BC and this office cannot be restored. Christ is the high priest and this office no longer present
in Judaism. However, the nasi of the New Covenant is Peter and in him both the office of the priest and
the nasi come together. The pope is a monarch, who like the nasi of the current State of Israel is the
head of state since 800 AD and also holds the highest priestly office within the Church Militant.

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Purgatory

Jews believe that there is an intermediate state a person who must pass through before going to
Sheol, the bosom of Abraham, where those purified in the furnace (some say tortured for their sins,
other claim it is the Lord’s washing machine). What do Jews rely on for their belief in purgatory?
Tradition. This is the mainstream view in Judaism.
Jews will give arms and pray for the departed that the Lord release the person from this state.
Oh one other thing that come to play here is INDULGENCES!!! So an indulgence can release a Jew
from this intermediate state on the next Sabbath or the next month from the tortures of the grave.
The Lord taught Moses the Tradition for 40 day on Mt. Sanai and this Oral Tradition was
simply accepted by the Jewish Catholics of the Early Church. Catholicism continues to accept these
teachings the Lord gave to Moses without questioning these as far as these are applicable in the post-
messianic age.
Keep in mind that the Sheol is a compartment of hell, where the righteous and those purified
await the Messiah being made known to them and open the gates of heaven.
While Jews rely on tradition for purgatory when pushed they do show that this exist using ISAH
48:10, 1KING 2:6 and ZECH 13:9 to make this claim. To anyone who believes that this does not apply
in the post-messianic time these same words are echoed in the First Letter of Peter.
We have to be careful reading more than what the main point of the parable is. One should be
careful not to overreach in what we take away from a parable. For example are we supposed to charge
100% interest on money which is lent out to persons if we accept all that the Parable of the Talents is
supposed to exposit? No. Likewise here. As for the place where Lazarus is, a Jewish rabbi indicated to
be that he was in the intermediary state which we call purgatory. Catholics writers believe that he is
actually in hell but modern day Catholics are unsure if this was the case and speculate that this is
purgatory.

Praying to the Saints

Catholics nor Jews pray to the dead. Catholics and Jews believe that no one who is created in
the image and likeness of the Lord can in actually die since they have an immortal soul which lives on
forever. This soul is the true essence of man which animates and gives the body life here on earth.

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Jews believe that those who pass away from their physical existence on earth are not dead but
fully alive in the bosom of Abraham and able by the Mercy of the Lord to hear all supplications made
to them. Jews today continue the practice of praying to righteous departed – the tzaddikim ( ‫)צדיקים‬.
They will ask the tzaddikim for their intercession. However, the tzaddikim are not merely intercessors
but also channels of divine grace which flow through them from the Lord.
Jews believe in the communion of the Jewish people that is the belief that all Jews be they on
earth, Sheol or in the intermediate state of purgatory belong to a single body of people and that when
something hurts those on earth the others feel that hurt as well. Jews believe that without the
intercession of the righteous departed that this world would be unendurable place of pain and woe.
The righteous departed still have the love for those on earth and care for them and their
problems and continually intercede with the Lord acting as a melitz yosher ( ‫ )מליץ יושר‬for those
living. It is the Jewish belief that the tzaddikim are more with us than they have been in their mortal life
because they are now free of the bounds placed by their mortal bodies and can ignore all limitation
placed upon them by their physical bodies.
Jews do not consider praying to the tzaddikim idolatry rather as “unidolatory.” Judaism has a
strong belief that there is no intermediary between the Lord and man, yet they believe that the
tzaddikim who are closer to the Lord can intercede on their behalf. They make a distinction between
the divine and the tzaddikim as there is a lehavdil ( ‫ להבדיל‬lit. separateness) between them yet they
abide in the Lord. Praying to the tzaddikim does not take anything away from the great glory and
majesty of the Lord due to the metaphysical lehavdil which exists between them. The intercession of a
tzaddikim is worth the prayers of 1,000 persons on earth. The term of “unidolatory” is used to describe
the golden cherubs which sit atop the Ark of the Covenant and other images in the temple as these were
permitted by the Lord Himself or directly commanded by Him.
The root word for tzaddik ( ‫ )צדיק‬is tzedakah (‫ )צדקה‬meaning charity. The tzaddikim have
achieved great holiness through prayer and joyful habitual charity. This love of the other continue
beyond their passing away from the earth. Those in Sheol continue to pray through charitable love for
those on earth. One can today go to Jerusalem and join one of the Hassid ( ‫ חסידות‬/ Orthodox)
tzaddikim tours which visit the graves of the tzaddikim so that Jews can visit and ask for their
intercession and graces.

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Because, the tzaddikim are channels of Divine Grace, those things which they used in life here
on earth are charged with spiritual power – their clothing, pens, yad and anything else he used in life.
These relics are not in and of themselves magical by any means but by only the Mercy of the Lord have
spiritual power made available. Jews do not worship the tzaddikim but they are venerate out of respect
for them and the Lord who has been merciful by making the tzaddik available.
The Catholic belief is exactly the same no different except for one. That is the Jews believe that
the graces that flow from the tzaddik is limited while the Catholics believe this is unlimited. This
divergence in view can very easily be reconciled when one takes into account that the Jews do not
consider the tzaddikim to be in heaven but in Sheol and do not yet behold the Face of Lord while
Catholics believe that the saints are in heaven and behold the face of the Lord and are awash in a sea of
graces which flow from the Godhead.
Just like the Jews, Catholics believe in the Communion of Saints, those in Heaven (Church
Triumphant), those on earth (Church Militant) and those in purgatory (Church Penitent). One of the
Catholic teachings is that you do not need faith or hope in heaven and that only love survives past
death.
Catholicism has not invented anything, it just follows those things which the Lord taught Moses
on the mountain for 40 days and carried through the Oral Tradition into Catholicism. All this goes to
show that Catholicism is nothing new, but a continuation of Judaism carry on those beliefs, practices,
customs and traditions of the Jews congruent with the post-messianic age. Each covenant builds upon
the previous covenants.
If one wishes to pray to the tzaddikim St. Gamaliel or his son St. Abibas one can visit the
Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Pisa. Both are buried together under the
main altar.

Praying to the Saints as Part of the Divine Plan

It is the tzaddikim who hear the prayers of all persons and elevate and present them before the
Lord. Thus, all prayer is heard by the tzaddikim who then offer these in a manner pleasing to the Lord.
It is the intention of the Lord that we honor and pray to the saints whom he has glorified. Just as
the Lord honors His saints, the Church calls on her members to do likewise. Obeying the Church, we

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acknowledge what the Lord has done already and in obedience to the Divine Will. In honoring the
saints we are honoring the Lord himself.
It is the intention of the Divine Plan of Salvation of the Lord that we are saved not as
individuals but as a community of believers partaking in the divine life through His Church. The Lord
wishes that we cultivate the familial bonds between all members of his Church so that each sees the
others as member of the Christian family whether they in heaven, on earth or in purgatory.
The Lord has called a people to himself – the Jews, who are all physical members of a single
family, that of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Each person is physically related to each other. This is what
Christ wishes us to be, a family. Christ integrates us into His family.
The Bible asks that we pray for one another in several passages of scripture. In fact, the Church
makes it an imperative that we pray for those for whom we owe a duty to pray on behalf of. Thus, there
is an obligation that we pray for those whom we are obliged to pray for such as our relatives in
purgatory, our children, parents, our loved ones and even those who are our enemies.

Reading Scripture

When Moses came down from Mt. Sinai he brought with him the Written Law and the Oral
Tradition. He also had the authority given to him by the Lord so that he could authoritatively interpret
the scripture. It did not take 40 days for the Lord to chip away the stone but it took Moses 40 days to
learn the tradition from the Lord and how to apply it.
The Written Law cannot be understood without the Oral Tradition as taught by the rabbis (who
sit in the seat of Moses). Those Jews who attempt to read the Written Law without the Oral Tradition
as taught by rabbis are considered ignorant fools. If you are not Jewish and attempt to read the Written
Law, you will never understand it, because it was written for those already Jewish. Thus, being within
encultured and living within the tradition of the Jews the Written Law will make sense.
How is one to understand the Bible? The Bible was written for those already Jews or Catholics
(post-Messianic Jews). It is extremely difficult to understand the bible out of this binary context. Since
a Jew or a Catholic is already a member of culture and living within that Catholic or Jewish culture the
Bible will make sense as it is the intended audience. If you are not a Catholic or a Jew you are not the
intended audience, and never will be. One cannot learn the faith from the Bible as it is not self-
explanatory and was never intended to be. The Bible can be only understood correctly and its complete

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context in the light of Sacred Tradition as presented by the Magisterium by those sitting in the chair of
the Bishop. It is only within this context where the Bible find its meaning.
Like Judaism, Catholicism requires instruction and enculturation – meaning that it practiced in
the life which is lived. It, within this Catholic Culture, which is attendance of the liturgy, being
attentive to the teaching of the Church and following the tradition and Catholic way of life. This
enculturation forms us and aligns us in the mindset of the Church.

Becoming a Catholic or a Jew takes time and study and you can literally spend a lifetime in
study of either one of these Faiths. Once a person become “officially” a catholic after going through the
RCIA process and get the triple slam of sacraments you only have dipped your foot in the pool.
Becoming Catholic just takes time; there is the Catholic vocabulary you will need to learn. It can take a
few years of being a Catholic to be Catholic.
However, if you are already a Jew reading it, it makes a lot of sense. Why? Because you come
to it with the correct assumptions already. The Bible assumes that you already know what it talking
about. These preconceived notions are absolutely necessary to understand the bible. Without these
preconceptions the Bible does not make sense. It is written for a predetermined audience – those in
conformity with the mindset of the Church.
To those outside Catholicism and Judaism tradition might as well be a four letter word and
oftentimes subjected to ridicule and derision by those outside these faiths. Does the Bible favor
tradition or does it not? The bible is not clear in the least. In one place it appears to reject it and in
another require it. There is no clarity even in the New Testament and by itself is useless. Take
Matthew 15 for example, we know Jesus is talking about a specific takkanah. Priests were required to
wash their hands prior to performing rituals in the sanctuary during the Second Temple Period with the
Bread of the Presence. However, the Rabbis extended this to ordinary people engaged in ordinary life
who found this harder to keep than the priests who lived a consecrated more secluded life. Like the
Jewish priests of the STP period, Catholic Priests conduct the ablutions accompanied by the relevant
prayers prior to the Liturgy of the Eucharist, but there is no mandate that an ordinary Catholic do so,
however basic hygiene requires one to do so. Jesus goes on to compel obedience to those who sit in the
seat of Moses but not to act in the manner as they would.
Take another example should one perform a charitable act without someone knowing about it or
should one do so that it is an example to others – fully visible to others. Again, the Bible lacks clarity in

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this regard condemning it and requiring it in another place. Again this can easily be understood once
you understand the teaching of the Jews and Catholics. It is best when giving that you do not know to
whom you give and the receiver does not know who the benefactor is. But the Church also wants to
encourage people to donate to causes and if a person should do so in full visibility of others it would be
an encouragement to others to follow suit. Each has its place and the intention and context is important
but these are not provided anywhere in the Written Word. The clarity is not provided scripture but
those tasked with teaching scripture.
The Lord never meant the words written in stone (or on paper) to be read and understood
without Tradition or the sages or those in authority. It was always meant to be heard by the believers
and taught by those who knew the Tradition and had the authority to do so. They are to teach and we
are required to learn from them. Jesus compels us to obedience to these authorities in the Church or
synagogue. The Catholic Church is a missionary and teaching Church, or else simply handing out
bibles is sufficient enough. We see this illustrated for us by the Ethiopian eunuch who reads the
scripture but cannot make sense out of it. But when he is taught by Philip understands the scripture.
This is the reason why the Bible was not taught to new converts. Rather the Jews of the period
created a document called the Didache which provides a new gentile convert the required Catechesis to
understand the general principles of the Faith before becoming a Catholic and getting a mikvah ( ‫) ִׂמ ְקוֶה‬.
The Catholic Jews knew well that the Bible would take time to learn, and as long as the convert has an
open heart and mind to the Faith as was preached. The Didache is older than the Bible and was by
many considered inspired and a contender for the Book which became a part of the New Testament
canon. Which in the end was decided solely by those books which were used in the Catholic Liturgy.

The Ten Commandments


COMMANDMENTS OF GOD (in Hebrew of Exodus xxxiv. 28, Deut. iv. 13, x. 4, “the ten
words,” of which “the Decalogue,” οἱ δέκα λόγοι, τὰ δέκα λόγια, τὰ δέκα ῥήματα, is a verbal
translation) were given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. They were written by the finger of God on
two tables of stone, which were placed in the Ark. Thus, the commandments formed the centre and
kernel of the Jewish religion. They were given more directly by God than any other part of the Jewish
law, and they were placed in the most holy place, which none but the high-priest could enter, and he
only once a year. The Roman Catechism (iii. 1, 1), quoting St. Augustine, points out that all the rest of
the Mosaic law depends on the Decalogue, while the ten commandments, in their turn, are based on
two precepts the love of God with the whole heart, and the love of our neighbor as ourselves.

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Two questions about the commandments must be mentioned, the former of which concerns the
binding force, the latter the division and arrangement, of the Decalogue.

As to the former question, the Council of Trent defines, against antinomian heretics of ancient and
modern times, that the ten commandments bind the consciences of all mankind, Christians included.
“If anyone say that the ten commandments have nothing to do with Christians, let him be anathema.”
“If anyone say that a man, though justified and ever so perfect, is not bound to observe the
commandments of God and the Church, let him be anathema.”1 The reason on which this obligation
rests is manifest. God did not give a new law to Moses He only republished a law written originally on
the conscience of man, and obscured by his sinful ignorance. The ten commandments, then, did not
begin to bind when proclaimed to the people of Israel, and they have not ceased to do now that Christ
has done away with the Jewish law.2
The second question turns on the division of the commandments, and here there are three principal
views. It is well to remind the reader, first, that there are several differences in the exact words of the
commandments as given in Exodus xx. and Deuteronomy v., one of which is of special moment. In
Exodus, the last prohibitions run, “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s house: thou shalt not covet thy
neighbor’s wife, nor his servant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy
neighbor’s.” In Deuteronomy, the order is changed thus: “Thou shalt not covet (‫מד‬
ֹ ‫ )תַ ְח‬thy neighbor’s
wife and thou shalt not desire (‫”)ת ְתאַ ּוֶה‬
ִׂ [a different word in Hebrew from that translated “covet,”
though the Vulgate obliterates the distinction] “his field, or his servant, or his maid, his ox, or his ass,
or anything that is thy neighbor’s.” We may now proceed to consider the different modes of division.

