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Kodály in the Fourth Grade Classroom


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Kodály Today Handbook Series

Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka


Kodály Today: A Cognitive Approach to Elementary Music Education, second edition
Kodály in the Kindergarten Classroom: Developing the Creative Brain in the 21st Century
Kodály in the First Grade Classroom: Developing the Creative Brain in the 21st Century
Kodály in the Second Grade Classroom: Developing the Creative Brain in the 21st Century
Kodály in the Third Grade Classroom: Developing the Creative Brain in the 21st Century
Kodály in the Fourth Grade Classroom: Developing the Creative Brain in the 21st Century
Kodály in the Fifth Grade Classroom: Developing the Creative Brain in the 21st Century

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Kodály in the Fourth


Grade Classroom
Developing the Creative Brain in
the 21st Century

Micheál Houlahan
Philip Tacka

1
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1
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Houlahan, Micheál.
Kodály in the fourth grade classroom / by Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka.
pages cm. — (Kodály today handbook series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978–0–19–023581–9 (alk. paper); 978–0–19–024851–2 (hardback)
1.  School music—Instruction and study.  2.  Kodály, Zoltán, 1882–1967.  3.  Fourth grade (Education)—
Curricula—United States.  I.  Tacka, Philip.  II.  Title.
MT1.H836 2015
372.87′049—dc23
2014033387

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper

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We are the music-makers,


And we are the dreamers of dreams,
Wandering by lone sea-breakers,
And sitting by desolate streams;
World-losers and world-forsakers,
On whom the pale moon gleams:
Yet we are the movers and shakers
Of the world for ever, it seems.
Ode, by Arthur O’Shaughnessy

[. . .] eratque tam turpe Musicam nescire quam litteras


from De Musica, by Isidoris Hispalensis

“Legyen A Zene Mindenkié” [Music should belong to everyone]


Zoltán Kodály
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Contents vii

Acknowledgments  •  ix
Introduction  •  xi

1 Framing a Curriculum Based on the Kodály Concept  •  1


The Kodály Concept  •  1
Multiple Dimensions of Music  •  2
Grade 4 Music Curriculum  •  4
Prompt Questions for Constructing a Music Curriculum  •  9
Lesson Planning  •  10
Key Components of Lesson Plan Design  •  11
2 Developing a Music Repertoire: Students as Stewards of Their Cultural and
Musical Heritage  •  17
Selecting Repertoire  •  17
Grade 4 Song Lists  •  18
Lesson Planning  •  40
3 Teaching Strategies  •  52
Syncopation  •  52
la Pentatonic Scale  •  58
Dotted Quarter Note Followed by an Eighth Note  •  66
fa  •  72
Triple Meter and Dotted Half Note  •  81
low ti  •  86
Dotted Eighth Note Followed by a Sixteenth Note  •  94
Developing a Lesson Plan Design Based on the Teaching Strategies  •  98
4 Students as Performers: Developing Music Skills and Creative
Expression  •  116
Tuneful Singing Skills  •  116
Reading Skills  •  120
Inner-Hearing Skills  •  126
Writing Skills  •  127
Improvisation Skills  •  130
Musical Memory  •  134
Understanding Form  •  136
Part-Work Skills  •  137
Incorporating Instruments into the Music Curriculum  •  149
Creative Movement Skills  •  152
Listening Examples Connected to Grade 4 Concepts and Elements  •  155
Lesson Planning  •  159
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Contents

5 Unit Plans and Lesson Plans  •  166


Evaluating a Lesson  •  177
Unit Plans  •  178
Unit 1, Grade 3 Review  •  179
viii Unit 2: Syncopation  •  201
Unit 3: la Pentatonic  •  204
Unit 4: Dotted Quarter Note Followed by Eighth Note  •  218
Unit 5: fa  •  232
Unit 6: Triple Meter  •  246
Unit 7: low ti  •  260
Unit 8: Dotted Eighth Note and Sixteenth Note  •  272
6 Assessment and Evaluation  •  286
Grade 4 Assessments  •  286

Notes  •  307
Index  •  309

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Acknowledgments ix

We owe a debt of gratitude to the many individuals who inspired, encouraged and helped
us along the way. Both of us were fortunate enough to study at the Franz Liszt Academy/
Kodály Pedagogical Institute in Hungary and at the Kodály Center of America with
world-renowned Kodály experts, many of whom were Kodály’s pupils and colleagues, who
shared their knowledge with us over many years. Among them were Erzsébet Hegyi, Ildikó
Herboly-Kocsár, Lilla Gábor, Katalin Komlós, Katalin Forrai, Mihály Ittzés, Klára Kokas,
Klára Nemes, Eva Vendrai, Helga Szabó, Laszlo Eősze, Peter Erdei, and Katalin Kiss. We are
especially indebted to Katalin Forrai for her support and encouragement for the research
contained in this publication. Our research is grounded in their many valuable insights and
research.
Special thanks are due to these individuals for critically reading portions of the man-
uscript, field-testing lesson plans, and insightful suggestions regarding this approach to
instruction and learning: Nick Holland, lower school music teacher at St. Paul’s School in
Baltimore, Maryland; Lauren Bain, elementary music specialist in the Northeast School
District of San Antonio, Texas; Georgia Katsourides, music specialist in the Lancaster City
School District, Pennsylvania; and Vivian Ferchill, retired music specialist from Round
Rock, Texas.
Special acknowledgment must be made to Patty Moreno, director of the Kodály
Certification Program at Texas State University, San Marcos, for her support and continued
encouragement of this project. We would also like to thank Holly Kofod and Lisa Roebuck
for their comments, which helped us bring this book to completion.
Many of our students in Kodály Certification Programs at Texas State University;
Belmont University in Nashville, Tennessee; and the Eastman School of Music in Rochester,
New York, have all helped us shape our approach to instruction and learning presented
herein. Kristopher Brown, José Pelaez, Rebecca Morgan, Loren Tarnow, and Meredith Riggs
deserve special mention. Gratitude is due Rebecca Seekatz for her work on the game direc-
tions and for her work on the accompanying glossary of terms. Our many years working
together have not only contributed to the information we present but also served as a con-
tinuing source of inspiration in working with the pedagogical processes we have shaped.
Regarding practical matters, we would like to thank our students at Millersville University
of Pennsylvania for helping us with initial drafts of the manuscript. Special thanks are due
Jamie Duca for her technical and hands-on assistance.
This book would not be so complete in terms of pedagogy and educational content were
it not for readings and comments from Blaithín Burns, Kodály instructor at the Blue Coat
School. She provided invaluable assistance in the initial design of Kodály in the Fourth
Grade Classroom and field-tested many teaching strategies. Richard Schellhas deserves
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Acknowledgments

thanks for his personal patience and understanding as well as words of encouragement and
advice throughout the writing of this manuscript.
Research for this publication was supported by a grant from Millersville University,
the State System for Higher Education in Pennsylvania. The university’s library assistance,
x technical, administrative, and financial support, and overall encouragement for this proj-
ect allowed us to bring this volume to completion. We would like to express our gratitude
to Gabriella Montoya-Stier and Faith Knowles for their permission to include songs from
their collections El Patio de Mi Casa: 42 Traditional Rhymes, Chants, and Folk Songs from
Mexico and Vamos a Cantar. We are very grateful to Katalin Forrai’s children, András Vikár,
Tamás Vikár, and Katalin van Vooren Vikár, for permission to use materials from their
mother’s book, Music in Preschool, edited and translated by Jean Sinor, Budapest, Hungary:
Kultura, 1995 (original publication 1988).
We wish to thank Suzanne Ryan, Editor-in-Chief of Humanities and Executive Editor of
Music at Oxford University Press, for her encouragement and critical guidance. We thank
Lisbeth Redfield, assistant editor at Oxford University Press, and Molly Morrison, who over-
saw editing and production. Very special thanks are due our copy editor Thomas Finnegan,
for his impeccable scrutiny and thoughtful editorial assistance with our manuscript.

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Introduction xi

Purpose of Book
The primary purpose of this handbook is to give music teachers a practical guide to teach-
ing fourth grade music that is aligned with information contained in Kodály Today and
with national standards in music that promote twenty-first-century music learning. The
foundational aspects of this book are a detailed guide for teaching children to sing, move,
play instruments, develop music literacy skills, enhance music listening, and promote cre-
ativity skills. The hallmark of this teaching pedagogy is that it integrates the development of
problem-solving, critical-thinking skills, and collaborative skills into music instruction and
learning. The importance of this approach is identified in the National Research Council’s
July 2012 report, wherein the authors cite these as “21st century skills” or “deeper learning.” 1
Our hope is that every teacher will absorb the process of teaching as it is detailed in this
publication and blend it with personal creativity, which will ultimately result in a lively and
valuable musical experience for students.
We have tried to give elementary music instructors a reference with information and
materials about adopting a teaching approach inspired by the Kodály philosophy of music
education. This fourth grade handbook should not be considered a substitute for read-
ing Kodály Today: A Cognitive Approach to Elementary Music Education; that volume is
a practical and detailed guide for teaching a music curriculum to children in the fourth
grade music classroom that is aligned with national and state content standards for music
education. Together, Kodály Today and this handbook for fourth grade offer teachers a
step-by-step roadmap for developing students’ love of music, musical understandings, and
metacognition skills.
Focus discussions and surveys with music teachers reveal their concern regarding the
lack of specificity relating to teaching music. Although many teachers have acquired a num-
ber of techniques for use in music activities, many are concerned about developing a more
holistic approach to teaching music, one that moves beyond activities and toward develop-
mental skill building. Teachers are looking for more direction on how to create an organic
curriculum. They are looking for more guidance on how to:

• Select music materials for teaching


• Enhance skills in singing and movement skills that are cognitively and
developmentally appropriate
• Build the foundations of music literacy skills
• Promote creativity skills
• Develop improvisation skills
• Teach active music listening lessons
• Implement evaluation and assessment tools
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Introduction

This text addresses these concerns. The ideas reflected here have been field-tested and
shaped over a more than a decade of collaborative work with music specialists. The innova-
tive approach of this book, like the collaboration of music teachers with a group of research-
ers to design the contents of this publication, is truly pioneering.
xii We spell out teaching procedures that are outlined in Kodály Today and demonstrate
how they can be used within lesson plans, in considerable detail. In this handbook, we refer
to chapters in Kodály Today that explain in greater detail the relevant techniques adopted
in lesson plans. The suggestions given should be used as a point of departure for a teacher’s
own creativity and personality and need not be taken entirely literally. It is expected that
teachers will apply these suggestions in a way that is responsive to the needs, backgrounds,
and interests of their own students. The lesson plans and sample curriculums are not meant
to be comprehensive, although they are quite detailed. We expect that music instructors
will infuse these ideas with their own national, state, regional, and local benchmarks for
teaching. We appreciate that teachers must develop their own philosophy for teaching
music and their own repertoire of songs, procedures, and processes for teaching musical
skills, as well as consider such factors as the frequency of music instruction, the size of the
class, the length of the class, and current music abilities of students.

Chapter Summaries
Here are summaries of the chapters in this Grade Four Handbook.

Introduction
Summarizes the fourth grade handbook with a brief outline of all chapters.

Chapter 1: Framing a Curriculum Based on the Kodály Concept


This chapter presents a sample curriculum summary statement as well as curriculum goals
for fourth grade. The information in this chapter is aligned with Chapter 1 of Kodály Today
and the accompanying website.

Chapter 2: Developing a Music Repertoire: Students as Stewards


of Their Cultural and Musical Heritage
This chapter has a selection of music repertoire for teaching music performance, music
literacy skills, improvisation, and composition as well as listening skills. There is also a
detailed review summary of how to teach games and dances to children. The content in this
chapter is aligned with Chapter 2 of Kodály Today and the accompanying website.

Chapter 3: Teaching Strategies


This chapter presents teaching strategies for teaching all music concepts and elements,
based on the model of learning presented in Chapter 6 of Kodály Today for grade four.
More information related to Chapter 3 can be found on a new accompanying website for
the second edition of Kodály Today. Information in this chapter is aligned with Chapter 6
in Kodály Today.

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Introduction

Chapter 4: Students as Performers: Developing Music Skills and


Creative Expression
This chapter offers music teachers with guidance on how to develop skill areas in fourth
grade. There are lists of music techniques for teaching the music skills of tuneful singing, xiii
reading, writing, improvisation, musical memory, understanding of form, part-work activi-
ties, instrument performance, inner hearing, creative movement activities linked to games,
and music listening, The content in this chapter is aligned with Chapters 3 and 4 of Kodály
Today and the accompanying website.

Chapter 5: Unit Plans and Lesson Plans


The music curriculum for this grade is divided into units. Each unit focuses on the prepa-
ration and presentation for teaching a new concept and element, and practice of a known
element. Each unit plan has three sections: the first furnishes a list of repertoire for teaching
five music lessons, the second includes a summary of music skill activities to practice, and
the third presents five sample lesson plans for teaching the music concepts and skills, and
practice of a known concept or element for each unit. Worksheets to accompany unit plans
are posted on the accompanying website in Chapter 6, teaching strategies.
More information related to this chapter can be found on a new accompanying website
for the second edition of Kodály Today. The website will include more than twenty work-
sheets to be used for practicing reading, writing, and improvisation for music elements
related to the handbook for the fourth grade. Information in this chapter is aligned with
Chapter 10 in Kodály Today.

Chapter 6: Assessment and Evaluation


This chapter includes detailed assessment rubrics to assess singing, reading, writing, and
improvisation for this grade. These rubrics can form the foundation of any kind of assess-
ment that takes place in the music classroom.

Outstanding Features
Timely Publication
In July 2012 the National Research Council challenged teachers to cultivate approaches
to teaching that develop “deeper learning.” This fourth grade handbook supplies to music
teachers with a model that promotes “twenty-first century skills.”

Transcending All Methods of Teaching Music


The researchers have used the Kodály philosophy as a pedagogical compass for this hand-
book. The foundation for the approach in this fourth grade handbook is focused on devel-
oping children’s knowledge of repertoire, performance skills (singing, moving, playing
instruments), reading and writing of music, listening, and improvisation and composition
skills—key components of any music curriculum. Teachers certified in Kodály, Orff, and
Dalcroze training piloted this handbook. Any teacher, regardless of personal philosophy
and particular pedagogy, can use this handbook.
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Introduction

Writing Style
The writing style of this handbook is accessible; it instantly engages the reader. The text is
filled with examples of activities as well as detailed lesson plans that translate a theoretical
xiv model for learning and instruction into a practical handbook for teaching music in the
fourth grade music classroom.

Organic Pedagogy
The authors use an organic approach to teaching music that begins with careful selection
of repertoire. This repertoire is then used to build students’ skills in singing, movement,
playing instruments, reading and writing, listening, and improvisation skills. This is accom-
plished through an “immersion” approach to teaching.

Sequential Pedagogy
The researcher outlines the process for presenting musical concepts and developing music
skills. Although several works describing Kodály-based techniques and curriculums exist,
few spell out in detail teaching procedures for presenting musical concepts and integrat-
ing them with musical skill development. Some educators familiar with Kodály-inspired
teaching may already know the teaching ideas presented in this text. However, we have
combined these ideas with current research findings in the field of music perception and
cognition to develop a model of music instruction and learning that offers teachers a map
to follow that will develop their students’ musical understandings and metacognition skills.
We have worked to present a clear picture of how one develops a fourth grade music cur-
riculum based on the philosophy of Kodály, the teaching and learning processes needed to
execute this curriculum, and assessment tools.

Vertical Alignment of Music Classes


Because of the pedagogy used in this publication, it offers a compelling example of how
to achieve vertical alignment in the elementary music curriculum. Like all other subject
areas in the elementary curriculum, this handbook develops routines and procedures that
are common to music lessons regardless of grade level and teaching philosophy. In this
teaching handbook, we delineate the teaching process by including thirty-five lesson plans
for fourth grade for teaching music according to the Kodály philosophy and based on the
Kodály Today text. This handbook presents a clear picture of how the teaching and learning
processes go hand in hand during the music lesson.

New Cognitive Model for Teaching Music


The series presents detailed instructions on how to present music concepts based on a
model of learning developed in Kodály Today. This model builds on the accepted pro-
cess of teaching music: prepare, make conscious, reinforce, and assess. The researcher has
adopted these phases of learning, but each phase is further broken down into stages that
allow sequential teaching of music concepts and elements as well as the means for their

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Introduction

assessment. This model of learning inspires the music curriculum, lesson plans, and assess-
ment rubrics for all the handbooks.

Who Should Read This Book?


This book will appeal to methods instructors, pre-service music teachers, beginning
music teachers, and practicing or veteran music teachers, for a number of reasons. This
is a book with a solid methodological foundation that focuses on creatively enhancing
the learning environment of students. Therefore, it appeals to methods instructors who
will use the handbooks over the course of a semester to show the necessary elements
of a comprehensive music education. Effective methods instruction includes what
to teach, how to teach, and why to teach, and this book addresses all of these areas.
Second, pre-service music teachers will gravitate toward the sequencing and lesson
planning included in the book, as well as specific resources (songs, books), when prac-
tice-teaching during methods courses, field experiences, and student teaching. Third,
beginning teachers are often most concerned with long-term planning for each grade
level: unit and lesson plans contained in the handbooks will appeal to these teachers.
Finally, this book will appeal to practicing and veteran music teachers because it can be
used to refresh knowledge of teaching music. The book updates traditional ideas and
teaching practices associated with the Kodály concept of music education and makes
them accessible, practical, and relevant for today’s classrooms.
xv
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Kodály in the Fourth Grade Classroom


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Chapter  1
1

Framing a Curriculum Based


on the Kodály Concept

This chapter provides teachers with an overview of the Kodály Concept as it relates to curriculum
development, and it includes a sample of a grade four curriculum. Also included is a lesson plan
design that is used throughout this book to create sample lessons reflecting the content of each
chapter. Chapter 1 of Kodály Today offers teachers a biographical overview of Kodály’s life as well
as an introduction to the Kodály concept of music education.

The Kodály Concept


Zoltán Kodály’s philosophy of music education inspired the development of the Kodály method
or the Kodály concept of music education. The Kodály method was actually developed by his
students and colleagues. Simply stated, the method is a comprehensive approach to teaching
music skills. The composer stressed the need for all music teachers to be excellent musicians and
conductors, and to have a knowledge of music repertoire to successfully develop a music pro-
gram. This section identifies the essential hallmarks of the Kodály method as shaped by Kodály’s
philosophy of music education.

Singing
Singing is the essence of the Kodály concept, and tuneful singing is the foundation for developing
music skills. Generally speaking, singing should be taught before formal instrumental lessons.
Singing permits quickly internalizing music, and allows students to develop the skill of audiation.
Chapter 3 of this handbook offers a comprehensive overview for developing the singing voice in
the fourth grade curriculum.

Repertoire
Everyone needs to know and celebrate his or her cultural heritage. A key component of this cul-
tural heritage is folk music, which includes children’s songs and games. These songs and games
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

include the basic rhythmic and melodic building blocks of music that can be used to make
connections to all styles of music. A music curriculum should include these materials:

Traditional children’s songs and games


Folk songs and games of the American culture
Folk songs of other cultures
Art music (music of the masters)
Pedagogical exercises written by composers
2 Recently composed music written by excellent composers

In Chapter 2 of the handbook we lay out a more comprehensive overview of the repertoire
that is used in the elementary music curriculum.

Reading and Writing


Musical reading and writing is another essential component of the Kodály method.
Practitioners of this method use a variety of musical tools to develop a student’s fluency
in reading and writing music. These tools are discussed in more detail in Chapter 4 of this
book. The teaching tools used include relative solmization, moveable do (where the tonic
note is do in major and la in minor), hand signs, and rhythm syllables.

Sequencing
Another vital component of the Kodály concept is the ability for teachers to sequence
materials along with presenting concepts and elements to students that are derived pri-
marily from singing repertoire musically. This is an experience-based approach to learning.
We present a thorough approach to curricular sequencing for grade four in Chapter 5 of
this book.

Multiple Dimensions of Music


Music education, to quote the author Daniel H. Pink, is “fundamental, not ornamental.”1
Learning music gives students many opportunities to perform music, become stewards of
their cultural heritage, develop critical-thinking skills (reading and writing music), be cre-
ative human beings, and be informed listeners and audience members. Through these mul-
tiple dimensions of their music education, students develop skills that not only will make
them more accomplished musicians but will also prepare them for life as citizens of the
twenty-first century.
When designing a curriculum based on the Kodály philosophy of music education, we
need to develop our students’:

• Performance skills through singing, playing an instrument, and movement


• Knowledge of music repertoire
• Knowledge of critical-thinking skills about music through the development of
reading and writing skills
• Ability to improvise music
• Ability to listen to music with understanding

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Framing a Curriculum Based on the Kodály Concept

Students as Stewards of Their Cultural Heritage


Students will perform a repertoire of music that includes folk music, art music, patriotic
music, and recently composed music. They will explore music from cultures such as the
southern Appalachians, African American, Mexican, American frontier, British Isles, and
Eastern Europe. This exposure deepens students’ understanding of the various styles of
music, giving them tools to compare musical styles as well as the cultures they come from.
Fourth grade students will be able to connect music to the subject areas of reading, writing,
language, and math.
3
Students as Performers
For a music education to be complete, it must begin with singing and experiencing every
day the production of sound. In fourth grade, students add to their singing songs with
greater vocal range and complexity of rhythms; they will improve part-singing skills and
extend their vocal range by using canons and two- and three-part song arrangements of
various cultural origins. They will add double circle games, basic square dancing, and con-
ducting complicated meters to their movement skills. They will demonstrate melodic and
rhythmic concepts on recorders as well as other classroom instruments.

Students as Critical Thinkers


In fourth grade, the students will analyze music that includes syncopated and dotted
rhythms, triple meter, and major pentatonic, pentachord, and hexachord scales. As critical
thinkers, they will reason effectively, and learn to communicate and collaborate to solve
music problems. Also, fourth graders will learn to sight sing two-part music as well as
incorporate absolute pitch names in their reading and writing.

Students as Creative Human Beings


Students express themselves through improvisation, form, and melodic and rhythmic com-
position using their knowledge of music as the basis for their improvisation activities and
compositions in the classroom. Teachers engage students in myriad activities. For example,
the teacher presents students with an A phrase (question) that is four beats long and asks
them to improvise a four-beat B phrase (answer). This activity leads to performing melodic
or rhythmic conversation. They will compose and improvise rhythmic canons and two-part
melodic pieces, melodic and rhythmic ostinati, as well as compose endings for given melo-
dies and rhythmic patterns. These activities afford assessment of student understanding of
musical elements and musical styles as well as their skill performance.

Students as Informed Listeners


Students in the twenty-first century are surrounded every day by music from mixed media
sources. The fourth grade musical concepts will be reinforced through an expanded listen-
ing repertoire including local artists, classical compositions, popular styles, and peer per-
formances. Along with the melodic and rhythmic concepts, they will develop an awareness
of dynamics, tempo, and timbre through masterworks of various historical periods.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Grade 4 Music Curriculum


Here we present a sample grade four curriculum that is shaped by our understanding of
Zoltán Kodály’s philosophy of music education. All the sections of the curriculum will
be discussed in greater detail in subsequent chapters. Of course we offer only a shell
of music curriculum; the demands placed on music teachers differ from one school
district to the next. We present a sample grade four curriculum as a starting point
for creating engaging music lessons. It is important to remember that, as we read in
the Oxford Handbook of Music Education, “although disciplined practice is part of the
4 task, a young aspiring musician’s spirit can be deadened in the face of a curriculum of
tasks to be done and discriminations to be learned in a standardized way, however ‘age
appropriate’ its methods strive to be.”2 It is likely that the specific music skills in the
sample will need to be modified according to the frequency of instruction. The goal
of this curriculum is to make available a model for constructing your own curriculum
based on the Kodály philosophy of music education and on current successful models
of the Kodály method. Once you have an understanding of this philosophy, you will be
able to make modifications to suit your own particular teaching situations. Our goal
is to show how the major tenets of the Kodály philosophy, and current practices in
teaching music using techniques associated with the Kodály method, can shape a music
curriculum.

Students as Stewards of Their Cultural and Musical


Heritage: Repertoire
1. We hope to expand song repertoire to add to students’ knowledge of children’s
songs and games, folk music of a variety of cultures, art music, recently composed
music, and seasonal music.
A. The student will be able to relate music to history, to society, and to culture
through playing games and singing songs from diverse cultures:
Southern Appalachians
American frontier
Native American
African American
Latino
British Isles
Western Europe
Eastern Europe
Mediterranean
B. The students will be able to understand the stylistic elements of a variety of
music repertoire.
C. The students will be able to connect music to the subject areas of reading,
writing, language, and math.

Students as Performers: Performance
The curriculum will broaden performance skills:

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1. Singing tunefully
A. Students will sing songs independently and tunefully.
B. They will learn twenty to twenty-five new songs, canons, and two- and
three-part song arrangements of various cultural origins.
C. They will sing ten to fifteen songs with rhythm and solfège syllables that
include syncopation, dotted quarter note followed by eighth note, dotted
eighth note followed by a sixteenth note, fa, low ti, and triple meter.
D. They will learn ten to fifteen songs by sight singing that include syncopation,
dotted quarter note followed by eighth note, dotted eighth note followed by a 5
sixteenth note, fa, low ti, and triple meter.
E. They will learn five to seven two-part songs.
F. They will use known music symbols and terminology referring to rhythm,
melody, timbre, form, tempo, dynamics (including crescendo and
decrescendo), and articulation (including staccato and legato) to perform and
explain musical sounds presented aurally.
2. Movement
A. Students perform double circle games.
B. They perform circle games containing square dance patterns.
C. They perform line dances containing contradance patterns.
D. They perform basic square dance.
E. They perform games and dances from various cultures.
F. They explore games, activities, and movement in personal space or
general space.
G. They move alone and with others to a varied repertoire of music using
gross-motor, fine-motor, locomotor, and nonlocomotor skills.
3. Instruments
A. Students demonstrate fourth grade rhythmic concepts that include
syncopation, dotted quarter note followed by eighth note, and dotted eighth
note followed by a sixteenth note in duple, triple, and quadruple meter.
B. They demonstrate fourth grade melodic concepts that include fa and low ti.
C. They play classroom instruments such as xylophones, glockenspiels, rhythm
instruments, and recorder.
D. They accompany classroom singing on classroom instruments using patterns
that include syncopation, dotted quarter note followed by eighth note, dotted
eighth note followed by a sixteenth note, fa, low ti, and triple meter.
4. Part work
A. Students sing songs and play instruments in a group.
B. They sing antiphonal songs and call-and-response songs.
C. They practice intervals simultaneously with hand signs that include fa and low ti.
D. They accompany a song with a rhythmic ostinato using these rhythms:
i. Quarter notes
ii. Eighth notes
iii. Quarter note rests
iv. Sixteenth notes
v. Eighth note plus two sixteenth notes
vi. Two sixteenth notes followed by an eighth note
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vii. Syncopated rhythms


viii. Dotted quarter followed by an eighth note
ix. Dotted eighth followed by a sixteenth note
x. Triple meter
E. They accompany a song with a melodic ostinato using low so, low la, low ti, do,
re, mi, fa, so, la, and high do.
F. They perform partner songs.
G. They perform aural rhythmic canons.
6 H. They perform visual rhythmic canons.
I. They sing pentatonic melodies as canons.
J. They sing simple rhythmic or melodic canons derived from familiar songs.
K. They perform two-part rhythmic exercises based on rhythms of
known songs.
L. They sing and read two-part songs.
5 . Conducting
A. Students conduct repertoire in duple simple, triple meter, compound meter (in
two), and quadruple meter.

Students as Critical Thinkers and Problem Solvers:


Music Literacy
1. Reading and writing of rhythmic elements
A. Students know names and written symbols for syncopated rhythms, dotted
quarter followed by an eighth note, dotted eighth followed by a sixteenth note,
dotted half note, and triple meter. They need to sing repertoire fluently with
rhythm syllables before learning the technical names of notes.
B. They read with rhythm syllables as well as counting with numbers.
C. They read well-known rhythmic patterns with stick notation and traditional
rhythmic notation.
D. They read a two-part rhythmic exercise.
E. They expand reading and writing of rhythmic patterns from four to eight to
sixteen beats.
F. They write rhythmic patterns from memory or when dictated by the teacher in
stick notation and traditional rhythmic notation.
G. They write known rhythmic patterns with stick notation and traditional
rhythmic notation.
2. Reading and writing of melodic elements
A. Students know the names and written syllables for all solfège notes of the
major extended pentatonic scale, minor pentatonic scale, and major scale.
B. They read well-known melodic patterns with traditional rhythmic notation
and solfège syllables as well as on staff notation.
C. They read a two-part melodic exercise from notation in exercises of up to
thirty-two beats.
D. They read well-known melodic patterns with traditional rhythmic notation
and solfège syllables as well as on staff notation.
E. They read simple melodic exercises on the staff in major and minor keys with
absolute names.

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F. They read well-known melodic patterns with traditional rhythmic notation


and solfège syllables as well as on staff notation.
G. They write well-known melodic patterns with traditional rhythmic notation
and solfège syllables as well as on staff notation.
H. They write melodic patterns found in focus songs from memory or when
dictated by the teacher using stick and solfège syllables, traditional notation
and solfège syllables, or staff notation.
I. They write known songs using traditional rhythmic and staff notation in the
major keys of G-do, F-do, C-do, D-do, and B-flat-do, and in the minor keys of 7
E-la, D-la, A-la, B-la, and G-la minor.
3. Inner hearing
A. Students silently sing melodic motifs or melody from the teacher’s hand signs.
B. They silently sing known and unknown songs with rhythmic syllables.
C. They silently sing known and unknown songs with solfège syllables.
D. They silently read rhythms or melodies written in traditional notation with
solfège syllables or staff notation.
E. They perform known melodies with inner hearing accompanied with an
ostinato.
4 . Form
A. Students continue recognition of phrase forms, including question and answer.
B. They study the form of folk songs either aurally or through music reading
that includes syncopation, dotted quarter followed by an eighth note, and
dotted eighth note followed by a sixteenth note, using simple duple, triple, and
compound meters and the notes fa and low ti.
C. They identify and label small and large musical forms such as ABAC, AB,
ABA, and rondo, presented aurally in simple songs and larger works.
5 . Musical memory
A. Students sing selected songs with melodic patterns using high do, fa, and low
ti and are asked to sing patterns back using hand signs and again using hand
signs and absolute pitch.
B. They sing the starting pitch of a selected song and are asked to sing a melody
with absolute letter names while showing hand signs.
C. They look at a score containing syncopation, dotted quarter note followed by
eighth note, dotted eighth note followed by sixteenth note, fa, low ti, or triple
meter, and memorize a phrase of the example by silently singing in their head
using hand signs.
D. They may write the melody on staff paper. At a more advanced level, they can
write the example in another key using a different clef.
E. They memorize two-part songs and exercises that include syncopation, dotted
quarter note followed by eighth note, dotted eighth note followed by sixteenth
note, fa, and low ti, in duple, quadruple, and triple meter.

Students as Creative Human Beings:


Improvisation and Composition
We hope to expand skills in improvisation and composition to include singing, playing
instruments, and moving at the fourth grade level.
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1. Rhythmic improvisation (based on the rhythmic building blocks of sung


repertoire)
A. Students improvise rhythm patterns of four or eight beats by clapping and
saying rhythm syllables.
B. They improvise rhythm patterns of four or eight beats using rhythm
instruments.
C. They improvise a new rhythm to a phrase of a well-known song written in
traditional notation.
8 D. They improvise question-and-answer motives using known rhythm patterns.
E. They improvise to a given form.
2. Melodic improvisation (based on the melodic building blocks of sung repertoire)
A. Students improvise melodic patterns of four or eight beats by singing with
solfège and hand signs.
B. They improvise a melodic chain, beginning each phrase with the last syllable
of the previous student.
C. They improvise question-and-answer motives using known melodic patterns.
D. They improvise melodic patterns of four or eight beats using barred
instruments.
E. They improvise short musical motives using known scales.
F. They improvise major, minor, and modal melodies to simple four- or
eight-beat rhythms using the voice or a barred instrument.
G. They improvise a two-part melody using hand signs.

Students as Informed Audience Members: Listening


1. Expand listening repertoire to teach and reinforce fourth grade musical concepts.
A. Students distinguish among a variety of musical timbres, including those of
children’s voices and soprano, alto, tenor, and bass adult voices.
B. They distinguish among a variety of musical timbres, including those of
woodwind, brass, string, percussion, keyboard, and electronic instruments,
and instruments of various cultures.
C. They recognize musical features in classroom song repertoire, folk music, and
masterworks.
D. They recognize rhythmic features in classroom song repertoire, folk music,
and masterworks.
E. They recognize melodic features in classroom song repertoire, folk music, and
masterworks.
F. They develop awareness of expressive controls, that is, dynamics, tempo,
timbre, and their distinctive characteristics in masterworks of various
historical periods.
G. They recognize phrase forms in classroom song repertoire, folk music, and
masterworks.
H. They recognize tonic, dominant, and subdominant functions.
I. They follow a complete score prepared by the teacher where all known
elements will be identified.
J. They justify personal preferences for specific music works and styles using
music vocabulary.

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Prompt Questions for Constructing a Music Curriculum


These questions will help you tailor the sample curriculum to your own specific needs. It is
important that your curriculum reflect your own teaching philosophy and personality, as
well as your own content knowledge or expertise. Remember also to reinforce the vision
and mission of the school with your music programs, and to review your state standards for
music education.

Questions on Where You Are Coming From 9


1. What is your philosophy of music education?
2. What role does the Kodály concept of music play in the development of your
curriculum?
3. What is the mission and vision of your school?
4. How do you reinforce the mission of your school in your music
curriculum?
5. How do you and your music students become advocates for music?
6. How do you develop the teaching of music in your school so that music is treated
as a core subject area?

Questions on Repertoire in the Classroom


1. How do you select music repertoire for your curriculum?
2. Do you use this repertoire to develop all the students’ music skills in performance,
playing instruments, literacy, improvisation, and composition as well as prepare
them to become critical consumers of music?
3. What melodic, rhythmic, singing, playing, and movement skills do you expect
students to master by the end of first grade?
4. How will you encourage students to use the known rhythmic and melodic
building blocks to create and build musical compositions, bolstering
critical-thinking skills and creativity?
5. How will music benefit a student’s overall academic achievement in the
fourth grade?
6. How does your classroom reinforce the core curriculum and the vision of the
campus?
7. How do you assess student growth in musicianship skills and music literacy
throughout the year?
8. How does your classroom embrace cultural diversity through songs?
9. What is the role of folk music, world music, art, and popular music being brought
in by children of various cultures, and how do you use it to draw parallels with
other genres in your class?

Questions on Music Skills and Content in Grade 4


1. How will you find a balance among the skills of singing, creative movement,
playing instruments, reading and writing music, composing and improvising, and
listening to music?
2. How do you create music lesson plans that will develop all of a student’s music
skills?
3. What rhythmic and melodic elements will your students master in grade four?
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Questions on Tailoring Your Teaching to Student Populations


1. What are some ways in which you meet the various needs of bilingual and
transitioning students to strengthen their primary language and promote
acquisition of the English language through repertoire?
2. How do you use a broad range of music genres and styles to reach various
populations of your campus and promote a lasting love and respect for all music?
3. How do you use a broad range of learning styles to reach various populations of
your campus?
10 4. What is the place of technology in the music classroom?
5. How do you ensure a safe environment that encourages learning?

Questions on Keeping Your Teaching Relevant


1. How do you incorporate modern styles and genres in the music classroom?
2. How do you incorporate popular and jazz music in the music classroom?

Questions on Embracing Music Learning at Your Campus


1. How do you encourage your faculty, staff, and administration to support your
music program?
2. What steps will you take to ensure your philosophy of music learning is supported
by your campus?

Lesson Planning
Now that we have created a sample curriculum, we can develop lesson plan outcomes and
lessons for teaching music. We advise that your lesson focus on developing students’:

• Knowledge of repertoire: teaching a new song


• Performance skills: learning to sing, play instruments, and move to music
• Critical-thinking skills: teaching music concepts and elements to students
according to the frequency of occurrence in the material they are singing
• Creative skills: teaching students how to improvise and compose
• Listening skills: teaching students how to actively listen to music

We address all of these goals in detail throughout the book. Here we begin the process of
lesson planning. A primary task for music teachers is to teach basic rhythmic elements. To
accomplish this successfully, students need to be guided through a variety of experiential
activities (preparation activities) before learning how to identify sounds and label them
with rhythmic or melodic syllables or learning the notation of these sounds (practice activ-
ities). Once learned, this information (practice) can be applied to expanding their musical
skills through reading, writing, and improvisation.
Lesson planning and acquiring music literacy skills are closely intertwined. Teaching a
musical element involves eight steps.

Preparation
1. Prepare the learning through kinesthetic activities.
2. Prepare the learning through aural activities.
3. Prepare the learning through visual activities.

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Presentation
4. Present the solfège syllable or rhythm label for the new sound.
5. Present the notation for the new sound.

Practice
6. Incorporate the new element (now identified as a familiar element) into the
practices of reading
7. Incorporate the new element (now identified as a familiar element) into the
practices of writing. 11
8. Incorporate the new element (now identified as a familiar element) into the
practices of improvisation and composition.

Students master a musical element throughout a series of lessons.


To undertake these steps, there are two basic lesson plan designs: preparation/practice
lessons and presentation lessons.
In a preparation/practice lesson, we prepare one musical element and practice another.
For example, when preparing a new element B (steps 1, 2, and 3) we also practice a famil-
iar element A (steps 6, 7, and 8). Once we have taught steps 1, 2, and 3, for element B in a
preparation/practice lesson, we address steps 4 and 5 for element B in presentation lessons.

Key Components of Lesson Plan Design


Table 1.1 is the basic preparation/practice lesson plan design we use throughout the book.
In each chapter, we add to this basic lesson plan design to incorporate and reflect the infor-
mation in the chapter. We use a lesson plan structure that divides all lessons into three
sections: introduction, core activities, and closure. This design can be modified to accom-
modate learning objectives for developing students’ skills as performers, critical thinkers,
improvisers, composers, listeners, and stewards of their cultural and musical heritage.

Table 1.1  Components of the Basic Preparation/Practice


Lesson Plan Design

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Performance and demonstration of known
musical concepts and elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of repertoire:
Preparation of a rhythmic or melodic Element B: this section of the lesson is used
element for steps 1–3 of preparing a new element
Creative movement
Practice and performance of musical skills Element A: this section of the lesson is used
for steps 6–8
C L O SU R E
Review and summation
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Table 1.2 explains the segments of a basic preparation/practice lesson plan design.

Table 1.2  Explanation of the Preparation/Practice Lesson Plan

L E S S ON SE C T I ON ON E :   I N T ROD U C T I ON
Demonstration This segment of the lesson includes vocal warm-up exercises, singing
of known musical known songs, developing tuneful singing, and singing known songs
12 concepts and with rhythmic or melodic syllables. During this section of the lesson,
elements we address music learning outlined in the music curriculum under the
title of “Students as Stewards of Their Cultural Heritage: Repertoire”
and “Students as Performers: Performance.”
L E S S ON SE C T I ON T WO :   C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
This section involves acquisition of repertoire and performance of new concepts or
elements.
Acquisition of Teaching a new song serves two purposes. First, it expands students’
repertoire repertoire, and second, the new song should also include rhythmic
or melodic concepts or elements that will be addressed in upcoming
lessons.
We present new repertoire for a variety of reasons. Sometimes we wish
to teach a song simply to develop students’ singing ability. Sometimes
a song may be taught because we need to provide a musical context
for teaching future musical concepts. The teacher may need to teach
repertoire for a future performance or concert.
During this section of the lesson, we address music learning outlined
in the music curriculum under the title “Students as Stewards of Their
Cultural Heritage: Repertoire.”
Preparation of a Here activities focus on leading students to discover the attributes
new concept or of a new musical concept or element. The instruction focuses on
element guiding students through kinesthetic (step 1), aural (step 2), and visual
learning (step 3) activities.
During this section of the lesson, we address music learning outlined
in the music curriculum under the title “Students as Critical Thinkers.”
Critical thinking is associated with literacy. Through discovery-based
learning children acquire music literacy skills. In this section of the
lesson, students are guided to understand the basic rhythmic or
melodic building blocks of the song material as well as the formal
music structures.
This first period of concentration is followed by a period of relaxation.
Creative Students learn singing games and folk songs. Activities focus on the
movement sequential development of age-appropriate movement skills through
songs and folk games.
A sequence for age-appropriate movement skill development is
provided in Chapter 3 of Kodály Today.
(Continued)

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Table 1.2 (continued)

This period of relaxation is followed by a second period of concentration.


Practice and In this section, the teacher practices the music skills outlined
musical skill in the music curriculum under the title “Students as Critical
development Thinkers.” This section reinforces known musical elements
while focusing on a particular music skill such as reading (step
6), writing (step 7), or improvisation and composition (step 8).
(Of course we use these skills as anchors for practicing all other 13
music skills, such as inner hearing, form, memory, part work, and
listening.)
L E S S ON SE C T I ON T H R E E :   C L O SU R E
Review and Review the lesson outcomes
summation Review the new song
Review the lesson content. Review the new song. Students may
review known songs or play a game. The teacher may also
perform the next new song that will be taught in a subsequent
lesson.

The next four tables elaborate on the basic presentation lesson plan designs we use
throughout the book; we use Tables 1.3 (components) and 1.4 (explanation) to label
sounds with syllables, and Tables 1.5 (components) and 1.6 (explanation) to present the
notation.

Table 1.3  Components of the Basic Presentation Lesson Plan


Design for Labeling Sounds with Syllables

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Performance and demonstration of known
musical concepts and elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of repertoire:
Presentation of a new concept or element Element B
This segment of the lesson is used for step 4
Creative movement
Presentation of a new concept or element Element B
This segment of the lesson is used for step 4
C L O SU R E
Review and summation
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Table 1.4  Explanation of Presentation Lesson Plan


for Labeling Sounds with Syllables

L E S S ON SE C T I ON ON E :   I N T ROD U C T I ON
Demonstration
of known musical
concepts and
elements
14 L E S S ON SE C T I ON T WO :   C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
This section involves acquisition of repertoire and performance of new concepts or
elements.
Acquisition of
repertoire
Presentation of a Using a known song, the teacher presents the label for the new sound
new concept or with either rhythmic or melodic syllables.
element Here the teacher will be presenting elements that are outlined
in the music curriculum under the title “Students as Critical
Thinkers.” Students are guided to first label the sound of the new
musical element and second to learn the notation of the musical
element. They label the sound of the basic rhythmic or melodic
building blocks of the song material and subsequently learn the
notation.
This first period of concentration is followed by a period of relaxation.
Movement
development
Creative
movement
This period of relaxation is followed by a second period of concentration.
Presentation of a Using another known song, the teacher presents the label for the new
new concept or sound with either rhythmic or melodic syllables.
element Here the teacher will be presenting elements that are outlined in the
music curriculum under the title “Students as Critical Thinkers.” They
label the sound of the basic rhythmic or melodic building blocks of the
song material.
L E S S ON SE C T I ON T H R E E :   C L O SU R E
Review and Review the lesson outcomes
summation Review the new song
Review the lesson content. Students may review known songs or play
a game. The teacher may also perform the next new song that will be
taught in a subsequent lesson.

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Table 1.5  Components of the Basic Presentation Lesson Plan Design


for Notating a New Element

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Performance and demonstration of known musical
concepts and elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of repertoire: 15
Presentation of a new concept or element Element B
This segment of the lesson is used for
step 5
Creative movement
Presentation of a new concept or element Element B
This segment of the lesson is used for
step 5
C L O SU R E
Review and summation

Table 1.6  Explanation of the Presentation Lesson Plan Design


for Notating New Element

L E S S ON SE C T I ON ON E :   I N T ROD U C T I ON
Demonstration
of known musical
concepts and elements
L E S S ON SE C T I ON T WO :   C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
This section involves acquisition of repertoire and performance of new concepts or
elements.
Acquisition of
repertoire
Presentation of a new Element B
concept or element Using a known song, the teacher presents the notation for the
new element.
Here the teacher will be presenting concepts that are outlined
in the music curriculum under the title “Students as Critical
Thinkers.”
This first period of concentration is followed by a period of relaxation.
Movement development
Creative movement
(Continued)
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Table 1.6 (continued)

This period of relaxation is followed by a second period of concentration.


