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Arhitecturi și Protocoale

de Comunicații (APC)

Arhitecturi și echipamente
pentru rețele de comunicații

© Octavian Catrina 2
Why do we need data networks?
 Information must move
 For many applications, the data source, storage, and
processing or usage occur on different computers.
E.g., these slides, the web content,'s databases of
items to sell and customer accounts.
We need a communication infrastructure for distributed
computer applications.
 People want to communicate
 Computers are powerful, versatile communication devices.
E.g., e-mail, instant messaging, telephony, conferencing apps.
 Resources have to be shared
 Hardware, software, data.
E.g., high performance/reliable storage and printing, these slides,
our intranet, web search engines and content.

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Information handling
 What information? Various media types
 Time-independent (discrete) media: numbers, characters, text,
graphics, image, etc.
 Time-dependent (continuous) media: speech/audio, video.
Special constraints if transfer and playback at the same time.
 How to represent it? Information encoding
 Common basic representation of different media types that can
be handled by computers: bit/octet strings = data.
 For each media type (ASCII, UTF, GIF, JPEG, MPEG, PDF, …).
 To describe multimedia messages (e.g., MIME).

 How to communicate the data? Data networks

 Communication infrastructure that provides the means to move
data between computers and meet the specific requirements of
different media types.

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Quality of Service (QoS)
 What quality of the communication service require the
applications from the network?
 Data reliability (integrity) requirements
 Data delivered without being altered: same sequence of same
data values. Typical requirements for data integrity:
100% for transmission of discrete media (e.g., documents, software).
 100% for real-time transmission of continuous media (video, audio).

 Real-time requirements
 Data delivered within specified time constraints:
Throughput (bits/second), transfer delay, delay variation.
E.g., to allow continuous media (audio/video) playback or
timely command execution in computer controlled systems.

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Communication types (1)
 Point-to-point (unicast) Unicast
One sender (source).
One receiver (destination).
 Multi-point Multicast 1 : N
 Broadcast
One-to-all (certain scope).
 Multicast
One-to-N (certain group and scope).
 N-to-M multicast
N senders, M receivers. Multicast N : M

 One or both directions

 Simplex: one-way transmission.
 (Full-)Duplex: two-way simultaneously.
 Half-duplex: two-way taking turns.

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Communication types (2)
 Connection-oriented
 Preliminary agreement and resource allocation.
 Higher complexity. Setup delay. Can guarantee QoS.

(1) Connection establishment (1) Is communication possible?

What terms? Are there enough
(2) Data transfer
resources? Allocate resources.
(3) Connection release
(3) Release resources.

 Connectionless
 Data transfer without preliminary agreement.
 Lower complexity and delay. Low QoS provision capability.

Datagram (data or query) Several kinds:

- Unacknowledged datagram.
Datagram (data or reply/ack) - Acknowledged datagram.
- Request-reply communication.

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Scalable connectivity
 Data links
 Wired (cabled) or wireless data channels.
 Point-to-point link: Two computers.
 Multi-access link: Unique address for each
computer. Shared data channel (with
access coordination) or data switch.
 Data networks
 Efficient resource sharing techniques for cost-effective
interconnection for a large number of computers. Example:

Many data streams share Interconnection devices

each data link: forward data on the links
Multiplexing/demultiplexing towards the destination:
Switching and routing

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A basic network classification
 Local Area Networks - LAN
 Limited geographical distribution
(100s-1000s m; floor, building, campus).
 Small number of computers (100s).

 Wide Area Networks - WAN

 Wide geographical distribution
(100s-1000s Km; country, continent).
 Any number of computers.

 Metropolitan Area Networks - MAN

 Intermediate between LAN-WAN.

 Different technologies for each class!

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Network architectures and

© Octavian Catrina 10
Network architecture
 Objectives
 Facilitate the design, implementation, and maintenance.
 Ensure interoperability between networking SW and HW from
different vendors - standards instead of proprietary solutions.
 Layered architecture
 Specifies the conceptual structure of the communication system
implemented by all the nodes in a network.
Communication subsystem structured as a hierarchy of modules.
Interactions between modules in each node (interfaces, messages).
Interactions between modules in different nodes (protocols).
 Functional architecture of a network
 Specifies functional (groups of) devices in a network and the
interactions between them (interfaces, protocols).
Network design based on functional, performance, scalability, fault
tolerance, and reliability requirements, budget, etc.

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Layered architecture (1/3)
... ... Layer
NL NL Layer

 The communication system in any network node is structured as a

hierarchy of modules with well defined functionality and interfaces.
 Each module in the hierarchy extends the communication service
provided by the modules below.
 In any node, a module only needs to interact directly with the lower
module and the upper module. They use standard interfaces.
 A layer consists of the modules at the same level in the hierarchy.
 Modules in the same layer and in different nodes must cooperate
in order to achieve the layer’s functions. They communicate using
the layer’s protocol.
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Layered architecture (2/3)
 Hierarchy of virtual machines
 At each level in the hierarchy, the subsystem consisting of the
lower modules represents a virtual machine offering a certain
communication capability.
 The upper module only needs to know the interface and can
ignore the structure and technology of the subsystem below.