(1) Philo and Josephus, followed by Origen and other early Christians, by the Greek Church, and all
Protestants except Lutherans, divide the commandments into two tables, containing each five precepts:
viz. 1, on strange gods; 2, on image worship; 3, on taking God's name in vain; 4, on the Sabbath; 5, on
honoring parents; 6, on murder; 7, on adultery; 8, on stealing; 9, on false witness; 10, on covetousness.
(2) The Talmud, the Targum of Jonathan, and many rabbinical commentators, make the preface, “I
am the Lord thy God,” &c., the first “word;” they regard the prohibition of strange gods and images as
one single “word,” viz. the second ; for the rest they agree with the division of Philo, &c.
(3) Augustine places in the first table three commandments, relating to God–viz. 1, on strange gods
and images (so that he regards the prohibition of idols as a mere application of the principle, “Thou
shalt not have strange gods before me”); 2, the name of God; 3, the Sabbath. In the second table he
places seven precepts, relating to our neighbor–vis. Commandment 4, on parents; 5, on murder; 6, on
adultery; 7, on stealing; 8, on false witness; 9, on coveting our neighbor's wife; 10, on coveting our

1 Council of Trident, sees. ⅴⅰ. De Justif. Can 19, 20.. De Justif. Can 19, 20.
2 Cat. Rom. . 1, 3. An exception must be made of that clause in the third commandment which fixes the seventh day for
divine worship. As to the apparent prohibition of images, see Petav. De Incarn. ⅹⅴ. 6. Here it is enough to say that if,
with Josephus, we hold that the commandment absolutely prohibits sculpture and painting, so that Solomon broke it
when he made the twelve oxen under the brazen sea or the lions for his throne, then we must also hold that this
ceremonial part of the commandment no longer binds.

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neighbor's goods. This division has prevailed in the Catholic Church, and has been retained by the
Lutherans, except that they, following the order in Exodus, make commandment 9, on coveting our
neighbor's house; 10, on coveting his wife or goods: a division to which Augustine himself in some
places gives support.

What has been already said shows that ignorance alone can charge Catholics with introducing a
new mode of division in order to give less prominence to the prohibition of idol-worship. The division
was current long before any strife on images had arisen in the Church.
Next, the Catholics, in this division of the first and second commandments, have the whole weight
of rabbinical tradition on their side.
Thirdly, the modern Catholic division is the only one consistent, with the Hebrew text, as usually
found in MSS., and printed editions. The text is divided into ten sections, which correspond precisely
with our Catholic division. These sections are admitted to be very ancient, older even than the
Masoretic text, and the Protestant scholar Kennicoit found them so marked in 460 out of 694 MSS.,
which he collated.3
Lastly, the wording of the text both in Exodus and Deuteronomy strongly favors the Catholic
division. The promises and threats, “I am tho Lord thy God, mighty, jealous,” &c., are much more
suitable on the theory that the prohibition of strange gods and idols forms one commandment, while in
Deuteronomy, after the prohibition of coveting our neighbor’s wife, the change of the verb mentioned
above seems to indicate the beginning of a new commandment nor is there any difficulty in
distinguishing carnal desire from coveting another man’s goods. (The facts as here given will be goods
found in Kalisch, Knobel, and Keil in their commentaries on Exodus. The first is a very learned Jew,
the second a Rationalist, the third an orthodox Protestant. All are opposed to the Catholic mode of
division. Dillmann's Commentary (1881) has also been consulted.)

The Catholic Dictionary,


or,
The universal Christian educator and popular encyclopedia
of religious information : containing doctrine, discipline,
Rites, ceremonies, councils and religious orders of the Church.

NIHIL OBSTAT, EDWARD S. KEOGH, Cong. Orat.


IMPRIMATUR, HENRY EDWARD MANNING, Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster
IMPRIMATUR, JOHN, CARDINAL MCCLOSKEY, Cardinal Archbishop of New York

3 There is no doubt that the prohibition of polytheism and of image-worship always forms one section. In some MSS.,
however, of Exodus there are only nine sections in the text of the Decalogue, our ninth and tenth commandments
forming one section. Kennicott says Keil, found the division wanting in 234 out of 694 MSS) which he collated, and an
examination of Kennicott's Bible confirms Keil's statement. Dillmann's assertion that Kennicott found the division
between the ninth and tenth commandments wanting in most of his MSS., seems to be wholly inaccurate.

13
The Ten Commandments In English

1. I am the Lord thy God, which brought thee forth out of the Land of Ægypt, out of the house of
servitude. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me. Thou shalt not make to thee a graven
thing,4 nor any similitude that is in heaven above, & that is in the earth beneath, neither of those
things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them: I am the
Lord thy God mighty, jealous, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the
third and fourth generation of them that hate me: and doing mercy upon thousands to them that
love me, and keep my precepts.

(I am the Lord thy God, thou shalt not have strange gods before Me.)

2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
3. Remember that thou Sanctify the sabbath day5.
4. Honor thy father and thy mother.
5. Thou shalt not murder.6 (Heb. ‫חָ ְצ ִִׂרת‬, Gr. φονεύσεις, Lat. occides)
6. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
7. Thou shalt not steal.
8. Thou shalt not speak against thy neighbor [with] false testimony.
9. Thou shalt not desire7 thy neighbors wife.
10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors goods.
NOTE: This selection is also defined by the Catechism of the Council of Trent, even with desire in and covet in the ninth and tenth commandments.

4 Latin Sculptile from the Hebrew ‫( פֶ סֶ ל‬Pesel). Pesel). ). Sculptile is a direct transl). ation of the Hebrew into Latin and thus
transl). ates into Engl). ish as ‘engraving [that which is an idol). ].’ Sculptus al). so transl). ates into engraving, but is merel). y just
that, a graven thing. The Greek has the term ἴδωλον (Pesel). eído̱lon) or idol. l). on) or idol). .
5 Sabbath comes from the Hebrew ‫( הַ ּׁשַ בָ ת‬e·shbth); it literally means cessation. For a better understanding of the
Christian observance of Lord’s Day (Sunday), rather than the Sabbath (Saturday), please review page 8.
6 This commandment is most properly translated as ‘Thou shalt not murder.’ From the Latin occides. Occides is a very
aggressive word, which literally means to slay, slaughter and murder; inevitably, killing or the taking of life, is the final
outcome of murder. Murder is in and of itself malevolent; it is something which insights nothing but evil. The Greek
word which is used is, φονεύσεις (Pesel). fonéfseis) which is al). so most properl). y transl). ated as murder, commit intentional).
(Pesel). unjustified) homicide. The Hebrew word (Pesel). which St. Jerome primaril). y based his transl). ation off of) is, ‫( ִׂת ְרצָ ח‬Pesel). thrtzch)
which transl). ates as nothing el). se but ‘you shal). l). murder.’ It is a word which cannot be confused with kil). l). .
7 Desire, in the English language is a word which is rather ambiguous with its meaning, it has mostly become neutral and
can be used in a positive, neutral and negative manner, and thus, it is a contextual term. That means that the context in
which the term is being used, is the sole determination of the expression i.e., positive, neutral or negative. However, the
etymology of this term comes from the Old French désir which is a sense of sexual appetite or lust; the Old French
word désirrer is closer to the Latin. These Old French terms come from the Latin desiderare. The Latin verb
desiderare literally translates as “to gaze at the star,” thus, “to record the absence of,” this being with a strong notion of
regret. In truth, it is a word which is more negative than anything else. And so desire in this sense [the Ninth
Commandment] can primarily refer to the sexual nature of lusting for the married partner of one’s neighbor or
acquaintance.
Desiderare which is Latin, generally means to long for/wish for; demand, expect, lust for sexually. This being said, with
this term Desiderabis, which is future tense, when being applied to the ninth commandment; is speaking mainly of
sexual appetite, though it also refers to someone expecting their neighbor’s, or associate, spouse to belong to
themselves. So this commandment means that one should not desire in any way, their neighbor’s/associate spouse.
Thus, the term ‘desire’ in the Ninth Commandment is two fold. It refers to lust within the context of sexual desire, and lust
in the context of greed; to simply want the spouse of your neighbor/associate. It essentially is a desire associated with
the regret that you lack what your neighbor/associate has.

14
Latin – Decalogue according to Exodus:

1. Ego sum Dominus Deus tuus, qui eduxi te de terra Ægypti, de domo servitutis. Non habebis
deos alienos coram Me. Non facies tibi sculptile, neque omnem similitudinem quæ est in cælo
desuper, et quæ in terra deorsum, nec eorum quæ sunt in aquis sub terra. Non adorabis ea,
neque coles : ego sum Dominus Deus tuus fortis, zelotes, visitans iniquitatem patrum in filios,
in tertiam et quartam generationem eorum qui oderunt me : et faciens misericordiam in millia
his qui diligunt me, et custodiunt præcepta mea.

(Ego sum Dominus Deus tuus, Non habebis deos alienos coram Me.)

2. Non assumes nomen Domini Dei tui in vanum.


3. Memento ut diem sabbati sanctifices.
4. Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam.
5. Non occides.
6. Non mœchaberis.
7. Non furtum facies.
8. Non loqueris contra proximum tuum falsum testimonium.
9. Nec desiderabis uxorem proximi tui.
10. Non concupisces rebus proximi tui.

[Ex. xx. 21 : Non concupisces domum proximi tui, nec desiderabis uxorem ejus, non servum, non
ancillam, non bovem, non asinum, nec omnia quæ illius sunt. -- Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors
house: neither shalt thou desire his wife, nor servant, nor handmaid, nor ox, nor ass, nor any thing that
is his.]
[Deut v. 21 : Non concupisces uxorem proximi tui : non domum, non agrum, non servum, non
ancillam, non bovem, non asinum, et universa quæ illius sunt. -- Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors
wife: Nor house, nor field, nor man servant, nor woman servant, nor ox, nor ass, and all things that are
his.]

NOTE: In the Latin Vulgate by St. Jerome, Exodus and Deuteronomy differ in wording as does the
Hebrew; the Greek is the same on both. In the Latin, Exodus, St. Jerome uses to different words
concupisces and desiderabis. Covet and Desire. Under Deuteronomy, St. Jerome uses concupisces one
single time.

15
The Greek – Decalogue according to Exodus:

1. ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ Θεός σου, ὅστις ἐξήγαγόν σε ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, ἐξ οἴκου
δουλείας. οὐκ ἔσονταί σοι θεοὶ ἕτεροι πλὴν ἐμοῦ. οὐ ποιήσεις σεαυτῷ εἴδωλον,
οὐδὲ παντὸς ὁμοίωμα, ὅσα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἄνω καὶ ὅσα ἐν τῇ γῇ κάτω καὶ ὅσα ἐν
τοῖς ὕδασιν ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς. οὐ προσκυνήσεις αὐτοῖς, οὐδὲ μὴ λατρεύσεις αὐτοῖς·
ἐγὼ γάρ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ Θεός σου, Θεὸς ζηλωτής, ἀποδιδοὺς ἁμαρτίας πατέρων ἐπὶ
τέκνα, ἕως τρίτης καὶ τετάρτης γενεᾶς τοῖς μισοῦσί με καὶ ποιῶν ἔλεος εἰς χιλιάδας
τοῖς ἀγαπῶσί με καὶ τοῖς φυλάσσουσι τὰ προστάγματά μου.

(ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ Θεός σου, οὐκ ἔσονταί σοι θεοὶ ἕτεροι πλὴν ἐμοῦ.)

2. οὐ λήψει τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου τοῦ Θεοῦ σου ἐπί ματαίῳ·


3. μνήσθητι τὴν ἡμέρα τῶν σαββάτων ἁγιάζειν αὐτήν.
4. τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου.
5. οὐ φονεύσεις (Pesel). Ex. xx. 15))
6. οὐ μοιχεύσεις.(Pesel). Ex. xx. 13))
7. οὐ κλέψεις. (Pesel). Ex. xx. 14))
8. οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον σου μαρτυρίαν ψευδῆ.
9. οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ πλησίον σου.
10. οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τα αγαθά του πλησίον σου

[Ex. xx. 17 : οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ πλησίον σου. οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ
πλησίον σου οὔτε τὸν ἀγρὸν αὐτοῦ οὔτε τὸν παῖδα αὐτοῦ οὔτε τὴν παιδίσκην αὐτοῦ οὔτε
τοῦ βοὸς αὐτοῦ οὔτε τοῦ ὑποζυγίου αὐτοῦ οὔτε παντὸς κτήνους αὐτοῦ οὔτε ὅσα τῷ
πλησίον σου ἐστί. -- Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s
house; nor his field, nor his servant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any of his cattle, nor
whatever belongs to thy neighbour.]
[Deut. v. 21 : οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ πλησίον σου· οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὴν οἰκίαν
τοῦ πλησίον σου οὔτε τὸν ἀγρὸν αὐτοῦ οὔτε τὸν παῖδα αὐτοῦ οὔτε τὴν παιδίσκην αὐτοῦ
οὔτε τοῦ βοὸς αὐτοῦ οὔτε τοῦ ὑποζυγίου αὐτοῦ οὔτε παντὸς κτήνους αὐτοῦ οὔτε πάντα
ὅσα τῷ πλησίον σού ἐστι. -- Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife; thou shalt not covet thy
neighbour’s house, nor his field, nor his man-servant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any
beast of his, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.]

NOTE: Both Exodus and Deuteronomy use the term ἐπιθυμήσεις (epithymíseis) when speaking about
both thy neighbor’s wife and things.

16
Hebrew – Decalogue according to Exodus:

‫ֱֹלהים‬ִׂ ‫יִׂ ְהיֶה ְלָך א‬-‫ ל ֹא‬:‫אתיָך מֵּ אֶ ֶרץ ִׂמ ְצ ַריִׂ ם ִׂמבֵּ ית עֲבָ ִׂדים‬ ִׂ ֵּ‫ אֲׁשֶ ר הֹוצ‬,‫ אָ נ ִֹׂכי יְ הוָה אֱֹלהֶ יָך‬.1
--‫ ַואֲׁשֶ ר בָ אָ ֶרץ ִׂמּתָ חַ ת‬,‫ אֲׁשֶ ר בַ ּׁשָ מַ יִׂ ם ִׂמּמַ עַ ל‬,‫ּתמּונָה‬-‫ל‬
ְ ָ‫ וְ כ‬,‫תַ עֲשֶ ה ְלָך פֶ סֶ ל‬-‫ ל ֹא‬.‫ּפָ נָי‬-‫ עַ ל‬,‫אֲחֵּ ִׂרים‬
‫ אֵּ ל‬,‫ ִּׂכי אָ נ ִֹׂכי יְ הוָה אֱֹלהֶ יָך‬:‫ וְ ל ֹא תָ עָ ְב ֵּדם‬,‫חוֶה לָ הֶ ם‬ ֲ ַ‫ת ְׁשּת‬-‫ֹא‬
ִׂ ‫ ל‬.‫ ִׂמּתַ חַ ת לָ אָ ֶרץ‬,‫ַואֲׁשֶ ר בַ ּמַ יִׂ ם‬
,‫לאֹ הֲבַ י‬--‫ים‬
ְ ‫ לַ אֲלָ ִׂפ‬,‫ וְ עֹ שֶ ה חֶ סֶ ד‬.‫ ְל ֹשנְ אָ י‬,‫רבֵּ ִׂעים‬-‫ל‬
ִׂ ַ‫ׁשּלֵּ ִׁׂשים וְ ע‬-‫ל‬
ִׂ ַ‫בָ נִׂ ים ע‬-‫ּפֹקֵּ ד עֲֹון אָ בֹת עַ ל‬--‫קַ ּנָא‬
}‫ {ס‬.‫ׁש ְמ ֵּרי ִׂמ ְצֹותָ י‬
ֹ ‫ּול‬
ְ

].‫ּפָ נָי‬-‫ עַ ל‬,‫ֱֹלהים אֲחֵּ ִׂרים‬


ִׂ ‫יִׂ ְהיֶה ְלָך א‬-‫[ אָ נ ִֹׂכי יְ הוָה אֱֹלהֶ יָך ל ֹא‬

1. There shall not come to be other elohim for you in preference to Me.

2. I, Yahweh, am your Elohim Who brought you forth from the land of Egypt, from the house of
servants.
3. There shall not come to be other elohim for you in preference to Me.
4. You shall not make for yourself a carving +nor any physical representation of that in the heavens f
above +or that ion the earth beneath, or that in the waters f beneath › the earth.
5. You shall not bow yourself down to them, nor be made to |serve them, for I, Yahweh your Elohim,
am a jealous El, visiting the depravity of the fathers on the sons, on the third and on the fourth
generation, to those hating Me,
6. yet showing benignity to thousands, to those loving Me and › observing My instructions.