Presentation of a new Element B
concept or element Using another known song, the teacher presents notation for the
new element.
Here the teacher will be presenting concepts that are outlined
in the music curriculum under the title “Students as Critical
16 Thinkers.”
L E S S ON SE C T I ON T H R E E :   C L O SU R E
Review and summation Review the lesson outcomes
Review the new song
Review the lesson content. Review the new song. Students
may review known songs or play a game. The teacher may also
perform the next new song that will be taught in a subsequent
lesson.

Note that in this process once we have presented the label and the notation for an element,
it becomes a known element. As we practice a known element, we will also be incorporat-
ing knowledge of all other known elements into practice activities.

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Chapter  2

Developing a Music Repertoire


17
Students as Stewards of Their Cultural and
Musical Heritage

This chapter provides teachers with an overview of basic repertoire to be used for developing
singing, playing instruments, creative movement, improvisation, and listening. Included in this
section is an alphabetized list of songs with sources, as well a pedagogical list of songs for teach-
ing rhythmic and melodic elements. This section also includes sequenced directions for teaching
singing games and movement activities.

Selecting Repertoire
A child’s music education should begin with the folk music and rhymes of her own culture:

It is through the indigenous musics of their cultures that students receive the stories of
their people, those that ancestors pass down from generation to generation and others
that are contemporary and reflect new customs. Folk music is the treasure trove of stu-
dent’s values, beliefs, cultures, knowledge, games and stores. The music of student’s own
cultures must be given respect and status in the classroom, indirectly giving children a
sense of their own values and status. Receptivity toward the music of other cultures can
be developed from this point of reference, thereby fostering cultural awareness, tolerance
and respect.1

We use folk music because it belongs to the oral tradition and it “draws on the power of repeti-
tion and the human urge to generate and create.”2 In the best folk songs there is a unity between
the rhythm and melody; word and musical accents fall together logically.

The Kodály approach uses games and songs that are highly repetitive and melodically sim-
ple to help build “inner hearing” (aural) skills and accurate singing (oral) skills. Those music
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activities could be valuable to the development of social skills and self-confidence in


children, including those children with special needs, whereby language experience,
aural sensitivity and discrimination, and motor skills are cultivated in enjoyable and
purposeful music game settings.3

Take time to familiarize yourself with the primary sources for folk music referenced in
Chapter 2 of Kodály Today. The selection of age appropriate repertoire for each grade is
important. Learning to sing this repertoire from memory will help students “own” this
music repertoire. The songs are easy to learn and they will engage students in the singing
process if they are sung with enjoyment and artistry. Sometimes teachers find it difficult
to believe that they can keep the imagination of a child engaged by singing simple unac-
companied folk songs. When performed in an aesthetically pleasing manner, the suggested
songs will capture the imagination of students. Of course these songs may also be accompa-
18 nied using tasteful piano accompaniments. Ruth Crawford Seeger’s collection of American
folk songs for children is a wonderful example of these kinds of simple and tasteful piano
accompaniments.4
The repertoire selected for classroom use should be of high quality and include not
only songs that incorporate musical concepts for teaching but also songs to develop
the joy found in seasonal songs and multicultural songs. Sometimes music teachers
choose song material to help students remember classroom rules; or they can be used
as an aid in developing literacy skills or numeracy skills. Although these songs are
useful for developing students’ social skills, they should not be the primary singing
material of the elementary music program. We need to find ways to connect what
we are doing in the classroom with the community at large, as well as acknowledge
students’ own music interests. The Oxford Handbook of Music Education proposes
that “When children’s preferences and tastes in music are acknowledged and incorpo-
rated into the music curriculum, they can be helped to understand a wider range of
music through active involvement in listening.”5 Asking students to perform a song or
a movement they have developed or piece of music they have learned from the web,
television, or their parents is important. Finding ways to connect this repertoire to
music activities in the classroom can be powerful. Inviting musicians into the class-
room to perform live music for students is also a great way to make a musical connec-
tion with the community. In so doing, we come to understand “music as an activity to
be engaged in and made between people, rather than as a ‘thing’ to be learned, or set
of uniform skills to be imparted, and, moreover, to see how music and musical prac-
tices are ever-changing.”6
We present in this chapter, for the fourth grade:

• An alphabetical list of repertoire and sources for these songs


• Singing games and directions for playing these games
• A pedagogical list of songs suitable for teaching rhythmic and melodic elements

Grade 4 Song Lists


Alphabetized Song List
Table 2.1 is a core list of songs for use in the fourth grade music class.

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Table 2.1  Grade 4 Alphabetical Song List

Song Title Source

“Ah, Poor Bird” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Ah! Vous Dirai-je, Maman” (French) Traditional

“Alabama Gal” (Buffalo Gals) 150 American Folk Songs to Sing, Read and Play

“Al Cintron” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

“Alfonso XII” El Patio de Mi Casa

“All God’s Children” The Book of American Negro Spirituals 19


“Alleluia” (in major) 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Alleluia” (natural minor) 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“The Birch Tree” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“The Bird’s Courting Song” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

“Campanito del Oro” El Patio de Mi Casa

“Canoe Round” (My Paddle) 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Cedar Swamp” Folk Songs of the Southern Appalachians as sung


by Jean Ritchie

“Circle Round the Zero” Circle Round the Zero (Play Chants & Singing
Games of City Children)

“Cock Robin” 150 American Folk Songs to Sing, Read and Play

“Come Thru ’Na Hurry” (Alabama Gal) Folk Songs North America Sings

“La Cucaracha” El Patio de Mi Casa 42 Traditional Rhymes,


Chants, Folk Songs from Mexico

“Debka Hora” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Dem Bones Gonna Rise Again” Folk Songs of the World

“Dona Blanca” Vamos a Cantar

“Dona, Dona, Dona” Composed: Zeitlin, Aaeon and Secunda, Shalom

“Donkey Riding” Folk Songs North America Sings

(Continued)
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Table 2.1 (continued)

Song Title Source

“Drunken Sailor” Folk Songs North America Sings

“Este Niño Lindo” El Patio de Mi Casa

“Florcita de Alhelí” (Flower of Alhelí) Vamos a Cantar

“Hey, Ho, Nobody Home” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Hill and Gully Rider” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

20 “Hills of Arirang” Traditional Korean Folk Song

“Hogs in the Cornfield” The American Play-Party Song

“Las Horas” El Patio de Mi Casa 42

“Hungarian Canon” (Láttál-e már 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching
valaha)

“I Got a Letter This Morning” Folk Songs North America Sings

“I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key” 150 American Folk Songs to Sing, Read and Play

“John Kanaka” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

“Land of the Silver Birch” Folk Songs of Canada

“Lindo Pescadito” The Melody El Patio de Mi Casa

“Liza Jane” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

“Long Road of Iron” An American Methodology, Second Edition

“Mamalama” Circle Round the Zero (Play Chants & Singing


Games of City Children)

“Las Mananitas” Canciones infantiles mexicano

“Mi Gallina” Mexico en sus Cantares

“La Muneca” El Patio de Mi Casa

“Naranja Dulce” The Melody Canciones Infantiles

“Obwisana” The Melody Book

(Continued)

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Developing a Music Repertoire

Table 2.1 (continued)

Song Title Source

“Oh, How Lovely Is the Evening” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Ojos a La Vela” Nuevas Canciones Infantiles

“Over the River” Collection of North Carolina Folklore, Volume V

“El Patio de Mi Casa” El Patio de Mi Casa

“La Pelota Cantadora” El Patio de Mi Casa

“Pretty Saro” Folk Songs North America Sings


21

“A la Puerta del Cielo” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

“Que Bonita Bandera” (What a Vamos a Cantar


Beautiful Flag)

“El Reloj de la Calavera” El Patio de Mi Casa

“Riding in the Buggy” 150 American Folk Songs to Sing, Read and Play

“Row, Row, Row Your Boat” Heritage Songster

“Sail Away, Ladies” Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs

“Sourwood Mountain” Heritage Songster second edition

“Tres Pescecitos” 20 Canciones Infantiles

“Una Rata Vieja” De Tin Marin: Mi Canto, Mis Raices

“Viva la Musica” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Weevily Wheat” Folk Songs North America Sings

“Whistle, Daughter, Whistle” 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching

“Yankee Doodle” Heritage Songster

R E C OR DI N G S

“Ah, Poor Bird”

“Ah! Vous Dirai-je, Maman” (French) El Lobo: Songs and Games of Latin America as
Sung by the Children of Mexico

(Continued)
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Table 2.1 (continued)

Song Title Source

“Al Cintron” El Lobo: Songs and Games of Latin America as


Sung by the Children of Mexico

“Alabama Gal” (Buffalo Gals) Songs with Guy Carawan, Smithsonian


Folkways, 1958.

“Alfonso XII” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“All God’s Children” Ella Jenkins, A Long Time to Freedom,


Smithsonian Folkways, 1992.
22
“Campanito del Oro” (Little Bell of Gold) Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“Canoe Round (My Paddle)” Melinda Caroll, Girls Scouts Greatest Hits, vol. 5, 2002.

“Cedar Swamp” Jill Trinka, Bought Me A Cat, 2010.

“Circle Round the Zero” Peter and Mary Alice Amidon, Rise, Sally Rise, 2014.

“Cock Robin” Jean Ritchi, Children's Songs and Games from


Southern Mountains, 2012. (Original release
date 1957.)

“Come Thru ’Na Hurry” (Alabama Gal) Mary Cay Brass, Andy Davis, Peter Maidon,
Mary Alice Amidon, Alabama Gal-Nine: Never-
fail Dancing and Singing Games for Children.

“La Cucaracha” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa. 2005.

“Dona Blanca” Ricardo González Gutiérrez, Rondas Infantiles, 2011.

“Dona, Dona, Dona” Mark Oif, Jewish Folksongs, vol. 1, Smithsonian


Folkways, 1951.

“Donkey Riding” Alan Mills, More Songs to Grow On, Smithsonian


Folkways, 1954.

“Drunken Sailor” Richard Dyer-Bennet, Smithsonian Folkways,


vol. 12, 2004.

“Este Nino Lindo” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“Florcita de Alheli” El Colegio Estrada de Don Torcuato

(Continued)

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Table 2.1 (continued)

Song Title Source

“Hey, Ho, Nobody Home” The Wagoners, The Wagoners Sing Folks Songs for
Camp, 1956.

“Hill and Gully Rider” Ainsworth Rose, Jamaican Folk Songs, 2013.

“Hogs in the Cornfield”

“John Kanaka”

“Las Horas” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.


23
“Lindo Pescadito” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“Liza Jane” Library of Congress AFS 2718 B2. Collected by John


A. and Ruby T. Lomax. Variant: “Steal Liza Jane.”

“Mamalama”

“La Muneca” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“Ojos a La Vela”

“Over the River”

“El Patio de Mi Casa” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“La Pelota Cantadora” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“Pretty Saro” Gabriela Montoya Stier, El Patio de Mi Casa, 2005.

“Que Bonita Bandera”

“Una Rata Vieja” Beatriz E. Aguilar, E Tin Marin: Mi Canto, Mis


Raices, 2013.

“Sail Away, Ladies” Guy Carawan, Guy Carawan Sings Something


Old, New, Borrowed and Blue, 1959.

“Sourwood Mountain” Jean Richie. Sourwood Mountain, 1957

“Tres Pescecitos” 20 Canciones Infantiles

“Weevily Wheat” Guy Carawan, Guy Carawan Sings Something


Old, New, Borrowed and Blue, 1959.

“Yankee Doodle” Pete Seeger, Yankee Doodle, Smithsonian


Folkways, 1957.
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References for Table 2.1


“Beatriz E Aguilar (vocalist).” De Tin Marin, Mi Canto, Mis Raices. 2013
Bolkovac, Edward, and Judith Johnson. 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching.
New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1996.
Botkin, Benjamin Albert. The American Play-Party Song. Lincoln, NE, 1937.
Botsford, Florence Hudson. Botsford Collection of Folk Sings, Vol. 2. New York:
Schirmer, 1929.
Brown, Frank C. Collection of North Carolina Folklore, Vol. V. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 1962.
Dallin, Leon, and Lynn Dallin. Folk Songster. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1967.
Dallin, Leon, and Lynn Dallin. Heritage Songster. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1966.
Eisen, Ann, and Lamar Robertson. An American Methodology, 2nd ed. Lake Charles,
LA: Sneaky Snake, 2010.
24 Erdei, Peter, and Katalin Komlós, eds. 150 American Folk Songs. New York: Boosey &
Hawkes, 1974 (7th printing), 1985.
Fowke, Edith F., and Richard Johnston. Folk Songs of Canada. Waterloo, Ont.,
Can.: Waterloo Music, 1954.
Hackett, Patricia. The Melody Book: 300 Selections from the World of Music for Piano,
Guitar, Autoharp, Recorder and Voice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997.
Haywood, Charles. Folk Songs of the World. New York: John Day, 1966.
Hernandez, Antonio Avitia. Cancionero infantile mexicano. Col Del Valle, Mexico, D.F., 1996.
Johnson, James Weldon, and J. Rosamund. The Book of American Negro Spirituals.
New York: Viking Press, 1969.
Johnston, Richard. Folk Songs North America Sings. Toronto: Caveat, 1984.
Kenney, Maureen (collected). Circle Round the Zero: Play Chants and Singing Games of
City Children. St. Louis: Magnamusic-Baton, 1974/1975.
Kim, Don Hwan. Korean Folk Songs. Eumag Chun Choo Sha Ed., 1988.
Knowles, Faith (ed.). Vamos a Cantar: 230 Latino and Hispanic Folk Songs to Sing, Read,
and Play. Columbus, OH: Kodály Institute at Capital University, n.d.
Locke, Eleanor G. Sail Away: 155 American Folk Songs. New York: Boosey &
Hawkes, 1988.
Ritchie, Jean. Folk Songs of the Southern Appalachians as Sung by Jean Ritchie.
New York: OAK/Embassy Music, 1965.
Lomax, John A., and Alan Lomax. Folk Song U.S.A. New York: Plume, 1947.
Michael, Concha. Mexico in sus cantares. Av. Mexico-Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F.: Fonda
Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, 1997.
Montoya-Stier, Gabriela. El Patio de Mi Casa: 42 Traditional Rhymes, Chants, and Folk
Songs from Mexico. Chicago: GIA, 2008.
Salgado, Antonio. Canciones Infantiles. Mier y Pesado 128, Col. Del Valle, 03100 Mexico
D.F. D.R. 1990 Selector, S.A. de C.V.
Stark, Richard B. Juegos Infantiles Cantados en Nuevo México. Santa Fe: Museum of New
Mexico Press, 1973.

Discography
“Ainsworth Rose (vocalist).” YouTube performance using traditional Jamaican
instruments, 2013. Web, accessed July 15, 2014.

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Developing a Music Repertoire

American Favorite Ballads, Vol. 1. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 2002.


“Ann Eisen and Lamar Robertson.” Folk Songs to Masterworks: Art Music Listing. Sneaky
Snake Publications, 2010.
“Anna O’Connell (vocalist and sharpsicle).” The Bird’s Courting Song.
“Brad Sondahl (vocalist and guitar).” Dem Bones Gonna Rise Again. YouTube, 2007. Web,
accessed July 15, 2014.
“Coro del Valle de Mexico (vocal ensemble).” Juegos y Rondas Infantiles. In Music
Group, 1996.
“Coro Infantil del Parque de la Ilusion on (vocal ensemble).” Rondas Infantiles. Musart
Balboa.
“Dan Zanes (vocalist).” Little Nut Tree, Festival Five Records, 2011.
“Dana and Susan Robinson (vocalists, with guitar and mandolin).” Cock Robin
Performance: http://www.yourepeat.com/watch/?v=DMV3PjGEc6g.
Elijah Bradford recording on YouTube. 25
“Elizabeth Mitchell (vocalist).” You Are My Little Bird. Smithsonian Folkways, 2006.
“Ella Jenkins (vocalist).” A Long Time to Freedom, by Ella Jenkins. Smithsonian Folkways
Recordings, 1992.
“Gabriela Montoya-Stier (collector).” El Patio de Mi Casa. GIA, 2008.
“Guy Carawan (vocalist).” Guy Carawan Sings Something Old, New, Borrowed and Blue.
Vol. 2. Folkways Records, 1959.
“Guy Carawan (vocalist).” Songs with Guy Carawan. Folkways Records, 1958.
“Jean Ritchie (vocalist, dulcimer, guitar).” Children’s Songs and Games from the Southern
Mountains. Folkways Records, 1957.
“Jill Trinka (vocalist).” Bought Me a Cat. Folk Music Works, 1988.
“Jill Trinka (vocalist).” The Little Black Bull. Folk Music Works, Dripping Springs,
TX, 1996.
“Joan Baez (vocalist and guitar).” Folksong Lady, 2011.
“Johnny Mae Medlock, Ruth Hines, and Gussie Slater (vocalists).” The American Folk
Song Collection, Kodály Center for Music Education at Holy Names University, 1939.
Web, accessed July 15, 2014.
“Marvis Moore (conductor).” A Winter Concert. KIPP Academy Nashville Choir, 2009.
Web, accessed July 15, 2014.
“Melinda Caroll (vocalist).” Girl Scouts Greatest Hits Vol. 5, Camp Songs for Every Girl,
Everywhere. Legend Productions, 2002.
“Pedro Infante (vocalist).” Mañanitas. Warner Musica Latina, 2001.
“Richard Dyer-Bennet (vocalist).” Richard Dyer-Bennet, Vol. 12. Dyer-Bennet
Records, 1964.
“Riley Puckett (vocalist).” Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa
Barbara Library, 2014. Web, accessed July 15, 2014.
“Saxie Dowell (vocalist).” 20 Canciones Infantiles, 2009.
“Treblemakers (Vocal ensemble).” Singing with Treblemakers: Our Favorite Folk Songs. ME
Junda, 2002.
“Treblemakers (Vocal ensemble).” Singing with Treblemakers: Songs for Young Singers. ME
Junda, 1998.
“The Wagoners (musical group).” The Wagoners Sing Folk Songs for Camp. Folkways
Records, 1956.
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Grade 4 Singing Games and Sequenced Directions for Playing


Table 2.2 is a list of songs and game directions for teaching fourth grade music concepts
and elements. We also recognize that teachers may have better ideas and more creative ways
to teach musical games. These game directions are intended to offer helpful guidance.

Table 2.2  Games for Grade 4

G L O S S A RY OF M OV E M E N T G A M E A N D DA N C E T E R M S
The following terms often appear in dance and game directions. We thank our student
Rebecca Seekatz for contributing this glossary of terms.
Allemande: partners match right hands, touching from hands to elbow. Elbow is bent and
26
hands are up. Partners turn around once to the right so that they return to their original
position. The turn may also be done with left hands in the air, turning to the left.
Arch: partners join hands and raise arms to let other students through.
Bottom of the line: in a line or double line, the position furthest away from the head
couple, music source, or caller.
Cast off: in a double line, partners turn away from each other and walk toward the bottom
on the outside of the line. Other couples may follow.
Circle: students stand side by side in a circle, facing in toward the middle.
Circle left: students move clockwise, with hands joined if desired.
Circle right: students move counterclockwise, with hands joined if desired.
Corner: the person next to you who is not your partner.
Do-si-do: two students face each other, slightly offset. They walk forward, passing right
shoulders, and go around each other to move back to their original place. The students
should be facing the same direction during the entire movement.
Down: students move toward the bottom of the line, furthest away from the caller or music
source.
Double line: students form two parallel lines, with each student facing opposite the partner.
See Longways set.
Elbow turn: students link arms at the elbow with each other and turn around once. This
may be done to the right, linking right arms; or to the left, linking left arms.
Grand right and left: partners face each other, take right hands, and walk forward passing
right shoulders. Take left hands with the next person you meet and pass left shoulders. Right
to the next, left to the next, and so on. Take two steps forward for each change of hands.
Head couple: in a line dance, the couple closest to the head of the line, the caller, or the
music.
Left hand cross: partners face each other, take left hands, and walk forward, passing left
shoulders so they have switched places.
(Continued)

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Table 2.2 (continued)

Longways set: students form two parallel lines, with each student facing their partner in the
opposite line. See Double line.
Promenade: partners walk forward side by side, holding each other’s hands, right in right
and left in left. Teachers should get students into position by saying, “Shake right, shake left,
turn forward.”
Right hand cross: partners face each other, take right hands, and walk forward, passing
right shoulders so they have switched places.
Sashay: partners hold hands and gallop or skip sideways.
Strip the willow: in a line dance, the head couple does a right elbow turn once and a half
around so that they are facing the opposite line from which they started. They then each do
a left elbow turn once around with the next person in the line (from the line opposite their 27
original line). The head couple meets in the middle for a right elbow turn once around, and
then each turns the next person in the opposite line with a left elbow turn; and so on down
the line until they reach the bottom. May also be done by holding hands with your partner
and pulling inward rather than an elbow turn.
G A M E DI R E C T I ON S
“A L C I T RON ”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions: pass an object around the circle to the steady beat. Pick up on upbeat,
pass on downbeat. On “triki” tap in the direction you’re passing but do not let go, next
“triki” tap in the opposite direction but do not let go, then on “tron” continue passing in the
regular direction. Start slowly, by tapping beat, isolating “triki triki tron,” then passing small
object like a pencil before moving up to a shoe.
Notes: Some say this song is a nonsense song. Jane Pippart-Brown proposed this
insight: Alcitron is slang for a fermented citrus drink. Sabare is like sticking a knife in your
stomach (sabre), randela is when you start spinning, and triki triki tron is when you start to
vomit. This is a drinking game.
“A M ASE E” ( I M U ST SE E )
Classroom use—game: double line (reel), follows “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
Game directions:
1. Head couple walks down. Turn hands like toasting around your partner’s arm, with
elbows and hands still touching but intertwined. When walking down, let your
backbone slide.
2. “Amasee, Amassee” Lean in to “bump” hips, then sway hips & step away.
3. “You swing yours” Swing your partner with right arm at elbow halfway so you are
facing the opposite line.
4. “And I’ll swing mine” then swing with lowest person on opposite side with your other
(left) arm.
5. “Amasee, Amasee” Circle all the way around with your first partner and end up on the
opposite line from the one you started in, at the bottom. All others step to bottom of
line-together, then to top of line—together with a big step (sort of hop too) so all move
up. Could do step-together the whole time.
(Continued)
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Table 2.2 (continued)

“AQ UAQ UA DE L A OM A R”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions: players form a circle with their palms up. Place the right hand (palm up)
in the left palm of the player to the right. An appointed leader begins the song by tapping
the palm of the player on the left with the leader’s right hand. The tapping goes to a steady
beat. Whomever receives the tap on the fermata decides how long to hold the note. The
fermata person then taps the next hand to finish the song. If a player’s hand is tapped on the
number 5, they are out. If the player is able to move their hand away in time, the tapper is
out. Continue the game until there is one player left.
“B I G FAT B I S C U I T ”
28 Classroom use—game: circle, passing game
Game directions: all students sing the song. Selected students line up side by side, three to
six and a time, and do a flat-foot broad jump at the end of the song. The winner stays and
plays with the next group.
“B I L LY, B I L LY ”
Classroom use—game: double line
Game directions:
1. For this song, you may have girls on the lead side, right of the caller (b/c Sally is the
one who walks down the alley)
2. “Here’s the way we Billy Billy …”—Reach across the set, hold hands, and groove or
shimmy.
3. “Step back Sally”—Step back, clap, step back, clap, step back, clap, step back, clap.
4. “Walking down the alley”—Lead girl improvises a movement down the alley and goes
to end of opposite line.
5. “Here comes the other one …”—Lead boy imitates first girl and goes to the bottom
opposite side. (This way both boys and girls get a chance to lead with their movement.)
Notes: A “Sally” is a common name for a young girl.
“C E DA R S WA M P ”
Classroom use—game: Longways, (double line) couples facing each other. Boys on left.
Girls on the right.
Game directions:
1. Head couple holds hands and sashays to the bottom of the set and back between the
couples.
2. Head couple strips the willow to the bottom.
“C I RC L E ROU N D T H E Z E RO”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions: teach by example with a few students before making the large circle.
1. Children stand in a circle while one child walks around the outside.
2. “Back Back Zero” child stops and chooses someone and stands back-to-back with the
person chosen. The child bumps behinds with that person during this phrase.
3. “Side Side Zero” The same happens with the two children as they turn sideways and
bump hips together.
4. “Front Front Zero” The two children face each other and pat hands.
(Continued)

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Table 2.2 (continued)

5 . “Tap you lovin’ Zero” they tap each other’s shoulders.


6. The child who is “it” then changes places with the other child, and the game continues.
7. The game may also be played with more than one child as “it” at one time, or as a
cumulative game in which the first child never goes back into the circle and more
children are added to the outer circle with each repetition until all are chosen.
“C OM E T H RU ’ NA H U R RY ( A L A BA M A G A L ) ”
Classroom use—game: double line
Game directions:
1. Students stand in a double line across from their partner.
2. Verse 1: The “head couple” sashays down the middle and back.
3. Verse 2: Couples right hand pass, then left hand pass. 29
4. Verse 3: Cast off both lines from the head (“peel the banana”).
5. Verse 4: Head couple makes an arch at the foot, couples hurry through and return to
their spots, creating a new head couple.
“DE B KA H OR A”
Classroom use—game: single line, single circle, double circle
Game directions:
1. Start with saying steps in a single line.
2. Add putting hands up elbows down making a wide “W.”
3. Have students hook pinkies.
4. Do the same in a single circle.
5. Do the same in a double circle with the inside circle moving in contrary motion to the
outside circle.
Steps: SR SLB SR HR; SL SRB SL HL; repeat
SR—Step right
SLB—Step left behind right foot
HR—Hop on right foot
SL—Step left
SRB—Step right behind left foot
HL—Hop on left foot
Add melody each time a stage is mastered.
“F O U R W H I T E H OR SE S”
Classroom use—game: square game
Game directions:
Beginning motions:
Clap, clap partner’s hands (lead couple clap up, other couple clap lower), clap, clap
neighbor’s hands out to the side.
This can be done in a square or in circle (for younger kids)
Harder version:
Instead of clapping out second time each time, clap high once and low once. Other
couple do low first and then high.
Hardest version:
Clap up, clap side, clap down, clap side—opposite for other couple
(Continued)
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Table 2.2 (continued)

“G OI N ’ D OW N TO C A I RO”
Classroom use—game: single circle, alternating boys and girls
Game directions:
1. “Goin’ down to Cairo”: circle to the left
2. “Black them boots”: grand right and left
3. “Goin down”: promenade home
Notes: “Cairo” is Cairo, Illinois, pronounced keh-ro; this can be thematically partnered with
“Great Big House in New Orleans.”
“H I L L A N D G U L LY R I DE R”
Classroom use—game: line dance
30 Setup: arrange the class standing in rows of four to six students depending on class size; as
in a line dance.
Game directions:
1. Sing the song and clap the rhythm on the words “Hill and Gully.”
2. “Hill and Gully Rider”: walk four steps forward; “Hill and Gully” clap the rhythm.
3. “Hill and Gully Rider”: walk four steps backward; “Hill and Gully” clap the rhythm.
4. “Took my horse and come down”: quarter turn to the right then clap “Hill and Gully.”
5. “But my horse done come down”: quarter turn to the right again then clap “Hill and Gully.”
6. “And the Night time come a tumblin’ down”: quarter turn to the right again then
clap “Hill and Gully.” (You should now be a quarter turn away from original
position.)
7. Repeat for each verse.
“H O G S I N T H E C OR N F I E L D”
Classroom use—game: partner
Game directions version 1: partners decide who will be number 1 and who will be
number 2. One or more pairs come to a line marked on the floor. The pairs grab right
hands and put their toes against the line. The class sings the song once. When the song
is over, each student tries to pull his/her partner over the line. Whoever wins takes his/
her partner over to his/her team. When everyone has had a turn, each team is counted,
including the losers who have come from the other team. The team with the most
students wins.
Game directions version 2: Partners are back to back in the middle of the classroom.
Partners walk away from each other to six beats. On beats 7 and 8 they do rock, paper,
scissors to the eighth note rhythm.
“H U N T T H E C OWS”
Classroom use—game: acting out, circle (extension)
Teaching process: teacher sings first two phrases of song and instructs the students to
march or skip to the left. On the repeat of the first two phrases, students march or skip to
the right. On the third and fourth phrases of the song, the teacher acts out the following
motions, and students imitate motions.
“The cows are lost”
Motions: Kneel to the floor on one knee.
(Continued)

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Table 2.2 (continued)
“The sun is hot”
Motions: Without standing, add the other knee to the kneeling position, so students
are now kneeling on both knees.
“I think I’ll rest”
Motions: Without standing, lean over, putting one elbow on the floor.
“Till they get home”
Motions: Add the other elbow to floor, so that students are kneeling on both knees and
leaning on both elbows.
The teacher signals to stand and sing again. Students return to the circle to march or skip.
If students are not ready to skip around the circle during the first two phrases, replace
skipping with marching around the circle or marching in place.
“I ’ S T H E B Y ”
31
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions:
1. Circle left eight steps.
2. Circle right eight steps.
3. “Boy” bumps hip of partner for four counts.
4. “Boy” bumps hip of corner for four counts.
5. “Boy” swings partner around for eight counts (one and a half times around) ending up
facing his corner.
6. Boy’s corner becomes his new partner.
“I ’ V E L O S T T H E FA R M E R’ S DA I RY K E Y ”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions: students stand in a circle holding hands, one child stands in the middle.
The class sings the song; on the words “do, do” the child in the middle tries to break through
the circle but can only do so without using his or her hands.
“JOH N KA NA KA”
Classroom use—game: double circle, single circle. Traditionally, girls stand in the inside
circle facing the outside circle and their partner.
Game directions:
1. On “I heard, I heard the old man say”: Students do-si-do with their partner.
2. On the refrain “John Kanaka-naka too-la-ay”: students perform the following motions;
one motion for each syllable:
(Actions to accompany syllables stomp right foot, pat (legs), pat, pat, pat, pat, clap,
clap, pat (partners hands)
3. On “Today, today is a holiday”: students do-si-do with their partner.
4. Refrain.
5. On “Too la ay–oh–too la ay”: students perform the following motions:
6. clap, clap, pat—raise hands and shake—clap, clap, pat.
7. On the “oh” of the above phrase, students should step to the right. The inner circle
will move clockwise and the outside circle will move counter clockwise. This places
everyone in front of a new partner.
8. Refrain: perform with the new partner.
Note: It is important for the teacher to model this with one student first.
(Continued)
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Table 2.2 (continued)

“L ON G L E G G E D S A I L OR”
Classroom use—game fourth grade; acting out, partner
Game directions: partners are facing each other. Sing song and act out words with
each verse.
“Have you…”—: Partners hold hand and swing hands left and right.
 +  ~  ^  ~  (action)  ~   +
“Ever, ever, ever in your long legged life”
~  (action) ~ (salute)  ~   (action) ~   +
“seen a long legged sailor with a long legged wife?”
+ means to clap right hand to right hand
~ means to clap your own hands together
32
^ means to clap left hand to left hand
On the word “long” (and the other words in the subsequent verses) you show through
acting out. On the word “sailor” all should salute.
“Sailor”—salute (in every verse)
“Long legged”—arms extended horizontally
“Short legged”—hands close together
“One legged”—stand on one foot
“No legged”—jump
Teaching Steps: all students face the teacher and pretend to be the teacher’s partner as he/
she performs clapping motions with song at slow tempo so the students can clearly imitate
the motions.
“L ON G ROA D OF I RON ”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions: (like “Alcitron”)
Pass an object around the circle to the steady beat. Pick up on upbeat, pass on downbeat.
On “chicky” tap in the direction you’re passing but do not let go, next “chicky” tap in
the opposite direction but do not let go, then on “chay” continue passing in the regular
direction. Start slowly, by tapping beat, isolating “chicky chicky chay,” then passing
small object like a pencil before moving up to a bean bag or shoe.
“M A M A L A M A”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions:
1. Students stand in circle, alternating clapping their own hands and neighbors hands on
each side to beat.
2. During “Anie Manie” one student dances to the middle of the circle and back to
their seat.
3. On the repeat, other students copy the movement and dance to the middle and back.
“M Y L A N DL OR D”
Classroom use—game: partnering
Game directions: perform the following steps facing your partner:
1. Cross your arms over your chest.
2. Uncross arms and move your hands down to pat your legs.
(Continued)

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Table 2.2 (continued)

3 . Clap your own hands.


4. Pat your partner’s hand—right hand to right hand.
5. Clap your own hands.
6. Pat your partner’s hand—left hand to left hand.
7. Clap your own hands.
8. Pat both partners hands.
9. Cross, down, clap, repeat steps 4 through 8.
“ T H E N OB L E D U K E OF YOR K ”
Classroom use—game: double line, contra dance formation
Game directions:
Verse 1. The head couple slides or sashays to the end of lines and back. 33
Verse 2. Head couple cross hands and spin around to the foot of the set and stays, raising
their hands to make an arch.
Verse 3: The two lines, face the front and cast off, going through the arch, back to place,
with a new head couple. The song begins again.
Note: If everyone is not through the arch, it is clever for the teacher to name a different
animal, and the players must name a rhyming word at the proper time in the music.
“OBW I S A N NA”
Classroom use—game: circle, rock passing
Meaning of words: “Oh, Grandmother, I have hurt my little finger on a rock”
Game directions:
1. Students sit in a circle, knee to knee.
2. Hands should be held out on knees.
3. Each person begins with a small smooth rock in their left hand.
4. On beat 1 pick up the rock in the left hand with the right hand (on the word
“Obwi—”).
5. On the next beat move the rock to the persons left hand sitting to your right. (on the
word “sana”).
6. On the next beat move your hand back to your left hand and retrieve the new rock that
has been placed there (on the word “sa—”).
7. On the following beat move this rock to the person to your right’s hand (on the word
“sana”).
8. Continue this pattern.
“OL D B E T T Y L A R K I N ”
Classroom use—game: square dance, grapevine twist
Game directions:
1. “Hop around, skip around, old Betty Larkin”—: Circle left halfway, circle right halfway.
2. “Needle in a haystack”: Girl 1 is the leader of a grapevine twist.
3. “Steal, steal”: Grand right and left, promenade home.
4. “You take mine and I’ll take another”: Boy 1 is the leader of a grapevine twist, passing
his partner, and getting a new partner one to the right.
5. Entire song may repeat, with girl 3, boy 3, girl 2, boy 2, girl 4, boy 4 getting a turn to
lead the grapevine twist.
(Continued)
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Table 2.2 (continued)

“OV E R T H E R I V E R”
Classroom Use: double line
Game directions:
1. Students stand in a double line across from their partner.
2. Take four steps towards partner, four steps back.
3. Right hand pass with your partner.
4. Take four steps towards partner, four steps back.
5. Right hand pass with your partner.
6. Head couple goes down the alley to bottom by improvising movement, ending at the
bottom and creating a new head couple.
34 “ T H E P E B B L E S ON G”
Classroom use—game: circle
Game directions:
Students stand in a circle, close together, and one student is chosen to be “it,” standing in the
middle of the circle. The circle may hold a string through which runs through a large bead,
or they may simply pass a rock. As the sing the song, they must pass the bead or rock past
as many students as possible without the person in the center seeing it. At the end of two
repetitions of singing, the person who is “it” must try to guess who has the bead or rock.
He or she gets three guesses. Whether he or she guesses correctly or not, the person with
the bead exchanges places with the person in the middle, and the game begins again.
“R I DI N G I N A BU G G Y ”
Classroom use—game: double circle partner game
Game directions:
1. Begin with hand in promenade position walking counter clockwise to the beat.
2. Stop at the chorus and partners face each other (inside and outside circles).
Together they:
3. Pat their own thighs.
4. Clap their own hands together.
5. Pat their partners hands.
6. Clap their own hands.
7. Repeat steps 3–6.
8. Then when the next verse begins the inside circle moves forward to the next partner,
and the game continues with new partners.
“ T I DE O”
Classroom use—game: double circle, partner
Setup:
Double circle: make one circle, ask every other child to step in
Inside circle faces out
Game directions: The following motions are done each time the word is sung:
1. “Tideo” clap pattern instruction: lap, clap, straight (patty-cake-two-hands-out clap).
2. “Pass”: outside circle move one partner to the right.
3. On “jingle” Ss hold two hands and wiggle.
4. Variation: inside circle moves to the right instead of the outside circle.
(Continued)

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Table 2.2 (continued)

“ T U R N T H E G L AS SE S OV E R” ( I ’ V E B E E N TO HA A R L E M )
Classroom use—game: double circle, partner, stealing
Game directions:
1. Teacher partners students, then students form a double line. They should be standing
beside their partner with elbows linked.
2. Circle right, kicking feet out on the upbeats.
3. On “Drink what you have to drink”: partners face each other and hold hands.
4. On “Turn the glasses over”: partners wring the dishrag.
5. On “Sailing east …”: outside circle walks counter clockwise, inside circle walks
clockwise.
6. On “Ocean”: students should be in front of a new partner.
35
Game variation: if playing the “stealing” version, begin the game with one student in the
middle of the circle. On the phrase “Sailing east …” the middle person joins the inner
circle. When the song stops on “Ocean” one person in the inner circle will be left without a
partner. This student is now “it” and begins the next repetition in the middle.
“W E E V I LY W H E AT ”
Classroom use—game: square dance
Setup:
Person in front of caller is lead with his/her back to caller.
Person facing lead is number 2, sometimes called second lead.
Person to lead’s right is number 3.
Person to lead’s left is number 4.
Game directions:
1. “Don’t want your weevily wheat, don’t want your barley”: students take hands and
circle left.
2. “Take some flour in half an hours and bake a cake for Charlie”: circle right.
3. “Five times five is twenty five, five times six is thirty, five times seven is thirty five, five
times eighth is forty”: Lead puts right hand in the middle, the others follow suit and
put their right hands on top of the pile one by one. When all right hands are in, then
put left hands on pile in order one by one. When all hands are in, then pull bottom
hand and put on top.
TEACHER TIP: Explain that you can’t pull your hand out from the middle, only from the
bottom.
4. “Don’t want your weevily wheat”: students circle left and right just as in beginning but
keep hands in the stacked position in the middle. Do this part faster to grind the flower
extra fine.
TEACHER TIP: Can add other multiplication numbers.
“Z U DI O”
Classroom use—game: double line, boys on right of caller. Very similar to “Billy Billy.”
Game directions:
1. “Zudio, zudio, zudio, zudio, zudio, zudio, all night long”: reach across the set, hold
hands, and groove or shimmy.
2. “Step back, sally, sally, sally, all night long”: step, clap, etc. while pretending to swing a
handkerchief and swing your hips.
(Continued)
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Table 2.2 (continued)

3. “I went down South and what did I see, I saw a big fat man from Tennessee”: lead girl
and boy walk down the middle in a lazy style.
4. “I bet ya five dollars I can beat that man… (repeat)”: slap each other’s right hand up in
the air, then circle halfway around and slap each other’s right hand up in the air again.
5. “To the front, to the back, to the side side side”: all jump front, back, side, other side,
and first side again.
6. “I went to the doctor, and the doctor said, ooh, ah, I got a pain in my head, ooh, ah,
I got a pain in my hip, ooh, ah, I got a pain in my back”: act out while walking down
between the two lines.
7. “To the front, to the back, to the side side side”: all jump front, back, side, side, side.
Notes: The song “Zudio” is only slightly different from “Billy Billy” and has some stronger
36
connotations to “after midnight life.” “Big fat [black] man” = pimp, Sally goes to the doctor
after becoming pregnant doing her “front, back, side, side, side.” “Shortnin’ Bread” is also
the same tune as “Billy Billy” and “Zudio.”

Grade 4 Pedagogical Song List for Teaching Rhythmic and


Melodic Concepts and Elements
In Table 2.3, we present a list of songs for teaching core rhythmic and melodic concepts and
elements for grade four. Note that each element is taught in a basic four-beat pattern. We
suggest teaching a variety of patterns that contain any new element.

Table 2.3 

* indicates focus song


Syncopation
“Canoe Round”*
“Come Thru ’na Hurry”
“Hill and Gully Rider”
“Land of the Silver Birch”
“Lil Liza Jane”
“Ojos a la Vela”
“Riding in the Buggy”
Other
“Dem Bones Gonna Rise Again”
“Que Bonita Bandera”
“Tres Pescecitos”
“Weevily Wheat”
(Continued)

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Table 2.3 (continued)

“Weldon”
la Pentatonic
“Canoe Song”
“Cock Robin”
“Florcita de Alheli”
“The Gallows Pole”
“Land of the Silver Birch”*
“See-Line Woman”
“Sioux Lullaby” 37
Dotted Quarter Followed by Eighth
“Above the Plain”
“Al Cintron”
“Big Fat Biscuit”
“Chairs to Mend”
“La Cucaracha”
“Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
“Las Horas”
“Hush-a-Bye”
“John Kanaka”
“Liza Jane”*
“El Patio de Mi Casa”
“Long Road of Iron”
“Viva la Musica”
Other
“Chickalalelo”
fa
s-f-m
“Chairs to Mend”
“Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
“Hungarian Canon”*
“La Muneca”
“Mamalama”
“On a Mountain”
“Redbirds and Blackbirds”
(Continued)
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Table 2.3 (continued)

“Viva la Musica”
“Whistle Daughter Whistle”
m-f-s
“Above the Plain”
“Are You Sleeping?”
“Redbirds and Blackbirds”
Other fa
“Naranja Dulce”
“Rabbit and the Possum”
38
“Snake Baked a Hoecake”
“Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”
“When I First Came to This Land”
“Wishy Washy”
3$Meter
“Alfonso Doce”
“Alphabet Song”
“America”
“Coffee Canon”
“Down in the Valley”
“Goodbye, Old Paint”
“Juniper Tree”*
“Mi Gallina”
“Oh How Lovely Is the Evening”
“On Top of Old Smokey”
t,
dt,d
“When I First Came to This Land”
dt,l,
“Autumn Canon”
“The Birch Tree”*
“Debka Hora”
“Hush-a-Bye”
“Viva la Musica”
l,t,d
“Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
(Continued)

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Table 2.3 (continued)

Other
“Campanito del Oro”
“Coffee Canon”
“Johnny Has Gone for a Soldier”
“Las Mananitas”
“A La Puerta Del Cielo”
Dotted Eighth Note Followed by Sixteenth Note
gc
“Circle Round the Zero”
39
“Dona Blanca”
“Donkey Riding”*
“Este Niño Lindo”
“Linda Pescadito”
“On a Mountain”
“La Pelota Cantadora”
“Rabbit and the Possum”
“Una Rata Vieja”
“Sail Away, Ladies”
“Shady Grove”
“Snake Baked a Hoecake”
“Sourwood Mountain”

Introducing Songs Within a Lesson


Here are suggestions for introducing songs.

Movement
Associate a motion or game with a known song. Perform one motion or action associated
with the song; students join in singing when they recognize the song. Once the students
recognize the song, sing the starting pitch so all students can join.

Visuals
Create pictures or assemble visuals associated with a particular song; students sing the song
once they recognize the visual clue.

Introducing Songs to Students Using a Rhythmic Focus


• Teacher asks students to sing a song.
• Students recognize the song from rhythmic clapping.
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• Students read the rhythm of a song written on the board; as soon as they
recognize it, they may begins to sing it with text as they clap the rhythm.
• Students write the rhythm of a song, but mix up the order of the phrases. Students
read the phrases and try to identify the song.
• Students recognize a song, hearing it performed on a percussion instrument.
• Students sing a song on a neutral syllable, as teacher performs a rhythmic ostinato
on a percussion instrument.
• Students recognize a song by hearing an internal phrase (not the first phrase)
clapped by the teacher.
• Teacher claps the rhythm of a song and students perform in canon, after
two beats.