... ...
TL TL interfaces
NL NL protocols



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Layered architecture (3/3)
 Summary of (expected) layered architecture benefits
 Provides modularity and allows an independent design and
implementation of the modules.
 Simplifies network design and implementation,
facilitates understanding of network operation,
provides the basis for the interoperability of devices produced
by different manufacturers.
 Supports heterogeneity (various technologies at the same time,
e.g., for LAN/WAN, wired/wireless, real-time or not).
 Supports the evolution of network technology (easier design
and deployment of new protocols and applications).
 How shall we proceed?
 Discover the principles of layered architectures and networking
devices while building a typical enterprise network.

© Octavian Catrina 14 
Data transmission

Point-to-point link PHY


1011010 Effects of attenuation, NIC = Network Interface Card

distortion, noise, etc.

 Physical transmission medium

 Carries the data encoded in an ... ...

electromagnetic wave (signal). PHY PHY

 Wired (cable) or wireless (e.g., radio). Medium

 Physical layer
 Transfers bit streams over the physical medium:
data-to-signal encoding, signal transmission and propagation,
signal reception and signal-to-data decoding.
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Shared media LANs
Shared media wired LAN Wireless LAN
E.g., Ethernet LAN


 Simple, cost-effective LAN technologies

 Multi-access link using a shared transmission medium.
The signal transmitted by any device is received by all other
devices connected to the shared medium.
 Wired LANs with various topologies: bus, star, ring
 Wireless LANs using radio transmission
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Transmission range and repeaters

Ethernet LAN


 What limits the transmission range?

Signals are attenuated and distorted during propagation.
Beyond a certain distance, a receiver can no longer decode
the data correctly. Repeater

 Repeater ... ...

Amplifies/regenerates the signal to PHY PHY PHY PHY
extend the transmission range.
WANs and initial LANs.
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Shared media LANs with repeaters

Ethernet LAN with

star topology
Hub Hub


Multiport repeater
 Multiport repeaters (hubs) or (active) hub
Historical, LANs in 1980s,1990s:
... ...
Shared transmission media built
using multiport repeaters (active PHY PHY PHY PHY

hubs) that amplify/regenerate and

distribute the signal.
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Physical layer: main functions
 Data encoding and decoding
 Transmitter encodes a bit string as a signal appropriate for
transmission on a given physical medium.
 Receiver decodes the bit string from the received signal.
 Does not guarantee error-free delivery - just a low error rate.

 Multiplexing/demultiplexing
 Use of the same physical transmission medium for multiple
simultaneous communications, by creating multiple physical
communication channels ("digital pipes").
(PHY function mainly for wireless networks and wide area networks).
 Switching
 Data forwarding between (typically multiplexed) physical links
on a path to the destination.
(PHY layer function mainly in certain WAN technologies).

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Data Link

... ...
A simple case:
1 2 DL DL
Point-to-point data link


 Data Link layer

Adds basic functions needed to control the data transfer, e.g.:
 Multiplexes user data units from different sources on the
physical channel and demultiplexes them at the destination.
 Defines a message ("frame") format to carry user data and
control information.
 Ensures error-free data delivery.
 Supports both connectionless or connection-oriented
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Shared media LANs
Shared media LAN (wired, wireless)
Nodes are identified by addresses,
frames are delivered by flooding.

1 2 3 Examples:
4 Cabled: IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet)
Wireless: IEEE 802.11 (WiFi )

32 MAC + PHY
Collision MAC address

 Addresses
 To uniquely identify the devices attached
to a multi-access link.
 Medium Access Control (MAC) ... ...

 Coordinates the access to shared media. DL DL

 Multi-access links: MAC sublayer of the PHY PHY
DL layer handles medium access, Medium
framing, addressing, error detection.
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Bridged LANs
Forwarding table Bridged LAN: Avoid flooding
MAC addr. Port local traffic of a LAN segment
1 p1 to other LAN segments
3 p1

1 2 8 p2 6 7 8
3 5
4 5 p2

p1 p2

 Shared media problems
All stations share the medium's ... ...

transmission capacity: limits DL DL DL DL

LAN growth and performance. PHY PHY PHY PHY

 Bridge ("transparent bridge")

Filter or forward based on destination MAC address in frame and
destination location in a table. Flood if destination location ignored.