‫ לַ ּׁשָ וְ א‬,‫יְ הוָה אֱֹלהֶ יָך‬-‫ׁשֵּ ם‬-‫ל ֹא ִׂתּׂשָ א אֶ ת‬ .2


‫ ְלקַ ְדׁשֹו‬,‫יֹום הַ ּׁשַ בָ ת‬-‫זָכֹור אֶ ת‬ .3
‫אּמֶ ָך‬-‫ת‬
ִׂ ֶ‫ וְ א‬,‫אָ ִׂביָך‬-‫ אֶ ת‬8‫ּכַ בֵּ ד‬ .4
‫ל ֹא ִׂת ְרצָ ח‬ .5
‫ל ֹא ִׂתנְ אָ ף‬ .6
‫ל ֹא ִׂתגְ ֹנב‬ .7
.‫ענֶה ְב ֵּרעֲָך עֵּ ד ׁשָ קֶ ר‬ ֲ ַ‫ת‬-‫ל ֹא‬ .8
‫מד אֵּ ׁשֶ ת ֵּרעֶ ָך‬ ֹ ‫תַ ְח‬-‫ל ֹא‬ .9
‫כל ֵּרעֶ ָך‬
ֹ ְ‫ ו‬,‫ל ֹא ִׂת ְתאַ ּוֶה‬ .10

[Ex. xx. 13/17 : ,‫כל‬ ֹ ְ‫ ו‬,‫חמֹרֹו‬


ֲ ‫ וְ עַ ְבדֹו ַואֲמָ תֹו וְ ׁשֹורֹו ַו‬,‫תַ ְחמֹד אֵּ ׁשֶ ת ֵּרעֶ ָך‬-‫ בֵּ ית ֵּרעֶ ָך; {ס} ל ֹא‬,‫א תַ ְחמֹד‬
}‫ {פ‬.‫ אֲׁשֶ ר ְל ֵּרעֶ ָך‬-- You shall not covet the house of your associate. You shall not covet the wife of
your associate, his field, his manservant +or his maidservant, his bull, his donkey or anything which is
your associate’s.]

8 The Hebrew here ‫( ּכַ בֵּ ד‬kbd) literally translates to glorify (Concordant Hebrew English Sublinear -idiomatic- version
2.1 (English)).

17
[Deut. v. 17/21 : ‫ שָ ֵּדהּו וְ עַ ְבדֹו ַואֲמָ תֹו ׁשֹורֹו‬,‫ אֵּ ׁשֶ ת ֵּרעֶ ָך; {ס} וְ ל ֹא ִׂת ְתאַ ּוֶה בֵּ ית ֵּרעֶ ָך‬,‫וְ ל ֹא תַ ְחמֹד‬
}‫ {ס‬.‫ אֲׁשֶ ר ְל ֵּרעֶ ָך‬,‫כל‬
ֹ ְ‫ ו‬,‫חמֹרֹו‬
ֲ ‫ ַו‬-- + You shall not covet the wife of your associate. + You shall not
lust after (desire) the house of your associate, his field, + his manservant +or his maidservant, his bull,
+ his donkey +or anything which is your associate’s.]

NOTE: In the Hebrew text, Exodus uses the same words ‫מד‬
ֹ ‫( תַ ְח‬thchmd) to covet. While in
Deuteronomy it is written, thou shalt not covet (‫מד‬
ֹ ‫ )תַ ְח‬thy neighbor’s wife, nor shalt thou lust for (
‫)ת ְתאַ ּוֶה‬
ִׂ thy neighbor’s things. The Hebrew ‫( ִׂת ְתאַ ּוֶה‬ththaue) means to desire or lust for; it is a very
negative term.

18
ON THE TOPIC OF THE SABBATH AND SUNDAY

SUNDAY. The Jewish Sabbath was the weekl). y day of rest with which the week ended. On that day
the Hebrews were forbidden to gather manna (Pesel). Ex. ⅹⅴ. 23)-29). Thus, the observance of the Sabbath
was made a general). l). aw; they were to do no work upon it; the Hebrew famil). y, the stranger in the gates,
the sl). aves, even the cattl). e, were to rest; and this because God Himsel). f finished the work of creation and
rested on that day, bl). essing it and sanctifying it (Pesel). Ex. ⅹⅹ. 8-11). In Deut. ⅴ. 12-16 it is the kindl). y and
beneficent character of the institution which is emphasized, rather than its sacredness. No reference is
made to creation, but the Hebrew is to keep the Sabbath, “that thy man slave and thy woman slave may
rest even as thou. And thou shalt remember that than wast a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh thy
God brought thee out thence,” &c. The importance attached to the Sabbath in the Deuteronomical). and
Levitical). codes is shown by the very fact that Sabbath keeping is the subject of a precept in the
Decal). ogue. Further, the Sabbath is the basis of a whol). e series of enactments. The seventh month is the
hol). y month of the year. It is ushered in by the Feast of Trumpets, its tenth day is the Day of
Atonement, its fifteenth the Feast of Tabernacl). es or in-gathering, the “joy of the law.” The seventh is
the sabbatical). year; during which the whol). e l). and is to rest9 (Pesel). Lev. ⅹⅹⅴ. 1-7); there is to be no sowing; or
vintage, or reaping, and thus the Sabbath extends its dominion over nature. After “seven Sabbaths of
years” (Pesel). i.e. 7×7 = 4)9 years) comes the year of Jubil). ee, when Hebrew sl). aves are to go free, l). and to
revert to its original). owner, &c.

Something must be said on three points connected with the Jewish Sabbath which are of theol). ogical).
importance :―
(Pesel). 1) There is no trace of its being observed among the Hebrews before the time of Moses. No doubt,
in Genesis ⅱ. 3, we read that “. 3), we read that “God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it,” but it is never said that He
tol). d men in the pre-Mosaic period to do so l). ikewise, and evidentl). y the sacred writers make no mention
of a Sabbath kept by the Patriarchs. It is impl). ied that the division of days into weeks, unknown among
the Romans til). l). the Empire, was very ancient among some of the Semitic peopl). e, for Laban (Pesel). Gen. ⅹⅹⅸ..
27) speaks of the “week of this woman”―i.e., the week of marriage festivities, we now know that
among the Assyrians, the first twenty-eight days of every month were divided into four weeks of seven
days each, the seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, and twenty-eighth days being Sabbaths; and there was
a general). prohibition of work on these days (Pesel). G. Smith, “ Assyrian Eponym Canon,” p. 19 seq.). The
date of this usage among the Assyrians is stil). l). uncertain (Pesel). Dil). l). man on Exod. p. 214)). But we may
conjecture that the division was based, not on the seven pl). anets, but on the phases of the moon (Pesel). see,
however, Sayce, “The Higher Criticism and the Monuments,” p. 75)), and was famil). iar within and

9 According to the “Book of the Covenant” (Ex. ⅹ . 2-6), Hebrew slaves are to go free not on the, but on every, seventh
year, dating from the beginning of their slavery; and every seventh year the harvest is to be left for the poor ( ⅹⅹ . 10,
11). The former provision is repeated in Deut. ⅹⅴ. 12-18, and the second has its analogy in the law that on a seventh
year proclaimed and fixed, debts are to be remitted (Deut. ⅹⅴ. 1-6). The developed Sabbatical year―i.e., the fixing of
one year for the whole country, in which the land is to rest completely from being sown no less than from being
reaped―is peculiar to Leviticus. So also is the crown of the whole system―viz., the year of Jubilee.

19
without Israel). before Moses. But from this it does not fol). l). ow that there was any divine command to
keep the Sabbath, or even that the Israel). ites rested on it. Indeed, the day of rest impl). ies a settl). ed and
agricul). tural). l). ife; to a peopl). e of shepherds a Sabbath is not necessary or indeed scarcel). y possibl). e. (Pesel). So
Wel). l). hausen, “Geschichte des Vol). kes Israel). ,” ch. .)
(Pesel). 2) The Jewish was at al). l). times distinct from the Puritan idea of the Sabbath. It is the privil). ege of
rest for the sl). ave and even for the beasts on which the Book of Deuteronomy dwel). l). s with characteristic
kindl). iness. In Kings . 22, 23), it is mentioned, with the new moons, as a day on which peopl). e went
to hear the prophets. One of the earl). iest prophets, Hosea (Pesel). ⅱ. 3, we read that “. 13)) al). l). udes to it (Pesel). again in conjunction with
the new moons) as a day of joy; Amos (Pesel). ⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets. 5)) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets
of the Exil). e insist on strict rest; Jeremia e.g., forbids carrying of burdens (Pesel). ⅹⅶ. 19 seq.). They enlarge. 19 seq.). They enl). arge
on the sin of breaking the Sabbath, and the bl). essings which attend its observance (Pesel). Ezech. ⅹⅹ. 16 ; ⅹⅻ..
26 ; and so with reference to the Exil). e, Is. ⅼⅵ. 2; ⅼⅷ. 13); and the Levitical Code (Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ.; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ.. 2; ⅼⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets. 13)); and the Levitical). Code (Pesel). Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ. 2; ⅼⅷ. 13); and the Levitical Code (Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ.; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ..; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ.
3); Num. ⅹⅴ.) enforces the obl). igation of rest in minute detail). , but not a word is said against recreation
on the Sabbath.10 Even the Pharisees, though they mul). tipl). ied rul). es against servil). e work-forbade, e.g.,
journeys more than 2000 paces beyond the city; cl). imbing a tree, l). est a tree shoul). d break; works of
mercy, &c., &c.―never prohibited pl). easure as such. Even a Chief Pharisee did not scrupl). e to entertain
on the Sabbath (Pesel). Lk. ⅹ . 1). The Rabbinical). l). aw on dancing il). l). ustrates exactl). y the difference between
the Pharisaical). and the Puritan view. The Rabbins forbid it, not because it is a worl). dl). y pl). easure, but
because it woul). d l). ead to tuning the musical). instruments, which is reckoned work (Pesel). Buxtorf, “Lex.
Rabbin.” ‫)ׁשבּות‬.
ְ

(Pesel). 3)) Our Lord did not during His earthl). y l). ife abrogate the Sabbath. To do so woul). d have been
inconsistent with His position as one “made under the law,” and with His own express teaching (Pesel). see,
especial). l). y, Matth. ⅹⅹ . 1-3)). But he did expose the inconsistency and hypocrisy of men who l). oosed
an ox or ass on the Sabbath and were shocked when Christ on the same day “loosed a daughter of
Abraham whom Satan had bound” (Pesel). Lk. ⅹ . 10-16). He, moreover, enunciated two great principl). es.
The one was then, perhaps, part of the better Rabbinical). teaching: “The Sabbath is made for man, not
man for the Sabbath.” (Pesel). The words “The Sabbath is given into your hands, not you into the hands of the
Sabbath,” are to be found in the “Mechil). ta,” a Midrash or Commentary on parts of Exodus, bel). onging
to the earl). y part of the third century A.D.) Man is made to ful). fil). l). the l). aw of l). ove. Not so with regard to
the Sabbath, which is simpl). y enforced for man’s own good. Next, the “Son of Man is Lord also of the
Sabbath.” Just as the Sabbath l). aw must give way before the natural). needs of man, so, and much more,
before the requirement of Him who is the head and representative of mankind (Pesel). Marc. ⅱ. 3, we read that “. 23)-28). If,
again, the ministers of the templ). e broke the Sabbath l). aw in its service and were bl). amel). ess, much more
might the discipl). es do so in the service of One greater than the templ). e (Pesel). Matth. ⅻ.. 5)-8).

10 Is. ⅼⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets. 13 is often quoted in the “Authorized Version,” “If thou turn away thy foot . . . from doing thy pleasure on my
holy day.” But ‫ חֲ פׇ צֶ ָך‬means “affairs,” “business,” as elsewhere in later Hebrew.

20
(Pesel). 4)) The precept of observing the Sabbath was completely abrogated in the Christian Church. “Let
no man judge you,” says St. Paul). (Pesel). Col). oss. ⅱ. 3, we read that “. 16), “ in eating and drinking or in the matter of a feast or
a new moon or of a Sabbath-day [σαββάτων, from the Chal). dee ‫ׁשַ ְבתׇ א‬, not “Sabbath days”; cf. “Hodie
tricesima Sabbata,” Hor. “Sat.” ⅰ. De Justif. Can 19, 20.. 9, 69], which things are a shadow of things to come, but the body is
Christ’s” (Pesel). cf. Gal). . . ; Rom, ⅹ . 5), 9). Christians are not to be taken to task on such things; they do
not furnish the material). s of a judgment, good or bad, since the shadows are characteristic of the Jewish
l). aw, the substance of Christ’s gospel). . Once onl). y does the N.T. refer to a Christian Sabbath. “There is
left therefore a Sabbath-keeping (Pesel). σαββατισμός) for the people of God” (Pesel). Heb. . 9). The reference,
however, is to no earthl). y Sabbath, but to that eternal). rest of which the Sabbath was a type. The word
“Sabbath” is kept in the Greek and the Latin of the Church to denote Saturday―a day which is not
sacred among Christians.
(Pesel). 5)) In commemoration of Christ’s resurrection the Church observes Sunday. The observance does
not rest on the natural). l). aw, which does indeed require us to give certain time to the worship of God, but
not a whol). e day rather than parts of several). days, much l). ess any particul). ar day; nor, again, on any
positive divine l). aw, of which there is no trace. Sunday is merel). y of eccl). esiastical). institution, dating,
however, from the time of the Apostl). es. Such is the opinion of St. Thomas (Pesel). 2 ᴬ 2ᴭ, q. 122, a. 4, ad 2) 2 ᴭ, q. 122, a. 4, ad 2), q. 122, a. 4), ad 2)
and of the greatest Cathol). ic theol). ogians (Pesel). so Bil). l). uart, “De Rel). ig.” diss. vi. a. 1 ; and Turrecremata,
Thom. Wal). densis, Cajetan, Syl). vius, and others whom Bil). l). uart cites). The present rul). e obl). iges the
faithful). to hear Mass on that day and to rest from servil). e work―i.e. work done with the hands rather
than with the head. But custom permits certain servil). e work even when not required by necessity or
mercy―such, e.g., as cooking food―and eccl). esiastical). authority may dispense from the l). aw. We
proceed to trace the history of the observance.
In a singl). e passage of the N.T,―viz. Apoc. ⅰ. De Justif. Can 19, 20.. 10―we find a special). name for the first day of the
week, “the Lord’s day” (Pesel). ἐν τῇ Κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ―very different from ἡ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμέρα). In Acts
ⅹⅹ. 7 we are tol). d that St. Paul). abode seven days at Troas, and that on the first day of the week (Pesel). Ἐν δὲ
τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων) the discipl). es came together “to break bread.” The same Apostl). e writes to the
Corinthians (Pesel). 1 Cor. ⅹⅵ. 2; ⅼⅷ. 13); and the Levitical Code (Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ.; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ.. 1 seq.), “Every first day of the week (Pesel). κατὰ μίαν σαββάτων) let each of you
lay up at home and collect whatever profit he has had,” words which do not, indeed directl). y impl). y that
there was publ). ic service on Sunday, for παῤ ἑαυτῷ (Pesel). = chez l). ui) cannot refer to a col). l). ection in the
Christian assembl). y. But they do seem to indicate that Sunday was al). ready a sacred day, on which deeds
of l). ove were special). l). y suitabl). e. Heb. ⅹ. 25) shows this much, that the Christians, when the epistl). e was
written, had regul). ar days of assembl). y.
(Pesel). 6) The Scriptural). references given above show that the observance of Sunday had begun in the
Apostol). ic age; but even were Scripture sil). ent, tradition woul). d put this point beyond al). l). doubt. Whil). e,
however, Sunday was observed from the first, it is possibl). e to trace several). stages in the observance.