40 Introducing Songs to Students Using a Melodic Focus


• Teacher asks students to sing a song
• Students recognize song by hearing the teacher sing using a neutral syllable.
• Students read from hand signs with solfège syllables once they recognize
the song.
• Students read an internal phrase of music from teacher’s hand signs with solfège
syllables to recognize a song.
• Students read the teacher’s hand signs using inner hearing, and recognize
a song.
• Students read an internal phrase of song from the teacher’s or another student’s
hand signs using inner hearing, and recognize a song.
• Students read in canon from teacher’s hand signs and recognize a song.
• Read from the tone ladder using solfège syllables and hand signs, and recognize
a song.
• Read an internal phrase of the song from the tone ladder using solfège syllables
and hand signs, and recognize a song.
• Read from the tone ladder, using solfège syllables and hand signs, and recognize
a song.
• Read an internal phrase of the song from the tone ladder, using inner hearing
with solfège syllables and hand signs, and recognize a song.
• Read from traditional rhythmic notation with solfège syllables beneath, using
solfège syllables and hand signs to recognize a song.
• Read an internal phrase from a song written in traditional rhythmic notation
with solfège syllables beneath, using solfège syllables and hand signs to recognize
a song.
• Read from traditional notation with solfège syllables beneath, using inner hearing
to recognize a song.

Lesson Planning
In the accompanying handbooks for all grades we have included an alphabetized repertoire
list of examples of materials that can be used for teaching singing, music literacy, music
skills, and listening. The lesson plans in this chapter and subsequent chapters emphasize the

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sections of the lesson plan that can be expanded as a result of information presented in the
chapter. Our purpose here is to emphasize that everything we do in a music lesson is always
related to song material sung by students.

Creating a Preparation/Practice Lesson Plan


Before we label any element in a music lesson, we give students practical experiences
that guide them to make a connection with the new element through kinesthetic, aural,
and visual activities. This is always done in the context of performance. We call these
preparation activities. Once we label an element, we practice it. In other words, we are
developing lessons that focus on preparing a new concept as well as practicing known
concepts. Generally speaking, we try to address both rhythmic and melodic skills in
each lesson. Whenever we are preparing a rhythmic element in the first part of a lesson,
we practice a melodic element in the second part of a lesson. Conversely, if we prepare 41
a melodic element in the first part of a lesson, we practice a rhythmic element in the
second part of a lesson.
Table 2.4 shows a basic preparation/practice lesson plan template. Note that in the tem-
plate lesson, we used the wording “Performance and Demonstration of Known Musical
Concepts and Elements” as a generic terminology for all activities in the introduction. We
will continue to use this wording in lesson plan templates so that the reader can focus on
the core activities of the lesson.

Table 2.4  Basic Preparation/Practice Lesson Plan Template

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Performance and Ss demonstrate their prior knowledge of repertoire and musical
demonstration of elements through performance of known songs selected from the
known musical alphabetized repertoire list.
concepts and elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of New song selected from the alphabetized repertoire list that
repertoire expands students’ repertoire and prepares for the learning of a
music rhythmic or melodic concept or element. Instructional
context: when we are preparing a rhythmic element, the new song
should be selected to prepare the next melodic element; when we
are preparing a melodic element, the new song should be selected
to prepare the new rhythmic element.
Preparation and Learning activities in which Ss are taught a new musical concept
presentation of a through known songs found in the alphabetized repertoire list.
rhythmic or melodic When preparing a rhythmic element, the second part of the
element lesson practices a melodic element, and when preparing a melodic
element, the second part of the lesson practices a rhythmic
element.
(Continued)
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Table 2.4 (continued)

Movement Known song or game found in the alphabetized repertoire list or


development singing game list.
Creative movement Focus on the sequential development of age-appropriate
movement skills through songs and folks games.
Practice and Ss reinforce their knowledge of musical elements working on
performance of the skill areas of form, memory, inner hearing, ensemble work,
musical skills improvisation and composition, and listening through known
songs found in the alphabetized repertoire list. When practicing
a rhythmic element, the first part of the lesson prepares a melodic
element; when practicing a melodic element, the first part of the
lesson prepares a rhythmic element.
42
C L O SU R E
Review and Review of lesson content; T may perform the next new song
summation to be learned in a subsequent lesson found in the alphabetized
Review the lesson repertoire list.
outcomes
Review the new song

In the first section (preparation of a new concept) of a lesson, we guide students to dis-
cover the concept behind a new element. For example, if we want to teach the musical ele-
ments of quarter and eighth notes, students need to be guided to understand the concept of
one or two sounds on a beat.
In the second section (practice) of the lesson, the teacher reinforces and further develops
students’ understanding of preceding known musical elements through a variety of musical
skills. Of course, musical skills may also be practiced during any section of the lesson plan.
This section of the lesson may also include assessment activities to help the teacher identify
students who may require extra help.
Each preparation/practice lesson has an instructional context (preparation) and a rein-
forcement (practice) context. In this type of lesson, we continue to develop singing abilities,
teach new repertoire, and enhance movement and listening skills. During the preparation/
practice lesson, we do not name the new concept or element but create opportunities for
music students to discover the attributes of the new concept or element being studied. This
dual structure of the preparation/practice lesson gives students time to process their under-
standing of the new concept, while promoting further development of their musical skills
with the previously learned musical element. This is crucial for positive self-esteem and the
enjoyment needed for learning to take place.
Table 2.5 is an example of this type of a lesson plan where the teacher prepares a concept
through aural analysis and guides students to practice writing.
The outcomes for this lesson are:

• Preparation: analyzing repertoire
• Practice: writing melodies

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Table 2.5  Grade 4, Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze the concept of two sounds distributed over two
beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat, through aural
activities.
Practice: write a la pentatonic scale.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up.
• Beat activity.
Mikrokosmos, Vol. 3, No. 78, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using high and low voices. Make 43
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind students of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song; Ss sing song with an ostinato
(4$xcccsdsdq>).
“Chairs to Mend”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in canon.
Develop tuneful “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
singing CSP: F
• T directs part of the class to continue the ostinato while the
remaining Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing on a pure vowel in three-part canon.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 38.
Review known “Gallows Pole”
songs and CSP: F
rhythmic • T directs half the class to sing “Gallows Pole” while the
elements remainder sing “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home.”
• Ss sing both songs with rhythm syllables.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a
Buggy,” “Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” and “Hill and Gully Rider”;
Ss echo-sing each phrase singing with rhythm syllables while
tapping the beat.
• Ss clap the rhythm of the last phrase of “Gallows
Pole” as a rhythmic ostinato into the next song
(2$sdxcd\qQ>).
(Continued)
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Table 2.5 (continued)

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Hungarian Canon”
CSP: F
• T will sing the melody as Ss continue the ostinato.
• T sings again while Ss draw phrases on the board.
• T sings each phrase; Ss echo with rhythm syllables while T writes
stick notation on the board.
• Ss label the form of the song (ABCD).
• Ss sing phrases A and B; T sings C and D.
• T sings phrases A and B; Ss sing C and D.
• T and Ss sing the whole song together.
44
• Ss sing the song alone.
• If possible, Ss sing the song in canon.
Develop “Liza Jane”
knowledge of CSP: D
music literacy • Ss continue clapping the rhythm of “Hungarian Canon” while
concepts singing “Liza Jane.”
Describe what you • Review kinesthetic awareness activities with “Liza Jane.”
hear • T and Ss sing the first four beats of phrase 4 on “loo” while
keeping the beat before asking each of these questions:
• T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (four)
• T: “Andy, which beats have one sound?” (3 and 4)
• T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beats 1 and 2?” (two)
• T: “Andy, describe the sounds on beats 1 and 2 using the words
long and short.” (The first is long, the second is short.)
• Ss clap the rhythm of the rhythm of the entire last phrase (all
eight beats). (“long short ta ta tadi—di ta—ah”)
• Ss sing the first four pitches of the target phrase with solfège
syllables. (high do so la so)
• Ss continue these four (high do so la so) pitches as a melodic
ostinato into the next song.
Creative “John Kanaka”
movement CSP: A
• Ss continue the ostinato while T sings the song.
• Ss sing the song and move into formation.
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss clap the rhythm of the second phrase as an ostinato into the
next song (4$rasdsd\qqqQ>).
Practice music “Land of the Silver Birch”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss continue the ostinato while singing the song.
Writing • Ss sing the song with solfège syllables while T writes them under
the standard notation of the song.
• Ss sing the tone set of the song.
(Continued)

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Developing a Music Repertoire

Table 2.5 (continued)

• Ss write the tone set on the staff in D = la, E = la, and A = la.
• Ss play the tone set on xylophones as an accompaniment to this
and other known songs in a minor tonality.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson
outcomes
Review the new “Hungarian Canon”
song

• Preparation: analyzing or describing repertoire 45


• Practice: writing melodies

Creating a Presentation Lesson
There are two presentation lessons. In the first we associate solfège or rhythm syllables
with the new element and in the second we present the notation for the new lesson plan.
Throughout this book we identify specific songs for teaching specific elements. We refer
to these songs as focus songs: they contain core building blocks that we want students to
master. Sometimes we target a specific phrase in a focus song; we refer to this phrase as the
target phrase for the song.
As mentioned above, in the first presentation lesson we simply name or label the concept
or element studied during the preparation/practice lesson and continue developing singing
abilities, as well as movement and listening skills, and teach new repertoire. In the second
presentation lesson, we show students how to notate target patterns.
Table 2.6 shows a basic presentation lesson plan template for labeling sounds.

Table 2.6  Basic Lesson Plan Template for Presenting Rhythmic or


Solfège Syllables

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Performance and Ss demonstrate their prior knowledge of repertoire and musical
demonstration of elements, including the new musical element to be presented
known musical through performance of songs selected from the alphabetized
concepts and elements repertoire list.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of New song selected from the alphabetized repertoire list that
repertoire expands Ss’ repertoire and prepares for the learning of a
music rhythmic or melodic concept or element. Instructional
context: when we are preparing a rhythmic element, the new song
should be selected to prepare the next melodic element; when we
are preparing a melodic element, the new song should be selected
to prepare the new rhythmic element.
(Continued)
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Table 2.6 (continued)

Presentation of a T labels the name of the new musical element with rhythm or
rhythmic or melodic solfège syllables for the focus pattern.
element
Creative movement Known song or game found in the alphabetized repertoire list.
Focus on sequential development of age-appropriate movement
skills through songs and folks games.
Presentation of a T labels the name of the new musical element with rhythm or
rhythmic or melodic solfège syllables in a related pattern.
element
C L O SU R E
46 Review and Review of lesson content and the T may perform the next
summation new song to be learned in a subsequent lesson found in the
alphabetized repertoire list

Table 2.7 has a sample presentation lesson for labeling with syllables.

Table 2.7  Grade 4: Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label the concept of two sounds distributed over two
beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat with rhythm
syllables.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up.
• Beat activity.
Jamaican Rhumba (Arthur Benjamin, 1893–1960)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: Explore a cow sound using high and low voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Riding in the Buggy”
CSP: E
• Ss sing the song and perform the movements of the game.
• Ss perform the rhythm of the last four beats as a rhythmic
ostinato into the next song (2$aqa\qQ>).
“Redbirds and Blackbirds”
CSP: B
• Ss sing the song; Ss sing the song with their own lyrics (changing
the birds to other animals).
• Ss perform the rhythm of the song while T sings the next.

(Continued)

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Developing a Music Repertoire

Table 2.7 (continued)

Develop tuneful “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”


singing CSP: E
Practice tone • Ss sing the song while performing the rhythm of the
production, previous song.
diction, and • Ss sing the song in three-part canon.
expression • Ss sing the song with a light and resonant hum.
• Ss sing the song with a “koo” syllable.
• Ss sing the sequence of “oh-oo-ah” on notes of phrase 2 of “Hey,
Ho, Nobody Home.”
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 40
Review known “Come Thru ’Na Hurry” 47
songs and CSP F-sharp
rhythmic • Ss sing song.
elements • Ss sing song with rhythm syllables.
• T sings individual phrases and Ss echo sing with rhythm
syllables.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a Buggy,”
“Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” and “Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss echo-sing
each phrase singing with rhythm syllables while tapping the beat.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
CSP: B
• T sings the song and accompanies on an instrument.
• Ss identify the form, meter, and rhythms of song.
• T sings song and Ss follow the notation of song written in
traditional notation.
Presentation of “Liza Jane”
music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Describe what you • Review kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities.
hear with rhythm • T: “We call two uneven sounds over two beats where the second
syllables sound happens after the second beat ta—di.”
• T sings target phrase with rhythm syllables.
• Ss echo with rhythm syllables.
• Ss sing the last two phrases with rhythm syllables; half of the class
sings rhythm syllables and claps the rhythm while the other half
sings the rhythm syllables and performs the beat. Switch.
• Ss conduct and sing the song with rhythm syllables.
Creative “Long Road of Iron”
movement CSP: A
• Ss sing and play game.
• Ss choose instruments and create a rhythmic ostinato with which
to accompany the song.
(Continued)
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Table 2.7 (continued)

Presentation of “John Kanaka”


music literacy CSP: A
concepts • Ss sing song.
Describe what you • T is “reminded” of another song that may have ta—di in it (“John
hear with rhythm Kanaka”).
syllables • Ss listen and identify where they hear ta-di in the song.
• Ss sing and clap the rhythm syllables of the song.
• Ss identify and perform known songs with rhythm syllables:
○ “Long Road of Iron”
○ “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
○ “Above the Plain”
48 ○ “Chairs to Mend”
○ “The Birch Tree”
○ Ss create ostinati that contain the  ra rhythm pattern and
perform them on xylophones as an accompaniment to any of
their known songs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson
outcomes
Review the new “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
song CSP: A

Table 2.8 is a basic lesson plan template for notating rhythmic or melodic elements.

Table 2.8  Basic Lesson Plan Design for Notating Rhythmic or


Melodic Elements

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Performance and Ss demonstrate their prior knowledge of repertoire and musical
demonstration of elements, including the new musical element to be presented
known musical through performance of songs selected from the alphabetized
concepts and elements repertoire list.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of New song selected from the alphabetized repertoire list that
repertoire expands Ss’ repertoire and prepares for the learning of a
music rhythmic or melodic concept or element. Instructional
context: when we are preparing a rhythmic element, the new song
should be selected to prepare the next melodic element; when we
are preparing a melodic element, the new song should be selected
to prepare the next rhythmic element.

(Continued)

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Developing a Music Repertoire

Table 2.8 (continued)

Presentation of a T presents the notation in the focus pattern.


rhythmic or melodic
element
Creative movement Known song or game found in the alphabetized repertoire list.
Focus on sequential development of age-appropriate movement
skills through songs and folk games.
Presentation of a T presents the notation in related patterns.
rhythmic or melodic
element
C L O SU R E
Review and Review of lesson content; T may perform the next new song 49
summation to be learned in a subsequent lesson found in the alphabetized
repertoire list.

Table 2.9 is a sample of a presentation lesson.

Table 2.9  Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson Five

Outcome Presentation: notate the concept of two sounds distributed over two


beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat with rhythm
syllables, with a dotted quarter note and an eighth note
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up.
• Beat activity.
Jamaican Rhumba (Arthur Benjamin, 1893–1960)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: Explore a cow sound using high and low voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Weevily Wheat”
CSP: G-sharp
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing “Weevily Wheat” while T sings “Go Tell Aunt Rhody” as a
partner song.
“Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
CSP: G-sharp
• Ss sing the song.
• T sings song in parallel minor, but starting note is G.
(Continued)
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Table 2.9 (continued)

Develop tuneful “Hush-a-Bye”


singing CSP: E
Practice tone • Ss sing the song.
production, • Ss sing each phrase of the song on the vowels a ah (wide); e eh
diction, and (horizontal); i ee (smile); o oh, u oo (smaller mouth opening).
expression Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 41
Review known “Hill and Gully Rider”
songs and CSP: A
rhythmic • Ss sing song with text.
elements • Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
• T sings phrases, with words or on “loo,” from the songs “Weevily
50
Wheat,” “Riding in a Buggy,” and “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”;
Ss echo-sing each phrase singing with rhythm syllables while
tapping the beat.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Whistle Daughter Whistle”
CSP: B
• T sings the song.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T sing phrases and Ss echo with rhythm syllables.
• T sings with text.
• Ss sing song.
Presentation of “Liza Jane”
music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Notate what you • Review aural presentation.
hear • Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T: “When we have two sounds, where the first is one and a half
beats and the second is half a beat, it can be represented by a
dotted quarter and an eighth note, when the beat is a quarter
note long.”
• T presents the dotted quarter and eighth note in standard
notation.
• Ss may briefly practice drawing a dotted quarter and eighth note.
• T: “Our target phrase would look like this in standard notation:”
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• Ss read the target phrase with rhythm syllables and keep beat.
• T: “If we were going to write our target phrase, we would use stick
notation and it would look like this:”
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• Ss read the target phrase in stick notation.
• Ss continue clapping the target phrase for “Liza Jane” as teacher
sings “John Kanaka.”
(Continued)

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Developing a Music Repertoire

Table 2.9 (continued)

Creative “John Kanaka”


movement CSP: A
• Ss sing “John Kanaka” and play the circle game.
• T “realizes” this song could be sung with a dotted quarter and
eighth note.
• Ss sing and play while singing rhythm syllables.
• Ss choose instruments and create a rhythmic ostinato containing
a dotted quarter and eighth note as an accompaniment to
the song.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next song.
Presentation of “Chairs to Mend” 51
music literacy CSP: A
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Notate what you • Review aural presentation.
hear • Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T: “When we have two sounds, where the first is one and a half
beats and the second is half a beat, it can be represented by a
dotted quarter and an eighth note.”
• T presents rhythmic notation for phrase 1.
• Ss read with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• Ss create ostinati that contain the ra rhythm pattern and
perform them on xylophones as an accompaniment to any of
their known songs.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Whistle Daughter, Whistle”
outcomes CSP: B
Review the new song
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Chapter  3

Teaching Strategies

52 The goal of this chapter is to present teaching strategies for concepts and elements for fourth
grade. The teaching strategies are a sequence of teaching activities that guide students’ under­
standing of specific musical concepts and elements. They are presented according to the
Houlahan and Tacka model of instruction and learning. In other words, they follow a specified
order of instruction. An important component of the teaching strategies are the guiding ques­
tions that follow the kinesthetic activities in the cognitive phase of instruction and learning.
The questions provide the metacognitive scaffolding that allows students to understand both the
process and product of teaching. Each component of the model of instruction and learning also
promotes many opportunities for developing music skills. The teaching strategies are formulaic
in structure; ultimately teachers will infuse these strategies with their own creativity to accom­
modate the changing settings of teaching situations.
We provide some of the most important techniques for preparing, presenting, and practicing
musical elements. The instructor may add to any of these suggestions during the three phases of
instruction.
These teaching strategies are presented in this chapter:

• Syncopation
• la pentatonic scale
• Dotted quarter note followed by an eighth note
• fa
• Triple meter and dotted half note
• low ti
• Dotted eighth note followed by a sixteenth note

Syncopation
Table 3.1 presents an overview of the important information required to teach syncopation.

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.1 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Tradi­ Practice Additional


Song Syllables tional Songs
Notation
Quarter Three “Canoe Ta di---di Synco­ aqa high do “Liza Jane,”
and sounds Song” pation “Riding in
eighth unevenly Rests a Buggy,”
notes dis­ occurring “Land of
tributed in synco­ the Silver
over two pation Birch,”
beats patterns “Alabama
Gal,”
“Weevily
Wheat,”
“My Good
Old Man,”
“Dem 53
Bones,”
“John
Kanaka,”
“Hill and
Gully
Rider”

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music Through Kinesthetic Activities
This kinesthetic procedure may be guided with nonverbal communication. The instructor
guides students to:

1 . Sing “Canoe Song” and perform the beat for the target phrase.
2. Sing “Canoe Song” and clap the rhythm for the target phrase.
3. Sing “Canoe Song” and point to a representation of the target phrase on the
board. (See Fig. 3.1.) FIGURE 3.1
4. Sing “Canoe Song” and clap the ostinato:
2$ sqsq\qq>
5. Sing the “Canoe Song.” Teacher performs beat, students perform rhythm.
Switch.
6. Divide the class into two groups; one performs the beat and the other the rhythm
while singing. Switch.
7. Sing “Canoe Song” while stepping the beat and clapping the text.
8. Sing “Canoe Song” while tapping the beat in one hand and rhythm in the other.
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Describe What You Hear


1. Assess kinesthetic awareness by allowing the class to perform several of the
activities listed above independently.
2. Teacher sings the target phrase using a neutral syllable while performing the beat
before asking each question below.
3. Determine the number of beats in the phrase.
T: “Andy, how many beats did you hear?” (four) “Let’s check.”
4. Determine the number of sounds on each beat.
T: “Andy, which beat has one sound?” (beat 4) T: “Let’s check.”
T: “Andy, how many sounds did you hear on beat 3?” (two) T: “Let’s check.”
T: “Andy, how many sounds did you hear on beats 1 and 2?” (three)
T: “Andy, describe these three sounds.” (short, long, short)
T: “Let’s sing the phrase with short long short and our rhythm syllables for beats 3
and 4.” (short long—short—ta di ta).

Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear


1. Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several of
54 the kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
2. The instructor sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students
to create a visual representation of the target phrase. Students may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard” or “Draw
what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of understanding.
3. Students share their representations with each other.
4. The instructor invites one student to the board to share a representation with the
class. If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the
aural awareness questions.
5. Students sing the first phrase of “Canoe Song” with a neutral syllable and point to
the representation.
6. Once students have represented the rhythm pattern, they should place heartbeats
under the representation to show the placement of the beat. (This step can be
done later during the presentation if it is too difficult for the students.)
7. Students may identify the meter, bar lines, and the solfège of the target phrase
(m m r d l, l,).

Associative Phase: Presentation
Label the Sound
Assess the kinesthetic, aural awareness, and visual awareness activities with the phrase 1 of
the “Canoe Song.”
1. T: “When we hear three uneven sounds over two beats where the first is short, the
second is long, and the third is short, we can label these sounds with our rhythm
syllables ta di--di.”
2. T sings the target phrase of “Canoe Song” with rhythm syllables ta di----di ta di ta;
students echo-sing with rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.
3. Students perform the new rhythm with the beat.
4. Students perform the new rhythm with conducting.

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Teaching Strategies

5. Individual students echo the rhythm syllables. Perform this activity with the
rhythm of the entire song.
6. Teacher sings a phrase of “Canoe Song” with text or neutral syllable; students echo
but use rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.

Notate What You Hear

1. T: “When the beat is equal to a quarter note, we can represent three sounds over
two beats using the traditional notation:”
aqa
“Our target pattern will look like this:”
2$ aqa\sqq\
“When we write our target pattern we can use stick notation.”
2$ aqa\sqq\

2. “We can read our target pattern using rhythm syllables.” Read the rhythm of 55
“Canoe Song” with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Individual students sing
and point to the rhythm of “Canoe Song” on the board as the class sings the song
with rhythm syllables and claps the rhythm.
3. Teacher shows students how to read with numbers for counting. Sing the “Canoe
Song” with numbers for counting and conduct. Individual students sing and point
to rhythm of “Canoe Song” on the board as the class sings the song with numbers
and conducts.
4. Explain the concept of syncopation to students. If appropriate, present repertoire
that contains syncopation patterns occurring on a beat (sixteenth note followed
by an eigth and sixteenth note).

Assimilative Phase: Practice Music Skills


Aural Practice
Singing with Rhythm Syllables
1. Students sing “Canoe Round” with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
2. Students Sing “Canoe Round” with rhythm syllables and conduct.
3. Students echo-sing four beat melodic patterns, containing new rhythm provided
by the teacher, with rhythm syllables and clapping the rhythm.
4. Students echo-sing four-beat melodic patterns, containing new rhythm provided
by the teacher, with rhythm syllables and conduct.
5. Teacher sings motifs with words or on “loo” containing the new pattern and
students sing back with rhythm syllables.

Part Work
1. Use the target phrase as an ostinato to accompany a known song.
2. Combine the target phrase as an ostinato as well as another motif from the song
so that you are using two ostinatos at the same time.
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3. Teacher claps a rhythm and students follow in canon after two beats.


4. Students perform a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Group 1 performs the
upper part and group 2 the lower part. Switch.
5. Students performs a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Perform the upper part
with right hand and lower part with left hand.

Improvisation
1. Teacher claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase that uses new
pattern and students provide an answer.
2. Students clap and say the rhythm syllables in a question phrase that uses new
pattern and another students give an answer.
3. Students change rhythm of a first, second grade or third song and use an eighth,
quarter, eighth note pattern instead of two quarter notes.
4. Students improvise a four-beat pattern. The next student begins a four-beat
improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.

Inner Hearing
56 1. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and clapping.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and conducting.
3. Students inner-hear known song and clap ostinato that includes syncopation
rhythm.

Visual Practice
Reading from Hand Signs
1. Students sing known song from teacher’s hand signs that include the new
rhythm pattern.
2. Students sing known song from another student’s hand signs that include the
new rhythm pattern.

Reading
1. Read target motif from traditional rhythmic notation with rhythm syllables.
2. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
3. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
4. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand.
5. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
6. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
7. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
8. Transform a known folk song into another folk song.
9. Read the rhythm of a known song and play on a classroom percussion
instrument.
10. Read phrase of a known song with traditional notation and solfège or from the
staff that includes new rhythmic pattern and play on the xylophone or tone bells.
11. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can sing the rhythm syllables using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor.

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12. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can play the rhythm patterns using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor
on the recorder.
13. This ostinato may be sung or played with “Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” “Liza Jane,”
“Riding in a Buggy,” and “Weevily Wheat”:

2$qq\qq\qq\w>
  d  s,  d      s,  d    r   m
14. It is important for students to learn and understand the concept of eighth note
rest. One way to do this is to write some of the syncopation patterns with eighth
note rests and have them read the patterns and aurally and visually recognize
eighth note rests.

Writing
1. Write the target pattern in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
2. Write related patterns in stick and traditional rhythmic notation.
3. Write a known song in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
4. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct rhythms. 57
5. Teacher sings an unknown song and students fill in the missing measures with
the correct rhythms.
6. Students notate rhythm patterns by teacher and add the bar lines and time
signature.

Improvisation
1. Teacher claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; students choose
from four patterns from the board to use as an answering phrase. One phrase
should just include four heart beats.
2. Students clap a question phrase and chant rhythm syllables, another student
chooses from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase. One
phrase should just include four heart beats.
3. The instructor writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation
but leaves out four beats. Students read and clap the rhythm and one student
improvises four-beat rhythms that use new rhythm pattern for the missing
measure. These songs can be used for this activity: “Riding in the Buggy,” “Shoo
My Love,” “Liza Jane,” “Alabama Gal,” “Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” “Hill and Gully
Rider,” and “Weevily Wheat.”

Memory
1. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Teacher
erases four beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct. T erases four beats
each time and students memorize.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s clapping.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and keep the beat.
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3. Teacher provides students with four flash cards with rhythm,


and students must identify the song and arrange flash cards in the correct
order.

Part Work
1. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège
and hand signs, and group 2 taps a rhythmic ostinato that is read from
notation.
2. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Divide the class
into two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats.
3. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Divide the class into two
groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats.
4. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups and
perform the activity in canon after two beats.
5. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Divide the class
into two groups; one performs the activity from the beginning and the other
58 from the end of the song.
6. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Divide the class into two
groups; one group performs the activity from the beginning and the other from
the end of the song.
7. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups; one
group performs the activity from the beginning and the other from the end of
the song.
8. Students sing a known song and clap the rhythm of another well-known song
simultaneously.
9. Students sing a known song, tap a rhythm from traditional rhythmic notation
with right hand, and tap an ostinato with the left hand.
10. Students perform from Denise Bacon’s “My Paddle” (46 American Folk Songs
p. 16).1

Listening
Mikrokosmos, Vol. 2, No. 40, “The Swine Herd,” by Béla Bartók (1881–1945). Listen to
the bass part for syncopation.

Sight Singing
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear
Training, Vol. 1. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995, pp. 87–109.
Zoltán Kodály. Kodály Choral Library: 333 Elementary Exercises. London: Boosey and
Hawkes, 1963. Major keys, nos. 8, 26, 27, 89, 169, 184.

la Pentatonic Scale (Minor Pentatonic Scale)


Table 3.2 presents an overview of the important information required to teach la
pentatonic scale.

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.2 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Traditional Practice Additional


Song Syllables Notation Songs
A scale Five “Land low la Minor Synco­ “Canoe
ending pitches, of the do re mi scale pation Song,”
on low la low la Silver so la Tonal aqa “Sioux
do re mi Birch” center Indian
so with Lullaby,”
a skip “My Good
between Ol’ Man,”
low la “Gallows
and do Pole”
and a
skip
between
mi and
so. Ends 59
on low
la.

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music Through Kinesthetic Activities

1. Teacher sings “Land of the Silver Birch” and points to a representation of the
melodic contour of the third phrase (Fig. 3.2).

FIGURE 3.2

2. Teacher sings phrases 1, 2, and 4; students sing and point to the melodic contour
of the third phrase.
3. Students turn to partner. They sing whole song and clap the melodic contour of
the third while matching their partner.
4. Students sing song with a rhythmic or melodic ostinato.

Describe What You Hear


1 . Assess kinesthetic awareness.
2. Students sing and clap the contour of phrase 3.
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3. Students get in pairs; one person sings phrase 1, one person sings phrase 2, and
together they sing and mirror-clap phrase 3.
4. Teacher asks students to sing the last note with solfège.
5. Sing the entire phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs.
6. Individual students sing the phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs.
7. Students sing all of the notes in the phrase from lowest to highest, with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
8. Teacher sings the intervals of the minor pentatonic scale (l-d, d-r, r-m, m-s, s-l)
and students echo-sing that the interval is either a step or a skip.

Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear


Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several of the kin­
esthetic and aural awareness activities.

1. Teacher sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students to
create a visual representation of the melody of the target phrase. They may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard” or “Draw
what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of understanding.
60 2. Students share their representations with each other.
3. Teacher invites one student to the board to share a representation with the class.
If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the aural
awareness questions.
4. Students sing the third phrase of “Land of the Silver Birch” with a neutral syllable
and point to the representation.
5. Identify the meter, bar lines, and rhythm and sing the third phrase of “Land of
the Silver Birch” with rhythm syllables. Identify the solfège syllables and sing with
hand signs.

Create a Visual Representation of the la Pentatonic Scale


1 . Teacher sings the notes of the minor pentatonic scale on “loo.”
2. Students create a visual representation of the la pentatonic scale. It is important
for them to show the steps and the skips.
3. Teacher invites one student to the board to share a representation with the class.
If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the aural
awareness questions.
4. Students identify the skips and steps between the notes of the tone set as well as
the solfège syllables.

Associative Phase: Presentation
Label the Sound
Assess the kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities with the focus song “Land of
the Silver Birch.”

1. Teacher and students sing the target phrase with solfège and hand signs. Students
identify the notes of the target phrase, singing from lowest to highest.
2. Teacher specifically names these notes as a “la pentatonic scale,” pentatonic
because it has five different pitches with a skip between low la and do as well as
mi-so, and because the piece of music ends on low la.

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Teaching Strategies

3 . Students sing the whole song with solfège and hand signs.


4. Students perform the new melody with solfège and conduct.
5. Teacher sings phrases of “Canoe Song” with text or neutral syllable; students echo
with solfège syllables and hand signs.

Notate What You Hear


la Pentatonic Minor Melody
1. Present the tone set on the tone ladder.
2. Present the melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège. Students sing
with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. Present the notation for the third phrase of “Land of the Silver Birch.”
4. Students sing target phrase with solfège and hand signs.
5. Write the target melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège.
Individual students sing and point to the melody on the board as the class sings
the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
6. Write the target melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège.
Individual students sing and point to the melody on the board as the class sings
the song with solfège syllables and conducts.
61
7. Teacher reviews the Rules of Placement for notes of the la pentatonic scale on
the staff.
8. Write the target melody on the staff. Individual students sing and point to the
melody on the board written on the staff as the class sings the song with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
9. Write the target melody on the staff. Individual students sing and point to the
melody on the board written on the staff as the class sings the song with solfège
syllables and conducts.
10. Sing phrases of song with letter names. Individual students sing and point to
staff notation, and class sings the song with letter names.

la Pentatonic Scale
1. Present the name of the scale on tone ladder.
2. Students sing the target phrase with solfège syllables. They present the notes on
the tone ladder. Identify the steps between the notes of the phrase as steps or
skips, “large or small seconds.” Present the name of the scale.
3. Identify the intervals between the tonic note and all degrees of the scale.
4. Present that notation for the la pentatonic scale on the staff.
5. Present the Rule of Placement for la pentatonic tone set.
6. Present la pentatonic on staff written in a number of keys, up to two sharps and flats.
7. Students sing the scale with solfège and hand signs.
8. Students identify the intervals (steps and skips) between notes of the scale, for
example, la–do = skip. (See Fig. 3.3.)

FIGURE 3.3 
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• At this time the teacher may practice the pentatonic scales from hand signs. If you
choose to do this, focus on the re and mi pentatonic scales when working with
the la pentatonic minor scale. The re pentatonic scale can be practiced using “I
Wonder Where Maria’s Gone” and “Older Betty Larkin” (Zoltán Kodály. Kodály
Choral Library: 333 Elementary Exercises. London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1963, nos.
279 and 330).

Assimilative Phrase: Practice Music Skills


Aural Practice
Singing
1. Students sing “Land of the Silver Birch” with solfège and hand signs.
2. Students sing “Land of the Silver Birch” with solfège and conduct.
3. Teacher sings motifs from known songs and students sing back with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
4. Teacher sings do pentatonic and la pentatonic scales and students sing back with
solfège and hand signs.
5. Students sing “Land of the Silver Birch” using solfège while teacher sings part two
62 from the Sourwood Mountain collection.

Singing Intervals
1. Teacher sings the intervals between the notes of la pentatonic scale; students sing
the intervals and identify whether each is a skip or a step.
2. Teacher sings the intervals between the tonic note and notes of the minor
pentatonic tone set; students sing the intervals and identify intervals.
3. Teacher plays intervals on the piano melodically or harmonically, and students
identify the solfège and the interval name.
4. Students sing major and minor pentatonic scales from the same pitch.
5. Teacher sings interval patterns that can be sung with same solfège. For example,
l-s-m-r can be sung with the syllables r-d-l,-s,. The teacher can sing l-s-m-r patterns
and students must sing a perfect fifth below, singing the same solfège syllables,
or they can sing with r-d-l,-s,. Through this exercise, students are practicing real
answers. This should always be done by studying several music examples. The
teacher may consider using some “Old Style” Hungarian folk music. The theme of
the “Peacock Variations” by Zoltán Kodály is an example of this kind of structure.

Part Work
1. Use the target phrase as an ostinato to accompany known minor pentatonic songs.
2. Students echo-sing four-beat patterns provided by the teacher with solfège and
hand signs but begin singing at beat 3 of the teacher’s pattern.
3. Sing the song in canon, if it is a pentatonic song.
4. Sing the song in canon with a rhythmic ostinato.
5. Sing the song in canon with a melodic ostinato.
6. Combine a phrase as an ostinato and another motif from the song so that you are
using two ostinatos at the same time.
7. Students sing a minor pentatonic song and teacher accompanies with a drone
made up of la or la-mi played on an instrument.
8. Students sing a minor pentatonic song and teacher accompanies with la or mi.
Reverse.

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Teaching Strategies

Improvisation
1. Teacher sings a music question with solfège syllables and hand signs and
students give an answer. Question should end on mi and the answer on low la.
2. One student sings a music question with solfège syllables and hand signs and
another student answers. Question should end on mi and the answer on low la.
3. One student improvises a four-beat pattern. The next student begins a four-beat
improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with solfège
syllables.

Visual Practice
Reading from Hand Signs
1. Students sing known song from teacher’s hand signs that include the new solfège
pattern.
2. Students sing known song from another student hand signs that include the new 63
solfège pattern.
3. Student reads a motif from a teacher’s hand sign and play on a classroom
instrument. Teacher provides the starting place on the instrument.

Reading
1. Read target motifs from the tone ladder.
2. Read known melodies from the tone ladder.
3. Read target motif from traditional rhythmic notation and solfège with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
4. Read a known song from traditional rhythmic notation with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
5. Read a known song with solfège syllables and conduct.
6. Read a known song from staff notation with solfège syllables and hand signs.
7. Read a known song from staff notation with solfège syllables and conduct.
8. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
9. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
10. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct.
11. Teacher shows hand signs and students read after two beats in canon with
hand signs.
12. Transform a known folk song into another folk song.
13. Read phrases of known song, notated with traditional rhythmic notation and
solfège, and play on a classroom instrument.

Intervals
1. Students identify intervals from notation of known songs.
2. Students identify intervals from notation of unknown songs.
3. Students are given a starting pitch by the teacher and then sing in solfège from a
series of intervals written on the board.
4. Students read different pentatonic scales from the same starting note.
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Memory
1. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

Writing
1. Write the target pattern in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation with solfège
syllables.
2. Write related patterns in stick and traditional rhythmic notation with solfège syllables.
3. Write the tones of a known song on the board as a student or class sings a known
song in solfège syllables.
4. Write a known song in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
5. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct solfège syllables.
Teacher can provide the rhythm but not the syllables for the missing measure.
6. Teacher sings an unknown song and students fill in the missing measures with the
correct rhythms and solfège syllables.
64 7. Students transcribe a song written in rhythmic notation with solfège syllables into
staff notation.
8. Write a scale on the staff and mark the half steps.

Improvisation
1. Teacher sings a question phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs and a
student chooses from four patterns from the board to use as an answering phrase.
One phrase should just include four heart beats.
2. One student sings a question phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs; another
student chooses from four patterns from the board to use as an answering phrase.
One phrase should just include four heart beats.
3. The instructor writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation and
solfège but leaves out four beats. Students read with solfège and one student
improvises four-beat melody that uses the new melodic note.
4. Students improve a new folk song to a give form and scale. For example, students
compose a new melody using the form ABAB. Teacher furnishes students with
the A phrase ending on mi and students must improvise the B phrase, which
should end on la.

Memory
1. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with solfège
syllables and signs.

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Teaching Strategies

3. Teacher gives students four flash cards with rhythm and students must identify
the song and arrange flash cards in the correct order.
4. Students sing known songs but inner-hear the phrase containing the new target
pattern.
5. Students sing known songs but inner-hear the phrase containing the new target
pattern.
6. Students sing a song but have to inner-hear the song at a signal from the teacher.
Students sing the song aloud from a signal from the teacher.

Part Work
1. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège
and hand signs and group 2 taps a rhythmic ostinato that is read from
notation.
2. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège and hand
signs and group 2 sings a melodic ostinato that is read from notation.
3. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège and hand
signs and group 2 sings a descant with solfège and hand signs that is read from
notation. 65
4. Read a known song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Divide the class into
two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats, group 1 singing
and group 2 clapping in canon.
5. Read a known song with solfège syllables and conducting. Divide the class into
two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats, group 1 singing
and group 2 clapping in canon.
6. Read a known song with solfège syllables while showing hand signs with the
left hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups,
the first performing the activity and the second clapping rhythm in canon after
two beats.
7. Students sing a known song and clap the rhythm of another well-known song
simultaneously.
8. Students sing a known song, tap a rhythm from traditional rhythmic notation
with right hand, and tap an ostinato with the left hand.
9. Students sing la pentatonic scale in two- and three-part canon.
10. Sing “Sioux Lullaby” from Sourwood Mountain, p. 1.

Listening
“An Evening in the Village,” from Hungarian Sketches, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).

Sight Singing
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear
Training, Vol. 1. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995, pp. 87–109.
Zoltán Kodály. Kodály Choral Library: 333 Elementary Exercises. London: Boosey and
Hawkes, 1963, nos. 164, 173, 176, 178, 179, 181, 184.
Syncopation in minor keys: Minor Key in 333 Elementary Exercises: 151, 169, 184,
313, 323.
Denise Bacon, 50 Two Part Exercises, no. 36.
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Dotted Quarter Note Followed by an Eighth Note


Table 3.3 presents an overview of the important information required to teach dotted quar­
ter note followed by eighth note.

Table 3.3 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Tradi­ Practice Additional


Song Syllables tional Songs
Notation
Dotted Two “Liza Ta--------di Rule Dotted la “John
quarter sounds Jane” for a quarter penta­ Kanaka,”
note distributed duration note tonic “Chairs
followed over two dot after followed scale to Mend,”
by an beats, the a note by an “Long
eighth second eighth Road of
note sound note Iron,”
66 occurring ra “Viva la
after the Musica,”
second “Above
beat the Plain,”
“Hush-a-
Bye,”
“When
the Train
Comes
Along”

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music Through Kinesthetic Activities
1 . Sing “Liza Jane” and pat the beat for the target pattern in phrase 4.
2. Sing “Liza Jane” and clap the rhythm for the target pattern phrase 4.
3. Sing “Liza Jane” and point to a representation of the rhythm on the board
(Fig. 3.4).
4. Sing “Liza Jane” while
FIGURE 3.4 performing this ostinato:
2$ sqsq\qq>
5 . Sing “Liza Jane.” Teacher performs beat, and students perform rhythm. Switch.
6. Divide the class into two groups; one performs the beat and the other the rhythm
while singing. Switch.
7. Sing “Liza Jane” while stepping the beat and clapping the text.
8. Sing “Liza Jane” while tapping the beat in one hand and rhythm in the other.

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Teaching Strategies

Describe What You Hear


1 . Assess the kinesthetic activities with the focus song.
2. Sing the target phrase using a neutral syllable while keeping the beat before asking
each question below.
3. Determine the number of beats in the first half of phrase 4.
T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (four)
4. Determine the number of sounds on each beat.
T: “Andy, which beats have one sound on them?” (beats 3 and 4)
T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beats 1 and 2?” (two)
T: “Andy, describe the two sounds on beats 1 and 2.” (the first is long, the second
is short)
T: “Andy, where do we sing the first sound?” (on beat 1)
T: “Andy, where do we sing the second sound?” (after beat 2)
T: “Andy, sing the target phrase with long and short and rhythm syllables.”
5. Teacher and students work out where the new pattern is in the song and sing with
long and short.
6. Teacher and students work out the known rhythm syllables for the song.
67
Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear
1. Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several of
the kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
2. The instructor sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students
to create a visual representation of the target phrase. Students may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard”
or “Draw what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of
understanding.
3. Students share their representations with each other.
4. The instructor invites one student to the board to share a representation with the
class. If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the
aural awareness questions.
5. Students sing the fourth phrase of “Liza Jane” with a neutral syllable and point to
the representation.
6. Identify the meter and bar lines for the fourth phrase of “Liza Jane”; sing the motif
with known rhythm syllables and sing “long short” for new rhythmic element.
Sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.

Associative Phase: Presentation
Describe What You Hear with Rhythm Syllables
1. Assess the kinesthetic, aural awareness, and visual awareness activities with the
focus song “Liza Jane.”
2. T: “We call two uneven sounds over two beats where the first is long and the
second is short ta--------di.”
3. Teacher sings the target phrase of “Liza Jane” with rhythm syllables.
4. Students echo with rhythm syllables and keeping the beat.
5. Students echo with rhythm syllables and conduct.
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FIGURE 3.5

6. Students sing the last two phrases with rhythm syllables; half of the class sings
rhythm syllables and claps the rhythm while the other half sings the rhythm
syllables but performs the beat. Switch.

Notate What You Hear


1. Present the notation for the target
pattern on the board in traditional
rhythmic notation and then in stick
notation. Students immediately clap
and echo-sing the target phrase of
FIGURE 3.6 “Liza Jane” in rhythm names, clapping
the rhythm and also keeping the beat.
(See Fig. 3.6.)
68 2.  Students perform the target pattern with rhythm syllables and the beat.
3.  Students perform the target pattern with rhythm syllables and conducting.
4. Individual students echo the rhythm syllables. Perform this activity with the
rhythm of the entire song.
5. Teacher sings a phrase of “Canoe Song” with text or neutral syllable; students echo
but use rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.
T: “We can read our target pattern using rhythm syllables.”
6. Read the rhythm of “Canoe Song” with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
Individual students sing and point to the rhythm of “Canoe Song” on the board as
the class sings the song with rhythm syllables and claps the rhythm.
7. Read the rhythm of “Canoe Song” with rhythm syllables and conduct. Individual
students sing and point to the rhythm of “Canoe Song” on the board as the class
sings the song with rhythm syllables and conducts.
8. Teacher shows students how to read with numbers for counting. Sing the “Canoe
Song” with numbers for counting and conduct. Individual students sing and point
to rhythm of “Canoe Song” on the board as the class sings the song with numbers
and conducts.