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Switched LANs

1 2 3 6 5 7 8
13 Switched
Ethernet LAN

Switch Switch


 LAN switch LAN switch

Multiport bridge with high ... ...

performance parallel architecture DL DL DL DL
allowing multiple simultaneous PHY PHY PHY PHY

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Wireless LANs
Wireless Wireless

Limited transmission range

(limited transmitter power,
fast signal attenuation)

Wired LAN (e.g.,

switched Ethernet)
 Wireless LAN (WLAN)
Radio transmission over a shared WLAN Access Point
radio channel. MAC to coordinate
the access to the shared channel. ... ...
 WLAN Access Point (AP)
Communication between wireless
devices and bridge to wired LANs.
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Wide Area Networks (WANs)

WAN switches LAN

(Layer 1 or 2)

SONET = Synchronous Optical Network (ANSI).
SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (ITU-T).
LAN PSTN = Public Switched Telephone Network.
ISDN = Integrated Services Digital Network.
ATM = Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
MPLS = Multi-Protocol Label Switching.

 WANs interconnect LANs using various, specific, layer 1 and layer 2

multiplexing and switching technologies:
 Layer 1: SONET/SDH, ISDN, PSTN, etc.
 Layer 2: ATM, Frame Relay, MPLS (layer 2.5), etc.

 The WAN infrastructure is built and operated by network service

providers, which offer WAN connectivity services to LAN owners.
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Data Link layer: main functions
 Addressing
 Identify stations attached to the same (multi-access) link (flat
address space).
 Framing
 Define a frame (message) format, permitting frame delimitation
in a bit string, addressing, error detection, etc.
 Error control
 Detect/correct frames altered during transmission through the
physical medium.
 Medium access control
 Coordinate the access to shared physical media.
 Multiplexing and switching
 Various technologies for LANs (e.g., switched Ethernet) and
WANs (e.g., Frame Relay, ATM).
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Scalable network interconnection: R7
towards the global Internet
R6 R8
C3 Network 1 R4
C4 Network 2
1.1.2 e0 Sub-network 1.1 1.1.1 e0 e0 2.1.1 e0 2.1.2 Sub-network 2.1
R1 Routing table
1.1.3 e1 1.1.4 e0 2.1.3 e0
C1 C2 Destination Next hop Iface
R1 R2 C5
1.1.* direct e1 R5
1.2.2 e0 1.2.1 e0 1.3.1 e1 1.3.2 e0 1.2.* direct e0 2.2.1 e1 2.2.2 e0
Sub-network 1.2 Sub-network 1.3 1.3.* 1.1.4 e1 Sub-network 2.2
2.*.* 1.1.1 e1

 Network layer
Provides scalable mechanisms Router
for connectivity and path finding.
 Router ... ...
Routes packets on the paths to
destinations, based on network DL DL DL DL

(layer) addresses and directions PHY PHY PHY PHY

Network-x Network-y
stored in its routing table.
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Example: IP networks e0
Prefixed-based addressing e1 R7
and packet forwarding e0 e0 e1 R6 R8 e1
C3 R4
R3 e0 e0 e0 e0 e1 e0 Core: aggregated routes,
high capacity and high e0
C1 C2
R1 R2 availability. C5
R6 Routing table e0 e0 e1 e0 e1 e0
Destination Next hop Iface e0
C1 Routing table C4 Routing table e1
Destination Next hop Iface Destination Next hop Iface
... direct e0 direct e0
default e0 default e0
R1 Routing table R3 Routing table R4 Routing table
Destination Next hop Iface Destination Next hop Iface Destination Next hop Iface direct e1 direct e0 direct e0 direct e0 e0 e0 e1 e0 e0
default e1 default e1 default e1

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Network layer: main functions
 Network addresses
 Identify stations attached to large inter-networks.
 Hierarchically structured address space.
 Routing
 Find a path across an inter-network from source to destination,
based on network topology, addresses, and other attributes.
 Multiplexing and switching
 To forward packets on network paths to their destinations.
 Congestion control
 Keep an internetwork operational at heavy load.
 Segmentation(fragmentation)/reassembly
 Fragment a large packet, transmit the fragments as a
sequence of packets, and restore it at the destination.

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End-to-end data transport
Other Other
apps apps
File transfer File transfer
FTP E-mail E-mail FTP
Web apps POP, IMAP Web apps

Endpoint address: Endpoint address:

Network address Network address
+ port number + port number

Host Host
... ...
 Transport layer TL
Controls the end-to-end data NL NL NL NL
transfer: end-to-end addressing, DL DL DL DL
error control, flow control, etc. PHY PHY PHY PHY

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Transport layer: main functions
 Transport addresses
 Identify communication endpoints.
 Multiple endpoints at the same host (for different apps, or
multiple communications of the same app).
 Transport address =
Network address + Transport selector (port number).
 Error control (end-to-end)
 Detect/recover packets lost or damaged in the network.
 Flow control (end-to-end, on TL connections)
 Adapt the transmission rate to reception rate.
 Congestion control.
 Adapt the transmission rate to available network resources.