21
(Pesel). α) The earl). iest Fathers speak of the assembl). y for worship, and especial). l). y for the cel). ebration of the
Eucharist. As this is wel). l). known, the fol). l). owing references wil). l). Suffice: Ep. Barnab. 15); Ignat, ad
magnes. 9; Justin Mart. ⅰ. De Justif. Can 19, 20.. Apol). . 5)9; Dionys. Corinth. (Pesel). apud Euseb. “H.E.” iv. 23)) ; Tetul). l). . Apol). . 16, PL,
i. 5)71; “De Coron.” 3), PL, ii. 79. These authors speak of Sunday, which they cal). l). the “ Lord’s Day,” the
“Day of the Lord’s Resurrection,” and sometimes, but onl). y in addressing heathen, the “Day of the Sun”
(Pesel). see Probst, “Kirchl). iche Discipl). in in den ersten drei Jahrhund.” p. 24)7), as a day of sacred Joy and
prayer. But we know of onl). y one passage in any Ante-Nicene Father which al). l). udes to the Sunday rest.
Tertul). l). ian, after mention of the ritual). usage according to which Christians on Sunday prayed standing,
not kneel). ing, adds that on that day business was put aside, that the soul). might be l). eft free for God’s
service (Pesel). “differentes etiam negotia ne quem diabolo locum demus,” “De Orat.” 23), PL, ⅰ. De Justif. Can 19, 20.. 1191). Here
was the contrast between Sabbath and Sunday. The former was primaril). y a day of rest from work, and,
al). though the morning and evening sacrifices were doubl). ed on the Sabbath, no l). aw of Sabbatical).
worship was imposed on the Israel). ite. Attendance on the prophets and afterwards on the synagogue,
arose natural). l). y out of the enforced cessation of ordinary work. The Sunday, on the other hand, was
primaril). y a day of prayer, and the words in the Apocal). ypse strike the keynote of Sunday observance; “I
was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day.” The l). aw of rest arose as a protection to the l). aw of worship. It may
be objected that, after al). l). , the Church’s l). aw onl). y requires a smal). l). portion of Sunday to be spent in
prayer. But this objection rests on an anachronism, for we shal). l). see presentl). y that the ancient Church
required the greater part of the day to be spent in devotion.

(Pesel). β) When Christianity became, or was on the way to become, the rel). igion of the state, it was
necessary to pass some l). aw of rest; otherwise a Christian who kept Sunday might obviousl). y suffer
inconvenience from being summoned to court, to mil). itary exercise &c., or even from the competition
of his heathen rival). s in trade. Hence, Constantine, as Eusebius reports, required his subjects to rest on
the feasts of our Lord (Pesel). al). so on Fridays, if Val). esius is right in correcting τὰς τοῦ σαββάτου into τὰς
πρὸ σαββάτου), and on Sundays the Christian sol). diers were exempted from work that they might
have l). eisure to pray (Pesel). Euseb. “Vit. Constant.” . 18). A l). ong series of imperial). enactments on the
matter is to be found in the Roman codes. An edict of Constantine prohibited l). aw business and
mechanical). arts in towns, though the country peopl). e were al). l). owed to til). l). the ground on that day. Later
emperors not onl). y cl). osed the l). aw courts, but al). so the theatre and circus on Sundays.
The decree of council). s al). so became more and more stringent. The Synod of Laodicea (Pesel). between 3)4)3)
and 3)81) threatens with excommunication those who Judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but exhorts
Christians to rest on Sunday “if they can” (Pesel). c. 29). About the same time Chrysostom speaks (Pesel). Hom.
ⅹⅼ . in 1 Cor. ⅹⅵ. 2; ⅼⅷ. 13); and the Levitical Code (Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ.; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ.. 1, PG, ⅼ . 3)68) of the Lord’s Day as bringing “ rest and immunity from labors.”
The Second Council). of M con (Pesel). c. 1) (Pesel). anno 5)85)) desires the faithful). to spend the whol). e day in prayer,
Theodul). f, bishop of Orl). eans, in his Capitul). ary (Pesel). cap. 24)), wil). l). suffer no rel). axation of prayer except to
take food. The Third Council). of Tours in 813) (Pesel). c. 4)0) is stil). l). more expl). icit; the prayer and praise is to
continue “till the evening,” Sunday being reckoned from evening to evening. The Second Council). of
Aix-l). a-Chapel). l). e in 83)6 (Pesel). cap. 21) tried to restore the ol). d custom of communicating every Sunday. Nor

22
was this wide notion of Sunday observance pecul). iar to France and Germany. The Council). of Friul). i in
791 (Pesel). can. 13)) insists on the same devotion of the whol). e day to prayer, and the Spanish Council). of
Coyaca in 105)0 (Pesel). can. 6) prescribes not onl). y attendance at matins, Mass, and the “hours,” but al). so
abstinence from travel). ing except in cases of necessity. Theodore of Tarsus (Pesel). apud Thomassin, “Traité
des Festes,” p. 5)27), who became archbishop of Canterbury in 669, assures us that his fel). l). ow-Greeks
woul). d neither sail). nor ride (Pesel). except to church), or bake or bathe, or write any unnecessary l). etters on
Sunday. In al). l). these authorities and in the Fathers general). l). y there is no confusion between Sunday and
Sabbath. References to the Decal). ogue as in any sense the warrant for Sunday are extremel). y rare,
though Chrysostom (Pesel). “Gen.” Hom. ⅹ. 7, PG, ⅼ . 89) deduces this much from God’s bl). essing and
hal). l). owing the seventh day, viz. that one day in the week shoul). d be given to God’s service. 11 This
principl). e is accepted by modern theol). ogians, so far at l). east that they distinguish between the ceremonial).
part of the Third Commandment, which enjoins rest on the seventh day, and its moral). part, which urges
us to consecrate part of our time to heavenl). y thoughts. But usual). l). y the Fathers and even mediæval).
writers, appeal). simpl). y to the resurrection of our Lord and the descent of the Hol). y Ghost, which
happened on Sunday, to the custom of the Church and to Apostol). ic tradition.

(Pesel). γ) Sunday used to be reckoned from evening to evening―i.e., the sanctification of the day began
on Saturday and ended on Sunday evening. “It was,” says Thomasin, “about the eleventh or twelfth
century that after the abolition of public vigils in the Church, people began the celebration of Sundays
and feasts on the morning of the same day.” He quotes Gratian (Pesel). “De Consec.” d. 3), c. 1), Gregory Ⅸ..
(Pesel). “Extra. de Feriis,” c. 1, 2), who recognizes the ol). d custom; Al). exander Ⅲ. (ib.), who speaks of both. (Pesel). ib.), who speaks of both
customs as existing in his time; and Haytho, bishop of Basl). e in his Capitul). ary, (Pesel). cap. 8), who says
simpl). y that Sunday l). asts “a, mane usque ad vesperam.”

(Pesel). δ) Down to the middl). e of the fourteenth century it was admitted on al). l). hands that the faithful). must
hear Mass on Sundays and hol). idays of obl). igation in their parish church. But about this time the
Mendicant Friars pl). eaded that this l). aw had been changed by Papal). privil). ege in their favour. This l). ed to
keen disputes between secul). ars and regul). ars under Innocent Ⅵ. ; and Sixtus Ⅳ., more than a century. ; and Sixtus ., more than a century
afterwards, in his Constitution “Vices illius,” decl). ared that the l). aw obl). iged parishioners to hear Mass in
their own church unl). ess when they absented themsel). ves “for a good reason” (Pesel). “ex honesta causa”).
11 A sermon once attributed to Augustine (Appendix 280) says that the “glory of Jewish sabbath-keeping” was transfered
to Sunday, but the change is attributed to the “doctors of who Church,” and, besides, the Benedictine editors have
proved that the sermon is at least later than Alcuin. The universal teaching of the Fathers is that the Sabbath is
abrogated in the letter, and that it is kept spiritually by rest from sin, or will be kept by eternal rest with Christ. This is
the teaching of Justin (Dial. 12, PG, ⅵ. 2; ⅼⅷ. 13); and the Levitical Code (Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ.; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ.. 50); Iren. (Adv. Haer. . 16, PG, ⅶ. 19 seq.). They enlarge. 1015); Clem. Al. (Strom. . 3); Origen
(Hom. viii. § 2, In Jos. Contr. Cels. ii. 7); Victorinus (Routh, Rell. Sacr. ii. pp. 4, 5, 8); Augustine (C. Faust. xviii. 5, PL,
ⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets. 346); Jerome (In Isai. ⅼ . ad fin., ⅼⅵ. 2; ⅼⅷ. 13); and the Levitical Code (Exod. ⅹⅹⅵ.; ⅹⅹⅹⅴ.. 2, ⅼⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets. 13, PL, ⅹⅹ . 513); Epiphanius (Haer. ⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets. 6, ⅹⅹⅸ.. 7, ⅹⅹⅹ. 32 ;
Exposit. Fid. 32); Gregory the Great (Moral. ⅹⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets . 43); Arethes (In Apoc. . 2). The Puritan idea of a Christian
Sabbath was unknown to the first Reformers. But in Scotland we find the Book of Discipline drawn up by John Knox
and five other ministers enforcing Sabbath observance; and in 1562 the Gneral Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of
Scotland petitioned the Queen to punish Sabbath-breakers. In England, the Puritanical or Judaizing doctrine was
developed and systematized by a learned Puritan cleargyman, Dr. Nicolas Bownd, of Norton in Suffolk. The
Westminister Confession of 1647 (ch. ⅹ .) was the first Creed which embodied this view. (For the history of
Protestant opinion, see Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, vol. i. p. 775 seq.)

23
There has been much controversy on the sense of this l). ast cl). ause. (Pesel). See Juenin, “Comment. de Sacram.”
diss. v. § 11.) But in any case the Council). of Trent simpl). y recommends (Pesel). sess. ⅹⅻ..) attendance at the
parish church, and it is certain from a Constitution of Pius Ⅴ. (“. (Pesel). “ Etsi Mendicantium,” anno 15)67) that it
is enough, so far as strict obl). igation goes, to hear Mass in any publ). ic church.

(Pesel). ε) Modern discipl). ine has introduced another and a much more important change. Mass used to l). ast
for two hours and more; it can now be heard in hal). f an hour. Further, the publ). ic recitation of Matins on
Sunday before Mass was usual). even in secul). ar churches til). l). the end of the Middl). e Ages, and it was wel). l).
understood that the faithful). must assist at the Office as wel). l). as at Mass. This has been shown above
from the decrees of council). s. Maskel). l). (Pesel). “Monument. Rit.” vol). . . p. ⅹⅹⅻ..) proves that the obl). igation
of hearing Matins, Mass, and Evensong on Sundays and hol). idays was recognized in Engl). and til). l). the
change of rel). igion. Even in the l). ast century Bil). l). uart and many other theol). ogians admit an obl). igation
(Pesel). though not a grave one) of hearing Vespers as wel). l). as Mass on Sundays. At present, a man who
simpl). y hears Low Mass satisfies the l). etter of the Church l). aw. But if he absents himsel). f from sermons,
if, above al). l). , he does not use the opportunity the day of rest affords for increased prayer, for reading
good books, for instructing his famil). y and the l). ike, he wil). l). in many cases sin against his own soul). . He
can hardl). y fail). to do so unl). ess he be l). ike the perfect Christian of whom Origen speaks (Pesel). “C. Cel). s.” ⅷ. 5) as a day on which no business was done. The prophets.
22, 23)), with whom every day is a spiritual). feast. A man is in a bad way if he makes a practice of
hearing a Low Mass, and spending the rest of the Sunday in frivol). ous recreation. (Pesel). The moral).
theol). ogians treat of Sunday under the Third Commandment of God, e.g. St. Al). phonsus, “Theol. Mor.”
l). ib. . tract. 3); Bal). l). erini, “Theol. Mor.” ⅱ. 3, we read that “. 5)06 sqq. ; Sl). ater, “ Mor. Theol.” ⅰ. De Justif. Can 19, 20.. 25)7 sqq.; see al). so
Dubl). anchy, in DThC Dimanche, an excel). l). ent and exhaustive art.; Tournebize, “Le Repos Dominical.”)

The Catholic Dictionary,


or,
The universal Christian educator and popular encyclopedia
of religious information : containing doctrine, discipline,
Rites, ceremonies, councils and religious orders of the Church.

NIHIL OBSTAT, EDWARD S. KEOGH, Cong. Orat.


IMPRIMATUR, HENRY EDWARD MANNING, Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster
IMPRIMATUR, JOHN, CARDINAL MCCLOSKEY, Cardinal). Archbishop of New York

24
The word "Easter"

The word "Easter" is actual). l). y a word rooted in the name either of an al). l). eged Teutonic goddess
(Pesel). Eostre) or, more probabl). y, from the name "Eostur" meaning the "season of rising" and indicating
springtime.

It is onl). y used in the Engl). ish l). anguage.

It came into use because the month of April). was known in Angl). o-Saxon countries as easter-
monadh, and Eastur became an ol). d Germanic word meaning springtime.