Assimilative Phrase: Practice Music Skills


Aural Practice
Singing
1. Sing “Liza Jane” with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
2. Sing “Liza Jane” with rhythm syllables and conduct.
3. Teacher sings phrases of “Liza Jane” and students echo on rhythm syllables.
4. Students sing “Chairs to Mend” on rhythm syllables in canon with teacher and in
small groups.
5. Teacher sings phrases of “Above the Plain” and students echo on rhythm syllables.

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Teaching Strategies

Part Work
1. Use the target phrase as an ostinato to accompany a known song.
2. Combine the target phrase as an ostinato with another motif from the song so
that you are using two ostinatos at the same time.
3. Teacher claps a rhythm and students follow in canon after two beats.
4. Students perform a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Group 1 performs the
upper part and group 2 the lower part. Switch.
5. Student performs a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Perform the upper part
with right hand and lower part with left hand.

Improvisation
1. Teacher claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase that uses new
pattern, and students answer.
2. One student claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase that uses
new pattern, and another student gives an answer.
3. Students change rhythm of a first or second grade song and use a dotted quarter
note followed by an eighth note instead of two quarter notes.
4. One student improvises a four-beat pattern. The next student begins a four-beat 69
improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and clapping.
3. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and conducting.

Visual Practice
Reading from Hand Signs
1. Students sing known songs that include new pattern from teacher’s hand signs
with solfège syllables.
2. Students sing known songs from another student’s hand signs with solfège
syllables.

Reading
1. Read target motif from traditional rhythmic notation with rhythm syllables.
2. Read a known song such as “John Kanaka” with rhythm syllables and clap the
rhythm.
3. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
4. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
5. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
6. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
7. Transform a known folk song into another folk song. Read “Liza Jane” in
traditional rhythm notation and transform to “John Kanaka.”
8. Read the rhythm of a known song and play on a classroom percussion
instrument.
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9. Read phrase of a known song with traditional notation and solfège, or from the
staff, that includes new rhythmic pattern and play on the xylophone or tone bells.
10. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can sing the rhythm syllables using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor.
11. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students can
play the rhythm patterns using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor on pitched
instruments. The tonic chord can be used to accompany a known pentatonic song.

Writing
1. Write the target pattern in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
2. Write related patterns in stick and traditional rhythmic notation.
3. Write a known song such as “Liza Jane” and “John Kanaka” in stick and/or
traditional rhythmic notation.
4. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct rhythms.
5. Teacher sings an unknown song, and students fill in the missing measures with
the correct rhythms.
6. Students notate rhythm patterns by teacher and add the bar lines and time signature.
70
Improvisation
1. Teacher claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; students choose
from four patterns from the board to use as an answering phrase. One phrase
should just include four heartbeats.
2. One student claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; another
student chooses from four patterns from the board to use as an answering
phrase. One phrase should just include four heartbeats.
3. The instructor writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation but leaves
out four beats. Students read and clap the rhythm, and one student improvises
four-beat rhythms that use new rhythm pattern for the missing measure.

Memory
1. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Teacher
erases four beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s clapping.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and keep the beat.
3. Teacher supplies students with four flash cards with rhythm; they must identify
the song and arrange flash cards in the correct order.

Part Work
1. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège
and hand signs and group 2 taps a rhythmic ostinato that is read from
notation.

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Teaching Strategies

2. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Divide the class
into two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats.
3. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Divide the class into two
groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats.
4. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups and
perform the activity in canon after two beats.
5. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Divide the class
into two groups, one performing the activity from the beginning and the other
from the end of the song.
6. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Divide the class into two
groups; one performs the activity from the beginning and the other from the
end of the song.
7. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left hand
and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups; one group
performs the activity from the beginning and the other from the end of the song.
8. Students sing a known song and clap the rhythm of another well-known song
simultaneously. 71
9. Students sing a known song, tap a rhythm from traditional rhythmic notation
with right hand, and tap an ostinato with the left hand.
10. This ostinato may be sung or played with major pentatonic repertoire containing
the new rhythmic element:
2$qq\qq\qq\w>
  d   s,  d      s   d    r  m
This ostinato may be sung or played with a known major pentatonic song:
. 2$qq\w>
  d  s,   d
• Read known songs and accompany with this rhythmic ostinato:
raqQ>
• Perform “Sweet William,” in 46 Two-part American Folk Songs, by Denise Bacon, p. 42.

Listening
1. “The Happy Farmer,” from Album for the Young, no. 10, by Robert Schumann
(1810–1856).
2. Little Fugue in G minor, by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
3. To a Wild Rose, Edward MacDowell (1860–1908).
4. “Chester,” New England Triptych, third movement, by William Schuman (1910–1992).
5. “Simple Gifts,” section B of the Shaker Hymn in Appalachian Spring, by Aaron
Copland (1900–1990); rhythm included.

2$w\ra\sqsq\ra\qsq\qq\qsq\qq\
  
w\ra\qsq\qsq\qq\qsq\qq\w|
6. Waltz in A-Flat Major, Op. 39, No. 15, by Johannes Brahms (1833–1897).
7. “Waltz,” Music for Young People, Op 65, No. 6, by Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953).
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

8. It is also important to practice eighth note followed by a dotted quarter note; see
the choral work Esti Dal, by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967).

Sight Singing
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight Singing and Earn
Training, Vol. 1. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995, pp. 71–76.

fa
Table 3.4 presents an overview of the important information required to teach fa.

Table 3.4 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Tradi­ Practice Additional


Song Syllables tional Songs
Notation

72 fa A pitch “Hun­ fa Major fa on ra “Go Tell


a whole garian penta­ different Aunt Rhody,”
step Canon” chord staff “Chairs to
below Major place­ Mend”, “On
so and a hexa­ ments a Mountain,”
half step chord “Redbirds and
above mi scale Blackbirds,”
Half step, “Long Road
whole of Iron,”
step “Twinkle,
B-flat Twinkle, Little
Intervals: Star,” “Are You
major Sleeping?”
and “Whistle,
minor Daughter,
seconds, Whistle”;
perfect (art music)
fourth “I Rose at
and the Rooster’s
fifth, and Call,” by
major Alexander
sixth Gretchaninov;
“Das
Blumchen
Wunderhold”
(The Loveliest
Flower), by
Ludwig van
Beethoven

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Teaching Strategies

Although fa can be taught as a note between so and mi, we suggest teaching it as


part of the major pentachord scale. Use the same process below to introduce the major
hexachord scale.

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music through Kinesthetic Activities
1 . Sing “Hungarian Canon” and show the melodic contour for phrase 2.
2. Sing “Hungarian Canon” and point to a representation of the melodic contour of
phrase 2 at the board. (See Fig. 3.7.)
3. Sing “Hungarian Canon”
with rhythm syllables
while clapping the
melodic contour.
FIGURE 3.7
4. Sing “Hungarian
Canon” as a two-part or
four-part canon.
73
Describe What You Hear
For this concept, students should be able to hear the difference between minor second and
major second intervals. For example, students could sing “Hungarian Canon” (starting do)
and “Juba” (starting on mi mi fa fa) from the same starting note. Another way to practice
this skill is for the teacher to hum the notes do-re-mi and mi-fa-so from the same starting
pitch and have students hum back.

5. Assess kinesthetic awareness by allowing the class to perform several of the


kinesthetic awareness activities.
6. Sing while keeping the beat before asking each question below.
7. Review the kinesthetic activities with the focus song “Hungarian Canon.”
8. Determine the number of beats in phrase 2 of “Hungarian Canon.”
T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (four)
T: “Andy, what is the lowest pitch that we sang?” (do)
T: “Andy, what is the highest pitch that we sang?” (so)
9. Determine the direction of the melody line.
T: “Andy, what is the direction of the melodic line?” (up)
10. Determine the number of different pitches in the phrase.
T: “Andy, how many different pitches do we sing in phrase 2?” (five)
T: “Andy, do these pitches move in steps or in skips?” (steps)
11. Determine whether the distance between each pair of the five steps is the same
or different.
T: “Andy, are all the steps the same distance apart? (no, step 3–4 is smaller)
12. Sing the notes as a scale and identify the large and small steps.

Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear


1. Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several
of the kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
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2. The instructor sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students to
create a visual representation of the melody of the target phrase. Students may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard” or “Draw
what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of understanding.
3. Students share their representations with each other.
4. The instructor invites one student to the board to share a representation with the
class. If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the
aural awareness questions.
5. Students sing the second phrase of “Hungarian Canon” with a neutral syllable and
point to the representation.
6. Identify the form of the melody, and the meter. Sing the phrase with rhythm syllables.
7. Students sing the phrase with known solfège and sing “loo” on fa.

Creating a Visual Representation of the Scale


1 . Students sing the notes of the scale from lowest to highest on “loo.”
2. Students create a visual representation of the scale and identify the steps
and skips.
74
Associative Phase: Presentation
Label the Sound
Assess the kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities with the focus song “Hungarian
Canon.”

1. T: “When we hear a sound between mi and so we call it fa.” (The instructor shows
the hand sign.) “We can sing the second phrase with these syllables and hand
signs:” o
2. Students perform the new melody with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. Students perform the new melody with solfège syllables and conduct.
4. Teacher performs individual phrases of song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
Individual students echo-sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
5. Teacher sings a phrase of “Hungarian Canon” with a neutral syllable, and students
echo with solfège syllables and hand signs.
6. Students identify the notes of the tone set; teacher labels it a major pentachord.
7. Teacher identifies the intervals between the notes of the major pentachord scale
do as major or minor seconds.

Notate What You Hear


1. Write the target melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège. Individual
students sing and point to the melody on the board as the class sings the song
with solfège syllables and hand signs.
2$sqsq\qq\
    d r  m f     s  s
2. Write the target melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège. Individual
students sing and point to the melody on the board as the class sings the song
with solfège syllables and conducts.

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Teaching Strategies

3. Write the target melody on the staff. Individual students sing and point to the
melody on the board written on the staff as the class sings the song with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
4. Present the target phrase of “Hungarian Canon” in staff notation and present the
Rule of Placement in C = do. (See Fig. 3.8.)

FIGURE 3.8 

5. Present the Rule of Placement for fa on the staff and present the target phrase of
“Hungarian Canon” in staff notation G = d. (See Fig. 3.9.)

75
FIGURE 3.9 

6. Present the name of the scale.


○ Students sing the target phrase with solfège syllables. They present the notes on
the tone ladder. Identify the steps between the notes of the phrase as steps or
skips, “large or small seconds.” Identify the large steps as major seconds and the
small steps as minor seconds.
○ Present the name of the scale as a do or major pentachord scale: “When we
write the pitches of the ‘Hungarian Canon’ in ascending order, we discover
that there are five adjacent pitches. We can label these pitches with solfège
syllables do-re-mi-fa-so, or numbers 1 2 3
4 5, respectively. (See Fig. 3.10.) The final
note of the composition is do, so we can
Solfège Syllable Degree Number
refer to this as the tonic note. We refer to s 5
this collection of notes as a do or major f 4
m 3
pentachord scale. We can use an abbreviated r 2
form of these written syllables: d-r-m-f-s.” d 1 FIGURE 3.10
7. Teacher demonstrates by hand the whole-step,
half-step relationships between the pairs of notes (Figs.
3.11 and 3.12). Whole Steps Half Steps
Major 2 Minor 2
8. Teacher identifies the intervals between the tonic
d–r m–f
note and all degrees of the scale: do-re major second, r –m
do-mi major third, do-fa, perfect fourth, do-so f–s FIGURE 3.11
perfect fifth.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

FIGURE 3.12

9. Teacher presents the notation for the major pentachord scale on the staff.
A. Present the major pentachord scale in staff notation and the Rule of Placement.
B. Students sing the scale with solfège and hand signs.
C. Students identify the intervals (steps or skips) between pairs of notes of the scale.

Assimilative Phrase: Practice Music Skills


76 Aural Practice
Singing with Solfège Syllables
1. Teacher sings motifs with words and students sing with solfège syllables and
hand signs.
2. Teacher hums motifs and students sing with solfège syllables and conduct.
4. Teacher shows hand signs and students read after two beats in canon with hand signs.

Singing Intervals
1. Teacher sings the intervals between the notes of the tone set; students sing the
intervals and identify whether each is a major or minor second.
2. Teacher sings the intervals between the tonic note and notes of the tone set;
students sing the intervals and identify intervals.
3. Teacher plays intervals on the piano melodically or harmonically, and students
identify the solfège and the interval name.

Part Work
1. Students echo-sing four-beat patterns provided by the teacher with solfège and
hand signs but begin singing at beat 3 of the teacher’s pattern.
2. Sing the song in canon.
3. Sing the song in canon with a rhythmic ostinato.
4. Sing the song in canon with a melodic ostinato.
5. Combine a phrase as an ostinato with another motif from the song so that you are
using two ostinatos at the same time.
6. Students sing song and teacher accompanies with a drone made of up do or do-so
played on an instrument.

Improvisation
1. Teacher sings a music question with solfège syllables and hand signs and students
answer. Question ends on so and after several activities ends on re. Answer
ends on do.

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Teaching Strategies

2. One student sings a music question with solfège syllables and hand signs, and
another student supplies an answer.
3. One student improvises a four-beat pattern. The next student begins a four-beat
improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with solfège syllables.

Visual Practice
Reading from Hand Signs
1. Students sing known song from teacher’s hand signs that includes the new
solfège pattern.
2. Students sing known song from another student’s hand signs that includes the
new solfège pattern.
3. Students read a motif from the teacher’s hand signs and play on a classroom
instrument. Teacher indicates the starting place on the instrument.
4. Teacher shows hand signs and students read after two beats in canon with hand signs. 77
5. Read known major hexachord songs from hand signs.

Reading
1. Read target motif from traditional rhythmic notation and solfège with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
2. Read a known song from traditional rhythmic notation with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
3. Read a known song, e.g., “This Old Man,” “Go Tell Aunt Rhody,” with solfège
syllables and conduct.
4. Read a known song from staff notation with solfège syllables and hand signs.
5. Read a known song from staff notation with solfège syllables and conduct.
6. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
7. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and
hand signs.
8. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and
conduct.
9. Teacher shows hand signs and students read after two beats
s
in canon with hand signs.
f
10. Transform a known folk song into another folk song.
11. Read phrases of known song, notated with traditional m
rhythmic notation and solfège syllables, and play on a
r
classroom instrument. (See Fig. 3.13.)
12. Read phrases from known song material noted on the
d
staff with letter names where do = G and G.
FIGURE 3.13
13. Read known major hexachord songs from the staff.

Intervals
1. Students identify intervals from notation of known songs.
2. Students identify intervals from notation of unknown songs.
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3. Students are given a starting pitch by the teacher and then sing in solfège from a
series of intervals written on the board.

Memory
1. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

Writing
1. Write the target pattern in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation with solfège
syllables.
2. Write related patterns in stick and traditional rhythmic notation with solfège
syllables.
3. Write the tone set of a known song on the board.
4. Write a known song in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
5. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct solfège syllables.
78 Teacher can give the rhythm but not the syllables for the missing measure.
6. Teacher sings an unknown song and students fill in the missing measures with the
correct rhythms and solfège syllables.
7. Write pentachord and hexachord scales in the key areas C, F, G, D, and B-flat.
See the next section for introducing the flat sign and page 90 for introducing the
sharp sign.

Introducing the Flat Sign


Before B-flat and the flat sign are taught, the students should be secure with read­
ing in solfège and letter names as well as notating melodies in various pentatonic
positions. In teaching the flat, use visual tools such as piano and xylophone keys, or
steps drawn on the board, to replicate the exact intervals in the aural exercises. The
students may require help to recognize the letter names of the notes on the piano or
xylophone.

1. Students should work with songs having the range of a pentachord and aurally
identify the large and small seconds in the song.
2. Give students the opportunity to play these songs on xylophones or other
instruments that show the whole and half steps clearly.
3. Students should play these songs while singing them with letter names. The
teacher should work toward getting the students to feel as secure with letter names
as they do with solfège syllables. Use both C-do and G-do positions because these
do not have any accidentals.
4. Ask the students to sing a do-pentachord scale beginning on G. Reinforce the
concept that the distance between mi and fa is a half step. The students will note
the closeness of B and C in the G-do position.
5. Ask the students to sing a do-pentachord scale beginning on F. Have the
students discover that the note B must be moved closer to the note A. Play or
sing the notes A-B and ask the students to determine if the distance is a half or
whole step.

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Teaching Strategies

6. The students must discover the need to lower the sound. The teacher could
demonstrate this on the piano by using the black note to lower the sound.
7. Name the lowered sound “B-flat.” Draw a flat sign; show how it is written on
the staff.
8. Explain that the sign is placed before the note. Name this new note “bes” to use in
singing with absolute letter names.
9. Key signatures should not be used at first. Add the flat signs in front of the pitch
for several lessons. Later put the flat at the beginning and explain the purpose of
key signatures. (See Fig. 3.14.)

FIGURE 3.14 

Practice the following activities: 79

• Read songs with hand signs and letter names.


• The teacher shows melodic phrases using hand signs; students sing these phrases
using letter names.
• Eventually, the teacher may sing solfège syllables and students may echo-sing with
letter names.
• Students memorize a melodic pattern aurally using solfège syllables and notate it
from memory using F = do position.

Improvisation
• Teacher sings a question phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs and a
student chooses from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
One phrase should just include four heartbeats.
• Teacher sings a question phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs, and a
student chooses from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
One phrase should just include four heartbeats.
• The instructor writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation and
solfège but leaves out four beats. Students read with solfège, and one student
improvises four-beat melody that uses the new melodic note.
• Students improvise a new folk song to a given form and scale. For example,
students compose a new melody using the form ABAB. Teacher furnishes
students with the A phrase and students must improvise the B phrase and should
end on do.

Memory
• Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.
• Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.
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Inner Hearing
• Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
• Teacher sings known phrases of songs, and students sing back with solfège
syllables and signs.
• Teacher gives students four flash cards with rhythm, and students must identify
the song and arrange flash cards in the correct order.
• Students sing known songs but inner-hear the phrase containing the new target
pattern.
• Students sing known songs but inner-hear the phrase containing the new target
pattern.
• Students sing a song but have to inner-hear the song on a signal from the teacher.
Students sing the song aloud at a signal from by teacher.

Part Work
• Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège syllables and
hand signs, and group 2 taps a rhythmic ostinato that is read from notation.
• Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège syllables and
80 hand signs; group 2 sings a melodic ostinato that is read from notation.
• Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège syllables and
hand signs, and group 2 sings a descant with solfège syllables and hand signs that
is read from notation.
• Read a known song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Divide the class into
two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats, group 1 singing and
group 2 clapping in canon.
• Read a known song with solfège syllables and conducting. Divide the class into
two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats, group 1 singing and
group 2 clapping in canon.
• Read a known song with solfège syllables while showing hand signs with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups; group
1 performs the activity and group 2 claps rhythm in canon after two beats.
• Students sing a known song and clap the rhythm of another well-known song
simultaneously.
• Students sing a known song, tap a rhythm from traditional rhythmic notation
with right hand, and tap an ostinato with the left hand.
• Sing pentachord and hexachord scales in canon.

Listening
“Go Tell Aunt Rhody,” by Ella Jenkins, in Songs and Rhymes from Near and Far.
“Chorale,” from the fourth movement of Symphony No. 9, by Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770–1827): m-m-f-s-s-f-m-r-d-d-r-m-m-r-r.
Canon in D, by Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706): d’-s-l-m-f-d-f-s.
“Finale,” from the Firebird Suite, by Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971): s-f-m-s-r-d-f-m-r-f-m-d-r-r.
Rondo No. 1, for piano, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
Mikrokosmos, Vol. 1, No. 6, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945); themes A, B, and C include
d-r-m-f-s-l.
For listening exercises in do pentachord, see these works by Béla Bartók (1881–
1945):  “Round Dance,” no.  6 in For Children, Vol. 2, No. 6; Mikrokozmos, Vol.
2 No. 40, and Vol. 2 No. 60 (sections); 44 Duets, no.  16, “Burleske,” and no.  1,

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Teaching Strategies

“Matchmaking Song.” In do hexachord, see For Children, Vol. 2 No. 1; and 44 Duets,
no 2, “Maypole Dance.”

Sight Singing
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear
Training, Vol. 2. New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1995, pp. 25–44.
Béla Bartók. For Children, Vol. 1.  No. 4, “Pillow Dance.” New  York:  Boosey &
Hawkes, 1947.

Triple Meter and Dotted Half Note


Table 3.5 presents an overview of the important information required to teach triple meter
and dotted half note.

Table 3.5 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Tradi­ Practice Additional


Song Syllables tional Songs
81
Notation
Triple Organiza­ “Rise bar lines, 3$time fa “Around
meter tion of one Up, measures, signature do penta­ the Green
Dotted strong and Oh double chord Gravel,”
half note two weak Flame” bar line, melodies “America,”
beats time in F “Sweet
signature, major Betsy from
dotted Pike,”
half note “Goodbye,
Old Paint”

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music Through Kinesthetic Activities
When teaching meter, the teacher should use a drum to mark the strong and weak beats.
Emphasis the first note of a measure musically.

1. Students sing “Rise Up, Oh Flame” with a pat clap clap ostinato (pat clap clap / pat
clap clap / pat clap clap / pat clap clap):

qqq\qqq\qqq\qqq>
qqq\qqq\qqq\qqq>

2 . Students point to a representation of strong and weak beats (not rhythm). (See Fig. 3.15.)
3. Clap the rhythm and walk
the beat, while singing FIGURE 3.15
the song.
4. Sing the song in canon.
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Describe What You Hear


1. Assess kinesthetic activities. Remember: teacher and students sing the phrase
before every question below.
2. Determine the number of beats per phrase.
3. Teacher and students sing phrase 1 of “Rise Up, Oh Flame” and keep the beat.
T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (twelve)
T: “Andy, do all of the beats feel the same?” (no, some beats are stronger)
4. Determine the strong and weak beats.
T: “Andy, which beats are stronger?” (beats 1 and 4, 7, 10)
T: “If those beats are strong, the other beats are _____.” (weak)
T: “Let’s sing and show our strong and weak beats.”
5. Teacher and students sing the song with the ostinato shown above.
6. Sing song and determine the measure that has the long sound.

Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear


1. Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several of
the kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
82 2. The instructor sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students
to create a visual representation of the target phrase. Students may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard” or “Draw
what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of understanding.
3. Students share their representations with each other.
4. The instructor invites one student to the board to share a representation with the
class. If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the
aural awareness questions.
5. Students sing the first phrase of “Rise Up, Oh Flame” on rhythm syllables and
point to the representation.

Associative Phase: Presentation
Label the Sound
1 . Assess kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness.
2. T: “When we have a pattern of three pulsations with the first being strong and the
next two being weak, we have a pattern of three beats per measure. This is referred
to as triple meter. Each measure is divided into three beats.”
3. A long note that has three beats is called ta-a-a.
4. Students perform with rhythm syllables and clap the beat.
5. Students perform the target pattern with rhythm syllables and
conducting.
6. Individual students echo the rhythm syllables. Perform this activity with the
rhythm of the entire song.
7. Teacher sings a phrase of “Rise Up, Oh Flame” with text or neutral syllable.
Students echo but use rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.

Notate What You Hear


1. T: “When the beat is equal to a quarter note, we can write ‘Rise Up, Oh Flame’ as
follows:” The teacher may introduce the dotted half note before introducing the
rhythmic notation for the melody.

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Teaching Strategies

3$qqq\rasd\sdsdq\raq\
  qqq\rasd\sdsdq\t|
2 . Students sing the notated melody with rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.
3. Students sing the notated melody with rhythm syllables and conduct.
4. Students sing the notated melody counting with numbers.

Assimilative Phrase: Practice Music Skills


Aural Practice
Singing with Rhythm Syllables
1. Students echo-sing four-beat melodic patterns, containing new rhythm provided
by the teacher, with rhythm syllables and clapping the rhythm.
2. Students echo-sing four-beat melodic patterns, containing new rhythm provided
by the teacher, with rhythm syllables and conduct.
3. Student sings known melodies with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
4. Student sings known melodies with rhythm syllables and conduct.
5. T sings known and unknown motifs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables. 83
Part Work
1. Use the target phrase as an ostinato to accompany a known song.
2. Combine the target phrase as an ostinato with another motif from the song so
that you are using two ostinatos at the same time.
3. Teacher claps a rhythm and students follow in canon after two beats.
4. Students perform a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Group 1 performs the
upper part and group 2 the lower part. Switch.
5. Student performs a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Perform the upper part
with right hand and lower part with left hand.

Improvisation
1. Teacher claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase in triple meter,
and students offer an answer.
2. Student claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase in triple meter,
and another student answers.
3. Students change meter of a song from duple into triple meter.
4. One student improvises a six-beat pattern in triple meter. The next student begins
a four-beat improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.

Inner Hearing
1. Teacher sings known phrases of songs in triple meter and students sing back with
rhythm syllables and clapping.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs in triple meter and students sing back with
rhythm syllables and conducting.

Visual Practice
Reading from Hand Signs
1. Students sing known song from teacher’s hand signs that includes the new rhythm
pattern.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

2. Students sing known song from another student’s hand signs that includes the
new rhythm pattern.

Reading
1. Read target motif from traditional rhythmic notation with rhythm syllables.
2. Read a known song, “Rise Up, Oh Flame,” with rhythm syllables and clap the
rhythm.
3. Read a known song, “Goodbye, Old Paint,” with rhythm syllables and conduct.
4. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand.
5. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
6. Read a known song from teacher’s hand signs.
7. Read an unknown song from teacher’s hand signs.
8. Teacher shows hand signs, and students read after two beats in canon.
9. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
10. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
11. Transform a known folk song into another folk song.
84 12. Read the rhythm of a known song and play on a classroom percussion instrument.
13. Read a phrase of a known song with traditional notation and solfège syllables, or from
the staff, that includes new rhythmic pattern, and play on the xylophone or tone bells.
14. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can sing the rhythm syllables using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor.
15. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can play the rhythm patterns using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor
on the recorder.
16. Read “Entre las matas” and play it on an instrument. (See Fig. 3.16.)

FIGURE 3.16  “Entre las Matas”

Source: Reprinted from Vamos a Cantar with permission of the Kodály Institute at Capital
University.

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Teaching Strategies

Writing
1. Write rhythm patterns in triple meter in stick and/or traditional rhythmic
notation.
2. Write a known song in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
3. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct rhythms.
4. Teacher sings an unknown song, and students fill in the missing measures with
the correct rhythms.
5. Students notate rhythm patterns sung by teacher and add the bar lines and time
signature.

Improvisation
1. T claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; students choose from four
patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
2. One student claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; another student
choses from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
3. Teacher writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation but leaves a few
measures blank. Students read and clap the rhythm, and one student improvises
four-beat rhythms that use new rhythm pattern for the missing measures. 85
Memory
1. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Teacher erases
four beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s clapping.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs, and students sing back with rhythm
syllables and keep the beat.
3. Teacher provides students with four flash cards with rhythm; students must
identify the song and arrange flash cards in the correct order.

Part Work
1. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège and hand
signs, and group 2 taps a rhythmic ostinato that is read from notation.
2. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Divide the class
into two groups, and perform the activity in canon after two beats.
3. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Divide the class into two
groups, and perform the activity in canon after two beats.
4. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the left
hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups, and
perform the activity in canon after two beats.
5. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm. Divide the class
into two groups; one group performs the activity from the beginning and the
other from the end of the song.
6. Read a known song with rhythm syllables and conduct. Divide the class into two
groups; one performs the activity from the beginning and the other from the end
of the song.
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7. Read a known song with rhythm syllables while tapping the rhythm with the
left hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups,
one performing the activity from the beginning and the other from the end of
the song.
8. Students sing a known song and clap the rhythm of another well-known song
simultaneously.
9. Students sing a known song, tap a rhythm from traditional rhythmic notation
with right hand, and tap an ostinato with the left hand.

Listening
Minuet in G Major, by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
“Finale,” from Symphony No. 4, by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893).
For Children, Vol. 1, No. 30, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945), revised Boosey and Hawkes,
1947. The rhythm switches from triple to duple meter.
Al otro lado del rio, by Jorge Drexler (1964–).
Waltz in A-Flat Major, Op. 39, No. 15, by Johannes Brahms (1833–1897).
“Abécédé,” from Háry János, by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967).
86
Sight Singing
Denise Bacon. 50 Two Part Exercises, nos. 16, 21, 23, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 49.
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear
Training, Vol. 1. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995, pp. 16–19.
Zoltán Kodály. Kodály Choral Library: 333 Elementary Exercises. London: Boosey and
Hawkes, 1963, nos. 9 and 299.

low ti
Table 3.6 presents an overview of the important information required to teach low ti.

Table 3.6 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Traditional Practice Additional


Song Syllables Notation Songs
low A pitch a “The low ti Minor low ti on Triple “The Birch
ti, the half step Birch penta­ different meter Tree,”
second below Tree” chord staff “Alfonso
degree do and place­ment Doce,”
of the minor “Debka
minor hexa­ Hora,”
scale chord “The Three
F-sharp Rogues,”
“Coffee
Canon,”
“Morning Is
Come”

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Teaching Strategies

We teach low ti as part of the la pentachord scale. We can use the same process for teaching
the la pentachord and hexachord scale.

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music Through Kinesthetic Activities
1 . Sing “The Birch Tree” and show the melodic contour.
2. Sing “The Birch Tree” and show the melodic contour for phrase 1.
3. Sing “The Birch Tree” and point to a representation of the melodic contour at the
board (Fig. 3.17).

FIGURE 3.17

4 . Sing “The Birch Tree” with rhythm syllables while showing the melodic contour.
5. Clap “The Birch Tree” following the contour of the melody with hands. 87
6. Sing “The Birch Tree” with ostinato performed by a student on xylophone.

Describe What You Hear


1 . Assess the kinesthetic activities with the focus song “The Birch Tree.”
2. Sing the whole song while keeping the beat before asking each question below.
3. Determine the number of beats in the first phrase.
T: “Andy, how many beats did we keep?” (six)
4. Determine the direction of the melody line.
T: “Andy, in which direction do these pitches move?” (down)
5. Determine the number of different pitches in the phrase.
T: “Andy, how many different pitches did we sing?” (five)
T: “Andy, hum the lowest pitch that we sang.”
T: “Andy, hum the highest pitch that we sang.”
T: “Andy, sing the pitches from highest to lowest.”
6. Determine the lowest and highest pitches.
T: “Andy, what’s the name of the lowest pitch in solfège syllables?” (low la)
T: “Andy, if low la is the name of the lowest pitch, what is the solfège syllable for
the highest pitch?” (mi)
7. Determine the solfège syllable for the beginning and ending pitches of the phrase.
8. Teacher sings the notes of the minor pentachord scale as a scale on “loo” and
students determine the intervals between the pitches using “steps and skips.”

Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear


1. Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several of
the kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
2. Teacher sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students to create
a visual representation of the melody of the target phrase. Students may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard” or “Draw
what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of understanding.
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3 . Students share their representations with each other.


4. Teacher invites one student to the board to share a representation with the class.
If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the aural
awareness questions.
5. Students sing the first phrase of the “The Birch Tree” with a neutral syllable and
point to the representation. Circle the half step interval.
6. Sing the phrase with rhythm syllables.

Create a Representation of the Scale


1 . The teacher sings the notes of the minor pentachord scale on “loo.”
2. Students create a visual representation of the scale.
3. Students identify the interval between the notes as major or minor seconds.

Associative Phase: Presentation
Label the Sound
1. Assess the kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities with the focus song
88 “The Birch Tree.”
2. Teacher names the new note “low ti” and shows the students the hand sign and
presents all of the solfège syllables for the phrase.
3. Students perform the new melody with solfège and hand signs.
4. Students perform the new melody with solfège and conduct.
5. Teacher performs individual phrases of song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
Individual students echo-sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
6. Teacher sings a phrase of “The Birch Tree” with text or neutral syllable; students
echo with solfège syllables and hand signs.

Notate What You Hear


1. Present the target phrase of “The Birch Tree” in traditional rhythm notation with
solfège syllables.
2$ sqsq\qsq\qq\
  mm mm   r   dd   t, l,
2 . Present the Rule of Placement for low ti.
3. Present the target phrase of “The Birch Tree” in staff notation la- A, D, E, B,
G. (See below as to how to introduce sharps to students. T: “We can read our
target pattern using solfège syllables and hand signs.” (See Fig. 3.18.)

FIGURE 3.18 

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Teaching Strategies

4. Write the target melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège.
Individual students sing and point to the melody on the board as the class sings
the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
5. Write the target melody with traditional rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.
Individual students sing and point to the melody on the board as the class sings
the song with solfège syllables and conducts.
6. Write the target melody on the staff. Individual students sing and point to the
melody on the board written on the staff as the class sings the song with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
7. Write the target melody on the staff. Individual students sing and point to the
melody on the board written with on the staff as the class sings the song with
solfège syllables and conducts.
8. Present the name of the scale.
9. Students sing the target phrase with solfège syllables. They present the notes on
the tone ladder. Identify the steps between the notes of the phrase as steps or
skips, “large or small seconds.” Present the name of the scale.
10. Identify the intervals between the tonic note and all degrees of the scale.
89
Present Scale Degree Numbers
When we write the pitches of “The Birch Tree” in descending order, we discover that, just
as in the major pentachord, there are five adjacent
pitches. We can label these pitches with solfège syl­
Solfège Syllable Degree Number
lables mi-re-do–low ti–low la or numbers 5 4 3 2 1,
m 5
respectively. The final note of the composition is low r 4
la, which we can refer to as the tonic note. We refer d 3
t, 2
to this collection of notes as a la or minor pentachord l, 1 FIGURE 3.19
scale (Fig. 3.19).

Intervallic Distance Between the Notes of the Minor Pentachord Scale.


Note that the intervals in l,-t,-d-r-r-m are whole steps. The
distance between low ti and do is a half step. We can refer to Whole Steps Half Steps
Major 2 Minor 2
whole steps as major seconds (M2) and half steps as minor l,-t, t,-d
seconds (m2). (See Fig. 3.20.) d-r
r-m FIGURE 3.20
Use your hand to demonstrate the whole-step, half-step
relationships between the notes (Fig. 3.21).

FIGURE 3.21
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

1. Present the la pentachord scale in staff notation and the Rule of Placement.
2. Students sing the scale with solfège and hand signs.
3. Students identify the intervals (steps and skips) between notes of the scale.

Introducing the Sharp Sign (#)


1. The same steps that were outlined for the flat may be used to introduce the sharp
sign. Begin with writing the minor pentachord scale beginning on la = A, la = D,
and then la = E. Students will aurally discover that the interval between E and F
in the E minor pentachord scale is a minor second and should be a major second.
The teacher can place a sharp in front of the F.
2. At this stage in the conceptual sequence, introduction of the sharp sign is simply a
formality.
3. Remember that absolute letter names should be sung by the students when a
treble or bass clef sign is used at the beginning of the line of music.
4. Sing in the key in which the piece is written.
5. Some of these songs should be played and sung by students on the xylophone or
other instruments that have the whole and half steps clearly visible.
90 6. Students memorize a melodic pattern aurally using solfège names, and notate it
from memory using D = la, E = la, G = la, and A = la positions.

Assimilative Phase: Practice Music Skills


Aural Practice: Singing with Solfège Syllables
The teacher can also use major motifs that include low ti for some of these activities.

1. Teacher sings motifs from known songs and students sing back with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
2. Students sing “Debka Hora” with solfège and hand signs.
3. Students sing “Debka Hora” with solfège and conduct.
4. Teacher sings do pentatonic and la pentatonic scales and students sing back with
solfège and hand signs.

Singing Intervals
1. Teacher sings the intervals between the notes of the tone set; students sing the
intervals and identify whether it is a major or minor interval.
2. Teacher sings the intervals between the tonic note and notes of the tone set;
student sing the intervals and identify intervals.
3. Teacher plays intervals on the piano melodically or harmonically, and students
identify the solfège and the interval name.

Part Work
1. Use the target phrase as an ostinato.
2. Students echo-sing four beat patterns provided by the teacher with solfège and
hand signs but begin singing at beat 3 of the teacher’s pattern.
3. Sing the song in canon with a rhythmic ostinato.
4. Sing the song in canon with a melodic ostinato.

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Teaching Strategies

5. Combine a phrase as an ostinato with another motif from the song so that you
are using two ostinatos at the same time. This works with pentatonic music.
6. Students sing a minor pentachord song and teacher accompanies with a drone
made of up low la or la-mi played on an instrument.
7. Students sing a minor pentachord song and teacher accompanies with the
solfège syllables la or mi.
8. Students sing minor pentachord and hexachord scales in canon.

Improvisation
1. Teacher sings a music question with solfège syllables and hand signs and
students provide an answer. Question ends on mi and after several activities ends
on ti. Answer ends on la.
2. One student sings a music question with solfège syllables and hand signs, and
another student gives an answer.
3. One student improvises a four-beat pattern. The next student begins a four-beat
improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.
4. Students transform a do pentachord into a la pentachord melody.
5. Students transform a la pentachord melody into a do pentachord. 91
6. Students transform a do hexachord into a la hexachord melody.
7. Students transform a la hexachord melody in to a do hexachord.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with solfège.

Visual Practice: Reading from Hand Signs


1. Students sing known song from teacher’s hand signs that includes the new
solfège pattern.
2. Students sing known song from another student’s hand signs that includes the
new solfège pattern.
3. Students read a motif from the teacher’s hand sign and play on a classroom
instrument. Teacher indicates the starting place on the instrument.
4. Students sing known minor hexachord song from teacher’s hand signs.

Reading
1. Read target motifs from the tone ladder.
2. Read known melodies from the tone ladder.
3. Read known melodies from the tone ladder.
4. Read target motif from traditional rhythmic notation and solfège with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
5. Read a known song from traditional rhythmic notation with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
6. Read a known song with solfège syllables and conduct.
7. Read a known song from staff notation with solfège syllables and hand signs.
8. Read a known song from staff notation with solfège syllables and conduct.
9. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
10. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
11. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct.
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12. Teacher shows hand signs and students read after two beats in canon with hand signs.
13. Transform a known folk song into another folk song.
14. Read phrases of known song, notated with traditional rhythmic notation and
solfège, and play on a classroom instrument.

Intervals
1. Students identify intervals from notation of known songs.
2. Students identify intervals from notation of unknown songs.
3. Students are given a starting pitch by the teacher and then sing in solfège from a
series of intervals written on the board.

Memory
1. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

92 Writing
1. Write the target pattern in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation with solfège
syllables.
2. Write related patterns in stick and traditional rhythmic notation with solfège syllables.
3. Write the tone set of a known song on the board as a student or class sings a
known song in solfège syllables.
4. Write a known song in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
5. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct solfège syllables.
Teacher can supply the rhythm but not the syllables for the missing measure.
6. Teacher sings an unknown song and students fill in the missing measures with the
correct rhythms and solfège syllables.
7. Students transcribe a song written in rhythmic notation and solfège syllables into
staff notation.
8. Write a minor pentachord and hexachord scale on the staff and mark the half steps.
9. Write this ostinato in staff notation and perform it with “Charlotte Town.” The
ostinato may also be performed on a xylophone or tone bells.

2$sqsq\sqsq\sqsq\sqsq> qQ|
    d t,  l, s,  d t,   l, s,  d s,  l, t,    d t,  l, s,   d

Improvisation
1. Teacher sings a question phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs, and a
student chooses from four patterns from the board to use as an answering phrase.
One phrase should just include four heartbeats.
2. Teacher sings a question phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs; another
student chooses from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
One phrase should just include four heartbeats.
3. The instructor writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation and
solfège but leaves out four beats. Students read with solfège, and one student
improvises four-beat melody that uses the new melodic note.

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Teaching Strategies

4. Students improve a new folk song to a given form and scale. For example, students
compose a new melody using the form ABAB. Teacher provides students with the
A phrase and students must improvise the B phrase. If the new melody is based
on the minor pentachord, then the A phrase ends on mi and the B phrase ends on
low la.

Memory
1. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Teacher erases
four beats each time and students memorize.
2. Read an unknown song with solfège syllables and conduct. Teacher erases four
beats each time and students memorize.

Inner Hearing
1. Recognize familiar songs from teacher’s hand signs.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs and students sing back with solfège
syllables and signs.
3. Teacher gives students four flash cards with rhythm, and they must identify the
song and arrange flash cards in the correct order. 93
4. Students sing known songs but inner-hear the phrase containing the new target
pattern.
5. Students sing known songs but inner-hear the phrase containing the new target
pattern.
6. Students sing a song but have to inner-hear the song at a signal from the teacher.
Students sing the song aloud on a signal from teacher.

Part Work
1. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège and hand
signs and group 2 taps a rhythmic ostinato that is read from notation.
2. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège and hand
signs and group 2 sings a melodic ostinato that is read from notation.
3. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the song with solfège and hand signs
and group 2 sings a descant with solfège and hand signs that is read from notation.
4. Read a known song with solfège syllables and hand signs. Divide the class into
two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats, group 1 singing
and group 2 clapping in canon.
5. Read a known song with solfège syllables and conducting. Divide the class into
two groups and perform the activity in canon after two beats, group 1 singing
and group 2 clapping in canon.
6. Read a known song with solfège syllables while showing hand signs with the
left hand and conducting with the right hand. Divide the class into two groups;
group 1 performs the activity and group 2 claps rhythm in canon after two beats.
7. Students sing a known song and clap the rhythm of another well-known song
simultaneously.
8. Students sing a known song, tap a rhythm from traditional rhythmic notation
with right hand, and tap an ostinato with the left hand. Sing minor pentachord
scales in canon.
9. Sing minor hexachord scales in canon.
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10. Sing this two-part repertoire: Denis Bacon, 46 Two Part American Folk Songs,
“My Paddle,” p. 16, and “The Three Rogues,” pp. 25–26. Upper melody only.
Students can learn lower part by rote, from “Go Tell Aunt Rhody,” p. 31. Lower
part introducing notes from extended range of scale: “May Day Carol,” p. 39, and
“Sweet William,” p. 42.

Listening
• Finale, “Allegro con Fuoco,” from Symphony No. 4, by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1883). The movement uses the Russian folk song “The Birch Tree.”
• For Children, Vol. 1 (revised Boosey and Hawkes, 1947), “Round Dance,” no. 17,
and no. 3, untitled, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
• Additional examples of la pentachord for listening: Mikrokosmos, Vol. 1, nos. 3
and 18, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).

Sight Singing
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear
Training, Vol. 1. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995, pp. 45–56.
“The Little Birch Tree,” Russian folk song, arr. Mary Goetze. Unison with optional
94 flute accompaniment. New York: Boosey and Hawkes.
Zoltán Kodály. Kodály Choral Library: 333 Elementary Exercises. London: Boosey and
Hawkes, 1963, nos. 53, 54, 117, 121, 188, 198, 199, 218, 220, 229, 242, 243, 261, 264.
Examples with syncopation: 151, 169, 184, 313, 323.

Dotted Eighth Note Followed by a Sixteenth Note


Table 3.7 presents an overview of the important information required to teach a dotted
eighth note followed by a sixteenth note.