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Upper layers
 Upper layers
to support applications. Application Application
processes processes
Possible structure:
 Session (5):
control of the communication Upper Upper
layers layers
 Presentation (6): TL TL

information representation. NL NL

 Application (7): DL DL

protocols supporting particular PHY PHY

communication services:
www, e-mail, file transfer, Interconnection network
telnet, network file system,
network management, ...

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 Open System Interconnection - Reference Model
ISO/ITU-T standard from the early '80s (ISO 7498).
Objective: provide a foundation for open networking technology
(standards), to replace proprietary technologies.

 Defines the principles and concepts of Application

layered architectures processes

 Widely used template for network standards. Application
(Except for the Internet …) Presentation
 Specifies an architecture with 7 layers Session

Transport 4
 ISO/ITU-T standards were issued for each
layer, but were eventually abandoned. Network
 Redundant, complex, difficult to adapt to the Data Link
evolution of networking technology .... Physical 1

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OSI-RM: layer service and protocol
 Layer service
 Functionality that a layer offers at the Transport entity

interface with the upper layer.

 Service interface N-service N-SDU
 Rules for communication between entities in
Network entity
adjacent layers, in the same station:
 set of messages: service primitives. DL- SAP
 sequence of primitives to get a service. DL-service DL-SDU
 Peer entities Data Link entity
 Communication entities within the
SAP: Service Access Point.
same layer, in different stations. SDU: Service Data Unit.
 Cooperate to provide the service.

 Layer protocol
 Rules for communication between peer entities:
 set of messages: protocol data units (PDU) (frames/packets ...).
 rules for using them to achieve the services.
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Example: OSI services and protocols
The DL layer provides to the NL layer a
connection-oriented communication
service, which includes connection
Network entity Network entity
management services (establish, release)
DL-Service.request and a reliable data transfer service, using DL-Service.response
an unreliable PHY layer service.
DL-Service.confirm DL-Service.indication
DL protocol
Data Link entity Data Link entity

Network entity Data Link entity Data Link entity Network entity

DL-DATA DT(seq, d)
Request (d) DL-DATA
Indication (d)

DC(...) Indication

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TCP/IP protocol stack
 First and most widespread open protocol stack
Origins: DARPA project (US DoD) in the late '70s.
DARPA network evolved into the current Internet.

 Standardization TCP/IP

RFC (Request For Comments) from OSI-RM Applications

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).
Application 7
(See: Application
Presentation 6
Session 5
 TCP/IP model versus OSI-RM Transport
Transport 4
Simpler, more pragmatic protocol stack.
Network 3 Internet
Layered model is not rigorously defined. Data Link 2 Link
Different sources use different layer Physical 1
names. We’ll use the OSI layer names.

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TCP/IP protocols graph
IP Hourglass Model
HTTP SMTP DNS Application
layer Applications
Email WWW Voice ...
Application protocols

Transport TCP UDP Transport

Transmission User Datagram TCP UDP ...
layer Everything
Control Protocol Protocol
on IP
Routing ICMP
information Internet Control IP on
(OSPF, ...)
IP Message Everything
Internet Protocol Data link
Network (v4/v6) Address Ethernet PPP ATM ...
layer Resolution
Ethernet PHY, SONET, ...
Data Link DL protocols
layer Copper Fiber Radio

HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol DNS Domain Name System

SMTP Simple Mail Transport Protocol SNMP Simple Network Management Prot.
FTP File Transfer Protocol

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Data flow & encapsulation

Web server Web client User data (joke.html) (browser)
user data user data
Hypertext Transfer Protocol:
AL (HTTP) A user data A user data AL (HTTP)
Reply to Request: get joke.html
TL protocol
TL T A user data T A user data TL
NL protocol
NL N T A user data N T A user data NL
DL protocol
DL D N T A user data D N T A user data DL
PHY 1011010

The Web client has just requested an HTML
document from the Web server. The Web server
is delivering the document to the client.

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Example: HTTP request

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Example: HTTP response

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The global Internet

ISP: Internet Service Provider

 Global federation of IP
 User networks connected
to ISP networks.
 Several ISP tiers: access,
regional backbone, global
backbone. AT&T US backbone

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IP on everything, everything on IP

Enterprise networks
Communication infrastructure Web news, info,
of the IT system. E-business ... publishing, ...

Home networks e-banking, ...
Info, entertainment. Home
office. Internet appliances. IP(v4/v6)
Tele-education. Tele-
medicine ...

Mobile communications
Internet-enabled multi- Goal: Common infrastructure for
service mobile devices. computer communications and
personal communication services
(message, voice/video/telephony).

 Towards a global multi-services network, using IP as the core

transport technology.
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