Other l). anguages have different names for Easter -- "Pascha/Πάσχα" (Pesel). Latin and Greek), "Pasqua"
(Pesel). Ital). ian), "Pascua" (Pesel). Spanish), "Paschen" (Pesel). Dutch), "Pasg" (Pesel). Wel). sh), “Пасха” (Pesel). Russian), “ 過 越の祭 の祭 祭
り” ” (Pesel). Kaetsu no matsuri :: Japnaese), etc. -- al). l). of which derives from the Hebrew word ‫פסח‬
(Pesel). “Pesach”) meaning "Passover." (Pesel). ‫ = פסח‬La. occidi pascha, Gr. εβραϊκό Πάσχα [evraïkó Páscha]);
which is the original). term used and predates the use of the term “Easter.”

The point is that the cl). aim that “Easter is a pagan hol). iday” because of the word “Easter” is
ridicul). ous. The Engl). ish word for it might have pagan origins deriving from Eostre and/or the word for
springtime, but the Sol). emnity is rooted in the Ol). d Testament Pesach which was ful). fil). l). ed at the
Crucifixion which gave us the fruits of the Resurrection.

In addition, al). l). the names for the days of the week are “pagan” in origin, as wel). l). . Sunday is named
for the Sun; Monday for the Moon; Tuesday for god Tiu, Wednesday for Woden, Thursday for Thor,
Friday for Freya, and Saturday for Saturn, so anyone who bal). ks at cel). ebrating "Easter" because of its
"pagan origins" had better not refer to the days of the week by their Engl). ish names.

The Easter festival). originated with the Church hersel). f and was a l). egitimate
continuation of the Jewish Paschal). season. It woul). d be interesting were peopl). e, fond of
gl). ib assertions, to give the date when their supposed additions to Christianity were
made. Eusebius quotes a controversy in the time of Pope St. Victor in the year 190 as to
the right day for the cel). ebration of Easter. St. Irenaeus shows a diversity of practice in
the time of Pope Sixtus, about the year 120. The feast was in existence then, or there
coul). d not have grown up diversity of usages in different pl). aces. St. Irenaeus al). so
mentions that St. Pol). ycarp kept Easter on the 14)th of Nisan (Pesel). ‫)נִׂ יסָ ן‬, cl). inging rigidl). y to the
Jewish date, and cl). aiming that he was fol). l). owing the custom of St. John the Apostl). e,
whose discipl). e he had been. The idea that the feast was introduced in order to concil). iate
pagans to nominal). Christianity is just wil). d extravagance. The feast was not introduced to
concil). iate pagans; its Christian significance and utter repudiation of al). l). pagan Ishtar-

25
worship coul). d not have concil). iated them in any case; and such pagans as were converted
were not invited to become nominal). Christians. The earl). y ages of the Church were not
the times for nominal). Christians. The invitation to become a Christian was practical). l). y an
invitation to martyrdom. --Radio Repl). ies Vol). . III (Pesel). Question 1296)

When Looking at Mathew xxvi. 17-19; we read:

Τῇ δὲ πρώτῃ τῶν ἀζύμων προσῆλθον οἱ μαθηταὶ τῷ Ἰησοῦ λέγοντες αὐτῷ· ποῦ θέλεις
ἑτοιμάσωμέν σοι φαγεῖν τὸ πάσχα; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν· ὑπάγετε εἰς τὴν πόλιν πρὸς τὸν δεῖνα καὶ εἴπατε
αὐτῷ· ὁ διδάσκαλος λέγει, ὁ καιρός μου ἐγγύς ἐστι· πρὸς σὲ ποιῶ τὸ πάσχα μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν
μου. καὶ ἐποίησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ ὡς συνέταξεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἡτοίμασαν τὸ πάσχα.

Prima autem die azymorum accesserunt discipul). i ad Jesum, dicentes : Ubi vis paremus tibi
comedere Pascha? At Jesus dixit : Ite in civitatem ad quemdam, et dicite ei : Magister dicit : Tempus
meum prope est, apud te facio Pascha cum discipul). is meis. Et fecerunt discipul). i sicut constituit il). l). is
Jesus, et paraverunt Pascha.

And the *first day of the Azymes, the Discipl). es came to JESUS saying : Where wil). t thou that we
prepare for thee to eat the Pasch? But JESUS said: Go ye into the city to a certain man: and say to him:
The Master saith, My time is at hand, with thee do I make the Pasch with my Discipl). es. And the
Discipl). es did as JESUS appointed them, and they prepared the Pasch.

*MAUNDY Thursday.

Taken from the Haydock Commentary :

The Pascal Supper.


Ver. 17. The first day of the azymes (Pesel). Greek translation ἄζυμος from the Hebrew matsa (Pesel). ‫;))מַ צָ ה‬
unl). eavened bread. St. Mark (Pesel). xiv. 12.) adds, when they sacrificed the Pasch: and St. Luke (Pesel). xxii. 7.) says,
And the day of the unleavened bread came; on which it was necessary that the Pasch (Pesel). i.e. the Paschal).
l). amb) should be killed. From hence it fol). l). ows, that Christ sent his apostl). es that very day (Pesel). the 14)th day

of the month of Nisan (Pesel). ‫ ))נִׂ יסָ ן‬on which, in the evening, or at night, the Pasch was to be eaten; and

which was to be with unl). eavened bread. It is true, the 15)th day of that month is cal). l). ed (Pesel). Exodus xii. 1.
[2.?]) the first day of unleavened bread: but we must take notice, that the Jews began their feasts, or
festival). s, from sunset of the evening before; and consequentl). y on the evening of the 14)th day of the

26
moon: at which time there was to be no l). eavened bread in any of their houses. This shews that Christ
eat the Pasch, or Paschal lamb, after sunset. And when the Paschal). supper was over, he consecrated the
bl). essed Eucharist, in unl). eavened bread, as the Latin Church doth. There are two or three difficul). ties
rel). ating to this matter in St. John, of which in their proper pl). aces. (Pesel). Witham) --- There were four
passovers during Christ's publ). ic ministry. The 1st was after the marriage feast of Cana, in the 3)1 st year
of Jesus, and the 779th from the foundation of Rome. To derive pascha from the Greek, paschein
(Pesel). πάσχω), to suffer, is a mistake, as St. Augustine observes; tract. l). v. in Joah. It is certainl). y taken from
the Hebrew, and signifies a passing by, or passing over: 1st, because the chil). dren of Israel). passed in
haste on that night out of the l). and of Egypt; 2d, because the angel). , who on that night kil). l). ed al). l). the first-
born of the Egyptians, seeing the doors of the Israel). ites stained with the bl). ood of the paschal). l). amb,
passed by al). l). theirs untouched; 3)d, because that was a figure of our Saviour passing out of this l). ife to
his eternal). Father. Yet it must be observed that this same word, pascha, or passover, is used sometimes
for the paschal lamb, that was sacrificed; (Pesel). Luke xxii. 7.) el). sewhere, for the first day of the paschal). feast
and sol). emnity, which l). asted seven days; (Pesel). Matthew xxvi. 2; Ezechiel). xl). v. 21.) for the sabbath-day, which
occurred within the seven days of the sol). emnity; (Pesel). John xix. 14).) and al). so for al). l). the sacrifices made
during the seven days' feast. The Passover was the most sol). emn rite of the ol). d l). aw. When God ordered
the Israel). ites to sprinkl). e the bl). ood of the l). amb upon their door-posts, it was sol). el). y with a view of
signifying, that the bl). ood of the true Lamb was to be the distinctive mark of as many as shoul). d be
saved. Every thing was mysteriousl). y and prophetical). . A bone of the l). amb was not to be broken; and
they broke not the arms or l). egs of Jesus Christ, on the cross. The l). amb was to be free from bl). emish; to
express the perfect sanctity of Jesus Christ, the immacul). ate Lamb of God. The paschal). l). amb was to be
sacrificed and eaten; because Christ was to suffer and die for us: and unl). ess we eat his fl). esh, we shal). l).
have no l). ife in us. The door-posts of the Israel). ites were to be sprinkl). ed with bl). ood, that the destroying
angel). might pass over them; for with the bl). ood of Christ our soul). s are to be purified, that sin and death
may not prevail). against us. In every house was eaten a whol). e l). amb; and Christ, at communion, is
received whol). e and entire by every faithful). soul). . --- The manner in which it was to be eaten, shews the
proper dispositions for Christians when they receive the bl). essed sacrament. The roasting by fire,
expresses divine charity; the unl). eavened bread, sincerity, truth, and a good conscience; the bitter herbs,
repentance and contrition for sin; the girded l). oins and shod feet, the restraint upon our passions and
l). usts, and a readiness to fol). l). ow the rul). es of the gospel). ; the staff, our mortal). pil). grimage, and that having
no l). asting dwel). l). ing here, we shoul). d make the best of our way to our true country, the heavenl). y

27
Chanaan. --- On this day the passover was to be eaten, at l). east by a part of the peopl). e, according to St.
Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke; i.e. according to some, by the Gal). il). eans; for, according to St. John, it
appears that the priests, and the Jews properl). y so cal). l). ed, such as dwel). t in Judea, did not immol). ate it til). l).
the next day. (Pesel). John xiii. 1, xviii. 28, and xix. 14).) (Pesel). Bibl). e de Vence) --- But we have here again to
remark, that the Jews began their day from sunset of the previous day.

Ver. 18. To a certain man, whom Sts. Mark and Luke cal). l). , the good man of the house, or master of
the house. When St. Matthew therefore says, a certain man, he seems to do it for brevity's sake; as no
one ever speaks to his servants thus, go to a certain man. The evangel). ist, therefore, after giving our
Saviour's words, go ye into a certain city, he adds as from himsel). f, to a certain man, to inform us that
there was a particul). ar man to whom Jesus sent his discipl). es. (Pesel). St. Augustine) --- In Greek, ton deina

(Pesel). τὸν δεῖνα); in Hebrew, Pelona (Pesel). ‫;)ּפלׂנִׂ י‬


ְ words that express a person whose name is either not known,
or is wished to be kept secret. (Pesel). Jansenius)

Ver. 19. And they prepared what was necessary, a l). amb, wil). d l). ettuce, and unl). eavened bread. (Pesel). Bibl). e
de Vence)

Ver. 20. When it was evening.[2] St. Luke says, when the hour was come, which was at the l). atter
evening, after sunset. The time of kil). l). ing and sacrificing the l). amb was, according to the 12 th of Exodus,
to be between the two evenings; (Pesel). see Mark xiv. 15).) so that we may reasonabl). y suppose, that Christ sent
some of his apostl). es on Thursday, in the afternoon, to perform what was to be done, as to the kil). l). ing
and sacrificing of the l). amb, and then to bring it away: and he eat it with his discipl). es after sunset. ---
He sat down, &c. Literal). l). y, laid down, in a l). eaning or l). ying position. Some pretend, from this
circumstance, that he eat not the paschal). l). amb that year, because it was to be eaten, standing, according
to the l). aw. But they might stand at the paschal). l). amb, and eat the rest of the supper on couches; as it was
then the custom. (Pesel). Witham) --- We must not hence suppose that he transgressed the l). aw. He first eat the
Pasch according to the Mosaic rite, standing, and then sat down to supper. (Pesel). St. Chrysostom, hom.
l). xxxii.)

Ver. 22. And they being very much troubled. There were three motives for this great sorrow in the
discipl). es: 1st, because they saw their innocent and dear Master was so soon to be taken from them, and
del). ivered up to a most cruel). and ignominious death; 2 nd, because each of them was afraid l). est, through
human frail). ty, he might fal). l). into so great a crime; for they al). l). were convinced, that what he said must
necessaril). y come to pass: and l). astl). y, that there coul). d be found one among them so wretchedl). y perverse,

28
as to del). iver Jesus into the hands of his enemies. Hence afraid of themsel). ves, and not daring to affix a
suspicion on any individual). , they began every one to say: Is it I, Lord, on whom so atrocious a crime is
to fal). l). ? ... It is extremel). y probabl). e that Christ made this prediction three times: 1 st, at the
commencement of supper; (Pesel). Matthew xxvi. 21.) 2 nd, after washing the feet; (Pesel). John xiii. 18.) 3) rd, after the
institution of the bl). essed Eucharist. (Pesel). Luke xxii. 21.) Thus Pope Benedict XIV. Sandinus, &c.

Ver. 23. He that dippeth. He that is associated to me, that eateth bread with me, shall lift up his heel
against me, according to the prophecy of the psal). mist, cited by St. John, xiii. 18. --- Jesus Christ does
not here manifest the traitor; he onl). y aggravates the enormity and mal). ice of the crime.

Ver. 25. Is it I, Rabbi? After the other discipl). es had put their questions, and after our Saviour had
finished speaking, Judas at l). ength ventures to inquire of himsel). f. With his usual). hypocrisy, he wishes to
cl). oke his wicked designs by asking a simil). ar question with the rest. (Pesel). Origen) --- It is remarkabl). e that
Judas did not ask, is it I, Lord? but, is it I, Rabbi? to which our Saviour repl). ied, thou hast said it: which
answer might have been spoken in so l). ow a tone of voice, as not perfectl). y to be heard by al). l). the
company. (Pesel). Rabanus) --- Hence it was that Peter beckoned to St. John, to l). earn more positivel). y the
person. Here St. Chrysostom justl). y remarks the patience and reserve of our Lord, who by his great
meekness and sel). f-possession, under the extremes of ingratitude, injustice, and bl). asphemy, shews how
we ought to bear with the mal). ice of others, and forget al). l). personal). injuries.

The Institution of the Holy Sacrament.


Ver. 26. And whilst they were at supper. Jesus Christ proceeds to the institution of the bl). essed
Eucharist, that the truth or real). ity may succeed to the figure in one and the same banquet; and to
impress more deepl). y upon our minds the remembrance of so singul). ar a favour, his l). ast and best gift to
man. He woul). d not institute it at the beginning of his ministry; he first prepares his discipl). es for the
bel). ief of it, by changing water into wine, and by the miracul). ous mul). tipl). ication of the l). oaves. --- Whilst
they were, &c. before they parted: for by St. Luke (Pesel). xxii. 20.) and 1 Corinthians (Pesel). xi. 25).) the bl). essed
sacrament was not instituted til). l). after supper. --- Jesus took bread, and blessed it. St. Luke and St. Paul).
say, he gave thanks. This blessing and giving thanks, was not the consecration itsel). f, but went before it.
See the Council). of Trent, session xiii. chap. i. (Pesel). Witham) --- This is my body. He does not say, this is the
figure of my body---but, this is my body. (Pesel). 2nd Council). of Nice. Act. vi.) Neither does he say in this, or
with this is my body, but absol). utel). y this is my body; which pl). ainl). y impl). ies transubstantiation.