Table 3.7 

Element Concept Focus Present Theory Tradi­ Practice Additional


Song Syllables tional Songs
Notation
Dotted Two “Donkey ta mi Subdivi­ gc la “Sail Away
eighth sounds Riding” sion of penta­ Ladies,”
note on one the beat chord “Circle
followed beat, into (low ti) Round
by the first sixteenth the Zero,”
sixteenth being notes “Yankee
note long Doodle,”
and the “Shady
second Grove”;
being (art music)
short Cradle
Songs,
Op. 98, No.
2, by Franz
Schubert

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Teaching Strategies

Cognitive Phase: Preparation
Internalize Music Through Kinesthetic Activities
1 . Sing “Donkey Riding” and pat the beat for the target phrase 1.
2. Sing “Donkey Riding” and clap the rhythm for the target phrase 1.
3. Sing “Donkey Riding” and point to a representation of the rhythm on the board
(Fig. 3.22).
FIGURE 3.22
4. Sing “Donkey Riding”
performing this
ostinato: 2$sqsq\qq>

Describe What You Hear


1 . Assess the kinesthetic activities with the focus song.
2. Sing the target phrase using a neutral syllable while keeping the beat before asking
each question below.
3. Determine the number of beats in each phrase.
T: “Andy, how many beats did we keep in phrase 1?” (eight)
4. Determine the number of sounds on each beat for the first four beats.
T: “Andy, which beats have one sound on them?” (beat 4)
95
T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beat 1?” (two)
T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beats 2 and 3?” (two)
T: “Andy, describe the two sounds on beat 1.” (the first is long, the second is short)

Create a Visual Representation of What You Hear


Assess kinesthetic and aural awareness by allowing the class to perform several of the kin­
esthetic and aural awareness activities.

1. The instructor sings the target phrase with a neutral syllable and asks students
to create a visual representation of the target phrase. Students may use
manipulatives. T: “Pick up what you need to recreate what you heard” or “Draw
what you heard.” Teacher assesses students’ level of understanding.
2. Students share their representations with each other.
3. The instructor invites one student to the board to share a representation with the
class. If necessary, corrections to the representation can be made by reviewing the
aural awareness questions.
4. Students sing the first phrase of “Donkey Riding” with a neutral syllable and point
to the representation.
5. Determine the meter and solfège syllables for the target phrase.
6. Students sing with all known rhythm syllables and sing “loo” for new element.

Associative Phase: Presentation
Label the Sound
Assess the kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities with the focus song “Donkey
Riding.”

1. Teacher labels the sound. T: “We call two uneven sounds on one beat where the
first is long and the second is short ta mi.”
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2. Teacher sings phrase 1 of “Donkey Riding” with rhythm syllables. (See Fig. 3.23.)

FIGURE 3.23 ta mi ta di ta di ta ta di ta di ta di ta

3. Students echo with rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.

Notate What You Hear


Present the notation for the new rhythmic pattern on the board in traditional rhythm nota­
tion. Students immediately clap and echo-sing the target phrase of “Donkey Riding” in
rhythm names.

1. Present the target phrase of “Donkey Riding” in traditional rhythm notation.


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2. Present the target phrase of “Donkey Riding” in stick notation.
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96
Assimilative Phase: Practice Music Skills
Aural Practice
Singing with Rhythm Syllables
1. Sing “Donkey Riding” with rhythmic syllables.
2. Sing “Shady Grove” with rhythmic syllables.
3. Teacher claps ostinato pattern and students echo on rhythm syllables.
4. Students echo-sing four-beat melodic patterns, containing new rhythm provided
by the teacher, with rhythm syllables and clapping the rhythm.
5. Students echo-sing four beat melodic patterns, containing new rhythm provided
by the teacher, with rhythm syllables and conduct.
6. Students sing known melodies with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
7. Students sing known melodies with rhythm syllables and conduct.
8. Teacher sings known and unknown motifs and students sing back with rhythm
syllables.

Part Work
1. Use the target phrase as an ostinato to accompany a known song.
2. Combine the target phrase as an ostinato with another motif from the song so
that you are using two ostinatos at the same time.
3. Teacher claps a rhythm and students follow in canon after two beats.
4. Students perform a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Group 1 performs the
upper part and group 2 the lower part. Switch.
5. Student performs a two-part rhythmic reading exercise. Perform the upper part
with right hand and lower part with left hand.

Improvisation
1. Teacher claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase and students
answer. (We can use duple, triple, and quadruple meter.)

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Teaching Strategies

2. One student claps and says the rhythm syllables in a question phrase and another
student gives an answer. (We can use duple, triple, and quadruple meter.)
3. Students change meter of a song from duple into triple meter.
4. One student improvises a pattern in triple meter. The next student begins a four-
beat improvisation with the last two beats of the first student.

Inner Hearing
1. Teacher sings known phrases of songs in triple meter and students sing back
with rhythm syllables and clapping.
2. Teacher sings known phrases of songs in triple meter and students sing back
with rhythm syllables and conducting.

Visual Practice
Reading from Hand Signs
1. Students sing known song from teacher’s hand signs that includes the new
rhythm pattern.
2. One student sings known song from another student’s hand signs that includes
the new rhythm pattern. 97
Reading
1. Read “Donkey Riding” in traditional rhythm notation.
2. Transform target motif into a related pattern.
3. Read a known song from teacher’s hand signs.
4. Read an unknown songs from teacher’s hand signs.
5. Teacher shows hand signs, and students read after two beats in canon.
6. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
7. Read an unknown song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
8. Transform a known folk song into another folk song.
9. Read the rhythm of a known song and play on a classroom percussion
instrument.
10. Read phrase of a known song with traditional notation and solfège syllables, or
from the staff, that includes new rhythmic pattern and play on the xylophone or
tone bells.
11. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can sing the rhythm syllables using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor.
12. Read the rhythm of a known song in two or three parts. For example, students
can play the rhythm patterns using notes of the tonic chord in major or minor
on the recorder.
13. Read “Circle Round the Zero” and play it on an instrument.
14. Read “Yankee Doodle” on rhythm syllables.
15. Transform the rhythm of phrase 3 and four of “Donkey Riding” into phrases
from “Sail Away Ladies.”
16. Read from 46 Two-part American Folk Songs by Denise Bacon, “Ida Red,” p. 19.

Writing
1. Write “Donkey Riding” in rhythmic notation and include the solfège syllables.
2. Write “Yankee Doodle” in rhythmic notation and include the solfège syllables.
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3 . Write “Donkey Riding” in traditional staff notation.


4. Write rhythm patterns in triple meter in stick and/or traditional rhythmic
notation.
5. Write a known song in stick and/or traditional rhythmic notation.
6. Fill the missing measures of a known song with the correct rhythms.
7. Teacher sings an unknown song and students fill in the missing measures with the
correct rhythms.
8. Students notate rhythm patterns by teacher and add the bar lines.

Improvisation
1. Students improvise the rhythm of the last four beats of any phrase in these
songs: “Sail Away Ladies,” “Circle Round the Zero,” “Yankee Doodle.” A student
writes the improvisation on the board.
2. Teacher claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; students choose
from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
3. One student claps a question phrase and chants rhythm syllables; another student
chooses from four patterns on the board to use as an answering phrase.
98 4. The instructor writes a known folk song in traditional rhythmic notation but
leaves a few measures blank. Students read and clap the rhythm, and one student
improvises four-beat rhythms that use new rhythm pattern for the missing
measures.

Listening
Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn (St. Anthony Chorale), by Johannes Brahms
(1833–1897).
“Soldier’s March,” from Album for the Young, by Robert Schumann (1810–1856).
This piece also includes eighth note rests.
“Feierlich und Gemessen,” from Symphony No. 1, by Gustav Mahler
(1860–1911).
“Norwegian Dance No. 2,” by Edvard Grieg (1843–1907); A section.
“Andante,” from Symphony No. 94, by Joseph Haydn (1732–1809). Check the
variation that uses the dotted rhythm.
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  sqsq\sqq\sqxxxq\sqq>
For dotted eighth and sixteenth notes and reverse, see “Ku-Ku-Ku-kuskám” from
Háry János by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967).

Sight Singing
Micheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka. Sound Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear
Training, Vol. 1. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995, pp. 62–64.

Developing a Lesson Plan Design Based


on the Teaching Strategies
The goal of this section is to show how our model of instruction and learning incorporates
information for developing musical literacy into the preparation/practice and presentation
lesson plan designs.

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Teaching Strategies

In the cognitive phase of learning, students explore a music concept moving through
three stages of learning. In stage 1, they learn to internalize music and construct kinesthetic
awareness. In stage 2, they learn to describe the characteristics of the new concept by con­
structing aural awareness. In stage 3, they construct a representation of the new concept.
The stages of learning in this phase are explored in three lesson plans.
In the associative phase of learning, students learn how to describe the sounds of music
with rhythm or solfège syllables and how to translate these sounds into music notation.
Stage 1 is aural presentation of the new rhythmic or melodic syllables and hand signs using
known song material that contains the target pattern (the most frequent pattern that con­
tains the new element) and related patterns. Stage 2 is visual presentation of the target pat­
tern using traditional notation. Each stage of learning here is explored in a lesson plan.
In the assimilative phase of learning, students practice and gain fluency in integrating
the new element into their vocabulary of other known rhythmic and melodic elements. In
Stage 1, students aurally practice the rhythm or solfège syllables and hand signs for the new
element with music skills. In stage 2, students visually practice the new element with musi­
cal skills. Aural practice should take place independently from visual practice, but visual
practice should never take place without recourse to aural practice. These stages of learning
take place in a concentrated manner over three lessons and may be practiced independently 99
or combined.
Figure 3.24 demonstrates how the phases of learning are reflected in different types of
lessons.

Figure 3.24 Connecting Lessons Plans to Phases of Learning and


Instruction
Phase 1: Cognitive Phase
Preparation
Lesson 1
Stage 1: internalizing music through kinesthetic activities, constructing kinesthetic
awareness.
Ss listen to T sing the new song.
Ss perform the new song with movement.
Rationale: to match patterns of experience to patterns of music.
Lesson 2
Stage 2: describing what you hear: constructing aural awareness by responding to
questions.
Ss aurally analyze the characteristics of the new musical element with T’s help.
Ss describe the characteristics of the new element.
Rationale: to verbalize what they perceive.
Lesson 3
Stage 3: constructing a representation from memory: constructing visual awareness.
Ss create a visual representation based on their aural understanding.
Rationale: to visually represent what they have heard and verbalized.

(continued)
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Figure 3.24 (continued)

Phase 2: Associative Phase
Presentation
Lesson 4
Stage 1: associate the sound of the new element with solfège or rhythmic syllables.
Lesson 5
Stage 2: associate traditional notation with the sound of the new musical element.
After lesson 5, the new element is now referred to as a known element.

Phase 3: Assimilative Phase
Practice
After the fifth lesson, T begins with the introduction of another new element in
Preparation/Practice and Presentation lesson plan cycle. During the practice segments of
these lessons, T assimilates the known element.
Stage 1: Ss aurally practice music skills, assimilating the new element, in familiar and
100 new songs.
Stage 2: Ss visually practice music skills, assimilating the new element, in familiar and new songs.

The lesson plan designs and lesson plans below represent how students begin the
process of understanding the sounds of a new element before learning how to notate
the new element. These plans show where the various phases and the stages of learning
take place. We will include after each plan design a lesson plan segment from an actual
lesson plan so you can see how these ideas translate into practical applications in the
classroom. For the purposes of showing you examples of lesson plans, we use these
elements:

New element Grade 4, Unit 4, dotted quarter and eighth note


Known element Grade 4, Unit 4, la pentatonic
New element Grade 4, Unit 5, teaching fa
Known element Grade 4, Unit 5, dotted quarter and eighth note

Lesson 1: Kinesthetic
Table 3.8 shows the lesson plan design for developing a preparation/practice lesson plan
framework for cognitive phase of learning, stage 1.

Table 3.8 

Outcome
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
(Continued)

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.8 (continued)

Develop tuneful
singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known
songs and elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Preparation of new Cognitive Phase, Stage 1
concept Ss listen to the instructor sing the focus song.
Develop knowledge Ss perform the focus song with a movement that demonstrates the
of music literacy concept.
concepts Rationale: to match patterns of experience to patterns of music.
Internalize music 101
through kinesthetic
activities
Creative movement
Practice music
performance and
literacy skills
Reading and
listening
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson
outcomes
Review the new song

Table 3.9 shows a lesson plan for developing a preparation/practice lesson plan frame­
work for cognitive phase of learning, stage 1.

Table 3.9  Grade 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize the concept of two sounds distributed


over two beats (the second sound occurring after the second beat)
through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: read a la pentatonic melody.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
(Continued)
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Table 3.9 (continued)

Develop tuneful
singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known
songs and rhythmic
elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge “Liza Jane”
of music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Internalize music • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
102 through kinesthetic • Ss sing and clap the rhythm of the chorus in canon.
activities • T directs half the class to sing and clap the rhythm while the
remainder sing and perform the beat. Switch. Ss sing and
perform the beat and rhythm in canon.
• Ss sing the target phrase and point to a representation on
the board.
________ __ ____ ____
• Four to six Ss come to the board to point to the representation
while the class sings together.
• Ss sing the first four beats of the target phrase with solfège
syllables and hand signs (high do so la so).
• Ss sing these four pitches as straight quarter notes.
• Ss use this melodic motif as a transition into the next song.
Creative movement
Practice music
performance and
literacy skills
Reading
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson
outcomes
Review the new song

Lesson 2: Aural
Table 3.10 has a lesson plan template for developing a preparation/practice lesson plan for
cognitive phase of learning stage 2.

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.10 

Outcome
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and
elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Preparation of new Cognitive Phase, Stage 2
concept • Describe what you hear. 103
Develop knowledge of • Ss aurally analyze the characteristics of the new musical
music literacy concepts element with the help of the instructor.
Describe what you hear • Ss describe the characteristics of the new element by
answering a series of carefully sequenced questions
from T. In this way, Ss can develop their audiation skills
during the process of answering questions. Students must
inner-hear the focus phrase in order to be able to answer
T’s questions.
Creative movement
Practice music
performance and
literacy skills
Writing
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

Table 3.11 presents a lesson plan for developing a preparation/practice lesson plan for
cognitive phase of learning, stage 2.

Table 3.11  Grade 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze the concept of two sounds distributed over


two beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat,
through aural activities.
Practice: write a la pentatonic scale.
(Continued)
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Table 3.11 (continued)

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Review known songs
and rhythmic elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of “Liza Jane”
music literacy concepts CSP: D
Describe what you hear • Ss continue clapping the rhythm of “Hungarian Canon”
while singing “Liza Jane.”
• Review kinesthetic awareness activities with “Liza Jane.”
104 • T and Ss sing the first four beats of phrase 4 on “loo” while
keeping the beat before asking each of these questions:
• T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (four)
• T: “Andy, which beats have one sound?” (3 and 4)
• T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beats 1 and 2?”
(two sounds)
• T: “Andy, describe the sounds on beats 1 and 2 using the
words long and short.” (the first is long, the second is short)
• Ss clap the rhythm of the rhythm of the entire last phrase
(all eight beats). (long—short ta ta ta di—di ta—ah)
• Ss sing the first four pitches of the target phrase with
solfège syllables (high do so la so).
• Ss continue these four (high do so la so) pitches as a
melodic ostinato into the next song.
Creative movement
Practice music
performance and
literacy skills
Writing
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

Lesson 3: Visual
Table 3.12 presents a lesson plan template for developing a preparation/practice lesson plan
framework for cognitive phase of learning, stage 3.

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.12 

Outcome

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-ups

Sing known songs

Develop tuneful singing


Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and
elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
105
Preparation of new concept Cognitive Phase
Develop knowledge of music Stage 3: Constructing a representation from memory;
literacy concepts constructing visual awareness.
Create a representation of what • Ss create a visual representation of the focus phrase
you hear based on their aural understanding.
Rationale: to visually represent what they have heard and
verbalized.
Creative movement

Practice music performance


and literacy skills
Improvisation
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

Table 3.13 shows a lesson plan for developing a preparation/practice lesson plan frame­
work for cognitive phase of learning, stage 3.

Table 3.13  Grade 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of two sounds


distributed over two beats, the second sound occurring
after the second beat
Practice: improvisation activity based on the la
pentatonic scale

(Continued)
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Table 3.13 (continued)

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and .
rhythmic elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of music “Liza Jane”
literacy concepts CSP: F-sharp
106 Create a representation of what • Ss sing the song while continuing the ostinato.
you hear • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
• Review kinesthetic and aural awareness
activities.
• T sings target phrase on “loo” while Ss pat the beat.
• T: “Use the Unifix cubes to create a picture of what
you heard.”
• Ss work with partners to create a visual of the
target phase.
• Ss sing and point to their representations.
• T selects an individual to draw a representation on
the board.
• T and Ss label all known elements in song.
2$sdsd\sdq\aqa\w\
  sdsd\sdq\aqa\w\
 ---- - \qq\aqa\w\
 ---- - \qq\aqa\w|
• Ss sing “Liza Jane” with rhythm syllables and long
short for the unknown element.
• T sings “Rabbit and the Possum” as a partner
song.
Creative movement
Practice music performance
and literacy skills
Improvisation
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

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Teaching Strategies

Lesson 4: Presentation
Table 3.14 shows a lesson plan template for the associative phase of learning, Stage 1, pre­
sentation. Label the sound.

Table 3.14 

Outcome
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-ups
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and elements
107
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of music literacy Phase 2: Associative Phase: Presentation
concepts Stage 1: associate the sound of the new element
Describe what you hear with solfège or with solfège or rhythmic syllables with a focus
rhythm syllables pattern.
Creative movement
Presentation of music literacy concepts Phase 2: Associative Phase: Presentation
Describe what you hear with solfège or Stage 1: associate the sound of the new element with
rhythm syllables solfège or rhythmic syllables with a related pattern.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

Table 3.15 is a presentation lesson plan for the associative phase of learning, stage 1, pre­
sentation. Label the sound.

Table 3.15  Grade 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label the concept of two sounds distributed over


two beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat with
rhythm syllables.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs

(Continued)
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Table 3.15 (continued)

Develop tuneful
singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs
and rhythmic elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of “Liza Jane”
music literacy concepts CSP: F-sharp
Describe what you hear • Ss sing the song.
with rhythm syllables • Review kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities.
• T: “We call two uneven sounds over two beats where the
108 second sound happens after the second beat ta—di.”
• T sings target phrase with rhythm syllables.
• Ss echo with rhythm syllables.
• Ss sing the last two phrases with rhythm syllables; half the class
sings rhythm syllables and claps the rhythm while the other
half sings the rhythm syllables and performs the beat. Switch.
• Ss conduct and sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• Ss perform the rhythm of the text “O Eliza”
(4$raqq>) as a rhythmic ostinato in the next song.
Creative movement
Presentation of music “John Kanaka”
literacy concepts CSP: A
Describe what you hear • Ss sing “Liza Jane” with rhythm syllables.
with rhythm syllables • T is “reminded” of another song that may have ta—di in it
(“John Kanaka”).
• Ss listen and identify where they hear ta—di in the song.
• Ss sing and clap the rhythm syllables of the song.
• Ss identify and perform known songs with rhythm syllables:
○ “Long Road of Iron”
○ “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
○ “Above the Plain”
○ “Chairs to Mend”
○ “The Birch Tree”
• Ss create ostinati that contain the ra rhythm pattern and
perform them on xylophones as an accompaniment to any
of their known songs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson
outcomes
Review the new song

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Teaching Strategies

Lesson 5: Presentation
Table 3.16 shows a template for a presentation lesson plan for associative phase of learning,
stage 2, a new element.

Table 3.16 

Outcome
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and
elements
109
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of Phase 2: Associative Phase: Presentation
music literacy concepts Stage 2: associate traditional notation with the sound of the
Notate what you hear new musical element in a focus pattern.
Creative movement
Presentation of music Phase 2: Associative Phase: Presentation
literacy concepts Stage 2: associate traditional notation with the sound of the
Notate what you hear new musical element in a related pattern.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

Table 3.17 has a presentation lesson plan for the associative phase of learning, stage 2,
presentation. Present the notation.

Table 3.17  Grade 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 5

Outcome Presentation: notate the concept of two sounds distributed over


two beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat with
rhythm syllables, with a dotted quarter note and an eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
(Continued)
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Table 3.17 (continued)

Sing known songs


Develop tuneful
singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and
rhythmic
elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of “Liza Jane”
music literacy concepts CSP: F-sharp
Notate what you hear • Ss sing the song.
110 • Review aural presentation.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T: “When we have two sounds, where the first is one and
a half beats and the second is half a beat, and the beat is
a quarter note, it can be represented by a dotted quarter
and an eighth note.”
• T presents the dotted quarter and eighth note in standard
notation.
• Ss may briefly practice drawing a dotted quarter and
eighth note.
• T: “Our target phrase would look like this in standard
notation:”
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• Ss read the target phrase with rhythm syllables and
keep beat.
• T: “If we were going to write our target phrase, we would
use stick notation and it would look like this:”
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• Ss read the target phrase in stick notation.
• Ss continue clapping the target phrase for “Liza Jane” as
teacher sings “John Kanaka.”
Creative movement
Presentation of music “Chairs to Mend”
literacy concepts CSP: A
Notate what you hear • Ss sing the song.
• Review aural presentation.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.

(Continued)

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.17 (continued)

• T: “When we have two sounds, where the first is one


and a half beats and the second is half a beat, it can be
represented by a dotted quarter and an eighth note.”
• T presents rhythmic notation for phrase 1.
• Ss read with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• Ss create ostinati that contain the  ra rhythm pattern
and perform them on xylophones as an accompaniment
to any of their known songs.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

The assimilative phase, stages 1 and 2, takes place during the next units. Stages 1 and 2
are integrated into various sections of lessons of the next units. In our lesson plan structure,
we focus on the skills of reading, writing, and improvisation during the next three lessons 111
at the same time as we are preparing another new element to be mastered.

Lesson Segment for Practicing Reading


We use the preparation/practice lesson plan framework, but note how we focus on practic­
ing reading while preparing the next new element (Table 3.18).

Table 3.18  Grade 4, fa, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize a pitch a whole step below so


and a half step above mi through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: read an eight-beat rhythmic pattern containing
a dotted quarter and eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
Diction
Expression
Review known songs and
melodic elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
(Continued)
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Table 3.18 (continued)

Develop knowledge of music


literacy concepts
Internalize music through
kinesthetic activities
Creative movement
Practice music performance “John Kanaka”
and literacy skills CSP: A
Reading • Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• Ss read the rhythm of the song from traditional
rhythmic notation.
2$aqa\ra\qq\w\
  ra\sdsd\qq\w\
  aqa\ra\qq\w\
112   ra\sdsd\qq\w\
  qq\qq\qq\w\
  ra\sdsd\qq\w|
• Ss inner-hear phrases 1, 3, and 5; they sing phrases
2, 4, and 6.
• T erases phrases 1, 3, and 5 and modifies the
rhythm of phrases 2, 4, and 6.
2$  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ\
   ra\sdsd\qq\QQ\
   ra\sdsd\qq\QQ|

• T erases phrase 2, adding in a rhythm.


2$sdsd\qsd\qq\QQ\
  sdsd\qsd\qq\QQ\
  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ\
  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ|
• T: “Listen for this new pattern in the fourth
movement of Tchaikovsky’s Symphony Number 4,
“Finale,” Allegro Con Fuoco.”
• Ss point the rhythm in the air while they hear it in
the music.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review new song

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Teaching Strategies

Lesson Segment for Practicing Writing


We use the preparation/practice lesson plan framework, but note how we focus on practic­
ing writing while preparing the next new element (Table 3.19).

Table 3.19  Grade 4, fa, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze repertoire that contains a pitch a


half step above mi.
Practice: write an eight-beat rhythm pattern
containing a dotted quarter and eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
Diction
113
Expression
Review known songs and
melodic elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of music
literacy concepts
Describe what you hear
Creative movement
Practice music performance and “Liza Jane”
literacy skills CSP: F-sharp
Writing • Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• T isolates phrase 3. Ss pat the beat and sing with
rhythm syllables.
• Ss complete worksheet by writing the rhythm
of phrase 4 of “Liza Jane” or other related song
material.
• Ss play the first four beats of phrase 4 of “Liza
Jane” on a xylophone as an accompaniment to
“Liza Jane.”
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Lesson Segment for Practicing Improvisation


We use the preparation/practice lesson plan framework, but note how we focus on practic­
ing improvisation while preparing the next new element (Table 3.20).

Table 3.20  Grade 4, fa, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of a pitch a half


step above mi and a whole step below so.
Practice: improvise four-beat rhythmic patterns containing
dotted quarter and eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up
Sing known songs
Develop tuneful singing
Tone production
114 Diction
Expression
Review known songs and
melodic elements
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song
Develop knowledge of music
literacy concepts
Create a representation of
what you hear
Creative movement
Practice performance and “Liza Jane”
music literacy skills CSP: F-sharp
Improvisation • Ss sing song.
• Ss sing with rhythm syllables.
• Ss read phrase 4 of the song from standard rhythmic
notation.
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• T uses this as a “question” phrase.
• T reveals the first “answer” for Ss to read (this should
be a close derivative of the “question”).
1. 2$ra\qq\sdsd\qQ|
• T performs the “question,” and Ss perform the
“answer.”
• T performs the “question,” and individual Ss perform
the “answer.”
(Continued)

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Teaching Strategies

Table 3.20 (continued)

• T repeats the same process with the next two


“answers.”
2. 2$ra\ra\qq\qQ|
3. 2$ra\qq\ra\qQ|
• T perform the “question,” and individual Ss perform
an “answer” from the choices above or create
their own.
• T selects one of the improvisations and notates it; Ss
use this as accompaniment for “Liza Jane.”
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes
Review the new song

115
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Chapter  4

Students as Performers
Developing Music Skills and Creative Expression

This chapter provides a quick overview of techniques for developing tuneful singing, reading,
writing, improvisation, playing instruments, creative movement, and listening skills. More
116 detailed activities are included in Chapters 3 and 7 of Kodály Today. Also included are listen-
ing examples that may be used for movement development as well as to develop music literacy
skills. Where possible, music skills should practice all of the rhythmic and melodic elements
outlined in the curriculum for each grade. Grade four elements include knowledge of pitches of
the extended pentatonic scale and the minor pentatonic scale. Rhythmically, students will under-
stand sixteenth notes, sixteenth note and eighth note patterns, internal and external upbeats, and
the concept of subdivision of beat in compound meter.

Tuneful Singing Skills
Posture
1. Balance the head. To accomplish this, the face should look straight ahead. Try several
exercises, such as moving the head up and down and sideways to relax the head and
neck muscles. Stand with your back against a wall and make sure that your head and
the heels of your feet are touching the wall. The head should feel suspended as if you
are a puppet or a balloon. Keep the spine straight.
2. Explain the correct seating position:
Shoulders should be relaxed and rotated toward the back.
Neck muscles should be relaxed.
Tongue should be relaxed in the bottom of the mouth.
Spine should be extended.
Rib cage is lifted.
Be at the edge of your chair when singing.
Feet are on the floor.

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Hands are on the legs.


Eyes are on the conductor.
3. Explain the correct standing position:
Shoulders should be relaxed and rotated toward the back.
Neck muscles should be relaxed.
Tongue should be relaxed in the bottom of the mouth.
Spine should be extended.
Rib cage is lifted.
Arms should dangle freely at the sides. Hands should be relaxed at the sides.
Knees should be relaxed and very slightly bent.
Feet should be firmly placed on the ground and roughly ten to twelve inches
apart. Feet should be slightly apart, less than the width of the shoulders.
Make sure the body is resting on the balls of the feet.
Eyes are on the conductor.

Body Warm-up
1. Body stretches. Teacher explains that students’ shoulders should be kept down, and
they should reach for the stars; each hand should alternate with the other.
2. Shaking arms. Extend arms in from of your body and shake each arm separately.
3. Shoulder roll. Roll each shoulder separately, making a circle.
4. Shrugging shoulders. Shrug your shoulders, hold position for several counts, and
then release. 117
5. Head rolls. Drop head to left shoulder and trace a half circle, moving chin toward
chest and right shoulder.
6. Neck stretch. Drop the right ear to the right shoulder and the left ear to the left
shoulder. Move the neck, making a yes-or-no motion.
7. Facial stretch. Ask students to act surprised. Try to drop your jaw and say mah,
mah, mah several times.
8. Knee flex. Arms should be extended forward and hands should be relaxed; bounce
the body by flexing the knees.
9. Wiggle toes. Wiggle toes inside your shoes.

Breathing
1. Correct breathing posture. Students lie on the floor with a book placed on their
abdominal muscles. When inhaling, the book rises, and when exhaling, the book
lowers. Students should stand and place a hand on the abdominal muscles. They
then exhale and inhale, paying attention to abdominal muscle and not raising
their shoulders. They need to be encouraged to take in a deep breath through
their nose and mouth and not a shallow one. Sometimes it is useful for students to
exhale air against the palm of the hand.
2. Awareness of the diaphragm and other abdominal muscles for breathing. These
exercises will help students understand use of the abdominal muscles for
breathing:
Show students how to sip through a straw correctly and expand their waist.
Show students how to release air using a “sss” or hissing sound.
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Show students how to release air using the words “ha.”


Guide the students to yawn, as this opens up the back of the throat and relaxes
the voice.
3. Sighing. This is a gentle way of using a higher voice than students usually speak with.
Try having them sigh a few times, starting each sigh a little higher than the last.
4 . Practice breathing. Breathe in through the nose for four counts and exhale through
the mouth for four counts.
5 . Consonants. Students echo four-beat patterns of consonants (k-k-k-k, ss-ss-ss-ss,
p-p-p-p, zz-zz-zz-zz, etc.).

Resonance
1. Use of sirens. Imitate the sound of a siren with the voice. Challenge the students to
make soft and loud, high and low, long and short sirens, and sirens that just go up,
just come down, or do both.
2. Falling off a cliff. Pretend you’re falling off a cliff and say “aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
3. Use a ball. Teacher throws a ball from one student to another. Students have to
follow the movement of the ball with their voices.

Tone Production
1. Humming melodic patterns from folk songs. Students hum a pattern from a song,
118 but the last note should be shortened to take a breath and repeat the pattern.
2. Singing known songs with the word yip. Students sing known song with a “yip” sound.
3. Students speak with a “koo” sound. Students repeat “koo” to known rhythm patterns.
4. Students sing with a “koo” sound. Students sing known melodies to a “koo” sound.
5. Lip trills. Teacher directs students to then use lip trills to sing the song.
6. Pure vowel sounds. Sing with known solfège syllables and hand signs.
7. Vowel scales. Unify vowel sounds by singing descending in several pentatonic
scales on “mee,” “meh,” “mah,” “moh,” and “moo.”
8. Combination vowels. Students sing the sequence of “oh-oo-ah” on notes of the
pentatonic scale. For example, students sing the three vowel sounds on mi and
then re and finally do. Pay attention to the jaw on all the vowel sounds. Keep
repeating but singing a minor second higher each time.
9. Extending vocal range. Students practice singing a phrase of a song and repeating
it a minor second higher. Use a pure vowel sound. Each time you repeat, you can
sing another on a new vowel sound.

Diction
1. Tongue twisters sung. Students gain flexibility by singing tongue twisters on one
pitch and repeating at intervals of a minor second.
2. Tongue twisters sung with two voice parts. Students gain flexibility by singing
tongue twisters at the interval of a fourth or fifth.
3. Unvoiced consonants. Students say the unvoiced consonants p, t, and k using
rhythm patterns of songs.

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4. Voiced consonants. Students sing songs using voiced consonants b, d, g, and j using
rhythm patterns of songs.
5. Inner smile. Singing melodic patterns with an inner smile. Ask students to keep
their lips closed and do an inner smile. Using this position, ask them to echo-sing
melodic patterns with this inner smile.
6. Practice singing diphthongs (dominant vowel sound and a lesser vowel sound). For
example, practice saying and singing on a pitch:
How now brown cow?
The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.
7. Singing melodic patterns with an inner smile. Ask students to keep their lips
closed and do an inner smile. Using this position, ask them to echo sing melodic
patterns with this inner smile.
8. Singing using a sustained m or n. Ask students to sing the sequences “Moo-moh,”
“mah meh mee,” and “noo-noh-nah-neh nee” on a sustained note or using notes
of the pentatonic scale.

Tuneful Singing
1. Work with more melodic ostinatos and descants. Students can now begin to work
with simple canons using a smaller range of notes. They can also begin to sing
simple bicinia arrangements of folk songs.
2. Singing phrases of songs on “oh” sound. Students sing phrases of songs on oh
making sure the tone is very light and relaxed. 119
3. Singing with dynamic markings. Students should sing known melodies using the
correct dynamic names and terms:
pp pianissimo
p piano
mp mezzo-piano
mf mezzo-forte
f  forte
ff fortissimo
It is best to sing songs using two very different dynamics: f and p.
4. Sing songs using two part-hand signs. Students sing in two parts from the teacher’s
hand signs.
5. Singing longer phrases. Students sing known songs but combine two phrases into
one phrase.
6. Tempo markings. Students should be taught the Italian terms and English
meanings:
Largo   very slow
Adagio   slow
Andante  moderately slow
Moderato moderate
Allegretto moderately fast
Allegro   fast
Presto   very fast
Students should begin singing known songs using two differing tempi.
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7. Staggered breathing. Students sing on one pitch using the word “loo” and must
learn to breath quietly and enter softly after each breath to maintain the sound
and vowel color.
8. Staccato and legato. Students practice singing songs legato and
staccato.
9. Crescendo and decrescendo. Students should sing songs using crescendo and
decrescendo.

Reading Skills
We distinguish reading as follows: when students read a melody, they know it is referred to
as reading. When the teacher transforms a known melody to create an new and unfamiliar
melody, we refer to this as sight singing.

Reading Rhythms
Reading tradition rhythmic notation from flash card, the interactive SMART Board, or
worksheets. Read a known song from rhythmic notation that includes grade four elements.
The process:

1 . Sing the song and tap the beat.


2. Sing the song with rhythm syllables.
120 3. Tap the beat as the students keep the beat and read the rhythm of
the complete song, or the rhythm of a specific phrase using inner hearing
or aloud.

Transform Rhythm of Known Song into an Unknown Song


Transform a known song into an unknown song by sequentially changing rhythms that
include grade four elements. The process:

1 . Students sing a known song.


2. Teacher erases parts of the song.
3. Students clap the rhythm and say the new rhythm syllables.
4. Teacher transforms to a new rhythm entirely and sings new song.

Form
Present mixed-up phrases of the rhythm of a known song, to have students correctly rear-
range the form. The process:

1 . Teacher presents the phrases out of order.


2. Students identify the song.
3. They arrange the phrases in proper order.
4. Students sing the song.

Inner Hearing
Students can practice inner hearing using both aural and visual activities.

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Students as Performers

Aural Inner-Hearing Exercises


Students chant rhythm of a known melody and inner-hear specific rhythmic motifs sig-
naled or indicated by teacher. The process:

1 . Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
3. Sing song with rhythm syllables; teacher signals which measures to chant silently.

Visual Inner-Hearing Exercises


Students read the rhythmic notation of a known melody and inner-hear certain motifs
indicated by teacher on the reading exercises. The process:

1 . Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
3. Sing song with rhythm syllables from notation; teacher indicates which measures
to chant silently.

Students read the rhythmic notation of an unknown melody and inner-hear certain motifs
indicated by teacher on the reading exercises. The process:

1 . Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
3. Sing song with rhythm syllables from notation; the teacher indicates which 121
measures to chant silently.

Matching
Match song titles to written rhythms that include grade four elements. The process:

1 . List the titles of four songs on the board.


2. Write a phrase from each of the four songs in rhythmic notation.
3. Students match the rhythm to the title of the song.

Error Identification
Students read the rhythm of a known song and identify rhythmic errors that are made by
the teacher. The process:

1 . Teacher or a student writes a sixteen-beat rhythm pattern.


2. Teacher or the student claps a slightly different pattern.
3. Another student must identify the phrases and the beats where the changes occur.

Retrograde
Read a rhythm of a known song in retrograde that includes grade four elements. The process:

1 . Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
3. Sing song with rhythm syllables from notation.
4. Sing song backwards with rhythm syllables from notation.
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Two-Part Rhythm Reading


Students read the rhythm of multiple songs, and they sing one song while reading rhythm
of another. The process:

1 . Students sing known song A.


2. Divide class into two groups. One group claps rhythm of song B while other sings
song A. Reverse.
3. Students sing song A and clap rhythm of song B.

Students read two-part rhythmic notation that includes grade four concepts. The process:

1 . Students speak each part all together on rhythm names.


2. Divide class into two groups. One group claps rhythm of upper part while other
claps rhythm of lower. Reverse.
3. Students chant the rhythm to the upper part and clap rhythm of lower part.

Canon
1 . Students say the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm from notation.
2. Students think the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
3. Students think and clap the rhythm while the teacher taps it in canon.
4. The teacher claps the rhythm while the students clap it in canon.
5. Divide the class into two groups. One half claps the rhythm while the other half claps
in canon so that the teacher can observe any students who may be having difficulty.
122 6. Individuals may then perform the rhythmic canon saying the rhythm syllables
while clapping it in canon.

Melodic Reading
Hand Signs
Sing a known and an unknown song from teacher’s hand signs, to include grade four con-
cepts. The process:

1 . Teacher sings on “loo” and shows hand signs for a phrase of music.
2. Students sing with solfège and hand signs.

Tone Ladder
Teacher points to a pattern on the tone ladder that includes grade four concepts. The process:

1 . Teacher points to notes of a known song on the tone ladder.


2. Students can sing each note or should wait to sing the melodic motif.
3. Students sing with solfège and hand signs.

Reading Traditional Rhythmic Notation with Solfège Syllables


Students read known melodies from flash cards or from the SMART Board, to include
grade four elements. They sing known elements using solfège and hand signs. The process:

1 . Students sing the known song with rhythm syllables.


2. The teacher points to the notation, keeping the beat while the students read the
rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.

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Students as Performers

3. The teacher points to the notation, keeping the beat while the students clap the
rhythm.
4. The students locate the highest and lowest notes.
5. The teacher provides the starting pitch and may have the students sing the tone set.
6. Students read the melody from the teacher’s hand signs. The teacher may hum an
occasional note to help the students.
7. The students read and perform the exercise aloud singing with solfège syllables.
8. The students perform the exercise aloud, singing on a neutral syllable.

Flash Cards and SMART Board


Students read unknown melodies from flash cards or a SMART board that include grade
four elements. They sing known element using solfège and hand signs. The process:

1. The instructor points to the notation, keeping the beat while the students read the
rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
2. The instructor points to the notation, keeping the beat while the students clap the
rhythm.
3. The students locate the highest and lowest notes.
4. The instructor provides the starting pitch and may have the students sing the
tone set.
5. Students read from the melody from the instructor’s hand signs. The instructor
may hum an occasional note to help the students.
6. The students read and perform the exercise aloud singing with solfège syllables. 123
7. The students perform the exercise aloud singing on a neutral syllable.

Reading from Finger Staff
Sing a song while showing placement on finger staff that can include grade four concepts.
The process:

1 . Teacher sings with solfège syllables and shows placement on finger staff.


2. Students sing with solfège syllables and show placement on finger staff.

Reading from the Staff
Students read known melodies with solfège syllables and letter names from the staff that
include grade four elements. Students sing using solfège syllables and hand signs.
Students read unknown melodies with solfège syllables and letter names from the staff that
include grade four elements. Students sing using solfège syllables and hand signs. The process:

1 . Students sing the known songs with rhythm syllables.


2. The instructor points to the notation, keeping the beat while the students read the
rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
3. The instructor points to the notation, keeping the beat while the students clap the
rhythm.
4. The students sing the known song with solfège syllables.
5. The students locate the highest and lowest notes.
6. The instructor provides the starting pitch and may have the students sing the
tone set.
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7. Students read from the melody from the instructor’s hand signs.


8. Teacher reviews the Rule of Placement for the students, and they read the notes
of the melody from the tone set written on the staff.
9. The students show the hand signs and use their inner hearing while the
instructor points to keep the beat. The instructor may hum an occasional note to
help the students.
10. The students read the known song from the staff aloud, singing with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
11. The students perform the exercise aloud, singing on a neutral syllable.

Transform a Melody
Transform a known song into an unknown song by sequentially changing rhythms and
pitches. This can accomplished using traditional rhythmic notation and solfège syllables or
from the staff. The process:

1. Sing known song.
2. Teacher transforms parts of song.
3. Students clap rhythm, say new rhythm syllables, and sing with solfège syllables.
4. Teacher transforms additional parts of a new melody. Students sing new song.

Form
Present mixed-up phrases of a known song written with traditional rhythmic notation and
124 solfège or on the staff, and students correctly rearrange the song. The process:

1. Teacher presents phrases out of order.


2. Students identify the song.
3. They arrange in proper order.
4. Sing song.

Inner Hearing
Aural Activities
Students read a known song from the teacher’s hand signs with solfège syllables and “hide”
a specific melodic motif that is indicated by the teacher. Melodic notes include notes from
the grade four curriculum.
Students read an unknown song from the teacher’s hand signs and “hide” a specific
melodic motif that is indicated by the teacher. Melodic notes include notes from the grade
four curriculum. The process:

1. Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. Sing song with solfège syllables and teacher will signal which measures to sing silently.

Visual Activities
Students read a known song from rhythmic notation and solfège, or staff, and “hide” a spe-
cific motif that include notes of the grade four curriculum. Students read from the staff and
sing on solfège with hand signs.

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Students read an unknown song from rhythmic notation and solfège, or staff and “hide”
a specific motif that include notes of the grade four curriculum. Students read from the staff
and sing on solfège with hand signs. The process:

1. Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with rhythm syllables and solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. Sing song with syllables from notation; teacher indicates which measures to sing
silently.

Matching
Match song titles to written melodies that include notes of the grade four curriculum. The
process:

1. Teacher write phrases on board.


2. Students identify sections from known songs.

Error Identification
Students read a known song and identify rhythmic or melodic errors that include notes of
the grade four curriculum. The process:

1. The instructor or a student writes a sixteen-beat melody on the board.


2. Teacher or students sings, changing the notes.
3. Another student must identify the phrases and the beats where the changes occur. 125

Reading a Two-Part Known Melody from Rhythmic


Notation and Solfège Syllables.
Students read two-part songs in rhythmic notation with solfège that include notes of the
grade four curriculum. They sing the known song with rhythm syllables and solfège syllables.

1. The instructor points to the notation of the upper part, keeping the beat while
the students read the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
2. The instructor points to the notation of the lower part, keeping the beat while
the students read the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
3. Students clap the upper part and teacher claps the lower part. Reverse.
4. Divide the class into two groups. One group claps the upper part and the other
group claps the lower part. Reverse.
5. Students read the upper part from the teacher’s hand signs.
6. Students read the lower part from the teacher’s hand signs.
7. Students read the upper part from the teacher’s hand signs while teacher sings
the lower voice. Reverse.
8. Students read the upper part with hand signs while teacher sings the lower voice.
Reverse.
9. Divide the class into two groups. One group sings the upper part and the other
group the lower part. Reverse.
10. One student sings the upper voice part and shows the hand signs for the lower
part. Reverse.
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Reading a Two-Part Known Melody from Staff Notation


Students read two-part songs from staff with solfège syllables that include notes of the
grade four curriculum. They sing the known song with rhythm syllables and solfège sylla-
bles. The process:

1. The instructor points to the notation of the upper part, keeping the beat while
the students read the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
2. The instructor points to the notation of the lower part, keeping the beat while
the students read the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
3. Students clap the upper part and teacher claps the lower part. Reverse.
4. Divide the class into two groups. One group claps the upper part and the other
group claps the lower part. Reverse.
5. Students read with solfège the upper part from the teacher’s hand signs.
6. Students read with solfège the lower part from the teacher’s hand signs.
7. Students read with solfège the upper part from the teacher’s hand signs while
teacher sings the lower voice. Reverse.
8. The students locate the highest and lowest notes.
9. The instructor provides the starting pitch and may have the students sing the
tone set.
10. Teacher reviews the Rule of Placement for the students, and they read the notes
of the upper and lower parts from the tone set written on the staff.
126 11. Students read the upper part with hand signs while teacher sings the lower voice.
Reverse.
12. Divide the class into two groups. One group sings the upper part and the other
group the lower part. Reverse.
13. One student sings the upper voice part and shows the hand signs for the lower
part. Reverse.

Inner-Hearing Skills
Hand Signs
1. Students follow teacher’s hand signs of known songs and inner-hear solfège.
2. Students follow and sing teacher’s hand signs and inner-hear specific solfège
syllables.
3. Teacher shows hand signs for a whole known song, and students inner-hear and
recognize the song.
4. Students “sing” the indicated measures of a song using inner hearing.

Tone Ladder
1. Students follow teacher pointing to tone ladder and inner-hear solfège.
2. Students follow and sing from the tone ladder and inner-hear specific solfège
syllables.
3. Teacher points out a whole song on the tone ladder and students inner-hear and
recognize the song.