29
(Pesel). Chal). l). oner) --- Cathol). ics maintain, after the express words of Scripture, and the universal). tradition of
the Church, that Christ in the bl). essed sacrament is corporally and substantially present; but not
carnally; not in that gross, natural). , and sensibl). e manner, in which our separated brethren misrepresent
the Cathol). ic doctrine, as the Capharnaites did of ol). d; (Pesel). John vi. 61, 62.) who were scandal). ized with it. ...
If Protestants, in opposition to the primitive Fathers, deny the connection of the sixth chapter of John
with the institution, it is from the fear of giving advantage to the doctrine of transubstantiation, says
Dr. Cl). ever, Protestant bishop of Bangor. --- This is my body. By these words, and his divine power,
Christ changed that which before was bread into his own body; not in that visibl). e and bl). oody manner as
the Capharnaites imagined. (Pesel). John vi.) Yet so, that the el). ements of bread and wine were trul). y, real). l). y, and
substantial). l). y changed into the substance of Christ's body and bl). ood. Christ, whose divine power cannot
be questioned, coul). d not make use of pl). ainer words than these set down by St. Matthew, St. Mark, St.
Luke, and St. Paul). to the Corinthians: this is my body; this is my blood: and that the bread and wine, at
the words of consecration are changed into the body and bl). ood of Christ, has been the constant doctrine
and bel). ief of the Cathol). ic Church, in al). l). ages, both in the east and west, both in the Greek and Latin
churches; as may be seen in our controvertists, and particul). arl). y in the author of the books of the
Perpetuity of the Faith. The first and fundamental). truths of the Christian faith, by which we profess to
bel). ieve the mystery of the hol). y Trinity, i.e. one God and three divine Persons, and of the incarnation,
i.e. that the true Son of God was made man, was born, suffered and died upon the cross for our
sal). vation, are no l). ess obscure and mysterious, no l). ess above the reach of human capacity, than this of
the real). presence: nor are they more cl). earl). y expressed in the sacred text. This change the Church hath
thought proper to express by the word, transubstantiation: and it is as frivol). ous to reject this word, and
to ask where it is found in the hol). y Scriptures, as to demand where we read in the Scriptures, the words,
trinity, incarnation, consubstantial to the Father, &c. --- Luther fairl). y owned that he wanted not an
incl). ination to deny Christ's real). presence in the sacrament, by which he shoul). d vex and contradict the
Pope; but this, said he, is a truth that cannot be denied:[3)] The words of the gospel are too clear. He and
his fol). l). owers hol). d, what is cal). l). ed impanation, or consubstantiation; i.e. that there is real). l). y present, both
the substance of the bread and wine, and al). so the substance of Christ's body and bl). ood. --- Zuingl). ius,
the Sacramentarians, and Cal). vinists deny the real). presence; and hol). d that the word is, (Pesel). est) importeth no
more, than it signifieth, or is a figure of Christ's body; as it hath been l). atel). y transl). ated, this represents
my body, in a l). ate transl). ation, or rather paraphrase, 1729. I shal). l). onl). y produce here the words and
reasoning of Luther: which may deserve the attention of the l). ater reformers. [4)]"Who," saith Luther,

30
(Pesel). tom. vii. Edit. Wittemb. p. 3)91) "but the devil). , hath granted such a l). icense of wresting the words of the
hol). y Scripture? Who ever read in the Scriptures, that my body is the same as the sign of my body? or,
that is is the same as it signifies? What l). anguage in the worl). d ever spoke so? It is onl). y then the devil,
that imposeth upon us by these fanatical). men. ... Not one of the Fathers, though so numerous, ever
spoke as the Sacramentarians: not one of them ever said, It is only bread and wine; or, the body and
blood of Christ is not there present. Surel). y it is not credible, nor possible, since they often speak, and
repeat their sentiments, that they shoul). d never (Pesel). if they thought so) not so much as once, say, or l). et sl). ip
these words: It is bread only; or the body of Christ is not there, especial). l). y it being of great importance,
that men shoul). d not be deceived. Certainl). y in so many Fathers, and in so many writings, the negative
might at l). east be found in one of them, had they thought the body and blood of Christ were not real). l). y
present: but they are al). l). of them unanimous." Thus far Luther; who, in another pl). ace, in his usual).
manner of writing, hesitates not to cal). l). the Sacramentarians, men possessed, prepossessed, and
transpossessed by the devil.[5)] --- My body. In St. Luke is added, which is given for you. Granted these
words, which is given, may bear this sense, which shall be given, or offered on the cross; yet as it was
the true body of Christ, that was to be crucified,so it was the same true body which Christ gave to his
apostl). es, at his l). ast supper, though in a different manner. --- The hol). y Eucharist is not onl). y a
sacrament, but al). so a sacrifice, succeeding to al). l). the sacrifices of the ancient l). aw, which Christ
commanded al). l). the priests of the new l). aw to offer up. Luther was forced to own, that divers Fathers,
taught this doctrine; as Irenaeus, Cyprian, Augustine: and in his answer to Henry VIII. of Engl). and: The
king, says he, brings the testimonies of the Fathers, to prove the sacrifice of the mass, for my part, I
care not, if a thousand Augustines, a thousand Cyprians, a thousand Churches, l). ike that of Henry, stand
against me. The Centurists of Magdeburg own the same to have been the doctrine of Cyprian,
Tertul). l). ian, and al). so of Irenaeus, in the end of the second age; and that St. Gregory of Nazianzen, in the
fourth age, cal). l). s it an unbloody sacrifice; incruenti sacrificii. (Pesel). Witham)

Commentary Footnotes:
[1] Ver. 2. Pascha fiet. to pascha ginetai fit. St. Jerome on this pl). ace, (Pesel). p. 125).) Pascha, quod Hebraicè
dicitur Phase: non a Passione, ut pl). erique arbitrantur, sed a transitu nominatur. So al). so St. Augustine,
tract 5)5). in Joan.
[2] Ver. 20. Vespere facto. See the two evenings, Matthew xiv. 15).
[3)] Ver. 26. Luther. Verum ego me captum video. ... Textus enim Evangel). ii nimium apertus est.
[4)] Ver. 26. See Luther, tom. 7. Ed. Wittemb. p. 3)91.

31
[5)] Ver. 26. See Hospinianus, 2. part. Hist. Sacram. p. 187. He says the Sacramentarians have a heart,
according to a French transl). ation, endiabol). è, perdiabol). è, transdiabol). è.
[6] Ver. 28. Touto to poterion, e kaine diatheke en to aimati mou, to uper umon ekchunomenon, and not
ekchunomeno; so that it agrees withpoterion, &c.
[7] Ver. 3)4). The time towards the morning, cal). l). ed Gal). l). icinium.
[8] Ver. 3)7. Lupeisthai kai ademonein. In St. Mark, ekthambeisthai.
[9] Ver. 71. Al). uis, eteros, says St. Luke. St. John says, eipon auto.
[10] Ver. 73). St. Jerome, in Matt. p. 13)3), scio quosdam pii affectus erga Apostol). um Petrum, l). ocum hunc
ita interpretatos, ut dicerent Petrum non Deum negasse, sed hominem ... Hoc quam frivol). um sit,
prudens Lector intel). l). igit; qui sic defendunt Apostol). um, ut Deum mendacii reum faciant.

32
Protestant doctrine on righteousness & Justification – 2Cor. ⅺ. 13-15. 13-15
13 ο γὰfρ τοιο τοι ψευδὰπόστολοι, ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςργάτὰι δόλιοι, μετὰσχημὰτιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςς ἀποστόλουςποστόλους
Χριστο . 14 καὶ4 ο θαυμαστόν· α το4ς γα4ρ ὁ σατανᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός. σατανᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός.ς μετασχηματίζεταὶ εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός.ς ἄγγελον φωτός.γγελον φωτός. 15
ο μέγα οὖν εἰ καὶ οἱ διάκονοι αὐτοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς ν εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός. καὶ4 οἱ διάκονοι αὐτοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς δὶάκονοὶ α τοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς μετασχηματίζονταὶ ὡς ς διάκονοι δικαιοσύνης, ὧν τὸ τέλοςν τοf τέλος
ἔσται κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν. [Elpenor]στὰι κὰτὰf τὰf ἔσται κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν. [Elpenor]ργὰ ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῶν. [Elpenor]ν. [Elpenor]

13 Nam ejusmodi pseudoapostoli sunt operarii subdoli, transfigurantes se in apostolos Christi.


14 Et non mirum : ipse enim Satanas transfigurat se in angelum lucis. 15 Non est ergo magnum,
si ministri ejus transfigurentur velut ministri justitiæ: quorum finis erit secundum opera ipsorum.
[CVG]

13. For such false apostles are crafty workers, transfiguring themselves into Apostles of Christ.
14. And no marvel: for Satan himself transfigureth himself into an Angel of light. 15. It is not
great matter therefore if his ministers be transfigured as the ministers of justice: whose end shall
be according to their works. [DRV]

Δικαιοσύνης – is the genitive form of δικαιοσύνη which translates to righteousness, Justice,


Justification, &c.

Strong's Concordance
dikaiosuné: righteousness, justice
Original Word: δικαιοσύνη, ης, ἡ
Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine
Transliteration: dikaiosuné
Phonetic Spelling: (dik-ah-yos-oo'-nay)
Short Definition: justice, justness, righteousness
Definition: (usually if not always in a Jewish atmosphere), justice, justness, righteousness,
righteousness of which God is the source or author, but practically: a divine righteousness.

It is interesting how the primary Protestant doctrine is about righteousness and Justification;
that is, they are ministers of righteousness (Justification).

33
On Peter’s Primacy – Luc. ⅹⅻ. 31-32. 31-32
31 Εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πε δεf ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰς ἀποστόλουςδουf ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο σὰτὰνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ς ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςξῃτήσατο τήσὰτο ὑμᾶςμᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός.ς το σινιάσὰι ὡς τὸνς τοfν
σῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ τον· 32 ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςγωf δεf ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςδεήθην περιf σοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς ἵνα μὴ ἐκλίπῃ ἡ πίστις νὰ μηf ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςκλίπῃτήσατο ἡ πίστις πίστις σου· κὰιf σύ ποτε ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςπιστρέψὰς στήριξον
τουfς ἀποστόλουςδελφούς σου. [Elpenor]
31 Ait autem Dominus : Simon, Simon, ecce Satanas expetivit vos ut cribraret sicut triticum :
32 ego autem rogavi pro te ut non deficiat fides tua : et tu aliquando conversus, confirma fratres tuos.
[CVG]
31. And our Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath required to have you for to sift as
wheat: 32. BUT I HAVE PRAYED FOR THEE, that thy faith fail not: and thou once converted,
confirm thy brethren. [DRV]

Ὑμᾶς (ὑμᾶς) translates to you plural, while σου translates to you or thy (singular); vos in Latin
is the same.

Here, while the uses of the term ὑμᾶς (ymás) / vos, He [Christ] is referring to all of the Apostles
i.e., behold Satan hath required to have you [all] for to sift as wheat; then when the use of the term σου
(sou) / tu (tua/tuos), He [Christ] is speaking and referring to Kepa (Simon) alone.

What is fascinating is the fact that the English completely obliterates the proper understanding
of the text.

On Peter’s Primacy – Matth. ⅹ. 2-4


2 Τῶν. [Elpenor]ν δεf δώδεκὰ ἀποστόλουςποστόλων τὰf ὀνόματά εἰσι ταῦτα· νόμὰτά εἰς ἀποστόλουςσι τὰ τὰ· πρῶτοςτος Σίμων ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο λεγόμενος Πέτρος κὰιf
,νδρέὰς ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το , -άκωβος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο το Ζεβεδὰίου κὰιf -ωάννης ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το , 3 Φίλιππος κὰιf
Βὰρθολομὰῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ος, Θωμᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ς κὰιf Μὰτθὰῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο τελώνης, -άκωβος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο το ,λφὰίου κὰιf Λεββὰ ῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο
ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςπικληθειfς Θὰδδὰῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ος, [Elpenor]
2 Duodecim autem Apostolorum nomina sunt hæc. Primus, Simon, qui dicitur Petrus : et
Andreas frater ejus, 3 Jacobus Zebedæi, et Joannes frater ejus, Philippus, et Bartholomæus, Thomas, et
Matthæus publicanus, Jacobus Alphæi, et Thaddæus, 4 Simon Chananæus, et Judas Iscariotes, qui et
tradidit eum. [CVG]

34
2. And the names of the twelve Apostles be these: The first, Simon who is called Peter, and
Andrew his brother, 3. James of Zebedee, and John his brother, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and
Matthew the publican, and James of Alpheus, and Thaddeus, 4. Simon Cananaeus, and Judas Iscariot,
who also betrayed him. [DRV]

πρῶν. [Elpenor]τος (prótos) translates to first, but also Primary or Chief. Latin primus means first
primary, chief. The Syriac uses the term qaḏmāyhon (māyhon ( ‫ܝܗܘܢ‬ ܽ ‫)ܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ‬
ܰ which also means Primary or

Primacy. In other words, the terms used are not used for listing things in order, but gives primacy and
importance to the object or subject in question. This is why, in the other Gospels where the Apostles
are listed, even though these terms are not used, Peter is still mentioned first and the others are listed in
various orders differing from one another.

Strong's Concordance
prótos: first, chief
Original Word: πρῶτος, η, ον
Part of Speech: Adjective
Transliteration: prótos
Phonetic Spelling: (pro'-tos)
Short Definition: first, before
Definition: first, before, principal, most important.
primus, prima, primum
#1
adjective
Definitions:
1. first, foremost/best, chief, principal
2. nearest/next
3. [in primis => especially]
• Age: In use throughout the ages/unknown
• Area: All or none
• Geography: All or none
• Frequency: Very frequent, in all Elementry Latin books, top 1000+ words
• Source: General, unknown or too common to say

primus, primi

35
#2
noun

• declension: 2nd declension


• gender: masculine
Definitions:
1. chiefs (pl.), nobles
• Age: In use throughout the ages/unknown
• Area: All or none
• Geography: All or none
• Frequency: For Dictionary, in top 20,000 words
• Source: General, unknown or too common to say

Again, the English obliterates the clarity. More properly, the best English rendering would be
‘chief.’ i.e., 2. And the names of the twelve Apostles be these: The chief, Simon who is called Peter,…

36
37
More Greek Sources :
Matthew x. 2

των δε δωδεκὰ ὰποστολων τὰ ονομὰτὰ εστιν τὰυτὰ πρωτος σιμων ο λεγομενος πετρος κὰι
ὰνδρεὰς ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου ιὰκωβος ο του ζεβεδὰιου κὰι ιωὰννης ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου [Byz]

Τῶν. [Elpenor]ν δεf δώδεκὰ ἀποστόλουςποστόλων τὰf ὀνόματά εἰσι ταῦτα· νόμὰτά εἰς ἀποστόλουςσι τὰ τὰ· πρῶν. [Elpenor]τος Σίμων ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο λεγόμενος Πέτρος κὰιf
,νδρέὰς ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το , -άκωβος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο το Ζεβεδὰίου κὰιf -ωάννης ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το , [PT/GOC]

Τῶν. [Elpenor]ν δεf δώδεκὰ ἀποστόλουςποστόλων τὰf ὀνόματά εἰσι ταῦτα· νόμὰτά ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςστιν τὰ τὰ· πρῶν. [Elpenor]τος Σίμων ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο λεγόμενος Πέτρος κὰιf
,νδρέὰς ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το , κὰιf -άκωβος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο το Ζεβεδὰίου κὰιf -ωάννης ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το ,
[Tischendorf]