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Rhythmic Notation or Staff Notation


1 . Students recognize a song from inner-hearing rhythmic or staff notation.
2. Sight sing and memorize a simple melodic pattern without hearing it aloud.

Flash Cards and SMART Board


1 . Students inner-hear from flash card patterns.
2. Students sing three of the four melodic flash cards and inner-hear the last card,
and then switch the last card to something new and repeat.

Rhythm
1. Teacher claps rhythm for a known song and students inner-hear and recognize
the song.
2. Teacher sings part of a known song, and students inner-hear solfège syllables and
clap the rhythm for the second phrase.

Melody
1. Students inner-hear solfège written out without rhythmic notation and recognize
the song.
2. They inner-hear a song written with traditional notation and solfège syllables. 127
3. They inner-hear a song written on the staff.

Additional Inner-Hearing Activities


1. Sing a melody with solfège syllables; the teacher indicates where students should
sing the melody silently.
2. Students read from a score, but the instructor indicates where they should sing
silently with inner hearing.
3. The teacher sings or plays a melody and the students have to remember the first
note. This exercise can be extended from short to longer motifs.
4. Students sing a well-known song, and teacher claps a four-beat ostinato. Students must
clap and sing known song. This activity can be extended to an eight-beat ostinato.
5. Students sing a series of notes, and the teacher plays a series of notes above or
below those. Students must identify the intervals of the solfège of the melody sung
or performed by the teacher.

Writing Skills
Writing Rhythm
Manipulatives
Students use manipulatives to create a visual representation of a new concept. The process:

1 . Teacher sings focus pattern on neutral syllable.


2. Students use Unifix cubes or SMART Boards to create representation.
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Fill in the Blank
Fill in the blanks of a known song. The process:

1 . Teacher and students sing song.


2. Teacher sings song on “loo” and students echo-sing with rhythm syllables.
3. Teacher has written song with missing measure or measures, and students fills in
missing measures.

Traditional Rhythmic Notation


Students write the rhythmic notation of known and unknown motifs that include notes of
the grade four curriculum. The process:

1 . Sing the song and keep the beat.


2. The students sing the phrase and clap the beat.
3. The students sing the phrase and clap the rhythm.
4. The students sing the phrase with rhythm syllables.
5. Students can draw a representation of the rhythm
6. Teacher reviews how to write different sounds on the beat.
7. Students write the phrase with stick notation.
8. Students add note heads.
9. Students read notation with rhythm syllables.

128
Writing Melody
Manipulatives
Students use manipulatives to create a visual representation of a new concept. The
process:

1 . Teacher sings focus pattern on neutral syllable.


2. Students use Unifix cubes or SMART Boards to create representation.

Tone Set
Write the tone set of a song on the board as it is being performed that includes elements of
the grade four curriculum. The process:

1 . Sing song with text.


2. Sing song with solfège
3. Inner-hear the song.
4. Student goes to the board and writes down highest to lowest pitch in the song.

Traditional Notation with Solfège Syllables


Students write the rhythmic notation with solfège syllables of a known or unknown song
that includes elements of the grade four curriculum. The process:

1 . Sing the song and keep the beat.


2. The students sing the phrase and clap the beat.
3. They sing the phrase and clap the rhythm.

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4. They sing the phrase with rhythm syllables.


5. They can draw a representation of the rhythm.
6. Teacher reviews how to write different sounds on the beat.
7. Students write the phrase with stick notation.
8. They add note heads.
9. They read notation with rhythm syllables.
10. They sing the known phrase with solfège syllables.
11. Students sing example and add solfège syllables.
12. Practice the example on the hand staff.
13. Teacher presents students with the note heads on the staff and students add
the stems.
14. Present students with the rhythmic notation and students add the solfège
syllables.
15. Present notes on the staff, and students must add the note heads and stems
to notes.
16. Simultaneously sing and write the melodic phrase on the staff.

Fill in the Blank
Students complete the empty measures of a known song with traditional notation and
solfège or on the staff. The process:

1. Teacher and students sing song.


2. Teacher sings song on “loo” and students echo-sing with rhythm and solfège 129
syllables while conducting.
3. Teacher has written song with missing measure or measures, and students fill in
missing measures.

Writing a Pentatonic Scale
Write a scale on the staff.

1. Teacher writes known song on the board.


2. Students sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. They identify the tone set.
4. They identify steps and skips on the tone ladder.
5. Teacher reviews the Rule of Placement for notes of the scale.
6. Students write the corresponding scale, marking the skips and steps on the staff.

Writing Major or Minor Scales


Write a scale with correct half and whole steps, with appropriate accidentals.

1. Teacher writes known song on the board.


2. Students sing with solfège and hand signs.
3. They identify the tone set.
4. Students identify half and whole steps on the tone ladder.
5. Teacher reviews the Rule of Placement for notes on the staff.
6. Students write the notes on the staff by associating a solfège syllable with each
note of the scale.
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7. They indicate the half and whole steps.


8. They add the appropriate accidentals.

Staff Notation
Students write staff notation that includes elements of the grade four curriculum. The
process:

1. Sing the song and keep the beat.


2. The students sing the phrase and clap the beat.
3. They sing the phrase and clap the rhythm.
4. They sing the phrase with rhythm syllables.
5. They identify the meter and sing the phrase with rhythm syllables and conduct.
6. They can draw a representation of the rhythm.
7. Teacher reviews how to write different sounds on the beat.
8. Students write the phrase with stick notation.
9. They add note heads, meter, and bar lines.
10. They read notation with rhythm syllables.
11. They sing the known phrase with solfège syllables.
12. They sing example and write in the solfège syllables beneath the rhythmic notation.
13. Teacher reviews Rule of Placement for students for a given do or la position.
14. Students sing song with solfège syllables and point to notes on the finger staff.
15. Students write the notes heads on the staff and then add the stems.
130 16. Students sing the notation with solfège syllables and hand signs.

Improvisation Skills
Rhythm Improvisation
Choose Alternate Ending
Students clap the rhythm of a known song and choose an alternate ending from four choices
that contain the musical element being practiced in a four-beat pattern. The process:

1. Students sing known song.


2. They identify the form.
3. They sing the song with rhythm syllables.
4. They sing the song with rhythm syllables but choose an alternative rhythmic
ending from four choices.

Rhythm Chain
Students improvise rhythm patterns. The process:

1. Students clap a four-beat rhythm pattern, one after the other, without pause,
using known rhythmic patterns.
2. In another version, students clap a four-beat rhythm pattern, one after the other,
without pause, using known rhythmic patterns; but a student must repeat the
four beats of the previous student.

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Improvise Rhythmic Ostinato


Students create a rhythmic ostinato to known songs. The process:

1 . Students sing a known song.


2. Teacher demonstrates an improvised rhythmic ostinato.
3. Students create their own rhythmic ostinato based.
4. Individuals perform rhythmic ostinato on a classroom percussion instrument
while class sings known song.

Improvise Rhythmic Pattern to Known Songs


Students are challenged to fill in the missing measures of known songs with improvised
rhythms. The process:

1. Students are given the rhythmic notation of a known song. (Some of the measures
contain only “heartbeats” or beat bars.)
2. They sing the song, performing the rhythm where it is notated and patting the
beat elsewhere.
3. They perform the rhythm where it is notated, and improvise elsewhere.

Question and Answer
Students create a rhythmic question and answer. The process:

1. Clap a four-beat rhythmic question to the student; he or she must respond by 131
clapping back a four-beat answer.
2. Students may do this exercise without naming any of the rhythms. Later, they can
clap their answer and say rhythm syllables. Question-and-answer conversations
can continue as a chain around the class.

Improvise New Rhythms for Phrases of Known Form


Improvise new rhythmic phrases to a known form. The process:

1 . Teacher assigns each student a phrase of the form ABA’C.


2. Student 1 claps the rhythm of the A phrase.
3. Student 2 improvises phrase B.
4. Student 3 improvises a variant for phrase A’.
5. Student 4 improvises phrase C.

Creating a New Rhythmic Composition Based on a Form Provided by the


Instructor
Students improve rhythms to a new form. The process:

1. The instructor provides students with an A phrase (question) that is four beats
long and asks students to improvise a B phrase (answer). This may be turned into
a larger improvisation exercise using the form ABAC.
2. The instructor may specify a longer composition, an AABA composition.
3. This could be performed as a group activity or could be performed by an individual
student. This exercise should be based on song material the class is studying.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Improvisation
Students improvise a new rhythm while reading. The process:

1 . Place a series of four flash cards on the board.


2. Three of the flash cards have a rhythm written on them; the third card is blank.
3. Ask students to clap flash cards 1, 2, and 4 while an individual student improvises
a four-beat rhythm pattern for flash card 3. (When beginning this activity,
consider putting four beats on the third card and ask them to change only
one beat.)

Change Meter
Students perform a known song in a different meter. The process:

1 . Students sing known song in duple meter.


2. They sing with rhythm syllables and conduct.
3. They sing in new meter, changing the rhythm syllables.

Melodic Improvisation
Improvise Melodic Ostinato
Students create a four- or eight-beat melodic ostinato with known melodic elements. The
process:
132
1 . Students sing known song with text.
2. They sing known song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. Teacher sings a melodic ostinato, and students sing known song with solfège and
hand signs.
4. Teacher sings song and students improvise a new melodic ostinato.

Choose Alternate Ending
Students sing a known song and choose an alternate ending from four options that contain
the musical element being practiced in a four-beat pattern. Teacher gives students a series
of choices with just the beginning note and ending note. The process:

1 . Students sing known song with text.


2. They sing known song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. They sing known song with solfège syllables and hand signs but only tap beats for
the last phrase.
4. They sing known song with solfège syllables and hand signs, but
choose to complete the ending for the song from four options provided by
teacher.

Improvise New Phrases to Known Form


Improvise phrases in a known song. The process:

1 . Teacher assigns each student a phrase of the form ABA’C.


2. Student 1 sings phrase A.

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3 . Student 2 improvises phrase B.


4. Student 3 improvises a variant for phrase A’.
5. Student 4 improvises phrase C.

Improvise New Form
Improvise a new form for a known song. The process:

1 . Students sing known song.


2. They analyze the form of the known song.
3. They change the form.
4. They perform the song with a different form.

Question and Answer
Students create an answer to a question. The process:

1. Teacher establishes the beat and sings a four-beat melody; students respond with a
different four-beat melody.
2. Sing a pattern and ask the students to change one beat. (This can also be done
visually and may be easier for some students.)
3. As students become more proficient, teacher lengthens the phrase or
changes the tempo. This leads to performance of melodic conversations.
Question-and-answer conversations can continue as a chain around the
class. Remember that it is best to begin the exercise using forms with these 133
ending notes:
Major improvisations:
A ends on so; A’ ends on do.
A ends on r; B ends on do.
Minor improvisations:
A ends on mi; B ends on low la.
A ends on ti; B ends on low la.

Song in Different Meter
Students sing known songs in a different meter from the original. The process:

1 . Students sing known song. Teacher sings song in the new meter.


2. Teacher asks students to sing in a different meter, i.e., 2$ instead of 33$.
3. Students perform the song in the new meter.

New Tonality
Students perform a known song in a different tonality, for example, singing a major penta-
chord song in the parallel minor key. The process:

• Students sing a known song with text in a major key.


• Students sing known song with solfège and hand signs.
• Teacher transforms song to minor key.
• Students practice.
• Repeat process with other known songs.
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Create Movement to a Given Form


Create movements that correlate to the form of a song or piece of music. The process:

1 . Students sing known song.


2. Discuss the form.
3. Students create movements for each section of the song (i.e., verse or refrain).
4. Students perform the song with movements.

Musical Memory
Memorizing by Reading Hand Signs
Show typical melodic and rhythmic patterns and ask the students to sing patterns back that
include elements of the grade four curriculum. The process:

1 . Select a melody and show it with hand signs.


2. Students sing from hand signs in solfège syllables.
3. Students sing in canon with hand signs with solfège syllables.
4. Students sing in canon with hand signs with letter names.
5. Students write the melody from memory.

Memorization from Rhythmic Notation


134
Students look at a rhythmic score and memorize it. The process:

1 . Students inner-hear the notation with rhythm syllables.


2. They identify the form.
3. They chant the rhythm syllables out loud.
4. They chant the example with rhythm syllables from memory.
5. They may write the rhythm using rhythmic notation.

Memorization from Rhythmic Notation with Solfège Syllables


Students memorize a new piece of music from notation. The process:

1. Students look at a score and memorize a phrase of the musical example by silently
singing in their head using hand signs.
2. They identify the form.
3. They sing the example with hand signs from memory.
4. They may write the melody using rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.

Memorizing from Staff Notation


Students memorize a new piece of music from staff notation. The process:

1. Students look at a score and memorize a phrase of the musical example by silently
singing in their head using hand signs.

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2. If some phrases of the musical example are known and others unknown, the
students may sing the known phrases and the teacher may sing the unknown
phrases. They listen and learn the unfamiliar phrases.
3. They may write the melody using rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.

Inner-Hearing Memorization
Students are given an unknown piece that contains known elements to learn without sing-
ing aloud. The process:

1 . Students inner-hear the example with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
2. They inner-hear example with solfège syllables and hand signs.
3. They identify the form of the example.
4. They write down the example from memory.

Memorizing by Ear
Teacher plays a musical phrase on the piano, and students memorize by ear by following
this process:

1 . Students identify the meter.


2. They sing the example with rhythm syllables.
3. They identify the solfège syllables for the ending and starting pitches. 135
4. They sing the example with solfège syllables and hand signs.
5. They sing the example with absolute pitch names and hand signs.
6. They write the exercise or play it back on the piano.

Memorizing Two-Part Rhythmical Examples


Here is a process that may be used to memorize a two-part rhythm:

1 . Sing the selected extracts in two parts.


2. Memorize one part silently, using rhythmic syllables.
3. Sing the memorized part out loud while conducting.
4. Practice the other part, following steps 1 through 3.
5. Say and clap both parts in a group and then as solos, using rhythmic syllables.
6. Write both parts of the musical example.
7. Clap one part and say the second part with rhythm syllables.

Memorizing Two-Part Musical Examples


This process may be used for memorizing a two-part musical example written on the staff
or in traditional rhythmic notation and solfège:

1 . Sing the selected extracts in two parts.


2. Memorize one part silently, using rhythm and solfège syllables.
3. Sing the part out loud while conducting.
4. Practice the other part, following steps 1 through 3.
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5. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the upper part and group 2 sings
the lower part. Reverse.
6. One student can sing one part and show the hand signs for another.
7. Write both parts of the musical example.
8. Sing one part and play the other on the piano.

Understanding Form
Identifying Form with Letters
Use letter names to identify the form in more complex songs.
Students should be guided to aurally and visually recognize simple song forms such as
AABA, ABAB, and ABAC. Understanding form is valuable in helping students develop
their musical memory. For example, “Great Big House in New Orleans” is in ABAC. This
form is clearly audible when performed with a breath every two measures. The process:

1. Sing known songs.
2. Sing known songs and show the phrases.
3. Identify each phrase with a letter name.

Comparing Forms
136 It is important for students to compare the forms of the folk songs they are singing. The
process:

1 . Students sing known songs.


2. Teacher writes form on the board.
3. Students write form on the board.
4. Teacher sings two songs, and students categorize them by notating form on board.

Changing a Folk Song
Is it important to identify the form of a song with children. This becomes an important
component for improvisation. The process:

1. Students label the form of a folk song. For example, the form of the “Canoe
Round” is ABAC.
2. Teacher erases the C and have students create a new C ending.
3. Students label the form of the new folk song and change the song to reflect a new form.

Movement
It is important for students to create new movements to known songs. They should identify
the form of the song so that the new movements will reflect the form. The process:

1 . Students label the form of a known folk dance.


2. They create a dance to show the form of the music.
3. They are in groups of four and stand in the shape of a diamond. They all face
the same direction, and lead students improvise movement for phrase A that

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everyone copies. At the end of phrase A, students turn to the right, giving the
group a new leader. If the second phrase is the same as A, then the leader does
the same movement from A; if it’s a new phrase the leader will create a new
movement for all to follow. This pattern repeats until all children have been the
leader. Teacher leads the music by signing or playing an instrument.

Part-Work Skills
As you begin to implement these activities into your lessons, follow this teaching sequence:

1. Teacher and class.
2. Class and teacher.
3. Divide the class into two groups, each performing its own part. Switch.
4. Two small ensembles, each performing its own part.
5. Two students, each performing its own part.

This section gives techniques and activities that are divided between simpler and more
advanced part work. The activities are useful for helping students learn simpler repertoire.
Once they have mastered these activities with easier repertoire, the transition to perform-
ing more complex musical examples will occur more quickly.

Keep a Beat 137
Sing a folk song while marching, walking, or in some way moving to the beat. Performing a
song while keeping the beat requires students to concentrate on two tasks at the same time.
This activity is valuable in both the classroom and the choral rehearsal.

Keep a Beat and Demonstrate Music Comparatives


Once students can sing and perform the beat both accurately and musically, add the task of
altering tempo and dynamics. To accomplish this, the students will need a strong founda-
tion in being able to demonstrate music comparatives such as slow and fast, high and low,
loud and soft, duple meter beat (marching), and compound meter beat.

Call-and-Response or Antiphonal Singing


Although students perform only one phrase of music in a call-and-response song, they
must eventually learn to sing both phrases if they are going to be able to sing rhythmically
and musically. Developing this ability requires audiation practice (using inner hearing).
Call-and-response singing may be applied to folk songs (you may also think of call and
response as responsorial singing). Some simple examples of call-and-response songs are
“Skin and Bones,” “Charlie over the Ocean,” and “Pizza, Pizza.”

Pointing to a Beat
Perform or point to a visual of the beat in a song while singing. This “tracking” ability pro-
motes more fluent music reading and reading in general. Students may also keep the beat
by performing it on a percussion instrument.
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Clapping the Rhythm
Sing a song while clapping the rhythm. This can be accomplished in a number of ways.
Students need to perform this activity musically, and always according to the phrase. They
may sing while clapping (we suggest clapping with two fingers) the rhythm or performing
the rhythm on a percussion instrument. Two students may perform a simple folk song, one
performing the beat while the other does the rhythm; use different timbres for beat and
rhythm. The teacher may write the rhythm of a known song on the board and place the beat
below the rhythmic notation. Two students can go to the board and perform the song, with
one pointing to the beat and the other to the rhythm.

Tapping on a Specified Beat


When students are singing familiar melodies, ask them to tap on the strong beats while
singing. Or they might tap on the rests in a known song or the beginning of each phrase.
This activity may also be done with a music instrument.

Singing the Final Note of a Composition


The teacher sings a known melody but does not sing the final note; students must fill it in.
This activity helps them understand the tonal strength of each note. An interesting activity
is to have students explore alternative endings to known compositions. This strengthens
138 their understanding of harmonic functions and voice leading.

Finding the Tonic Note of a Composition


This exercise can be performed with known songs, known canons, or new songs. The teacher
sings a known song to the students and stops in the middle. Students must identify the tonic of
the melody. They sing a canon; the teacher signals a pause. Students then must sing the tonic note.

Creating Organ Points on a Specified Beat


Guide students to sing the first note of each phrase of a known composition on neutral
syllable or to sustain a note in phrase for the length of the phrase. This could be the tonic
note of the known melody. This activity is most successful when the students sing and the
teacher provides an accompaniment for students.

Rhythmic Ostinato
An ostinato is a repeated rhythmic or melodic motive used to accompany a song. Here we
offer a procedure for performing a rhythmic ostinato. Singing songs with hand-clapping
movements can also be included in this category. For example, the singing game “Four
White Horses” has specified hand-clapping movements to perform while singing the song.
Depending on the age of the students, you may use several ostinatos together.
The students sing the melody while the teacher claps a rhythmic ostinato or sings a
melodic ostinato. (It is important, when teaching students a knowledge of rhythm, that
the students do not develop their knowledge of rhythm on the basis of visual clues. The

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teacher should always make sure the students hear the new rhythm pattern being clapped,
as opposed to it being seen.) Use this process:

1. The students sing the melody while the teacher claps a rhythmic ostinato or sings
a melodic ostinato.
2. The students and the teacher exchange parts.
3. Divide the students into two groups, one group to sing and the other to perform
the ostinato. Switch tasks.
4. Two students perform the work.
5. One student sings while performing the second part. More advanced students can
perform the ostinato on percussion.

Performing Rhythm Canons Based on Simple Rhythms


These canons are based on simple rhymes or rhythms of very simple melodies. Begin the
canon after one measure. Rhythm syllables can be used to perform the canons. It is use-
ful to practice both types of canons with familiar material before moving to unknown
repertoire. Although the rhythm of many folk songs can work well when performed
in canon, the best songs for this type of activity are those that have a rest at the end of
every phrase. A good example is “Bow Wow Wow.” Perform the canon with two timbres.
The process:

1. Teacher and class. 139


2. Class and teacher.
3. Divide the class into two groups; each performs its own part. Switch.
4. Two small ensembles, each performing its own part.
5. Two students, each performing one part.
6. Have the students begin to clap the rhythm of a simple song; the teacher can clap
in canon. Once they are comfortable with hearing the canon, the teacher and
students can reverse roles. Canons maybe performed kinesthetically, aurally, and
visually, or using a combination of techniques.

Performing a Kinesthetic Canon (Body Canon)


The teacher performs a rhythm with a beat motion for every four beats. The students follow
in canon, performing the rhythm as well as the beat motion. For example, say “Ali Baba
forty thieves” while tapping four beats. Now say it and tap the beats on different parts of
your body, and have students imitate. Once students are proficient at this activity, perform
it in canon after four beats with text. You could also perform a rhythm and have students
clap it back after two or four beats.

Performing a Visual Rhythm Canon with Rhythm Syllables


The goal of this activity is for students to read a rhythm in canon. The canon can be per-
formed with the teacher and students, or just the students. To perform a rhythm canon
visually, have students read rhythm flash cards of the rhyme or melody to be used for
the canon. The teacher should keep a steady pulse but show the card quickly and move
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on to the next card while the students are still performing the rhythm of the first card.
In other words, give the students a brief look at every card in succession. The speed of
this process may be increased so that the students are always saying something different
from what they are seeing. Students should perform the canon by reading with rhythm
syllables.

Performing an Aural Rhythm Canon with Rhythm Syllables


Performing aural canons can be more challenging than visual canons. Aural rhythm canons
are performed without the aid of notation. If a motion is attached to a phrase, the exercise
is simple to perform. Echo clapping is a preliminary preparation for aural canon work. This
task can be made more complex by having students clap back the rhythm while chanting or
singing the rhythm syllables.

Performing Simple Rhythm Canons Based on Simple Folk Songs


These canons are based on the rhythms of very simple melodies. Rhythm syllables can be
used to perform the canons. Here is a procedure for performing a rhythmic canon:

1 . Perform the song with actions and words.


2. Sing the song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
3. Say rhythm syllables while clapping the rhythm.
140 4. Think the rhythm syllables and clap the rhythm.
5. Teacher taps the rhythm using a drum or wood block; students clap and say the
rhythm syllables beginning after four beats.
6. Teacher writes the canonic part below the notation of the song. T: “Where
should we begin writing the second part? What should be written in the empty
measures?”
7. Teacher and students may perform in canon after two beats.
8. Challenge a student to sing while pointing to the notation in canon.

Drones
Students sing a folk song as the teacher accompanies the students’ singing with a tonic
drone. As they gain fluency with this technique they can sing a drone made up of the tone
and dominant notes to accompany known pentatonic melodies. Drones may be sung as
held notes to each phrase, or they may be sung on the strong beats of each measure.
Sometimes a teacher might sing an accompanying melody primarily made up of a dom-
inant drone to accompany a pentatonic song. This is an excellent technique for developing
in-tune singing. Pentatonic and diatonic melodies provide a good basis for the develop-
ment of functional and harmonic thinking. For do-centered and la-centered pentatonic
songs, accompany the song by having a group of students sustain the tonal center while
the class performs the song. This pitch is the chord root note of the tonic triad. These songs
may also be accompanied by a drone made up of do-so or do-mi-so (major tonic triad) for
do pentatonic repertoire and la-mi or la-do-mi (minor tonic triad) for la pentatonic reper-
toire. Be mindful that sustained pitches tend to go flat.

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Melodic Ostinato
Students accompany known songs with melodic ostinatos. Melodic ostinati should be based
on the melodic building blocks of known song repertoire. This activity is only appropriate
for classes that have a good number of independent, strong singers.

Combining Drones and Melodic Ostinatos


Divide the class into three groups. One group sings the folk song. A second group accom-
panies the folk song with a drone composed of the tonic note or tonic and dominant notes,
and a third group sings a melodic ostinato.

Three-Part Singing
Here are examples how to create pieces of music from a simple folk song:

1 . Sing a melody with two complimentary melodic ostinati.


2. Sing a pentatonic melody in canon and add a melodic ostinato.
3. Sing a melody in canon and add a third voice that sings a descant.
Kodaly’s “Ladybird” is an example of this compositional
technique.
4. Rhythmic ostinati work well with all of these techniques.
141
Discovering an Ostinato as the Students Sing a Known Song
The students sing a song while the teacher taps a rhythmic ostinato or sings the ostinato on
one note. Students discover the ostinato and write it on the board.

Discovering an Ostinato as the Students Sight-Sing a Song


Have students sight-sing an unknown melody while the teacher taps a rhythmic ostinato or
sings the ostinato on one note. They discover the ostinato and write it down.

Two-Part Hand Sign Singing (Note-Against-Note)


Guide students to sing in two parts from a teacher’s hand signs. Using pentatonic musical
examples before moving to diatonic will ensure more secure intonation. Initially begin and
end the exercise with the same notes.

1. Hold one tone in one voice while the other voice performs a simple melody.
Switch parts.
2. Show a simple canon from hand signs (teacher signs both parts
simultaneously).
3. Perform two individual melodies holding one note against another voice. (One
melody is more stationary than the other.)
4. Perform two individual lines.
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Singing Simple Melodies as Canons with Text


All pentatonic songs may be sung in canon with text. Choose simple folk songs. The
teacher may begin to sing the melody and the children follow in canon after one mea-
sure. Carefully select pentatonic songs that may be performed as canons. Initially the
canon should begin on the same pitch that the first part is singing. These songs meet the
criteria:

“Down Came a Lady” The second part begins after four beats.
“I See the Moon” The second part begins after two or four beats.
“Bow Wow Wow” The second part begins after two beats.

Canons may be performed with words or with rhythm or solfège syllables. Once chil-
dren have mastered singing simple pentatonic songs they can sing pentachord, hexachord,
and major and minor canons. Remember that canons may be performed aurally (without
the aid of notation) or visually (using notation).

Partner Songs
Remember that all pentatonic songs can be performed in canon and can be performed
142 together. For example, half the class may perform the song “Liza Jane” while the other half
performs “Rocky Mountain.” Here are additional examples of partner songs:

“Dinah” and “Bounce High, Bounce Low”


“Bow Wow Wow” and “I See the Moon”
“Land of the Silver Birch” and “Who Killed Cock Robin?”
“Liza Jane” and “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
“Liza Jane,” “Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” “All Around the Brickyard,” and “Dinah”

Singing a Known Song and Clapping Rhythmic


Motives as an Accompaniment
Guide students to sing one song while reading and clapping the rhythms of another known
song. For example, the students may sing “Rocky Mountain” while reading and clapping the
rhythm of “Tideo.” The teacher might ask students to read from a board a series of four-beat
rhythms that are abstracted from a known song or are typical rhythms found in the reper-
toire being sung by students.
Another variation on this technique is for the teacher to label the phrases of a song or a
series of rhythms with a number and the students sing a known song and clap according to
a given number sequence, for example, 1, 4, 3, 2. In other words, they have to sing a known
song, look at the number, and clap the corresponding phrase. This requires considerable
concentration. It is always best that these activities lead to music making rather than being
mere technical exercises.

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Singing and Clapping a Known Pentatonic Melody


Create a two-part arrangement of a pentatonic folk song. Have the upper voice perform phrase 1
and the lower voice phrase 2. Create a rhythmic ostinato or accompaniment for the voice that is
not singing. Divide the class into two groups. When group 1 begins, group 2 will clap the rhyth-
mic accompaniment. It is important for the students to sing the complete melody fluently with
solfège syllables and hand signs so that when they are clapping their part of the composition,
they are also listening to the other voice part in order for the example to be performed musically.

Singing Simple Pentatonic Melodies as Canons


with Solfège Syllables
All pentatonic songs may be sung in canon with solfège syllables. Choose simple folk songs.
Begin singing the melody with solfège syllables and the students follow in canon after one
measure. Once they have mastered singing simple pentatonic songs, they can sing penta-
chord, hexachord, and major and minor canons. Remember that canons may be performed
aurally (without notation) or visually (using notation).

Sight Singing and Clapping in Canon


Guide students to sight-sing an unknown melody, and clap the rhythm in canon after one
measure. This helps them develop the facility of looking at two lines of music at the same time.
143
Singing Pentatonic Scales in Canon
Students can now sing major and minor pentatonic scales in two or more parts. Begin the
canon after two notes. This is an excellent activity for developing intonation.

More Advanced Part-Work Skills


Divide the class into three groups. One group sings a pentatonic melody in canon and the
other groups may sing a pentatonic scale in two or more parts. This activity is also excellent
for developing secure intonation.

Singing Simple Pentatonic Folk Songs in Three Parts


In this activity, the class is divided into two groups. Perform the pentatonic folk song as a
two-part canon. Once the students can perform the two parts with ease, the instructor may
sing in canon with the students, creating a third part.

Sing Simple Pentatonic Melodic Motives and Melodies in Canon


at the Octave, Fourth, and Fifth with Solfège Syllables
Once students can sing simple melodies in canon, the teacher can add another challenge for
students. Provide the starting pitch of a well-known song for students, and sing or play in
canon in unison, and then in canon at the fourth, or canon at the fifth. In other words, sing
in canon but the second part will come in a fourth or fifth higher. This can be done with
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other intervals as well. Students will enjoy figuring out the puzzle as to how the teacher per-
formed the canon. The teacher can sing the example using the same solfège as the students.
Even though the teacher and students are technically singing in two keys, the canon can be
sung using the same solfège syllables.
With the introduction of the major scale, students will understand that the scale is bro-
ken into two tetrachords, do-re-mi-fa and so-la-ti-do. A simple way to think about this
exercise is to perform “Hot Cross Buns” in canon, having students sing the melody with
do-re-mi; the teacher can sing at a canon of a fifth using the notes do-re-mi or so-la-ti.
The following are excellent sources of music for children’s choir:

Bacon, Denise. 46 Two-Part American Folk Songs for Elementary Grades. Columbus,
OH: Capital University, Kodály Center of America, 1973.
Bolkovac, Edward. Sing We Now Merrily. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 2007.
Bolkovac, Edward, and Judith Johnson. 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching.
New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1996.
Tacka, Philip, and Susan Taylor-Howell. Sourwood Mountain: 28 North American &
English Songs Arranged for Two Voices. Whitewater, WI: Organization of American
Kodaly Educators, 1986.
Taylor-Howell, Susan. The Owl Sings:  22 Folk Songs Arranged for 2 or 3 Voices.
Whitewater, WI: Organization of American Kodály Educators, 1997.

144 Singing Simple Two-Part Song Arrangements


When teaching students to sing in two parts, build on their prior knowledge. It is a good
idea to select two-part arrangements where they already know the melody; now they will
be learning an arrangement of the folk song. Many of these folk songs can include some or
all of these compositional techniques:

1 . A rhythmic or melodic ostinato to accompany the folk song.


2. Including a tonic or a tonic and dominant drone that may be sung as an
accompaniment.
3. The melody line may be shared between the upper and lower voices.
4. Songs should include imitation.

Teaching the Second Part to a Known Song by Rote


Students should already be able to sing songs with rhythmic and melodic ostinato as well
as sing songs in canon before learning simple two-part songs. Here is a suggested teaching
procedure for teaching a two-part song arrangement:

1. Sing the unfamiliar part or harmony while playing the melody on the piano or
performing with another student.
2. Ask students questions based on the performance of the song:
A. How many phrases are there in this arrangement?
B. Did the two parts begin and end each phrase together?
C. Did both parts have the same text?
D. How would you describe the tune of the harmony line?
E. Did both parts begin and end on the same pitch?

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Students as Performers

3. Sing the harmony line phrase by phrase and have the students repeat. This can be
done with rhythm or solfège syllables or on a neutral syllable if the students have
not learned all the solfège or rhythm syllables. This is easiest when done with text.
4. Perform the melody on the piano for each phrase as the students learn the
harmony line phrase by phrase.
5. Students and the instructor sing the harmony line while the instructor plays the
melody line on the piano.
6. The students sing the harmony line while the instructor sings the melody line.
Switch parts.
7. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the harmony and group 2 sings
the melody. Switch parts.

Teaching the Second Part to a Known Song by Note


Here is a teaching procedure for working with a two-part song arrangement.

1. All students should know the main melody.


2. The instructor may sing the unfamiliar part or harmony while playing the
melody on the piano or have several students perform the known melody.
3. Ask students questions based on the performance of the song.
A. How many phrases are there in this arrangement?
B. Did the two parts begin and end each phrase together?
C. Did both parts have the same text? 145
D. How would you describe the tune of the harmony line?
E. Did both parts begin and end on the same pitch?
4. Hum the harmony line while pointing to the contour of the melody on the
board. Students repeat and point to the contour. Instructor repeats the exercise,
but students have to repeat each phrase and indicate the contour with their
hands. Students sing and draw the contour of the harmony line.
5. The instructor identifies the rhythm and solfège syllables of the harmony line
phrase by phrase, and the students repeat.
6. Students are presented with the score and clap and say the rhythm of the melody
with rhythm syllables or numbers for counting. The teacher prepares the staff
placement for do, and students read the harmony line with solfège syllables.
7. Sing the melody; the students perform the harmony line with solfège syllables.
8. Students perform the harmony line with neutral syllables and then learn to sing
the text with the help of the teacher.
9. The students sing the harmony line while the instructor sings the melody line
using solfège and then text. Switch parts.
10. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the harmony and group 2 sings
the melody using solfège syllables and then text. Switch parts.

Teaching a Simple Two-Part Song by Rote


Students should already be able to sing and perform songs with rhythmic and melodic
ostinati, perform in canon, and perform simple two-part folk song arrangements prior to
learning a two-part song that is not familiar.
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1. Perform the new two-part song by singing one part and playing the other on the
piano or by singing and having a student sing the second part or by playing a
recorded performance.
2. Ask students questions based on the performance of the song. Perform the song
again and ask students to respond.
A. How many parts are there in this arrangement?
B. What did you notice about the form of the piece?
C. How many phrases are there in this arrangement?
D. Did the two parts begin and end each phrase together?
E. Did both parts have the same text?
F. Did both parts begin and end on the same pitch?
G. Which is the harmony line?
H. How would you describe the tune of the harmony line?
3. Sing one part and play the second part on the piano phrase by phrase while the
students repeat from memory.
4. The students and instructor sing the first part while the instructor plays the
second part on the piano.
5. Sing the second part and play the first part on the piano, phrase by phrase, and
have the students repeat from memory. Hum or play the first part as the students
are singing the second part phrase by phrase.
6. The students and instructor sing the second part while the instructor plays the
first part on the piano. The students sing the second part while the instructor
146 plays the first part on the piano.
7. The students sing the second part while the instructor sings the first part.
Switch parts.
8. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the top part and group 2 sings the
second. Switch parts.

Teaching a Simple Two-Part Song by Note


Here is a teaching procedure for working with a two-part song arrangement.

1. Sing one part of the arrangement while playing the second part on the piano or
performing with another student. Switch.
2. Ask students questions based on the performance of the song.
A. Where did you hear the melody? Or, which voice had the new melody?
B. How many phrases are there in this arrangement?
C. Did the two parts begin and end each phrase together?
D. Did both parts have the same text?
E. How would you describe the tune of the harmony line?
F. Did both parts begin and end on the same pitch?
3. Sing the melody line phrase by phrase and the students repeat. This can be
done with rhythm or solfège syllables or on a neutral syllable if the students
have not learned all the solfège or rhythm syllables. This is easiest when done
with text.
4. Students sing the melody line with syllables and text.
5. Students sing the melody line, and the teacher hums the second part. Teacher
sings the second part with text.

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6. Sing the harmony line phrase by phrase, and the students repeat. This can be
done with rhythm or solfège syllables or on a neutral syllable if the students
have not learned all the solfège or rhythm syllables. This is easiest when done
with text.
7. Students perform the harmony line on their own. Perform it a second time as the
instructor sings the melody line.
8. The students sing the harmony line while the instructor sings the melody line.
Switch parts.
9. Divide the class into two groups. Group 1 sings the harmony and group 2 sings
the melody. Switch parts.

We now discuss more advanced part-work concepts and teaching techniques.

Singing Folk Songs in Thirds and Sixths


As children begin to learn music of other cultures, they will discover the stylistic traits of
this repertoire. Guide students to recognize familiar elements in this repertoire, but also
to discover a greater variety of musical elements. Singing folk songs in thirds and sixths is
another skill in the development of part work.

Accompanying Melodies with Tonic and Dominant Chords Roots


(Harmonic Functions) 147
As students add the solfège syllables fa and ti to their melodic vocabulary, they begin to
discover the need for a note other than do in major and la in minor melodies, for their
accompaniments. While they are singing known pentachord, hexachord, and diatonic mel-
odies, the instructor should quietly hum the functional notes (chord roots) do and so for
do-centered pieces.

Sing or Hum la and mi for la-centered Pieces


Once the students are familiar with these accompanying pitches, the instructor guides them
to discover the solfège syllables of the new accompanying notes and introduces the terms
tonic function and dominant function.

Accompanying Melodies with Tonic, Dominant, and


Subdominant Chord Roots (Harmonic Functions)
When students sing folk songs from Germany, many times the bass part outlines the notes
of the tonic, subdominant, and dominant functions.
Practice suggestions:

• Students sing familiar songs while the instructor sings or plays the functional
notes or chord roots, as an accompaniment.
• Students sing familiar songs while showing with hand signs when the functional
note or chord root in the melody changes.
• Individual students sing familiar songs while showing hand signs for the
functional note or playing the functional notes on the piano.
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• Students identify the tonic, subdominant, and dominant functions of unknown


melodies sung or played by the instructor.
• Students transpose melodies into their parallel major or minor key and sing them
with the corresponding functions.
• Students may be presented with sight singing materials that include a melody and
an accompaniment built on the tonic, subdominant, and dominant functions.
These materials can also be used for dictation, memory work, and analyzing the
harmonic basis of the melodies.
• Students relate harmonic functions to their knowledge of form.

These exercises are very important for developing musicianship. Being able to harmonize mel-
odies with the chord roots of tonic, dominant, and subdominant functions develops another
very important skill in our students, the ability to sense when chords change in music.

Triads and Their Respective Functions


After students are thoroughly familiar with the tonic, subdominant, and dominant func-
tions they can be introduced to the concept of triads. Explain the meaning of root, third,
and fifth of a triad and how a triad is classified as either major or minor. Show how the
tonic, subdominant, and dominant notes and the triads built on them define a key.
Canons in major and minor keys with clearly defined triads at the cadence provide appro-
priate literature for initial experiences in analyzing harmony. Initially, the music material
148 should be restricted to primary triads. Looking at both the melodic lines and harmonic
aspects of music is essential for students’ understanding of harmonic concepts. Students
should memorize canons and discover the harmonic functions of the melody. Then draw
the students’ attention to individual melodic lines or melodic lines that are sounded
together to create triads. These triads should be abstracted from the music material and
sung by the class. Students should be guided to hear major and minor triads within the con-
text of the perfect fifth interval. Students should sing triads beginning with the root, then
the fifth, and finally the third, for example, singing a major tonality canon in four parts and
accompanying each line with tonic or dominant notes.

Accompanying Melodies with Chord Inversions


Students can now create their own accompaniments to melodies using notes other than the
bass note of the tonic, subdominant, and dominant chord roots. For example, in a major key
the third of the tonic chord, mi, can substitute for do, and the third of the dominant chord,
ti, can substitute for so. In a minor key the third of the tonic minor, do, can substitute for the
tonic note, la, and the third of the dominant chord, si, can substitute for the dominant note,
mi.

Discovering Bass Lines
The instructor plays a two-part melody on the piano; students listen and show the melodic
contour of the lowest voice with arm motions. The process:

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Students as Performers

1 . Students discover the direction of the bass line.


2. They discover the rhythm of the bass line.
3. They sing the bass line with solfège syllables.
4. They sing both parts.

Singing Harmonic Progressions


The instructor may explore the effect of singing progressions in three parts using root posi-
tion and inversions. Guide students to discover that singing certain chords in inversion is
much easier than singing them in root position. Once the students understand inversions,
three-part chordal progressions may be used as accompaniments to students’ songs and as
choral warm-up exercises.

Singing Pentatonic, Major, and Minor in Canon


1 . Sing various pentatonic scales in canon. This can be done in two to five parts.
2. Sing pentatonic scales in ascending and descending succession from the same
starting pitch. Begin on a selected pitch, for example D. Sing the pentatonic scale
up from that pitch, change the top pitch to the new scale as directed and continue
to sing the descending scale. Change the low pitch to the new new scale and
continue singing the ascending scale.
3. Sing major and minor scales using solfège syllables or letter names in canon;
begin after two notes. Perform the scales in three-part canon. 149
4. Sing major and minor scales from the same starting note in canon. Using
solfège syllables, sing the major scale beginning on do and starting on the pitch
D; then sing the minor scale beginning on la, beginning on the same starting
pitch. In this way, the students perform the major scale followed by its parallel
minor scale.
5. Divide the class into three parts; give each part a note of the major triad to sing.
Ask all groups to call this note mi. Instruct the groups to sing “Hot Cross Buns”
with solfège syllables. The students will be singing the simple song in three parts
in parallel major chords. This exercise may be repeated using a minor triad and
starting on la.

Incorporating Instruments into the Music Curriculum


Appropriate Instruments
Xylophone: for playing a moving drone, ostinato, and melodies; two mallets striking
Recorder: more extended range
Claves: rhythmic ostinatos
Rhythm sticks: rhythmic ostinatos
Guitar: for playing chords
Keyboard: accompaniment
Drums: emphasize the beat
Tambourine: beat and rhythm
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Teaching Progression
1. Beginning music examples should be derived from known singing material. Sing
the song with text.
2. Perform the music with rhythm syllables and conduct.
3. Perform the music with solfège syllables and hand signs.
4. Connect the fingering to solfège syllables and perform.
5. Read the music with rhythm syllables and conduct.
6. Read the music solfège syllables and hand signs.
7. Sing the music with letter names and hand signs.
8. Perform the example but inner-hear the solfège syllables.

Reinforce Concepts Using Instruments


Beat
Use simple percussion instruments to keep the beat of a rhyme or folk song.

Beat and Rhythm
Use simple rhythm instruments to perform the beat with a folk song and the
rhythm to a folk song; then use them to perform the beat and rhythm of a folk song
simultaneously.

150 Rhythmic Ostinati


Use simple rhythmic instruments to perform a rhythmic ostinato (a repeated rhythmic
pattern) to a folk song. Then use them to perform two simultaneous-sounding ostinati to
a folk song.

Melodic Ostinati
Use glockenspiels, xylophone, metalophones, and melody bells to perform a melodic osti-
nato to a folk song.

Canons
Instruments may be used for playing canons in the classroom.

Rhythmic Canons
1. Teacher performs a known rhythmic pattern in canon with students clapping the
rhythmic pattern. Use simple rhythmic instruments.

Melodic Canons
1. Teacher performs a folk song in canon with students on a pitched-percussion
instrument.
2. Teacher performs a folk song in canon with students on a
piano.
3. Teacher performs a folk song in canon with students on guitar.
4. Teacher performs known melodic pattern on guitar and students echo with
solfège syllables.

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Students as Performers

Listening
These activities may be used with instruments for developing listening:

1. Teacher performs and introduces a new song on a pitched percussion


instrument.
2. Teacher performs an excerpt from a listening example on a nonpitched
instrument before playing the recording for the students.
3. Teacher performs an excerpt from a listening example on the recorder before
playing the recording for the students.
4. Teacher performs and introduces a new song on the recorder.
5. Teacher performs an excerpt from a listening example on an instrument before
playing the recording for the students.