των δε δωδεκὰ ὰποστολων τὰ ονομὰτὰ εστιν τὰυτὰ πρωτος σιμων ο λεγομενος πετρος κὰι
ὰνδρεὰς ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου ιὰκωβος ο του ζεβεδὰιου κὰι ιωὰννης ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου [TR]

Τῶν. [Elpenor]ν δεf δώδεκὰ ἀποστόλουςποστόλων τὰf ὀνόματά εἰσι ταῦτα· νόμὰτά ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςστιν τὰ τὰ· πρῶν. [Elpenor]τος Σίμων ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο λεγόμενος Πέτρος κὰιf
,νδρέὰς ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το -άκωβος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο το Ζεβεδὰίου κὰιf -ωάννης ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το [Tra]

Τῶν. [Elpenor]ν δεf δώδεκὰ ἀποστόλουςποστόλων τὰf ὀνόματά εἰσι ταῦτα· νόμὰτὰ ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςστιν τὰ τὰ· πρῶν. [Elpenor]τος Σίμων ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο λεγόμενος Πέτρος κὰιf
,νδρέὰς ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το κὰιf -άκωβος ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο το Ζεβεδὰίου κὰιf -ωάννης ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςδελφοfς ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]το , [WH]

των δε δωδεκὰ ὰποστολων τὰ ονομὰτὰ εστιν τὰυτὰ πρωτος σιμων ο λεγομενος πετρος κὰι
ὰνδρεὰς ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου κὰι ιὰκωβος ο του ζεβεδὰιου κὰι ιωὰννης ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου [WHNU]

των δε δωδεκὰ ὰποστολων τὰ ονομὰτὰ εστιν τὰυτὰ πρωτος σιμων ο λεγομενος πετρος κὰι
ὰνδρεὰς ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου κὰι ιὰκωβος ο του ζεβεδὰιου κὰι ιωὰννης ο ὰδελφος ὰυτου [NA27]

Codex Sinaiticus: μὰλὰκιὰν : των δε ιβ ὰποϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : τολων τὰ ονομὰτὰ εϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : τιν τὰυτὰ : πρωτοϲ ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ιμων ο
λεγομενοϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : πετροϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : κὰι ὰνδρεὰϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ο ὰδελφοϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ὰυτου · κ(ὰι) ϊὰκωβο ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ο του ζεβεδὰιου · κὰι ϊωὰννη ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ο
ὰδελφοϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα :

38
Luc. Xxii. 31-32
ειπεν δε ο κυριος σιμων σιμων ιδου ο σὰτὰνὰς εξητησὰτο υμας του σινιὰσὰι ως τον σιτον 32.
εγω δε εδεηθην περι σου ινὰ μη εκλιπη η πιστις σου κὰι συ ποτε επιστρεψὰς στηριξον τους ὰδελφους
σου [Byz]

Εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πε δεf ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰς ἀποστόλουςδουf ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο σὰτὰνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ς ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςξῃτήσατο τήσὰτο ὑμᾶςμᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός.ς το σινιάσὰι ὡς τὸνς τοfν σῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ τον·
32. ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςγωf δεf ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςδεήθην περιf σοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς ἵνα μὴ ἐκλίπῃ ἡ πίστις νὰ μηf ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςκλίπῃτήσατο ἡ πίστις πίστις σου· κὰιf σύ ποτε ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςπιστρέψὰς στήριξον τουfς
ἀποστόλουςδελφούς σου. [PT/GOC]

Σίμων Σίμων, ἰς ἀποστόλουςδουf ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο σὰτὰνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ς ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςξῃτήσατο τήσὰτο ὑμᾶςμᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός.ς το σινιάσὰι ὡς τὸνς τοfν σῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ τον· 32. ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςγωf δεf
ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςδεήθην περιf σοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς ἵνα μὴ ἐκλίπῃ ἡ πίστις νὰ μηf ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςκλίπῃτήσατο ἡ πίστις πίστις σου. κὰιf σύ ποτε ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςπιστρέψὰς στήρισον τουfς ἀποστόλουςδελφούς σου.
[Tischendorf]

ειπεν δε ο κυριος σιμων σιμων ιδου ο σὰτὰνὰς εξητησὰτο υμας του σινιὰσὰι ως τον σιτον 32.
εγω δε εδεηθην περι σου ινὰ μη εκλειπη η πιστις σου κὰι συ ποτε επιστρεψὰς στηριξον τους ὰδελφους
σου [TR] &c.

Codex Sinaiticus: ειπεν δε ο κϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ιμων ϊδου ο ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ὰτὰνὰϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : εξητηϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ὰτο ϋμαϲ του ξινιὰϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ὰι 32 ωϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα :
τον ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ιτον εγω δε εδεηθην περι ϲου ϊνὰ μη εκλιπη η πιϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : τιϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ϲου κὰι ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : υ ποτε επιϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : τρεψὰϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : τηριϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ον τουϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα :
ὰδελφουϲτολων τα ονοματα εϲτιν ταυτα : ϲου (Note the Codex Sinaiticus uses the Lunate Sigma)

39
Ego pascam oves meas, et ego eas accubare faciam,dicit Dominus Deus. Eze. 34. 15

ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςγωf βοσκήσω τὰf πρόβὰτά μου κὰιf ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςγωf ἀποστόλουςνὰπὰύσω ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τά, κὰιf γνώσοντὰι ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςγώ ε ἰς ἀποστόλουςμι Κύριος.
τάδε λέγει Κύριος Κύριος·

‫הוה׃‬
ֽ ִׂ ְ‫ְרעֶ ה צ ֹאנִׂ י ַואֲנִׂ י אַ ְר ִׂביצֵּ ם נְ אֻ ם אֲדֹ נָי י‬

râʻâh, (âh, (‫ ) ָרעָ ה‬raw-aw'; a primitive root; to tend a flock; i.e. pasture it; intransitively, to graze
(literally or figuratively); generally to rule; by extension, to associate with (as a friend):—× break,
companion, keep company with, devour, eat up, evil entreat, feed, use as a friend, make friendship
with, herdman, keep (sheep) (-er), pastor, shearing house, shepherd, wander, waste.

I will feed my sheep: & I will make them lie, saith our Lord God.

Therefore when they had dined, JESUS saith to Simon Peter, Simon of John, lovest thou me
more then these? He saith to him, Yea Lord: thou knowest that I love thee. he saith to him, FEED MY
LAMBS. 16. He saith to him again, Simon of John, lovest thou me? he saith to him, Yea Lord, thou
knowest that I love thee. He saith to him, <1>FEED MY LAMBS. 17. He saith to him the third time,
Simon of John, lovest thou me? Peter was stroken sad, because he said unto him the third time, Lovest
thou me? And he said to him, Lord, thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to
him, FEED MY SHEEP.

<1>ποίμαινε to feed and rule. (the other two feeds, βόσκε)

15 2τε ο3ν 4ρίστησὰν, λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς· Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με πλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ον
τούτων; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰί, Κύριε, συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· βόσκε τὰf ἀποστόλουςρνίὰ μου. 16 λέγει
ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον πάλιν δεύτερον· Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰί, Κύριε, συf ο ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλ ῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει
ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· ποίμαὶνε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου. 17 λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον· Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςλυπήθη ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Πέτρος
ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον, φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με, κὰιf εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· Κύριε, συf πάντὰ ο ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς, συf γινώσκεις ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλ ῶν. [Elpenor]
σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς· βόσκε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου. [Elp]

40
15 Cum ergo prandissent, dicit Simoni Petro Jesus : Simon Joannis, diligis me plus his? Dicit
ei : Etiam Domine, tu scis quia amo te. Dicit ei : Pasce agnos meos. 16 Dicit ei iterum : Simon Joannis,
diligis me? Ait illi : Etiam Domine, tu scis quia amo te. Dicit ei : Pasce agnos meos. 17 Dicit ei tertio :
Simon Joannis, amas me? Contristatus est Petrus, quia dixit ei tertio : Amas me? et dixit ei : Domine, tu
omnia nosti, tu scis quia amo te. Dixit ei : Pasce oves meas.

15. οτε ουν ηριστησὰν λεγει τω σιμωνι πετρω ο ιησους σιμων ιωνὰ ὰγὰπὰς με πλειον τουτων
λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω βοσκε τὰ ὰρνιὰ μου
16. λεγει ὰυτω πὰλιν δευτερον σιμων ιωνὰ ὰγὰπὰς με λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι φιλω
σε λεγει ὰυτω ποὶμαὶνε τὰ προβὰτὰ μου
17. λεγει ὰυτω το τριτον σιμων ιωνὰ φιλεις με ελυπηθη ο πετρος οτι ειπεν ὰυτω το τριτον
φιλεις με κὰι ειπεν ὰυτω κυριε συ πὰντὰ οιδὰς συ γινωσκεις οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω ο ιησους βοσκε τὰ
προβὰτὰ μου [Byz]

15. 2τε ο3ν 4ρίστησὰν, λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς· Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , ἀποστόλουςγὰπ ᾷς με πλεῖονς με πλε ῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ον
τούτων; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰί, Κύριε, συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· βόσκε τὰf ἀποστόλουςρνίὰ μου.
16. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον πάλιν δεύτερον· Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰί, Κύριε, συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι
φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· ποίμαὶνε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου.
17. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον· Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςλυπήθη ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Πέτρος ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf
τρίτον, φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με, κὰιf εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· Κύριε, συf πάντὰ οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς, συf γινώσκεις ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο
-ησο ς· βόσκε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου. [PT/GOC]

15. 2τε ο3ν 4ρίστησὰν, λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς, Σίμων -ωάννου, ἀποστόλουςγὰπ ᾷς με πλεῖονς με πλέον
τούτων; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰί κύριε, συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· βόσκε τὰf ἀποστόλουςρνίὰ μου.
16. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον πάλιν δεύτερον· Σίμων -ωάννου, ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰί κύριε, συf ο ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς
ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· ποίμαὶνε τὰf προβάτιά μου.
17. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον· Σίμων -ωάννου, φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςλυπήθη ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Πέτρος ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι ε ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf
τρίτον· φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; κὰιf λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· κύριε, πάντὰ συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς, συf γινώσκεις ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλ ῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον·
βόσκε τὰf προβάτιά μου. [Tischendorf]

41
15. οτε ουν ηριστησὰν λεγει τω σιμωνι πετρω ο ιησους σιμων ιωνὰ ὰγὰπὰς με πλειον τουτων
λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω βοσκε τὰ ὰρνιὰ μου
16. λεγει ὰυτω πὰλιν δευτερον σιμων ιωνὰ ὰγὰπὰς με λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι φιλω
σε λεγει ὰυτω ποὶμαὶνε τὰ προβὰτὰ μου
17. λεγει ὰυτω το τριτον σιμων ιωνὰ φιλεις με ελυπηθη ο πετρος οτι ειπεν ὰυτω το τριτον
φιλεις με κὰι ειπεν ὰυτω κυριε συ πὰντὰ οιδὰς συ γινωσκεις οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω ο ιησους βοσκε τὰ
προβὰτὰ μου [TR]

15. 2τε ο3ν 4ρίστησὰν λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , ἀποστόλουςγὰπ ᾷς με πλεῖονς με πλε ῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ όν
τούτων λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Νὰί κύριε συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Βόσκε τὰf ἀποστόλουςρνίὰ μου
16. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον πάλιν δεύτερον Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Νὰί κύριε συf ο ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι
φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Ποίμαὶνε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου
17. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον Σίμων -ωνᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο , φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςλυπήθη ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Πέτρος ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον
Φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με κὰιf εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Κύριε συf πάντὰ οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς συf γινώσκεις ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς
Βόσκε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου [TRa]

15. 2τε ο3ν 4ρίστησὰν λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Σίμωνι Πέτρω ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς· Σίμων -ωάννου, ἀποστόλουςγὰπ ᾷς με πλεῖονς με πλέον
τούτων; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰιf κύριε, συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· βόσκε τὰf ἀποστόλουςρνίὰ μου.
16. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον πάλιν δεύτερον· Σίμων -ωάννου, ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με; λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· νὰιf κύριε, συf ο ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς
ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· ποίμαὶνε τὰf προβάτιὰ μου.
17. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον· Σίμων -ωάννου, φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςλυπήθη ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Πέτρος ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι ε ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf
τρίτον· φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; κὰιf εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον· κύριε, πάντὰ συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς, συf γινώσκεις ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλ ῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον
-ησο ς· βόσκε τὰf προβάτιὰ μου. [WH]

15. οτε ουν ηριστησὰν λεγει τω σιμωνι πετρω ο ιησους σιμων ιωὰννου ὰγὰπὰς με πλεον τουτων
λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω βοσκε τὰ ὰρνιὰ μου
16. λεγει ὰυτω πὰλιν δευτερον σιμων ιωὰννου ὰγὰπὰς με λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι
φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω ποὶμαὶνε τὰ | προβὰτιὰ | προβὰτὰ | μου

42
17. λεγει ὰυτω το τριτον σιμων ιωὰννου φιλεις με ελυπηθη ο πετρος οτι ειπεν ὰυτω το τριτον
φιλεις με κὰι | ειπεν | λεγει | ὰυτω κυριε πὰντὰ συ οιδὰς συ γινωσκεις οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω | ιησους |
[ο ιησους] | βοσκε τὰ | προβὰτιὰ | προβὰτὰ | μου [WHNU]

15. οτε ουν ηριστησὰν λεγει τω σιμωνι πετρω ο ιησους σιμων ιωὰννου ὰγὰπὰς με πλεον τουτων
λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω βοσκε τὰ ὰρνιὰ μου
16. λεγει ὰυτω πὰλιν δευτερον σιμων ιωὰννου ὰγὰπὰς με λεγει ὰυτω νὰι κυριε συ οιδὰς οτι
φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω ποὶμαὶνε τὰ προβὰτὰ μου
17. λεγει ὰυτω το τριτον σιμων ιωὰννου φιλεις με ελυπηθη ο πετρος οτι ειπεν ὰυτω το τριτον
φιλεις με κὰι λεγει ὰυτω κυριε πὰντὰ συ οιδὰς συ γινωσκεις οτι φιλω σε λεγει ὰυτω [ο ιησους] βοσκε
τὰ προβὰτὰ μου [NA27]

15. 2τε ο3ν 4ρίστησὰν λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο -ησο ς, Σίμων -ωάννου, ἀποστόλουςγὰπ ᾷς με πλεῖονς με πλέον
τούτων; λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον, Νὰί, κύριε, συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον, Βόσκε τὰf ἀποστόλουςρνίὰ μου.
16. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον πάλιν δεύτερον, Σίμων -ωάννου, ἀποστόλουςγὰπᾷς με πλεῖονς με; λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον, Νὰί, κύριε, συf ο ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς
ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον, Ποίμαὶνε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου.
17. λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf τρίτον, Σίμων -ωάννου, φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλουςλυπήθη ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο Πέτρος ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι ε ἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο πεν ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον τοf
τρίτον, Φιλεῖτον· 32 ἐγὼ δὲ ἐδεήθην περὶ ς με; κὰιf λέγει ὰὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον, Κύριε, πάντὰ συf οἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος· Σίμων Σίμων, ἰδοὺ ὁ σατανᾶς ἐξῃτήσατο δὰς, συf γινώσκεις ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος.τι φιλ ῶν. [Elpenor] σε. λέγει ὰ ὐτῶν. [Elpenor]τ ῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σίμων Ἰωνᾶ, ἀγαπᾷς με πλεῖον,
Βόσκε τὰf πρόβὰτά μου. [NA27a]

Strong's Concordance
boskó: to feed
Original Word: βόσκω
Part of Speech: Verb
Transliteration: boskó
Phonetic Spelling: (bos'-ko)
Short Definition: I feed
Definition: I feed, pasture.
HELPS Word-studies

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1006 bóskō – properly, feed (graze); (figuratively) spiritually nourish by feeding people the
Word of God (Jn 21:15,17). While 4166 (poimḗn) focuses on "shepherding" the flock of God (caring
for them), 1006 (bóskō) stresses feeding them His Word.

Lexicon
poimainó: to act as a shepherd
Original Word: ποιμαίνω
Part of Speech: Verb
Transliteration: poimainó
Phonetic Spelling: (poy-mah'-ee-no)
Short Definition: I shepherd, tend
Definition: I shepherd, tend, herd; hence: I rule, govern.

HELPS word-Studies

Cognate: 4165 poimaínō – properly, to shepherd, caring for (protecting) the flock.

4165 /poimaínō ("shepherding, pastoring") is distinct from "feeding" (1006 /bóskō). 4165
(poimaínō) focuses on "tending" ("shepherding") (WS, 274), which includes guarding, guiding, and
folding the flock and is only provided (ultimately) by Jesus Christ – the Shepherd, who calls under-
shepherds (such as elder-overseers) to guard and guide His people by His direction (1 Pet 5:1-5). See
4166 (poimḗn).

[4165 /poimaínō ("to shepherd, tend") occurs 11 times in the NT, usually with a figurative sense
of "shepherding (tending) God's flock." This provides Spirit-directed guidance (care) conjunction with
feeding His people (teaching them Scripture).]

44
Byz/Majority

The Greek New Testament according to the Byzantine Textform, edited by Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont, 2005 edition.
This is the edition by Pierpont and Robinson of a Majority, or Byzantine, text of the NT. It is similar to an earlier production of Hodges and
Farstad in being based on von Soden's apparatus, but without their stemmatic reconstruction of the Apocalypse and the Pericope Adulterae.
Text source: http://www.byztxt.com

PT/Greek Orthodox Church

A complete electronic edition with accents of the Original Patriarchal text of the Greek New Testament, as it is used by the Greek Orthodox
Church.
The Patriarchal text came from the need for a uniform text throughout the Greek Orthodox world. During the Turkish occupation of the Greek
lands, there were various editions of the NT with the result that in different places, a different NT was read. To avoid this the Ecumenical Patriarchate
appointed a committee, to decide on a text that would be adopted as the official text. This committee retired to Mount Athos and studied basically 116
manuscripts "Evangelistaries" (lectionaries of the gospels) and "Apostolos" (lectionaries with Acts and Epistles). This text was published for the first time
in 1904 and it has since then been adopted by all Greek Orthodox Churces.
Text source: http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr (CD-ROM: "Η Αγίὰ Γρὰφή")

ⅬⅩⅩ/Greek Orthodox Church

The Septuagint/ⅬⅩⅩ Greek original according to the Old Testament text used by the Greek Orhodox Church.
Text source: http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr

ⅬⅩⅩa

The Septuagint/ⅬⅩⅩ[A] Accented/Greek Old Testament text derived from the following CCAT (Center for Computer Analysis of Texts at the
University of Pennsylvania) data sets:

ⅬⅩⅩM = The morphologically analyzed text of CATSS ⅬⅩⅩ prepared by CATSS under the direction of R. Kraft (Philadelphia team) and PAR
= Parallel Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek texts of Jewish Scripture, based on the Michigan-Claremont BHS consonantal text and the TLG ⅬⅩⅩ, created by
the CATSS project under the direction of E. Tov (Jerusalem team). This data base currently is in a provisional form that will undergo continued
modification as the CATSS project proceeds to its goals. Portions of PAR can be supplied by special arrangement which in turn derived from: ⅬⅩⅩ =
Septuaginta, ed. A. Rahlfs (Stuttgart: WYrttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1935; repr. in 9th ed., 1971).
Text source: http://www.unboundbible.org

Tischendorf

The Tischendorf's 8th edition Greek New Testament with morphological tags Version 1.4
Based on G. Clint Yale's Tischendorf text and on Dr. Maurice A. Robinson's Public Domain Westcott-Hort text
Text source: http://www.unboundbible.org

TR (Stephanus, 1550 with Scrivener, 1894 variants)

The Greek New Testament Textus Receptus


Base text is Stephanus 1550 edition, with variants of the Scrivener's 1894 edition
Variant readings are given in the text in this presentation: | Stephanus text | Scrivener text |
Source: http://www.byztxt.com

45
TRa

The Stephanus 1550 Textus Receptus with accents


Source: http://www.theword.gr

Vamvas translation

The translation of Greek cleric and educator of the 19th century, Neophytus Vamvas

WH

The Westcott-Hort Greek New Testament text with accents


Text source: http://www.byztxt.com

WHNU

The Westcott-Hort text from 1881 combined with the Nestle27/UBS4 shown in red. Where there are differences, blue color is used for the WH
text.
Apparatus: Variant readings are given in the text in this presentation: | Westcott-Hort text | NA-26 text |
[ ] indicates doubtful text.
< > indicates a word where NA27 encloses only a part of the word in square brackets.
Source: http://www.byztxt.com

NA27/UBS4

Data source: http://www.tyndalehouse.com/TTech/TTech032.htm

GRV

Public Domain Greek New Testament with variants identified and tagged for reference to source of transmission and schools of emphasis.
- Stephens 1550 Textus Receptus
- Scrivener 1894 Textus Receptus
- Byzantine Majority as identified by Von Soden and Hoskier, and utilized by Hodges & Farstad, Robinson & Pierpont. [these editions agree on
99.75 percent of the Byzantine texts, and greater than 98 percent with the TR.]
- Alexandrian as identified by United Bible Society, 3rd ed., and utilized by modern translations such as the NIV and NASB.

46
The Sign of the Cross

With the sign of the cross, we Catholics, for the most part use the same hand gesture which has

the same exact meaning of the Orthodox Churches; that is the index finger pointing strait up forming

the Greek I, the middle finger crossing the thumb forming the Greek Χ; while the middle finger curving

forming the Greek 8 (Capital Lunate Sigma). The pinky and ring finger bent into the hand;

symbolizing the unity of the human nature and divine nature; the human will and divine will in the

person of Christ. This first off represent the Holy Trinity, the three fingers; thumb, index and middle

finger. As they overlap in a way, they form ΙΧ8 for Ἰησο ς Χρῑστός στός Ϲωτήρ (Iesus Christus Soter,

i.e., Jesus Christ Savior); from there Catholics touch the forehead, lower chest, left shoulder, right

shoulder whereas the Greeks do it the other way (which is actually the original which Catholic would

do also). The reason for the change, would have to be attributed to Pope Innocent Ⅲ. (ib.), who speaks of both (1198-1216); as

an instruction, he gave:

“The sign of the cross is made with three fingers, because the signing is done together
with the invocation of the Trinity … This is how it is done: from above to below, and
from the right to the left, because Christ descended from the heavens to the earth, and
from the Jews (right) He passed to the Gentiles (left).” he continues “Others, however,
make the sign of the cross from the left to the right, because from misery (left) we must
cross over to glory (right), just as Christ crossed over from death to life, and from Hades
to Paradise. [Some priests] do it this way so that they and the people will be signing
themselves in the same way. You can easily verify this — picture the priest facing the
people for the blessing — when we make the sign of the cross over the people, it is from
left to right…”

Thus, the sign of the cross, still has the same representation to that of the Greek Orthodox (and to even

the other Orthodox Churches e.g., Syriac “Antiochian” Orthodox, Assyrian Orthodox, Coptic, &c.), yet

at the same time, does have a different meaning with how it is performed.

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The Seven Sacraments

Q. What is a Sacramental in general?


A. It is a visible sign of invisible grace, divinely instituted by Christ, for our sanctification.

Ⅰ Baptism: Baptism:

Q. Where did Christ express the form of baptism and give a command to baptize?
A. In Matt. xxvii. 29. "Go therefore, (saith he) teach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

John iii. 5. "Unless a man [Lat. ] be born again of water, and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter
into the kingdom of God."

Ⅱ Confirmation: Confirmation:

First, 2 Cor. i. 22. "And he that confirmeth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is
God, who also hath sealed us (with the spiritual character) and given the pledge of the spirit in
our hearts.
Secondly, Acts viii. 14, 15, 16, where when Philip the deacon had converted the city of
Samaria to the faith, the apostles who were at Jerusalem, sent to two bishops, St. Peter and St.
John, to confirm them; "who when they were come (saith the text) prayed for them, that they
might receive the Holy Ghost; for he was not yet come upon any of them, but they were only
baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus; then did they impose their hands upon them, and they
received the Holy Ghost."
Thirdly, Acts xix. 5,6, where we read that St. Paul baptized and confirmed about twelve of
St. John's disciples: "Hearing these things, they were baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus;
and when St. Paul had imposed hands on them, the Holy Ghost came upon them."

Ⅲ Eucharist: Eucharist:

First out of Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. Christ at his last supper, took bread and blessed it, brake it
and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Take eat, this is my body. And he blessed the cup saying,
This is my blood of the New Testament which shall be shed for many to the remission of sins,"
Mark xiv. 22, 24.
Secondly, out of Luke xxii. 19, 20. "This is my body which is given for you, this is the
chalice of the New Testament in my blood, which shall be shed for you."
Thirdly, out of John vi. 52, 53, 54. "The bread which I give is my flesh, for the life of the
world; by flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed; unless you eat the flesh of the Son
of man, and drink his blood, you shall have no life in you."
Fourthly, out of 1 Cor. xi. 23, where St. Paul tells us, "He received from our Lord," (viz. by
special revelation) that at his last supper he blessed bread, saying, "Take ye and eat, this is my
body which shall be delivered up for you; this chalice is the New Testament in my blood."

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Ⅳ Penance/Reconciliation: Penance/Reconciliation:

Q. What warrant have you for doing acts of penance?


A. First, out of Apoc. ii. 4. "Thou hast left thy first charity, therefore be mindful from whence
thou art fallen, and do penance?"
Secondly, "And JESUS began to preach, and say, do ye penance; for the kingdom of heaven
is at hand." Matt. iv. 17.
Q. When did Christ ordain this Sacrament?
A. When he breathed on his disciples, saying, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins ye shall
forgive, they are forgiven and whose sins ye shall retain, they are retained." John xx. 22, 23.

John i. 9. "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and cleanse us
from all iniquity."

James, v. 16. "Confess therefore your sins to one another, and pray for one another, that you
may be saved." And Acts xix. 18. "Many of them that believed came confessing and declaring
their deeds."

Ⅴ Extreme Unction: Extreme Unction:

Unction is twofold, exterior and interior; by the former is the body anointed, and the
latter the soul: there is an instance of the former in James v. 14, and of the latter in the
parable of the ten virgins, Matt. xxv. The exterior anointing of the body is expressive of
the interior unction or invisible grace produced in the soul.Under the Old Law were the
priests, prophets and kings anointed: 1 Kings ix. 16; 2 Kings ii. 4; and 3 Kings xix.
15.Our Blessed Redeemer is called the Anointed, from the Greek verb Krio which
signifies to anoint, because God anointed hem with the Holy Ghost: Acts x. 38. And we
are called Christians because we profess the law and doctrine of God, the Anointed; and
because we are anointed with holy oil and chrism. The child is anointed at baptism, the
priest in receiving Holy Orders, the king and queen at their coronation. That the Apostles
anointed the sick is clear from Mark vi. 13, and that they taught the practice is clear from
James v. 14. Would they teach or practise the rite if they had not commission from their
Divine Master so to do? It is indeed extremely astonishing that the Protestants who
pretend to be enamoured with the Bible would discard a rite so sanctioned in both
Testaments and the usage of all antiquity. See Canons. Lib. i. cit. 15.

Q. By whom was this sacrament promulgated?


A. By James, v. 13, 14, 15. "Is any man sick among you, let him bring in the priests of the
church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil, in the name of our Lord, and the
prayer of faith shall save the sick man, and our Lord will lift him up, and if he be in sin his sins
shall be forgiven him."

Ⅵ Holy Order: Holy Order:

Q. To whom doth this appertain?


A. To the rulers and ministers of the church, as bishops, priests, deacons, and sub-deacons.

Q. What proof have you for bishops, priests and deacons?

49
A. For bishops and deacons, out of Phil. i. 1. "To all the saints at Philippi, (saith St. Paul) with
the bishops and deacons," and for the priests out of St. James above cited. "Is any man sick
among you, let him bring in the priests of the church." &c.
Q. Where did Christ ordain this Sacrament?
A. At his last supper, where he made his Apostles priests, saying, "This is my body which is
given for you; do ye this in commemoration of me." Luke xxii. 19.

Q. What did Christ give them power to do?


A. To offer the unbloody sacrifice of his own body and blood, which he himself had there
ordained, and offered under the outward forms of bread and wine.

Ⅶ Matrimony: Matrimony:

Q. Where was matrimony first ordained?


A. In paradise by Almighty God, when he gave Eve as wife to Adam, who presently said,
"Therefore a man shall leaven his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they
shall be two in one flesh." Gen. ii. 22, 24.

Q. Where was it made a sacrament of the new law?


A. Where and when Christ instituted this sacrament us uncertain; some think it done, or at least
insinuated at the wedding at Cana in Galilee, where Christ was present, and wrought his first
miracle, "by turning water into wine." John ii. Others, more probably, say it was done, when
Christ declared the indissolubility of marriage, saying, "therefore now they are not two, but one
flesh: that therefore which God hath joined together, let no man separate." Matt. Xix. 6.

Q. Why was it requisite that marriage should be made a sacrament?


A. Because it is a contract whereon depends the chief happiness of a married life; as being
ordained for the restraint of sinful concupiscence, the good of posterity, the well-ordering our
domestic affairs, and the education of our children in the fear and service of God, and therefore
ought to be ranked in the highest order of those actions, which Christ hath sanctioned for the
use of man.

Q. What other proof have you?


A. Out of Ephes. v. 31, 32. "They shall be two in one flesh; this is the great sacrament. But I

speak in Christ, and in the church."

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