Transitions
Here are two activities that use instruments to transition from one segment of a lesson to
another:

1. Teacher performs a rhythmic ostinato on a classroom instrument to accompany


a folk song and maintains the ostinato to transition to the next song in the
lesson.
2. Teacher performs a melodic ostinato on a classroom instrument to accompany 151
a folk song and maintains the ostinato to transition to the next song in the
lesson.

Aural Rhythmic Practice


1. Teacher performs known rhythmic pattern on nonpitched percussion instrument
and students echo with rhythm syllables.

Aural Melodic Practice


1. Teacher performs known melodic pattern on pitched percussion instrument and
students echo with solfège syllables.
2. Teacher performs known melodic pattern on recorder and students echo with
solfège syllables.
3. Teacher performs known melodic pattern on piano and students echo with
solfège syllables.

Writing Rhythmic Practice


1. Teacher performs the focus pattern or related pattern of a rhythmic concept on
a nonpitched percussion instrument, and students write missing beats or whole
pattern on the board.
2. Teacher performs the focus pattern or related pattern of the concept on piano, and
students write missing beats or whole pattern on the board.
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Writing Melodic Practice


1. Teacher performs the focus pattern or related pattern of a melodic concept on a
pitched percussion instrument, and students write missing beats or whole pattern
on the board.
2. Teacher performs the focus pattern or related pattern of a melodic concept
on a recorder, and students write missing beats or whole pattern on
the board.
3. Teacher performs the focus pattern or related pattern of a melodic concept on
guitar, and students write missing beats or whole pattern on the board.

Creative Movement Skills
Beat Motions
1 . Have students create beat motion to accompany a folk song.
2. Have students borrow beat motions from another song.
3. Have students create motions that act out the story of a folk song.
4. Have students play charades and act out a song while other students try to guess
the song.
5. Have students perform beat motions in a canon.

152 Form
1 . Have students create beat motions that reflect the form of a folk song.
2. Have students create motions for each phrase of a song, and then shuffle the
motions to change the order of the phrases in a folk song.
3. Have students create motions to reflect forms (for example, binary) in a listening
example of classical music.
4. Have students show cadences by freezing at the point of the cadence.

Instruments
1 . Have students create a rhythmic or melodic ostinato on instruments.
2. Have students become a pentatonic piano, and choose a conductor to point to
each student to create a melodic pattern.
3. Have students use instruments to create sound effects to accompany a folk song
(i.e., train sounds).

Rhythmic Concepts
1. Have students create motions to reflect the tempo of various folk songs or classical
listening examples.
2. Have students create motions that reflect a rhythmic ostinato.
3. Have students demonstrate the difference between simple meter and compound
meter by skipping or marching.

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Singing
1 . Have students create alternate text for a folk song.
2. Have students conduct each other in different styles.

Melodic Concepts
1. Have students create motions that reflect the melodic contour of a folk song.

Body Warm-ups and Creative Movement


Table 4.1 shows movement examples that can be used as an introductory activity in each
lesson and are part of the body “warm-up” for students. We recommend choosing a move-
ment piece that connects to the next singing activity in the lesson. Look for examples that
are in the same meter, tempo, tonality, key, and dynamics as the next song in the lesson.
Recorded examples for movement may also include some of the listening repertoire that
students will later read and listening to in the music lesson. These examples were developed
by teachers in the Kodály Certification Program at Texas State University in 2014.

Table 4.1 

M OV E M E N T L I ST
153
Song Title Composer Features
C L AS SI C A L
“Ballet of the Unhatched Modest Mussorgsky Presto, staccato, orchestra
Chicks,” from Pictures at (1839–1928)
an Exhibition
“Alla Turca,” from Piano Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Allegro, piano solo, 2$,  xccc
Sonata No. 11 in A (1756–1791)
“March of the Toy Soldiers,” Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Vivace, fanfare, orchestra
from Nutcracker Suite (1840–1893)
“Fossils,” from Carnival of Camille Saint-Saëns Allegro, orchestra,
the Animals (1835–1921) xylophone,  xccc
“In the Hall of the Edvard Grieg (1843–1907) Moderato, accelerando,
Mountain King” from Peer orchestra, dynamic contrast
Gynt, Suite No. 1
“Moderato,” from Minuet Ludwig van Beethoven Moderato, triple meter,
in G, No. 2 (1770–1827) strings
“Les Toreadors,” from Georges Bizet (1838–1875) Allegro, march, orchestra
Carmen
“Funeral March of a Charles Gounod (1818–1893) Allegro, compound meter,
Marionette” orchestra
Hungarian Dance No. 5 Johannes Brahms (1833–1897) Contrasting tempi, orchestra
(Continued)
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Table 4.1 (continued)

M OV E M E N T L I ST
Song Title Composer Features
Turkish March, Op. 113 Ludwig van Beethoven Allegro, march, accents
(1770–1827)
“Overture,” from William Gioachino Rossini (1792–1868) Allegro vivace, fanfare,
Tell finale, orchestra
“Trepak,” from Nutcracker Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Molto vivace, orchestra
Suite (1840–1893)
Eine kleine Nachtmusik Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Allegro, strings only
(Serenade No. 13 for (1756–1791)
strings), movement 1
Fur Elise (Bagatelle No. Ludwig van Beethoven Allegro, triple meter, piano
25) (1770–1827) solo
Organ Concerto in G George Frideric Handel Andante, compound meter,
minor, Op. 4, movement 4 (1685–1759) organ and strings
Military March No. 1 Franz Schubert (1797–1828) Allegro vivace, orchestra
“An Evening in the Béla Bartók (1881–1945) Lento, rubato, form, la
154 Village” pentatonic
A Doll’s Funeral Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Grave, form,  gb, piano solo
Procession,” Children’s (1840–1893)
Album, Op. 39, No. 7
Playing Soldiers, Op. 31, Vladimir Rebikov (1866–1920) Allegro, march, piano solo, 
No. 4 gb
Minuet in G, BMV Anh Johann Sebastian Bach Moderato, triple meter,
114 (1685–1750) keyboard solo

C ON T E M P OR A RY C L AS SI C A L
“Palladio” Karl Jenkins (1944–) Moderato, strings only
“Jamaican Rumba” Arthur Benjamin (1893–1960) Lively, piano duet, synco­pation
over one beat

C L AS SI C A L OP E R A
“Non so più,” from The Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Allegro vivace, staccato vs.
Marriage of Figaro (1756–1791) legato

JA Z Z
“Maple Leaf Rag” Scott Joplin (c. 1867–1917) Lively, ragtime, piano solo
“Crazy Race” Roy Hargrove (1969–) Moderato, hip-hop influence
“It Don’t Mean a Thing” Duke Ellington (1899–1974) Presto, big band, vocals
(Continued)

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Table 4.1 (continued)

M OV E M E N T L I ST
Song Title Composer Features
“Groovin’ Hard” Don Menza (1936–) Moderato, big band
“Take the A Train” Duke Ellington (1899–1974) Allegro, big band

C ON C E RT BA N D
“Stars and Stripes Forever” John Philip Sousa (1854–1932) Allegro, march
“Short Ride in a Fast John Adams (1947–) Fast, minimalism,
Machine” woodblock throughout

C ON T E M P OR A RY
“Montezuma” Cusco (c. 1979) Presto, South American
flutes
“Chariots of Fire” Vangelis (1943–) Andante, electronic

P OP U L A R
“ABC” Berry Gordy, Alphonzo Andante, dance, motown 155
Mizell, Freddie Perren, Deke
Richards (performed by the
Jackson 5)
“Blame It on the Boogie” Mick Jackson (performed by Allegro, dance, motown
the Jacksons)
“YMCA” Jacques Morali (performed by Allegro, dance
the Village People)
“Sir Duke” Stevie Wonder Allegro, funk

F OL K
“Wassail Wassail” Anonymous (performed by Adagio, compound meter,
Mannheim Steamroller) Renaissance

Listening Examples Connected to


Grade 4 Concepts and Elements
The listening examples listed in this section can be used in the classroom for a number of
activities:

1. Teacher sings a known song for the class with accompaniment as a live listening
performance.
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2 . Teacher performs a known or an unknown song for the class on a music instrument.
3. Teacher performs an instrumental piece of music for the students.
4. Teacher plays a recorded piece of music that contains the new element.
5. Teacher plays a recorded piece of music for students but creates a listening map
for the students to follow. This map can include the form of the piece as well as the
important themes notated.
6. Teacher plays a recorded piece of music for the students but furnishes a complete
score for students to follow. For example, the teacher may create a line score of the
students to follow. The score will include the traditional rhythmic notation and/
or solfège for themes that students can sing. If there are sections in the piece of
music that include rhythms or melodies in another voice part that students can
listen to or perform, this should be employed. The teacher can insert beat bars
in measures that contain rhythmic and melodic elements that students cannot
read and sing. It is important to spell out the phrasing and make sure students are
reading complete motives.

Syncopation
Live Performance

“Land of the Silver Birch”


“Dem Bones Gonna Rise Again”
156 “Hill and Gully Rider”
“Hambone”
“Weevily Wheat”
“Chicka-Hanka”
“Riding in the Buggy”
“Mamalama”
“Canoe Round”
“Weldon”

Recorded Performance
“Russian Sailors Dance,” from The Red Poppy, by Reinhold Glière (1875–1956).
“The Swine Herd,” from Mikrokosmos, Vol. 2, No. 40, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
For syncopation over one beat, use “Jamaican Rumba,” by Arthur Benjamin
(1893–1960), available on recording by James Galway, Dances for Flute.
Three Rondos, no. 3, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).

la Pentatonic
Live Performance

“Land of the Silver Birch”


“Canoe Round”
“Sioux Indian Lullaby”
“My Good Ol’ Man”

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“Liza Jane”
“Whistle, Daughter, Whistle”
“Gallows Pole”
“Windeyahoh”

Recorded Performance
“Evening in the Village,” from Hungarian Sketches, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
Les Preludes, symphonic poem, theme B, by Franz Liszt (1811–1886).

so Pentatonic
Live Performance
“Over the River”

Recorded Performance
Jean Ritchie (1922–), “Sweet William and Lady Margaret,” from CD Ballads from Her
Appalachian Family Tradition.
24 Canons for the Black Keys, no. 1, by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967).
Suite No. 2 in D major, “Hornpipe,” from Water Music, by George Frideric Handel
(1685–1759).

Dotted Quarter Followed by an Eighth Note 157


Live Performance

“Star-Spangled Banner”
“America”
“Somebody’s Knocking at Your Door”
“Liza Jane”
“Chairs to Mend”
“The Birch Tree”
“Viva La Musica”
“Hush-a-Bye”

Recorded Performance
“Thumb Under,” Mikrokosmos, Vol. 4, No. 98, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
Little Fugue in G minor, by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
To a Wild Rose, by Edward MacDowell (1860–1908)/

fa (do Pentachord)
Live Performance

“Go Tell Aunt Rhody”


“Donkey Riding”
“Long Road of Iron”
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“Hungarian Canon”
“Snake Baked a Hoecake”
“Debka Hora”

Recorded Performance
“Play,” For Children, Vol. 1, No. 5, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
“Go Tell Aunt Rhody,” by Ella Jenkins (1924–).
Rondo No. 1, for piano, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
“Soldiers March,” in Album for the Young, by Robert Schumann (1810–1859).

Triple Meter
Live Performance

“America”
“Rise Up, Oh Flame”
“Hashivenu” (as written in 3$)
“Morning Is Come”
“On Top of Old Smoky”
“On Top of Spaghetti”
“Alphabet Song”
“Coffee Canon”
158 “Pretty Saro”

Recorded Performance
Minuet in G Major, by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
Waltz in A-Flat Major, Op. 39 No. 15, by Johannes Brahms (1833–1897).

low ti (la Pentachord)


Live Performance

“Debka Hora”
“Yankee Doodle”
“Charlotte Town”
“Rise Up, Oh Flame”
“Morning Is Come”
“The Three Rogues”
“Praise and Thanksgiving”
“When I First Came to This Land”
“The Birch Tree”
“Alfonso Doce”

Recorded Performance
From For Children, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945): vol. 1/2, “Round Dance,” no. 17.
Mikrokosmos, Vol. 1, No. 8 and No. 11, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).

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Students as Performers

Dotted Eighth Followed by a Sixteenth Note


Live Performance

“Sail Away Ladies”


“Circle Round the Zero”
“Yankee Doodle”
“Shady Grove”
“Donkey Riding”
“Old Joe Clark Mixer”
“Joy to the World”
“Drunken Sailor”
“Shoo Fly”

Recorded Performance
“A Doll’s Funeral Procession,” in Children’s Album, Op. 39, by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1893).
“Feierlich und Gemessen,” from Symphony No. 1, by Gustav Mahler (1860–1911).
“Soldiers March,” in Album for the Young, by Robert Schuman (1810–1856).

Lesson Planning
Designing a Preparation/Practice Lesson Plan Design That 159
Includes Music Skills
In this chapter we have presented activities for developing a child’s singing voice, move-
ment skills, and instrumental skills, as well as discussing how the instructor can develop
music literacy skills. As a result of the information contained in this chapter, we can pro-
pose modifications to our basic preparation/practice lesson plan:

1 . Developing appropriate creative movement activities for children


2. Developing appropriate instrumental activities for children
3. Developing appropriate reading, writing, and improvisation activities
4. Developing appropriate inner-hearing activities
5. Developing appropriate listening activities
6. Developing appropriate part-work skills

Table 4.2 presents a preparation/practice lesson plan template that shows how the informa-
tion for this chapter can now be used to modify a lesson plan design. We have bolded the
sections of the lesson plan that can be modified to incorporate material from Chapter 4.

Table 4.2  Preparation/Practice Lesson Plan Template

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Demonstration Body warm-ups and breathing exercises
of known musical • Ss demonstrate their prior knowledge of repertoire and musical
concepts and elements through performance of songs selected from the
elements alphabetized repertoire list.
(Continued)
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Table 4.2 (continued)

• These songs may be accompanied by rhythmic or melodic


instruments.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of • Teach a new song by rote using an appropriate technique.
repertoire
Preparation of a • Learning activities in which Ss are taught a new musical concept
new concept through known songs found in the alphabetized repertoire list.
Movement • Focus on the sequential development of age-appropriate movement
development skills through songs and folk games.
Practice and • Ss reinforce their knowledge of musical concepts and elements
musical skill working on the skill areas of reading and writing, form, memory,
development inner hearing, ensemble work, instrumental work, improvisation
and composition, and listening through known songs found in the
alphabetized repertoire list.
C L O SU R E
Review and • Review of lesson content; T may perform the next new song to be
summation learned in a subsequent lesson found in the alphabetized repertoire list.

160
When repertoire and selected activities are applied to the preparation/practice lesson
framework, the lesson itself becomes more visible. The lesson plan in Table 4.3 includes
repertoire and several activities; some procedural portions of this lesson have been
removed.

Table 4.3  Grade 4, low ti, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze repertoire that contains a pitch a half step


below do
Practice: write rhythmic patterns in 3$meter
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Rondo Alla Turca,” Piano Sonata in A Major, Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart (1756–1791), performed by the Swingle Singers
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
(Continued)

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Table 4.3 (continued)

Sing known songs “Oh How Lovely Is the Evening”


CSP: D
• Ss sing the song in canon.
• Sing the song with solfège syllables.
Develop tuneful “Autumn Canon”
singing CSP: D
Tone production • Ss sing the song; Ss sing song in canon.
Diction • Ss sing song on the syllable “koo.”
Expression • T writes a simple melodic ostinato on the board:
2$ ww\ww>
     l,    m     l,    m
• Ss hum the ostinato and T sings song.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly: select from fa exercises
in introduction of the volume.
Review known “Oh, How Lovely Is the Evening”
songs and elements CSP: D
• Ss sing the song in canon.
• Sing the song with solfège syllables.
• One S hums motifs and Ss echo-sing with solfège syllables and
hand signs. 161
• T sings phrases of “Hungarian Canon,” “Go Tell Aunt Rhody,”
or other known songs that use the solfège syllables la so fa mi
re do low la and low so; Ss echo-sing using solfège syllables and
hand signs.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Sail Away, Ladies”
CSP: G-sharp
• T sings the song while Ss continue the ostinato.
• T sings the song and accompanies on an instrument.
• T may sing the complete song with verses and refrain.
Develop knowledge “The Birch Tree”
of music literacy CSP: A
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Describe what you • Ss sing song in canon.
hear • Review kinesthetic activities.
• T and Ss sing the last phrase on “loo” before T asks each of
these questions:
• T: “Andy, sing the notes from highest to lowest.”
• T: “Andy, how many different pitches did we sing?” (five)
• T: “Andy, which direction do these pitches move?” (down)
• T: “Andy, are they moving down by steps or by skips?” (steps)
• If possible, ask T: “Andy, are all of the steps the same size?” (no)
• T: “Andy, where is the half step?” (between the third and fourth
pitches)
(Continued)
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Table 4.3 (continued)

Creative movement “Circle Round the Zero”


CSP: F-sharp
• Note: This will be a new song and game.
• T sings the song and demonstrates the game; Ss imitate the
game while T sings.
• Ss create their own rhythmic accompaniment.
Practice music “Rise Up, Oh Flame”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song and conduct.
Writing • Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• Ss conduct and read the rhythm from the board (without bar
lines or time signature).
• Ss work individually to complete the writing worksheet:
○ Write the beat bars
○ Write the bar lines
○ Add the correct time signature (3$)
• Ss conduct while singing from their worksheet.
• Ss add an ostinato on xylophones.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
162 Review lesson “Sail Away, Ladies”
outcomes
Review the new song

Designing a Presentation Lesson Plan Template That Includes


Music Skills
Table 4.4 is an example of a presentation lesson plan template. We want to show how the
information in this chapter can be incorporated into this lesson.

Table 4.4  Presentation Lesson Plan Template for Labeling Sounds


with Syllables

I N T ROD U C T I ON
Demonstration Body warm-ups and breathing exercises
of known musical • Ss demonstrate their prior knowledge of repertoire and
concepts and musical elements through performance of songs selected
elements from the alphabetized repertoire list.
• These songs may be accompanied by rhythmic or melodic
instruments.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Acquisition of • Teach a new song by rote using an appropriate technique.
repertoire
(Continued)

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Table 4.4 (continued)

Presentation of new • T presents the syllables for the new musical element in the focus
element pattern of a known song.
Movement • Known song or game found in the alphabetized repertoire list.
development • Focus on the sequential development of age-appropriate
movement skills through songs and folk games.
Presentation of new • T presents the syllables for the new musical element in a related
element pattern of a known song.
C L O SU R E
Review and Review of lesson content; T may perform the next new song to be
summation learned in a subsequent lesson found in the alphabetized repertoire list.

Again, when repertoire and selected activities are applied to in a lesson, the lesson plan-
ning process itself becomes more evident. The lesson plan in Table 4.5 includes activities
appropriate to a presentation lesson.

Table 4.5  Grade 4, low ti, Lesson 5

Outcome Presentation: notate low ti, using steps, stick, and staff notation. 163
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Rondo Alla Turca,” Piano Sonata in A Major, by W. A. Mozart
(1756–1791), performed by the Swingle Singers
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is released
when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make sure
Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known “Pretty Saro”
songs CSP: C
• Ss sing songs with text.
• Ss sing song and conduct.
Develop “Debka Hora”
tuneful CSP: A
singing • Ss sing the song.
Tone • Ss sing the song in canon.
production • Ss sing the song using the syllable “yip.”
Diction • Ss read the rhythm syllables from the board.
Expression • Ss sing the song, performing the rhythm in canon after two beats.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly: select from fa exercises in
introduction of the volume.
(Continued)
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Table 4.5 (continued)

Review “O, How Lovely Is the Evening”


known songs CSP: D
and melodic • Ss sing song.
elements • Ss conduct and read the rhythm notation from the board.
3$wq\wq\wq\qqq\wq\qqq\
  wq\wq\wq\qqq\wq\qqq\
  t\t\t\t\t\t|
• Ss add the solfège syllables and sing with hand signs.
• Ss sing in canon with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Hungarian Canon,” “Go Tell Aunt Rhody,” or other
known songs that use the solfège syllables la so fa mi re do low la and
low so; Ss echo-sing using solfège syllables and hand signs.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new “Michael Row the Boat Ashore”
song CSP: D
• T sings the new song while Ss perform beat.
• Ss discover the form and the meter.
• Ss sing the song without assistance.
Presentation “The Birch Tree”
164 of music CSP: A
literacy • Ss sing the song.
concepts • Ss sing the song in canon.
Notate what • Ss sing phrase 1 with solfège syllables and hand signs.
you hear • Present the position of low la on the tone ladder. Discuss
with solfège whole steps and half steps, and identify them as major and minor
syllables seconds.
• Ss place and sing known solfège syllables on the tone ladder from low
la to la.
• T presents the target phrase in traditional rhythmic notation with
solfège syllables.
2$ sdsd\qsd\qq\
  mmmm r   d d   t,   l,
• Ss read the target phrase with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T presents the Rules of Placement for notes of the la pentachord.
• T presents the target phrase in staff notation.
• Ss sing the target phrase while pointing to their hand staff.
Creative “Alabama, Mississippi”
movement CSP: F
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
(Continued)

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Students as Performers

Table 4.5 (continued)

Presentation “Go Tell Aunt Rhody” (minor)


of music CSP: A
literacy • Ss sing the song in minor.
concepts • Ss read from T’s hand signs ,and another S places notes on the tone
Notate what ladder.
you hear Discuss whole steps and half steps, and identify them as major and minor
seconds.
• T presents the notation in traditional rhythmic notation with solfège
syllables.
• Ss read with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T presents the melody on staff.
• Ss sing with solfège syllables.
• Ss sing the song in minor and T hums a harmonization to accompany
song.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review “Michael, Row the Boat Ashore”
lesson CSP: D
outcomes
Review the
new song 165
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Chapter  5

Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

A primary objective of this text is to present teachers with a sequential series of lesson plans to
inspire the artistry inherent in every student. As is evident in all of our publications, we are also
involved with developing cognition, the “thinking” abilities that lead to a deeper understanding
and appreciation of music through performing, critical thinking, listening, literacy, composing,
and improvising. Kodály offers us a timely reminder concerning the importance of excellent
teaching techniques to enable the student to engage with music as a true artist: “It is not tech-
nique that is the essence of art, but the soul. As soon as the soul can communicate freely, without
obstacles, a complete musical effect is created. Technique sufficient for a free manifestation of the
child’s soul can easily be mastered under a good leader in any school.”1
166 This chapter furnishes teachers with a detailed series of lesson plans arranged according to
concept. With the exception of Unit 1 (review lessons), each unit is divided into three sections:

Section 1. A summary overview of the repertoire used to prepare, present, and practice a
particular music element
Section 2. A brief outline of the music skills that are to be developed in the unit plan
Section 3. Five sequential lesson plans for preparing, presenting, and practicing a music
element

Please consult Kodály Today for a more comprehensive overview of lesson planning.
These are the lesson plan units presented in this chapter:

Unit 1, Review of Grade 3 Concepts


Unit 2, Teaching Syncopation
Unit 3, Teaching la pentatonic
Unit 4, Teaching Dotted Quarter Note Followed by an Eighth Note
Unit 5, Teaching fa
Unit 6, Teaching Triple Meter
Unit 7, Teaching low ti
Unit 8, Teaching Dotted Eighth Note Followed by a Sixteenth Note

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Remember that these lesson plans are only sketches of what can be accomplished in the
lesson. We have not included transitions between the sections of the lessons as we want
teachers to get an idea as to the flow of the lesson plan. Teachers should infuse these lessons
with their own musicianship and creativity.
Our suggested five-lesson sequence allows students to engage and explore concepts
through music literature. Building on the numerous performance experiences within these
lessons, the teacher can guide students toward an understanding of musical elements and
concepts.
The five sequenced lessons are divided as follows. The first three are preparation/practice
lesson plans.

Lesson one is a plan for developing the kinesthetic awareness of a new melodic or
rhythmic concept and concentrated practice of known melodic or rhythmic ele-
ments through reading. (Reading is normally connected to listening.)
Lesson two is a plan for developing aural awareness of a new melodic or rhyth-
mic concept and concentrated practice of known melodic or rhythmic elements
through writing.
Lesson three is a plan for developing visual awareness of a new melodic or rhyth-
mic concept and concentrated practice of known melodic or rhythmic elements
through improvisation and composition.

There are two presentation lessons in the associative phase.

Lesson four is the first presentation lesson; the goal is to label the new sound with
rhythm or solfège syllables.
Lesson five is the second presentation lesson; the goal is to present the notation for the
new element. 167
The objectives for each type of lesson are derived from activities proposed in the
teaching strategies (Chapter 4). Although the lessons will differ across the three phases
of learning, all preparation/practice lessons, regardless of the element being prepared,
are similar in structure. The same is true for all presentation lessons. You will note that
lessons one, two, and three focus on kinesthetic, aural, and visual preparation of a new
element respectfully and practice of a familiar element through reading, writing, and
improvisation activities. Lessons four and five focus on presenting and initial practice
of the newly learned element. Chapter 10 of Kodály Today describes the types of lesson
plan structure as well as information on adapting these lesson plans for the inclusive
classroom.

Transitions in Lesson Plans


Transitions are the cement that holds the segments of a lesson together. Transitioning
between songs and activities can become an interesting means to help tie, and often
hold, the lesson together. They can be used to move students from one activity to
another in a music lesson. Here we present some sample transition activities that can
be used to enliven a creative music lesson plan. Transitions may be thought of as con-
scious and unconscious: with the former, the students are aware that they are moving
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between songs or activities, and with the latter the teacher guides students to different
activities. Spend time analyzing all of the repertoire and materials you will be using in
the lesson. This will allow you to see possible connections in the suggested repertoire.
Transitions should be logical. When they are properly planned, they add the elements
of surprise, creativity, and magic to a lesson. Many of the best transitions are musical.
If you are transitioning into a segment of a lesson where the focus is on rhythm, use a
rhythmic activity such as an ostinato to move to the next segment of the lesson. If you
are transitioning into a melodic segment of the lesson, you could use a melodic osti-
nato to move to the next section of your lesson.
There are three types of transition:

1 . Transitions that connect several lessons


2. Transitions that connect several sections in a lesson
3. Transitions that move from one section of a lesson to another.

Transitions That Connect Several Lessons


Here are examples of the transition types that can be used over a series of lessons.

1. We can teach a new song over several lessons. For example:


A. Sing the song as a listening activity.
B. Discover the form of a song.
C. Read the rhythm of the new song.
D. Read the melody of the new song written in rhythmic notation with solfège
syllables beneath.
E. Read the new song from staff notation.
168 F. Sing the song as a partner song with another known song.
2. We can teach a game over several lessons:
A. Sing the song as a listening activity.
B. Memorize the song by rote.
C. Learn the game associated with the song (this may take place over several
lessons).
D. Create a new movement to accompany the singing game.
3. Teach a second part to a known folk song:
A. Sing and memorize a folk song.
B. Teacher sings the second voice part to a folk song.
C. Students learn to sing the second voice part to a folk song.
D. Students learn to sing both voice parts.
4. Teach a new piece of art music over several lessons:
A. Sing some themes of an art music example. Listen to these themes.
B. Create a listening map or chart that illustrates the form of the listening
example.
C. Identify the main instruments that play in the section of the music.
D. Create a listening score for the piece of music. Remember that in the
listening score you can notate the major themes and instruments. You do
not have to include all measures, but indicate the measures that are not
notated.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Transitions That Connect Several Segments in a Lesson


1. Story line connection
A. Connecting lessons using a story line is most often successful in the early
studenthood classroom or first grade. Connections are made throughout the
lessons as the teacher builds a story uniting all of the songs used during the
lesson. Each song in a lesson can be woven into the story line that connects them.
2. Use songs that have the same form. When selecting songs for your lesson plans,
include songs that have the same form. Students can point to a generic form map
that can be used to connect several activities. For example, when teaching a new
song, sing songs during the introduction of the lesson that use the same form as that
of the new song. This will help you move seamlessly from one activity to another.
3. Sing songs in the same tonality or related tonalities. Make sure to sing songs in
the same keys. This is particularly important when moving from a piece of music
in a major key to a minor key. There are times when we sing the song in the
related key, but other times we might need to sing the song in the parallel keys. It
is important to tonally establish new keys.
4. Songs may also be used to prepare the singing of a new song or reading activity.
Keeping the same tonality between known and unknown will help secure
students’ listening and singing skills.
5. When moving from a creative movement activity to a reading, writing, or
improvisation activity, the subsequent game song is in the same key as the
reading, writing, or improvisation activities as this helps with intonation and
keeps the transition between lesson segments smooth and accessible.
6. Using songs that have the same meter
A. When teaching an aural awareness activity addressing rhythm, singing known
songs in the same meter of the aural awareness activity helps with student
focus and subsequent attentiveness.
169
7. Use the same key or do placement on the staff for all sections in a lesson.
A particular scale written on the staff can be used throughout a lesson for
different melodies. This provides a point of focus for the students.
8. Use the same rhythmic ostinato from one segment of a lesson to another to
accompany singing.
9. Use the same melodic ostinato from one segment of a lesson to another to
accompany singing.
10. Sing songs that share the same rhythmic motif from one segment of a lesson to
another to accompany singing.
11. Sing songs that share the same melodic motif from one segment of a lesson to
another to accompany singing.

Transitions Between One Segment of a Lesson to Another


Using Specific Directions
1 . Give students directions using the melody of a song they are about to sing.
2. Give students directions without any verbal language. This might be as simple as
having them sing a known song while the teacher motions to the students to form
a circle to play the game.
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Unconscious Rhythmic Connections


1 . Sing several songs with the same time signature and tempo.
2. Sing several songs that have the same rhythmic motifs.
3. Conduct a song and ask students to keep conducting while you sing the next song
in the lesson.

Unconscious Melodic Connections


1 . Sing several songs in the same tonality.
2. Sing several songs in the same tonality and scale range.
3. Sing several songs that have the same recurring melodic motifs.
4. Sing several songs having the same character or mood. Students will not be made
aware of this at this time in the lesson.

Conscious Rhythmic Connections


1. Teachers use rhythmic connections in songs to move from one segment
of the lesson to another. Students are made aware of these rhythmic
connections.
2. Sing several songs with the same time signature.
3. Sing songs that share the same tempo.
4. Sing songs that share rhythmic motifs; for example, think of the syncopated
rhythmic pattern that connects the “Canoe Song” and “Liza Jane.”
5. A rhythmic motif from one song may become an ostinato for another.
6. Transform the rhythm of one song into another song.
7. Teacher claps the rhythm of a folk song and students follow in canon.
The teacher begins to transform this rhythm into the rhythm of another folk
song.
170
Conscious Melodic Connections
Teachers use melodic connections in songs to move from one segment of the lesson to
another. Students are made aware of these melodic connections.

1. Sing several songs in the same tonality. The preparation for this type of activity
may be accomplished by pointing to the tone steps or staff ladder.
2. The teacher connects two songs together by using the same melodic motive. For
example:
A. “Rocky Mountain” and “Hot Cross Buns” share the mi re do motif at
the end.
B. “Tideo” and “Great Big House in New Orleans” share the mi so so la mi so so
melodic motif.
3. Structural reductions
A. The music teacher can use structural reductions of folk songs to move from
one song to another. To make a structural reduction, write the notes that occur
on each beat in a phrase. Do not include passing notes. Finding these links
between songs can build a powerful connection for students.
4. Structural reductions and partner songs
A. Sing the structural reduction of one song and use it as a partner song with
another song, for example, “Liza Jane” and “Ridin’ in a Buggy.”

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5. Melodic transformations
A. Transform the melodic phrase of one song into a phrase of another song.
6. Melodic motifs
A. Use a melodic motif in a song as a melodic ostinato for another song.
7. Canon
A. For older students, show the hand signs of a known song and ask them to
follow in canon. The teacher then transforms the known song into another
song as the students are following in canon.
8. Harmonic functions
A. Divide the class into two groups. One group performs the song. The other
performs the functional chord root tones. As one group continues to repeat
the functional chord root tones, the teacher can use hand signs and have
students sing another melody that shares the same harmonic rhythm with the
first melody.
9. Character of repertoire
A. Sing several songs having the same character or mood.

Form Connections
1. Unconscious connections
A. Sing several songs that have the same rhythmic form.
B. Sing several songs that have the same melodic form.
2. Conscious connections
A. Sing several songs that have the same rhythmic form. Students will identify
the forms of these songs.
B. Sing several songs that have the same melodic form. Students will identify the
forms of these songs.
171
Chapter  10 of Kodály Today includes many ideas for creating transitions in lesson
plans.
Tables 5.1 and 5.2 show two versions of the same lesson plan: Table 5.1 is a lesson plan
with no transitions, and Table 5.2 has the same lesson plan with transitions. Transitions
should not detract from the lesson but should allow the teacher to move smoothly from
one segment of the lesson to another.

Table 5.1  Grade 4, aqa, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize three sounds unevenly distributed over two


beats through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: Reading known songs that include high do.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Sinfonia No. 8, BWV 794, by J. S. Bach (1685–1750)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
(Continued)
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Table 5.1 (continued)

• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make


sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known “Hill and Gully Rider”
songs CSP: C
• Ss sing the song and keep the beat.
• Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
“I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
CSP: D
Develop tuneful “Riding in the Buggy”
singing CSP: D
Tone production • T sings the song while Ss clap an ostinato.
Diction • Ss sing song with a “koo” sound.
Expression • Ss sing the song while T shows these hand signs and hums the
accompanying melody:
4$wwww\wwww|
  d  m  r  s   d  m  r  d
• Ss sing the solfège syllables of the melody while T sings the song
(T may sign while singing to help Ss).
• T directs part of the class to sing the melodic motif while the
remainder sing the song. Switch.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 9
172 Review known “Shoes of John”
songs and CSP: C
rhythmic • Ss sing the song and conduct.
elements • Ss read from traditional rhythmic notation from the board.
• T: “A note that that comes before the strong beat of a phrase
is called an ‘upbeat’ or a “pickup.” When we have an upbeat
at the beginning of a song, we call it an ________.” (external
upbeat)
• T sings each phrase of “The Jolly Miller,” “Old Mr. Rabbit,” and “I
Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”; Ss echo-sing each phrase singing
with rhythm syllables while tapping the beat.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Land of the Silver Birch”
CSP: D
• T and Ss show beat of the song as T sings.
• T sings and points to the phrases again, and Ss join.
• T sings the first phrase and Ss label the phrase as “A.”
• T continues to sing, stopping for Ss to label each phrase.
• T and Ss sing song.
(Continued)

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Table 5.1 (continued)

Develop “Canoe Song”


knowledge of CSP: A
music literacy • T and Ss sing “Canoe Song” in unison; Ss sing “Canoe Song”
concept while T sings in canon.
Internalize • Ss stand and sing while clapping the rhythm and stepping the
music through beat.
kinesthetic • Ss sing and point to a representation of the target phrase on the
activity board:
__ ______ __ __ __ _____ (target phrase)
• T directs half the class to sing and pat the beat and half to sing
and clap the rhythm by pointing to “B” or “R” on the board; Ss
switch parts.
• Individual Ss sing perform rhythm and beat while singing.
• T directs Ss to sing in canon.
Creative “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
movement CSP: F
• As Ss sing the song, T chooses individuals to play
instruments:
• One plays the steady beat; one plays the subdivision.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice of music “Hogs in the Cornfield”
173
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Reading • Ss sing phrase 2 with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss read the solfège syllables from the board with standard
rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.
• Ss read from staff notation with solfège syllables and
hand signs.
• T prepares Ss to read For Children, vol. 1. no. 5, by Béla Bartók
(1881–1945)
• T creates a score for Ss. T indicates all known elements
with rhythmic notation or solfège syllables. If the solfège
has not been taught, T can include the rhythmic
notation.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Land of the Silver Birch”
outcomes CSP: D
Review the new • Ss sing the song.
song
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Table 5.2  Grade 4, aqa, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize three sounds unevenly distributed over two


beats through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: reading known songs that include high do.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Sinfonia No. 8, BWV 794, by J. S. Bach (1685–1750) (F major; prepares
the tonal center for “Hilly and Gully Rider”)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
Sing known “Hill and Gully Rider”
songs CSP: C
• Ss sing in unison.
• Ss sing while T sings in canon.
“I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
CSP: D
• Ss sing the song with ostinato.
• Add additional ostinato on instrument: 2$qq\sdq>
Develop tuneful “Riding in the Buggy”
singing CSP: D
174 Tone production • T sings the song while Ss continue the ostinato.
Diction • Ss sing song with a “koo” sound.
Expression • Ss sing the song while T points to staff ladder (only d r m s,
D = do):
4$ww \ ww \ ww \ w \ w|
  d   m      r   s     d    m    r      d
• Ss sing the solfège syllables of the accompanying melody from
melody, while T sings the song (T may sign while singing to help
Ss).
• T directs part of the class to sing the melodic motif while the
remainder sing the song. Switch.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 9
• T transforms rhythm on board by adding external upbeat and
dotted half note to create rhythm of next song.
Review known “I Am Standing in the Shoes of John”
songs and CSP: C
rhythmic • Ss sing the song and show the strong and weak beats.
elements • Ss read from traditional rhythmic notation from the board.
(Continued)

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Table 5.2 (continued)

• T: “A note that comes before the strong beat of a phrase is


called an ‘upbeat’ or a “pickup.” When we have an upbeat at the
beginning of a song we call it an ________.” (external upbeat)
Tonal transition
• Ss clap rhythm of song while T sings in parallel minor.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Land of the Silver Birch”
CSP: D
• T and Ss show beat of the song as T sings.
• T sings and points to the phrases again, and Ss join.
• T sings the first phrase and Ss label the phrase as “A.”
• T continues to sing, stopping for Ss to label each phrase.
Develop “Canoe Song”
knowledge of CSP: A
music literacy • Ss sing “Canoe Song” in unison; Ss sing “Canoe Song” while T
concept sings in canon.
Internalize • Ss stand and sing while clapping the rhythm and stepping the
music through beat.
kinesthetic • Ss sing and point to a representation of the target phrase on the
activity board:
__ ______ __ __ __ _____ (target phrase)
• T directs half the class to sing and pat the beat and half to sing and clap
the rhythm by pointing to “B” or “R” on the board; Ss switch parts.
• Individual Ss sing perform rhythm and beat while singing. 175
• T directs Ss to sing in canon.
• Melodic transition: changing key to D = do:
• One S claps the rhythm of “Canoe Song” and T sings the melody
in the parallel major.
• One S claps the rhythm of “Canoe Song” and T sings “Come Thru
’Na Hurry.”
Creative “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
movement CSP: D
• Ss sing the song and keep the beat.
• Play the game.
• As Ss sing the song, T chooses individuals to play instruments:
• One plays the steady beat; one plays the subdivision.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
• Melodic transition: preparing for reading high do and listening in
C = do
(Continued)
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Table 5.2 (continued)

• T points to tone ladder (notes of pentatonic scale) while singing


“Hogs in the Cornfield” on “loo” in the new key and gets Ss to
determine which solfège syllable needs to be added to complete
the ladder. (high do is missing)
• One S adds the missing solfège.
Practice of music “Hogs in the Cornfield”
performance and CSP: C
literacy skills • Ss sing the song with words.
Reading • Ss sing phrase 2 with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss read the solfège syllables from the board with standard
rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.
• Ss read from staff notation.
• T sings the melody of the listening example on “loo”.
Ss identify the solfège for bars 1 and 2 and the rhythm of bars 3
and 4.
• T prepares Ss to read For Children, vol. 1. no. 5, by Béla
Bartók (1881–1945) with solfège syllables and hand signs for
the first two measures and clapping the rhythm of the last two
measure.
2$d’ s \ d’ s \ sdsd\qq\etc.
• T creates a line score for Ss. T indicates all known elements with
rhythmic notation or solfège. If the solfège has not been taught, T
can include the rhythmic notation. Ss determine the form for the
composition.
176 Melodic transition
• Τ asks students to sing d’-s-d’ reading T hand signs. T asks Ss
to hum this ostinato pattern on loo. T asks Ss to hum ostinato
pattern on loo while showing l-m-l hand sings. Ss sing on “loo”
while showing l-m-l hand signs.
• Ss sing ostinato on “loo,” as T sings “Land of the Silver
Birch.”
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Land of the Silver Birch”
outcomes CSP: A
Review the new • Ss sing ostinato on “loo” as T sings “Land of the Silver
song Birch.”
• T divides class into three groups. Group 1 sings the ostinato
on “loo” and groups 2 and 3 sing “Land of the Silver Birch” in
canon.

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General Points for Planning Your Lessons


1. Goals for each lesson should come from the outcomes listed in the
concept plans; but singing in tune should always be a primary goal of each
lesson.
2. Work to select the best song material for each class and make sure you
enjoy this repertoire. We suggest three to eight songs in a thirty-to-forty-
minute lesson. Memorize all of the song material you are going
to use.
3. Every new song you teach should be introduced appropriately. Sometimes we
review a familiar song as we would a new song. This is an opportunity for the
teacher to spend more time polishing the song and making sure that students are
able to sing artfully.
4. When teaching a new element, is it surrounded by known rhythmic or melodic
patterns?
5. Our lessons contain both rhythmic and melodic elements, one for
preparation and the other for practice. Remember that when you
abstract a pattern or motif from a song, always sing the song again to put it
back in context and to give students the experience of enjoying the performance
of the song.
6. There should be a focus to each section of the lesson that you can assess
informally and formally.
7. Know your repertoire. Be able to analyze the materials for each lesson from an
analytical, performance perspective and from a pedagogical one.
8. Try to find variety in the song material for the lesson.
9. Our lessons include periods of relaxation and concentration. The pace of a
lesson is critical. Veteran teachers always tell us that it is better to teach faster
than slower. Students will follow you if you’re moving.
177
10. Give the students plenty of individual experience in the classroom. It is
important to work from the group toward individual activities. You’ll notice that
students are attentive to their peers when they do things like go to the board or
perform on their own.
11. We have suggested a comfortable starting pitch for each song. Feel free to
experiment with what works best for your classroom.

Evaluating a Lesson
1. Learning should stem from the enjoyment of singing songs, chanting rhymes,
and playing games. The overarching goals of a music lesson should be singing,
listening, and enjoyment of music. Musical concepts and elements are taught to
enhance this enjoyment.
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2. We believe that reading and/or writing should be addressed during each lesson.
Even if students simply read or write a small motive from a song, they develop a
deeper understanding and appreciation of the song. We recommend checking our
other publications for more ideas on how to teach music literacy concepts: Sound
Thinking: Music for Sight-Singing and Ear Training, Vols. I and II, published by
Boosey & Hawkes; and From Sound to Symbol: Fundamentals of Music, published
by Oxford University Press.
3. Include opportunities for both review and reinforcement of musical elements and
concepts.
4. A good lesson plan should reveal clear answers to these questions:
A. Was the lesson presented musically?
B. What were the primary and secondary goals of the lesson?
C. How were the goals of the lesson achieved?
D. How many songs and games were used in the lesson?
E. What activities used in conjunction with the song material led students to an
understanding of the goals of the lesson?
F. Was there an emphasis on singing and making music?
G. Did the lesson use a variety of songs?
H. Were the goals of the lesson achieved?
I. Was new material prepared and presented in the lesson? What exercises were
used in the lesson? Did the musical exercises planned for the lesson help the
students achieve the goals?
J. Was there a logical sequence and pacing in the lesson?
K. Was the culmination of the lesson clear?
L. Were there periods of relaxation and concentration in the lesson?
M. What musical skills were developed in the lesson? It is important to
178 create a greater focus on the development of part-singing skills in the
upper grades. We suggest that the teacher use these books as sources for
part-work repertoire to enhance their teaching: Denise Bacon, 46 Two-
Part American Folk Songs for Elementary Grades (Columbus, OH: Capital
University, Kodály Center of America, 1973); Edward Bolkovac, 150
Rounds for Singing and Teaching (New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1996);
Bolkovac, Sing We Now Merrily (New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 2007);
Susan Taylor-Howell, The Owl Sings: 22 Folk Songs Arranged for 2 or 3
Voices (Whitewater, WI: Organization of American Kodály Educators,
1997); Mark Williams, Two-Part American Folk Songs (Bicinia Americana)
(San Antonio, TX: Southern Music, 1977); and Williams’ Book 2, same
publisher, 1988.
N. Were the students active collectively and individually during the
lesson?
O. Did the lesson plan offer an opportunity to assess student progress?
P. Was the lesson enjoyable for the students?
Q. Did the lesson begin and end with singing?

Unit Plans
The units presented here give teachers lesson plans arranged according to concept.

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Unit 1, Third Grade Review

Song Repertoire
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Review Known Songs to Songs to Review Creative Songs to
Tuneful Elements Prepare Next Known Elements movement Practice
Singing New Concept Known
Elements
Lesson 1 “King Kong “The Jolly “Dance Josey” (review low “Canoe Song” “Hogs in the “I Lost the “Tideo” (review
Kitchie,” “Old Miller” sol) Cornfield” (review Farmer’s Dairy high do)
Mr. Rabbit” high do) Key”
Lesson 2 “Do, Do Pity “Golden “Dance Josey” (review low “Weevily “I Lost the Farmer’s “John Kanaka” “Hogs in the
My Case,” Ring” sol) Wheat” Dairy Key” (review Cornfield”
“Canoe Song” kinesthetic and (review high do)
aural awareness of
external upbeat)
Lesson 3 “Johnson “Old Mr. “Fed My Horse” (review “Come Thru “I Lost the Farmer’s “Weevily Wheat” “Hogs in the
Boys,” Rabbit” internal upbeat) ’Na Hurry” Dairy Key” (review Cornfield”
“Weevily visual awareness of (review high do)
Wheat” external upbeat)
Lesson 4 “Mush “Above the “Hogs in the “Hill and “I Lost the Farmer’s “Come Thru ’Na “Three Rogues”
Toodin,” Plain” Cornfield”(review high Gully Rider” Dairy Key” (review Hurry” (review
“Come Thru do) presentation of notation of
’Na Hurry” external upbeat) external upbeat)
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179
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M U SI C A L SK I L L DE V E L OP M E N T
P R AC T I C E K N OW N E L E M E N T S
Reading Read rhythm of Melodic flash Ss read song Read a
known songs. cards with from T’s hand two-part
elements on signs. arrangement
do pentatonic of a well-
songs. known song.
Writing Dictation of target Write a known Write a known Write the
phrases in four-beat song with song in rhythmic
meter in traditional rhythmic traditional staff notation of a
notation. notation and notation. well-known
solfège. song
Improvisation Improvise a new Improvise Improvise Improvise
and melodic ending for ostinatos for pentatonic rhythm
composition known song ending chosen songs in melodies to patterns with
on the tonic. unit. simple 4 to 8 from a variety
Improvise beat. of all known
question-and- rhythmic
answer motives elements up
using known to date.
rhythm or
melodic patterns.
Listening Live performance Movement Choral Listening with
activity to arrangement a prepared
listening of known folk score
180 song
Part work T or Ss divide the Perform do Ss clap T stands at
melody of a known pentatonic tone rhythmic the back of
song into two parts set in canon. patterns from the classroom
and add melodic the board and performs
or rhythmic and say the simple
accompaniment rhythmic rhythmic
to create an syllables in patterns with
arrangement of the canon. instrument,
folk song. and the Ss
clap and say
the rhythm
syllables in
canon.
Memory Write the rhythm Sing “Above the Learn the songs Perform
for “The Jolly Plain” on solfège missing from ostinatos from
Miller” from from memory. third grade that memory.
memory. are needed for
fourth grade
elements.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Inner hearing T sings “Phoebe in Identify mystery Song Identify


Her Petticoat” on songs from match: choose known songs
“loo,” and Ss have notation. three songs from pitch
to identify it. from third ladder and
grade, and Ss from hand
have to match signs.
the rhythm
performed by
T to the
songs.
Form Improvise Make a listening Soloists are Ss call and
movements for map that serves assigned a respond with
a known song to as performance section to sing T for different
show the form. map for that reflect the sections.
nonpitched form.
percussion
instruments.
Instruments Perform ostinato to Ss switch Perform an Read listening
a known song on between playing arrangement of map from
xylophones. the beat or a folk song on form with
rhythm on an instrument. instruments.
drums while
other Ss sing
known song.

181

Unit 1, Third Grade Review, Lesson 1

Outcome Review practice of two sixteenth and one eighth note, and high do
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Finale” from Symphony No. 4, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known “King Kong Kitchie”
songs CSP: F
• Ss sing the song with an ostinato: 2$qq\xcdq>
“Old Mr. Rabbit”
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CSP: F
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss add different vegetables to the end to make the song cumulative.
Develop tuneful “The Jolly Miller”
singing CSP: C
Tone production • T and Ss sing song.
Diction • Ss imitate the sound of a siren with the voice. Challenge Ss to
Expression make soft and loud, high and low, long and short sirens, and
sirens that just go up, just come down, or do both.
• Ss pretend to fall off a cliff and say “aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
• Toss a ball. T tosses a ball from one S to another, and Ss have to
follow the movement of the ball with their voices.
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing a melodic ostinato from T’s hand signs.
2$qq\qq>
  d s,  l,   s,
Review known “Dance Josey”
songs and CSP: F-sharp
elements • Ss sing song with text and keep the beat.
• Ss sings song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T hums motifs and Ss sing back with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of other known pentatonic songs that use high do.
Ss echo-sing using solfège syllables and hand signs.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Canoe Song”
182 CSP: A
• T sings the song.
• Ss discover the form of the song.
• Ss show the strong and weak beats with kinesthetic motions and
conducting.
• T directs Ss to sing the song in two-part canon.
Review known “Hogs in the Cornfield”
songs and CSP: D
elements • Ss sing the song.
Reading • Ss sing phrase 2 with solfège syllables and hand signs.
high do • Ss read the solfège syllables from the board with standard
rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.
2$  sxcsd\sxcsd\
  dddms  l lls   s
    sdxcd\sxcsd|
  d’l sss  mrrdd
• T modifies the rhythm of both phrases. Ss read the changes.
2$qq\qq\
  d  m  l  s
 qq\qq|
  d’  s  m d

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• T modifies the pitches of phrase 1. Ss read the changes.


2$qq\qq\
  d m  s  s
• T modifies the pitches of phrase 2. Ss read the changes.
 qq\qq|
  d’ s   s   m
• T adds four extra beats to phrase 1. Ss read the changes.
2$qq\qq\qq\w\
  d   m   s   s   l  l  s
 qq\qq|
  d’  s   s   m
• T adds four extra beats to phrase 2. Ss sing the solfège
with inner hearing for the changes. Ss read with solfège and hand
signs.
2$qq\qq\qq\w\
  d   m  s  s   l   l    s
  qq\qq\  qsd\w|
  d’   s   s   m   m  rd   r
• T presents the melody on staff notation. Ss read with solfège and
hand signs. Ss memorize the melody.
• Ss identify the melody in the “Evening Prayer” from Hänsel und
Gretel, by Engelbert Humperdinck (1854–1921).
Creative “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
movement CSP: D
• Ss sing the song and conduct.
• T reviews the rules of the game; Ss sing and play the
game.
183
Review known “Tideo”
songs and CSP: F-sharp
elements • Ss sing the song with text.
Reading • T presents the song on the board, leaving phrase 2
high do blank.
• Ss sing the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss complete the writing worksheet, filling in the solfège syllables
beneath standard rhythmic notation, or by writing phrases in staff
notation.
• Ss may complete other known songs with high do as time allows
and add an ostinato on xylophones to perform while singing
familiar repertoire.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Canoe Song”
outcomes CSP: A
Review the new • Ss sing and T sings in canon.
song
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Unit 1, Third Grade Review, Lesson 2

Outcome Review kinesthetic and aural awareness of external upbeat.


Review improvisation of high do.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Finale,” from Symphony No. 4, by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1893)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Do, Do Pity My Case”
CSP: A
• Ss sing the song with an ostinato: 2$qq\xcdq>
• Ss continue the ostinato into the next song.
“Canoe Song”
CSP: A
• Ss sing the song in canon.
Develop tuneful “Golden Ring”
singing CSP: C
Tone production • T and Ss sing song.
184 Diction • Ss hum the song and show the phrases.
Expression • Ss imitate the sound of a siren with the voice. Challenge Ss to
make soft and loud, high and low, long and short sirens, and
sirens that just go up, just come down, or do both.
• Ss pretend to fall off a cliff and say “aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
• Toss a ball. T tosses a ball from one S to another; Ss have to
follow the movement of the ball with their voices.
Review known “Dance Josey”
songs and elements CSP: F
• Ss sing the song.
• T presents the rhythm on the board with some of the solfège
syllables filled in.
2$xxxcsd\sdsd\
  dddd    dd
 xxxcsd\sdsd\
  dddd  dd
 xxxcsd\sdsd\
  dddd  dd
 sdsd\sdq|
  l  s  m r

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss read the solfège syllables in measure 1 of each phrase and


inner-hear measure 2.
• Ss sing phrase 1 and fill in the missing solfège
syllables.
• Ss sing the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss sing “Dance Josey” while T sings “Weevily Wheat” as a
partner song.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Weevily Wheat”
CSP: A
• T sings and demonstrates the movement for the first four
phrases. Ss copy.
• T sings and Ss practice the movements in their small
groups.
• Ss sing and play the game.
Review known “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
songs and elements CSP: D
Internalize music • Ss sing the song; Ss sing and pat the beat.
through kinesthetic • Ss sing the song and draw phrases in the air.
activity • Ss clap the downbeat of each phrase and pat the remaining
Describe what you beats.
hear • Ss sing song and point to a representation of the beats.
External upbeat

185
• Ss sing and point to a representation of the phrases on
the board. It is important that the Ss sing each phrase
clearly.
• T: “What’s the first word in phrase 1?” (I)
• T: “On which word do we clap our hands in phrase 1?”
(lost)
• T: “Does ‘I’ fall on the strong part of the beat, or the weak part
of the beat?” (weak)
• Ss sing the song, but only the first word of each phrase and the
down beat.
• Ss sing the song and transition into position for the
game.
Creative movement “John Kanaka”
CSP: A
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss add a simple melodic ostinato on an instrument to
accompany.
• Ss sing and play the game.
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Practice music “Hogs in the Cornfield”


performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Improvisation • Ss read the target phrase from standard rhythmic notation with
high do solfège syllables.
2$sdxcd\sxcsd|
  d’l  sss   mrrdd
• T sings a slightly different version of the target phrase (this
becomes the “question”).
2$sdxcd\sdq| (Note: T does not write this on the board).
  d’l sss   ms s
• Ss reply with the target phrase.
• T says “This is too easy!” T modifies the target phrase on the
board (this becomes the first “answer”).
2$sdxcd\sdq|
  d’l sss  mr d
• T sings the question, and individual Ss reply with the answer.
• T repeats the process with additional answers.
2$sdxcd\sdq|
  d’l sss  ms d
2$sdxcd\sdq|
  d’l sss  ss  d
• T sings the question to individual Ss, who reply with any of the
three answers. Ss may also create their own answer.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S

186 Review lesson “Weevily Wheat”


outcomes CSP: A
Review the new • Ss sing song.
song

Unit 1, Third Grade Review, Lesson 3

Outcome Review visual awareness of external upbeat.


Review improvisation of high do.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Finale,” from Symphony No. 4, by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1893)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Sing known “Johnson Boys”


songs CSP: A
• Ss sing the song with an ostinato:  2$xcdq\sdq>
Develop tuneful “Old Mr. Rabbit”
singing CSP: C
Tone production • T and Ss sing song.
Diction • Ss hum the song and conduct.
Expression • Ss imitate the sound of a siren with the voice. Challenge Ss to make
soft and loud, high and low, long and short sirens, and sirens that
just go up, just come down, or do both.
• Ss pretend to fall off a cliff and say “aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
• Ss toss a ball from one S to another and follow the movement of
the ball with their voices.
Review known “Fed My Horse”
songs and CSP: F-sharp
elements • Ss sing the song and read the song from the board (without
upbeats).
• Ss identify the mistakes in the rhythm and correct the rhythm.
• Ss sing the rhythm of the song and conduct.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
song CSP: F
• T performs the song for Ss with an instrumental ostinato
accompaniment.
• Ss sing and play the game.
Review known “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
187
songs and CSP: D
elements • Ss sing the song, clapping beat 1 of each phrase and patting 2, 3,
Create a and 4.
representation of • Review kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
what you hear • T gives each S a page with sixteen hearts printed on it and asks
External upbeat them to create a visual representation showing the first word of
each phrase and then the word that falls on the first beat of each
phrase.
• Ss share their representations with one another.
• T invites one S to the board to share a representation with the class.
• Ss sing “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key” on a neutral syllable and
point to the representation.

I’ve lost

Do

• Ss sing the song while turning in their materials and moving into a
circle for the next song.
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Creative “Weevily Wheat”


movement CSP: A
• Ss sing and play the game.
Practice music “Hogs in the Cornfield”
performance CSP: D
and literacy • Ss sing the song.
skills • Ss read the target phrase from standard rhythmic notation with
Improvisation solfège syllables.
high do 2$sdxcd\sxcsd|
  d’l sss   mrrdd
• Ss read the target phrase from staff notation with D = do.
• T erases the first two beats of the phrase.
• T distributes a writing worksheet that contains the target phrase of
the song in staff notation, minus the first two beats.
• Ss must compose a two-beat melody that includes high do.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
outcomes CSP: F
Review the new • Ss sing and T accompanies with an instrumental ostinato
song accompaniment.

Unit 1, Third Grade Review, Lesson 4


188 Outcome Review aural presentation and notation of external upbeat
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Finale,” from Symphony No. 4, by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1893)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Mush Toodin”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song with an ostinato: 2$xxxcq\sdq>
• Ss continue the ostinato into the next song.
“Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song with the ostinato.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Develop tuneful “Above the Plain”


singing CSP: A
Tone production • Ss sing and keep the beat.
Diction • Ss imitate the sound of a siren with the voice. Challenge Ss to
Expression make soft and loud, high and low, long and short sirens, and
sirens that ascend, descend, or do both.
• Ss pretend to fall off a cliff and say “aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
• Ss sing song the sing again in canon.
Review known “Hogs in the Cornfield”
songs and elements CSP: D
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss read the target phrase from the board.
2$sdxcd\sxcsd|
  d’ l  sss  m rrd d
• T modifies the rhythm of the phrase. Ss read the changes.
2$sdsd\sdsd|
   d’l  s s  mr dd
• T modifies the rhythm of the phrase. Ss read the changes.
2$qq\sdq|
   d’  s    mr d
• T modifies the solfège of the phrase. Ss read the changes.
2$qq\sdq|
   d’  d’   mr d
• T modifies the solfège of the phrase. Ss read the changes.
2$qq\sdq|
   d’  d’  sm d
• Use this pattern as a melodic ostinato for the song.
189
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Hill and Gully Rider”
CSP: C
• T sings song for Ss and shows the game motions.
• T sings song for Ss and Ss play the game only.
• T sings the song and uses the previous melodic ostinato
accompaniment created for “Hogs in the Cornfield” and Ss
play the game.
• Ss sing song.
Presentation of “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Describe what you • Review kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities.
hear with rhythm • T: “A note that that comes before the strong beat of a phrase is
syllables called an ‘upbeat’ or a ‘pickup.’ ”
External upbeat • T: “When we have an upbeat inside of the song, we know it’s an
internal upbeat. Now we have an upbeat at the beginning (or
outside of the song).”
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• T: “When we have an upbeat at the beginning of the song, we


call it an external upbeat.”
• T sings the song with rhythm syllables; S echo with rhythm
syllables and conduct; T echo-sings with at least eight
individuals.
Creative movement “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song while T accompanies on an instrument.
• Ss sing and play the game.
Presentation of “Three Rogues”
music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Notate what you • Review presentation of external upbeat.
hear • T: “When we have an upbeat at the beginning of the song, we
External upbeat call it an external upbeat.”
• Ss read the rhythmic notation for “Three Rogues” with rhythm
syllables as they conduct.
• Ss sing the song and T sings the second voice part from Denise
Bacon’s 46 American Two-Part Folk Songs, p. 25.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Hill and Gully Rider”
outcomes CSP: C
Review the new song • Ss sing song.

190

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Unit 2, Syncopation

Song Repertoire
Known Songs Songs Songs to Songs to Prepare Songs to Creative Songs to Practice
for Review Known Next New Prepare Movement Known Elements: high
Tuneful Elements: External Concept: la Concept:  aqa do
Singing Upbeat Pentatonic Scale
Lesson 1 “I Lost the “Riding “I Am Standing in “Land of the Silver “Canoe Song” “Come Thru ’Na “Hogs in the Cornfield”
Farmer’s Dairy in the the Shoes of John” Birch” Hurry”
Key,” “Hill and Buggy”
Gully Rider”
Lesson 2 “John Kanaka,” “Come “Old Mr. Rabbit” “Land of the Silver “Canoe Song” “Weevily Wheat” “Hogs in the Cornfield”
“Hogs in the Thru ’Na Birch”
Cornfield” Hurry”
Lesson 3 “Old Mr. Rabbit,” “Weevily “Above the Plain” “Gallows Pole” “Canoe Song” “Hill and Gully “Hogs in the Cornfield”
“Land of the Wheat” Rider”
Silver Birch”
Known Songs Songs Songs to Review Songs to Prepare Songs to Creative Songs to Present
for Known Elements: Next New Present Movement Concept: aqa
Tuneful External Upbeat Concept: la Concept: aqa
Singing Pentatonic Scale
Lesson 4 “Riding in the “Weevily “I Am Standing in “Cock Robin” “Canoe Song” “Hill and Gully “Come Thru ’Na Hurry,”
Buggy,” “Gallows Wheat” the Shoes of John” Rider” “Hill and Gully Rider,”
Pole” “Riding in the Buggy,”
“Weevily Wheat”
Lesson 5 “Cedar Swamp,” “Come “Above the Plain” “See-Line Woman” “Canoe Song” “The Jolly “Riding in the Buggy”
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“Cock Robin” Thru ’Na Miller”


Hurry”
191
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Here is a chart of the primary musical skills that are developed in the five lessons associated
with teaching the concept of syncopation. Remember, in the first three lessons Ss practice
the previous musical element, in this case, external upbeat, which was learned in grade
three.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5


Reading Ss read “I Ss read “Canoe
Lost the Song” and
Farmer’s additional songs
Dairy with hand signs
Key” from from steps,
traditional tradition notation
rhythm with solfège,
notation. and then staff
notation.
Writing Ss write “I Ss write “Canoe
Lost the Song” and
Farmer’s additional songs
Dairy from steps,
Key” in tradition notation
traditional with solfège,
rhythm and then staff
notation. notation.
Improvi­ T sings a
sation question
phrase
192
written
on the
board Ss
improvise
an answer
phrase
using an
external
upbeat and
rhythm
syllables.
Movement “Come Thru “Weevily “Hill and “The Jolly “Hill and Gully
’Na Hurry” Wheat” Gully Miller” Rider”
Rider”
Listening “Evening
Prayer,” from
Hänsel und
Gretel, by
Engelbert
Humper­dinck
(1854–1921)

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Unit 2, Syncopation  aqa, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize three sounds unevenly distributed over two


beats through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: Reading known songs that include high do.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Sinfonia No. 8, BWV 794, J. S. Bach (1685–1750)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Hill and Gully Rider”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
“I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
CSP: D
• Ss sing the song with a simple ostinato. 2$qq\sdq>
• Ss continue the ostinato into the next song.
Develop tuneful “Riding in the Buggy”
singing CSP: D
Tone production • T sings the song while Ss continue the ostinato.
Diction • Ss sing song with a “koo” sound. 193
Expression • Ss sing the song while T shows these hand signs for
accompanying melody:
4$wwww\wwww|
  d   m   r   s    d   m   r  d
• Ss sing the solfège syllables of the accompanying melody while T
sings the song (T may sign while singing to help Ss).
• T directs part of the class to sing the melodic motif while the
remainder sing the song. Switch.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 9
Review known “I Am Walking in the Shoes of John”
songs and CSP: C
rhythmic elements • Ss sing the song and show the strong and weak beats.
• Ss read from traditional rhythmic notation from the board.
• T: “A note that comes before the strong beat of a phrase is called
an ‘upbeat’ or a ‘pickup.’ When we have an upbeat at
the beginning of a song, we call it an ________.” (external
upbeat)
• T sings each phrase of “The Jolly Miller,” “Old Mr. Rabbit,” and
“I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”; Ss echo-sing each
phrase, singing with rhythm syllables both as a class and
individually.
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C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Land of the Silver Birch”
CSP: D
• T and Ss show beat of the song as T sings.
• T sings and points to the phrases again; Ss join.
• T sings the first phrase and Ss label the phrase as “A.”
• T continues to sing, stopping for Ss to label each phrase.
• T and Ss sing song.
Develop “Canoe Song”
knowledge of CSP: A
music literacy • T and Ss sing “Canoe Song” in unison; Ss sing “Canoe Song”
concept while T sings in canon.
Internalize music • Ss stand and sing while clapping the rhythm and stepping the
through kinesthetic beat.
activity • Ss sing and point to a representation of the target phrase on the
board:
__ ______ __ __ __ _____ (target phrase)
• T directs half the class to sing and pat the beat and half to sing
and clap the rhythm by pointing to “B” or “R” on the board; Ss
switch parts.
• Individuals sing, perform rhythm, and beat while singing.
• T divides the class into two groups and directs Ss to sing in
canon.
Creative “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
movement CSP: F
194 • As Ss sing the song, T chooses individuals to play instruments.
• One plays the steady beat; one plays the subdivision.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice of music “Hogs in the Cornfield”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Reading • Ss sing phrase 2 with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss read the solfège syllables from the board with standard
rhythmic notation and solfège syllables.
• Ss read from staff notation.
• Ss read Kodály Choral Library, 333 Elementary Exercises,
no. 327.
• T writes the tone set on the board and prepares Ss to read For
Children, vol 1, no. 5, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945).
• T creates a score for Ss that indicates all known elements with
rhythmic notation and solfège syllables. If the solfège has not
been taught, T can include the rhythmic notation.
• T sings the Bartók melody on “loo” in the parallel minor as a
transition by singing the next melody.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Land of the Silver Birch”
outcomes CSP: D
Review the new song • Ss sing song and T sings in canon.

Unit 2, Syncopation  aqa, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze repertoire that contains three sounds


unevenly distributed over two beats.
Practice: write patterns from known songs that include high do.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Sinfonia No. 8, BWV 794, J. S. Bach (1685–1750)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “John Kanaka”
CSP: A
• Ss sing the song and keep the beat.
• Ss continue the beat into the next song.
“Hogs in the Cornfield” 195
CSP: D
• Ss sing the song and pat the beat.
• Ss sing the song and conduct.
• Ss sing the song with inner hearing and conduct.
Develop tuneful “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
singing CSP: F
Tone production • Ss sing the song.
Diction • Ss sing with a “koo” sound.
Expression • Lip trills. T directs Ss to then use lip trills to sing the song.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 10
Review known “Old Mr. Rabbit”
songs and rhythmic CSP: F
elements • T and Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing the song and perform the strong and weak beats.
• Ss are instructed to sing only upbeats and the first beat of
each phrase.
• Ss identify the song as containing an internal upbeat.
• Ss sing and conduct the song.
• T sings each phrase of “Paw Paw Patch”, “Tideo,” “Ida Red,”
and “Chickalalelo”; Ss echo-sing each phrase singing with
rhythm syllables both as a class and individually.
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C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Land of the Silver Birch”
CSP: D
• T and Ss keep the beat while T sings the song alone.
• T sings while Ss point to the phrases.
• T sings, Ss show strong and weak beats; Ss identify meter.
Develop knowledge “Canoe Song” (round)
of musical literacy CSP: D
concept • Ss sing song.
Describe what you • Review kinesthetic activities.
hear • T and Ss sing phrase 1 (the target phrase) on “loo” and tap
the beat before T asks each question.
Determine the number of beats in the phrase.
• T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (four)
Determine the number of sounds on each beat.
• T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beat 4?” (one)
• T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beat 3?” (two)
• T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beats 1 and 2?”
(three)
• T: “Andy, were our three sounds even or uneven?” (uneven)
• T: “Andy, describe our three uneven sounds on beat 3 with
the words short and long.” (short, long, short)
• T: “Let’s sing our phrase like this: short long short tadi ta.
• T: “I’ll sing words and you echo short long short and rhythm
syllables.”
196 • The class then, as individuals, echo-sing with T.
• T eventually sings the text for each phrase; Ss echo-sing with
short long short and the appropriate rhythm syllables.
Creative movement “Weevily Wheat”
CSP: A
• As Ss sing the song, T will choose individuals to play
instruments.
• One plays the steady beat; one plays the subdivision.
• One continues the ostinato: (4$aqaqQ>)
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice music “Hogs in the Cornfield”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • T presents the song on the board, leaving phrase 2 blank.
Writing • Ss sing the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss complete the writing worksheet. (Songs may be written
with rhythmic notation with solfège syllables beneath or in
staff notation.)

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss may complete other known songs with high do as time


allows.
• Ss create an ostinato on xylophones that includes high do
la and so; they use the ostinato to accompany any of their
known songs.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Land of the Silver Birch”
outcomes CSP: D
Review the new song • Ss sing the song and T sings the second part from Sourwood
Mountain, p. 6.

Unit 2, Syncopation  aqa, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of three sounds


unevenly distributed over two beats.
Practice: improvise rhythmic patterns that include an external upbeat.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Hoedown,” from Rodeo, by Aaron Copland (1900–1990)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles. 197
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Old Mr. Rabbit”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song.
“Land of the Silver Birch”
CSP: D
• Ss sing the song; then they sing in canon after eight-beats.
Develop tuneful “Weevily Wheat”
singing CSP: A
Tone production • T and Ss sing the song.
Diction • Ss sing the song and conduct.
Expression • Ss sing with a “koo” sound.
• Lip trills. T directs Ss to then use lip trills to sing the song.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 11
Review known “Above the Plain”
songs and rhythmic CSP: A
elements • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
• Ss identify the song as having an external upbeat.
• Ss sing and conduct.
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• T sings each phrase of “Paw Paw Patch,” “Tideo,” “Jim Along


Josie,” and “Chickalalelo”; Ss echo-sing each phrase singing
with rhythm syllables both individually and as a class.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Gallows Pole”
CSP: D
• T expressively sings the song (selected verses) and
accompanies on an instrument.
• Ss identify the number of phrases (four) and join singing.
Develop knowledge “Canoe Song”
of music literacy CSP: A
concept • T and Ss sing “Canoe Song.”
Create a representation • Review kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
of what you hear • T hums the target phrase and asks Ss to create a visual
representation of the target phrase. They may use
manipulatives.
• Ss share their representations with each other.
• T invites one S to the board to share a representation with the
class. If necessary, corrections to the representation can be
made by reviewing the aural awareness questions.
• The Ss sing the first phrase of “Canoe Song” with a neutral
syllable and point to the representation.
Creative movement “Hill and Gully Rider”
CSP: A
• T and Ss sing and play the game.
198 • T sing the calls; Ss sing the responses. Switch.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice music “Hogs in the Cornfield”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Improvisation • Ss sing with solfège and hand signs.
• Ss read the target phrase from standard rhythmic notation
with solfège syllables.
2$sdxcd\sxcsd|
  d’l sss   mrrdd
• T says, “This is too easy!” T modifies the target phrase on the
board (this becomes the first “answer”).
2$sdxcd\sdq|
  d’l sss  mr d
• T sings a slightly different version of the target phrase (this
becomes the “question”).
2$sdxcd\sdq| (Note: T does not write this on the board.)
  d’l sss   ms s

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss reply with the target phrase.


• T sings the question; individual Ss reply with the answer.
• T repeats the process with additional answers.
2$sdxcd\sdq|
    d’l sss   msd
2$sdxcd\sdq|
    d’l sss   ssd
• T sings the question to individual Ss, who reply with any of
the three answers. Ss may also create their own answer.
• Ss create ostinati that include d’ l s to play on xylophones to
accompany any known song.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Gallows Pole”
outcomes CSP: D
Review the new song

Unit 2, Syncopation  aqa, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label three sounds unevenly distributed over two beats


with rhythm syllables as ta di --- di.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up “Hoedown,” from Rodeo, by Aaron Copland (1900–1990)
• Body warm-up
• Breathing exercise
• Beat/movement activity 199
Sing known songs “Riding in the Buggy”
CSP: D
• Ss sing the song with an ostinato.
Develop tuneful “Weevily Wheat”
singing CSP: A
Tone production • Ss sing and conduct.
Diction • Ss sing with a “koo” sound.
Expression • Lip trills. T directs Ss to then use lip trills to sing
the song.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 11
Review known “Shoes of John”
songs and rhythmic CSP: C
elements • Ss perform song and conduct.
• Ss identify known rhythm elements.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individuals who echo-sing
with rhythm syllables.
• T sings individual phrases of “Old Mr. Rabbit,” “Tideo,”
“Ida Red,” and “Chickalalelo”; Ss echo-sing each phrase
singing with rhythm syllables both as a class and
individually.
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C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Who Killed Cock Robin?”
CSP: A
• T expressively sings the song, with all verses, and accompanies
on an instrument.
• T sings verse 1; Ss show the phrases and identify the number of
phrases. (four)
• Ss sing “Cock Robin” while T sings “Canoe Song” as a partner
song. Switch.
Presentation of “Canoe Song”
music literacy CSP: A
concepts • T and Ss sing “Canoe Song.”
Describe what you • T transfers the ostinato to a pitched instrument (la, mi, la,-----)
hear with rhythm as accompaniment.
syllables • Ss sing in canon.
• One group walks the beat while they sing, the other claps the
rhythm.
• T sings the target phrase while tapping the beat.
• Ss echo-sing first on “loo.”
• T repeats; Ss echo (short-long-short tadi ta).
• T invites one S to come to board to draw a representation of the
target phrase.
• Ss sing the representation.
• T: “When we hear three uneven sounds over two beats where
the first is short, the second is long, and the third is short, we
200 can label these sounds with our rhythm syllables ta di—di.”
• T may write the syllables “ta di—di” (NOT THE NOTATION)
on the board.
• T sings and conducts “Canoe Song” with rhythm syllables,
After each phrase, Ss echo-sing with rhythm syllables while
clapping the rhythm.
• Individual Ss echo the rhythm syllables after T.
• T sings a phrase of “Canoe Song” with text; Ss echo with
rhythm syllables.
• The Ss sing “Canoe Song” with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• Ss continue the rhythm of the final phrase as an ostinato into
the next song: (4$aqaqQ>)
Creative movement “Hill and Gully Rider”
CSP: C
• T and Ss sing the song while continuing the ostinato.
• Ss choose an instrument and create a simple rhythmic ostinato
with which to accompany the song.
• T and Ss sing and play the game.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Presentation of “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”


music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing and clap the words.
Describe what you • Ss identify where they hear ta-di---di in the song.
hear with rhythm • Ss identify how many times they hear ta-di---di in the song.
syllables (three times)
• Ss connect ta-di---di to other related song material:
• “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
• “Hill and Gully Rider”
• “Riding in the Buggy”
• “Weevily Wheat”
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Who Killed Cock Robin?”
outcome CSP: B
Review the new • Ss sing the melody and T sings the second part of Denise
song Bacon’s 46 Two-Part Arrangements of American Folk Songs, p. 21.

Unit 2 (Syncopation), Lesson 5


Grade 4, Unit 2,  aqa, Lesson 5

Outcome Presentation: notate three sounds unevenly distributed over two


beats as  aqa
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
201
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Hoedown,” from Rodeo, by Aaron Copland (1900–1990)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Cedar Swamp”
CSP: A
• T and Ss sing and pat the beat.
• Add ostinato: 2$sdq\sdq>
Develop tuneful “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
singing CSP: F
Tone production • Ss sing “Come Thru ’Na Hurry” with a “yip” sound.
Diction • Ss speak with a “koo” sound. Ss repeat “koo” sound to known
Expression rhythm patterns.
• Ss sing “Come Thru ’Na Hurry” with a “koo” sound.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 12
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Review known “Above the Plain”


songs and rhythmic CSP: A
elements • Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss who echo-sing
with rhythm syllables.
• Ss read the last two phrases from the board both as a class and
individually:
4$a\sdsdsdq\sdsdqa
 a\sdsdsdq\sdsdqa|
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “See-Line Woman”
CSP: A
• T sings the song.
• Ss identify the number of phrases. (four)
• Ss identify the number of beats in each phrase. (four)
• T sings the song on “loo” and Ss label the form. (AAA’B)
• T sings the song with words while Ss perform the rhythm.
• Ss sing the song while keeping the beat.
Presentation of “Canoe Song”
music literacy CSP: A
concepts • T and Ss sing “Canoe Song” while performing the rhythm of
Notate what you “See-Line Woman.”
hear • Ss sing “Canoe Song” in canon.
• T reviews aural presentation:
202 • T: “When we hear three uneven sounds over two beats where
the first is short, the second is long, and the third is short, we
can label these sounds with our rhythm syllables ta di—di.”
• T: “When the beat is a quarter note, we can represent three
sounds over two beats using the traditional notation.”
2$aqa\sdq|
• T: “When we write our target pattern, we can use stick notation.”
2$aqa\sdq|
• T sings “Canoe Song,” stopping after each phrase for Ss to echo
with rhythm syllables. T writes the traditional notation as Ss
sing.
2$aqa\sdq\
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\sdq\
 aqa\w|
• Ss read the rhythm of the song with rhythm syllables and
conducting.
• T explains how to read with numbers. Ss read the rhythm of
the song with numbers for counting and conducting.
• Use the final phrase (4$aqaw>) as a rhythmic ostinato
into the next song.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Creative movement “The Jolly Miller”


CSP: C
• T and Ss sing and play the game.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Presentation of “Riding in the Buggy”
music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing the refrain of “Riding in the Buggy,” and T points to the
Notate what you rhythm of “Canoe Song” while Ss sing and pat the beat.
hear 2$aqa\sdq\
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\sdq\
 aqa\w|
• Ss identify the changes needed to create the refrain of “Riding
in the Buggy”:
2$aqa\qQ\
 aqa\qQ\
 aqa\sdsd\
 aqa\w|
• T will transform the rhythm into “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”:
2$aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\w|
2$aqa\qq\
203
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 sdsd\w|
• Ss identify and sing the rhythm syllables of the song.
• Ss add an ostinato accompaniment played on a xylophone
using  aqa to any of their known repertoire.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “See-Line Woman”
outcomes CSP: A
Review the new song • T can play a recording of this song, sung by such artists as Nina
Simone, or by Feist.
204
Unit 3, la Pentatonic

Song Repertoire
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Songs to Prepare Songs to Creative Songs to Practice Known
Tuneful Review Next New Prepare Movement Elements: Syncopation
Singing Known Concept: Dotted Concept: la
Elements Quarter and Eighth Pentatonic
Note Scale
Lesson 1 “Above the “Cock “Canoe Song” “See-Line Woman” “Land of the “Weevily “Hill and Gully Rider”
Plain,” “See-Line Robin” Silver Birch” Wheat”
Woman”
Lesson 2 “I Lost the “Gallows “Come Thru “Long Road of Iron” “Land of the “Weevily “Hill and Gully Rider”
Farmer’s Dairy Pole” ’Na Hurry” Silver Birch” Wheat”
Key,” “Liza Jane”
Lesson 3 “Shoes of John,” “Cock “Riding in the “Hush-a-Bye” “Land of the “Long Road of “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
“Long Road of Robin” Buggy” Silver Birch” Iron”
Iron”

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Known Songs Songs for Songs to Songs to Prepare Songs to Creative Songs to Present
Tuneful Review Next New Concept: Present Movement Concept: la Pentatonic
Singing Known ra Concept: la Scale
Elements Pentatonic
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Scale
Lesson 4 “Old Mr. Rabbit, “Mush “Canoe Song” “John Kanaka” “Land of the “Big Fat “Land of the Silver Birch,”
“Hush-a-Bye” Toodin” Silver Birch” Biscuit” “Sioux Indian Lullaby”
Lesson 5 “The Jolly Miller,” “See-Line “Hill and “Chairs to Mend” “Land of the “Long Road of “Sioux Indian Lullaby”
“Hey, Ho, Nobody Woman” Gully Rider” Silver Birch” Iron”
Home”
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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Here is a chart of the primary musical skills that are developed in the five lessons associated
with teaching the concept of la pentatonic. Remember, in the first three lessons Ss practice
the previous musical element, in this case syncopation.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5


Reading Ss read “Canoe Ss read
Song” and “Land of
additional the Silver
songs with Birch” with
hand signs hand signs
from steps, from steps,
traditional tradition
notation with notation
solfège, and with
then staff solfège, and
notation. then staff
notation.
Writing Ss write “Canoe Ss write
Song” and phrase 3 of
additional “Land of the
songs with Silver Birch”
hand signs from in rhythmic
steps, tradition notation
notation with with solfège
solfège, and syllables
then staff and staff
notation. notation. 205
Improvi­ T sings a
sation question
phrase written
on the board,
Ss sing an
answer phrase
written on
the board
using rhythm
syllables.
Movement “Weevily “Come Thru “Long Road of “Big Fat “Long Road
Wheat” ’Na Hurry” Iron” Biscuit” of Iron”
Listening “Jamaican
Rumba,”
by Arthur
Benjamin
(1893–1960)
performed by
James Galway,
Dances for Flute
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Unit 3, la Pentatonic, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize the la pentatonic scale through kinesthetic


activities.
Practice: read  aqa in four-beat patterns.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Valse in Db Major, Op. 64, No. 1 (Minute Waltz), Frederic Chopin
(1810–1849)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Above the Plains”
CSP: A
• Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
• Ss perform the rhythm of the last four beats as an ostinato into
the next song: (2$sdsd\qq>) Note: the song begins on an
upbeat but the ostinato starts on the downbeat.
“See-Line Woman” (also known as “C-Line Woman”)
CSP: A
• Ss sing and conduct.
206 Develop tuneful “Cock Robin” (“Who Killed Cock Robin?”)
singing CSP: A
Tone production • T and Ss sing the first verse of “Cock Robin.”
Diction • Ss sing the song with a light and resonant hum.
Expression • Ss sing “Cock Robin” with a “koo” sound.
• T conducts Ss to sing with various musical elements (crescendo
and decrescendo, staccato and legato, etc.).
• Ss sing Denise Bacon’s arrangement of “Cock Robin” from 46
Two-Part American Folk Songs, p. 21.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 18
Review known “Canoe Song”
songs and melodic CSP: A
elements • T will direct part of the class to sing the song while the rest
continue the ostinato. Switch.
• Ss sing the song with solfège and hand signs.
• T sings phrases on “loo” and Ss echo-sing with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
• Ss sing the song in canon.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her Petticoat,”
“Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that use the solfège
syllables l s m r d low la and s,; Ss echo-sing using solfège
syllables and hand signs both as a class and individually.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S

Teach a new song “See-Line Woman”


CSP: A
• T sings the song.
• Ss identify the number of phrases. (four)
• Ss identify the number of beats in each phrase. (four)
• T sings the song on “loo” and Ss label the form. (AAA’B).
• T sings the song on “loo” and Ss create a double rhythmic
ostianto to accompany the song.
• Ss sing the song with double rhythmic ostinato and T sings in
canon..

Develop knowledge “Land of the Silver Birch”


of music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Internalize music • T directs Ss to sing in two-part canon.
through kinesthetic • Sing “Land of the Silver Birch” and point to a representation
activities of the melodic contour of the target phrase (phrase 3) at the
board.

207
• Ss sing the target phrase and clap the melodic contour.
• Ss turn to face partners, sing, and show melodic contour as a
pair, each mirroring the other’s claps.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables while showing the
melodic contour.
• Ss learn to sing the two-part arrangement of this song found in
Sourwood Mountain, p. 6.
• Ss sing “Land of the Silver Birch” while T hums “Weevily
Wheat” from the board.

Creative movement “Weevily Wheat”


CSP: A
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing the song and move into position for the game.
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss create a rhythmic accompaniment.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next song.
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Practice music “Hill and Gully Rider”


performance and CSP: C
literacy skills • T will sing the song as Ss continue the
Reading ostinato.
• T will direct part of the class to continue the ostinato while the
remainder sing the song.
• Ss will read the traditional notation.
2$sdsd\qq\
 aqa\qQ\
 sdsd\qq\
 aqa\qQ|
• Transform into “Come Thru ’Na Hurry.” Ss read the changes
and identify the song.
2$aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 sdsd\qQ|
• T transforms the rhythm into listening example “The Russian
Sailor’s Dance.”

• Ss listen for the rhythm pattern in the musical example “The


Russian Sailor’s Dance,” Op. 70, from The Red Poppy, Reinhold
208 Gliere (1875–1956). Ss clap the recognized portions of the
rhythm.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “See-Line Woman”
outcomes CSP: A
Review the new • Ss sing the song while T sings in canon.
song

Unit 3, la Pentatonic, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze repertoire that contains the la pentatonic


scale.
Practice: write  aqa in four-beat phrases.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
When the Saints Go Marching In, arr. by Louis
Armstrong (1901–1971) http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=wyLjbMBpGDA&feature=player_detailpage
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for
singing.
Sing known songs “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key”
CSP: D
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing “I Lost the Farmer’s Dairy Key” while T sings “Liza
Jane” as a partner song. Switch.
“Liza Jane”
CSP: F-sharp
• Ss sing song.
• Ss sing song in canon after four beats.
Develop tuneful “Gallows Pole”
singing CSP: D
Tone production • T and Ss sing song.
Diction • T directs part of the class to sing phrase 4 as a melodic 209
Expression ostinato while the rest of the class sings the song.
• Ss sing the ostinato with solfège syllables (l, l, dd d l,) as T
sings the song with solfège syllables; switch.
• Ss sing “Gallows Pole” with solfège syllables and emphasize
each vowel sound of the solfège syllables.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 19
Review known songs “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
and melodic elements CSP: F
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss’ who echo-
sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her
Petticoat,” “Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that use
the solfège syllables l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-sing
using solfège syllables and hand signs both as a class and
individually.
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C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Long Road of Iron”
CSP: A
• Ss continue the ostinato while T sings the song.
• T sings the song and directs Ss to sit in a circle and
demonstrates the passing motion of the game. Ss copy.
• T sings the song and Ss practice playing the game.
• T and Ss sing and play the game.
Develop knowledge “Land of the Silver Birch”
of music literacy CSP: D
concepts • T sings the song; Ss join.
Describe what you • Ss sing the song in two-part canon.
hear • Review kinesthetic awareness activities.
T and Ss sing phrase 3 and tap the beat before T asks each of these
questions:
• T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (eight)
• T: “Andy, which beat has the lowest pitch?” (beat 8)
T asks Ss to sing the lowest pitch with solfège syllable (la,)
• T: “Andy, which beat has the highest pitch?” (beats 1 and 2) T
asks Ss to sing the highest pitch on beat 1 with la.
T breaks the phrase into two-beat “chunks,” and Ss identify and
sing the solfège of each “chunk.”
• Ss sing the entire phrase with solfège syllables and hand
signs.
• Individual Ss sing the phrase with solfège syllables and hand
210 signs.
• T guides Ss to sing all of the notes in the phrase from lowest
to highest, with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T hums notes of the key and Ss identify the steps and skills.
• Ss perform the rhythm of the last four beats of phrase 3 as a
rhythmic ostinato into the next song (2$aqa\sdq>).
Creative movement “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song.
• T selects Ss to choose instrument to play the ostinato while
the class sing and plays the game.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next song.
Practice music “Hill and Gully Rider”
performance and CSP: A
literacy skills • Ss sing “Hill and Gully Rider.”
Writing • Ss sing while T points to beats prepared on the board.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables while T points to the
beats on the board.
• T distributes writing materials and worksheets.
• T sings each phrase on “loo” while pointing to the beats; Ss
fill in the missing rhythms on their worksheet.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss fill in the missing rhythms on the board.


• Ss sing the song from their notations.
• Ss create syncopated accompaniments on xylophones to
perform with any of their known songs.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review the lesson “Long Road of Iron”
outcomes CSP: A
Review the new song • Ss sing the song and T accompanies with a melodic
ostinato.

Unit 3, la Pentatonic, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of the la pentatonic


scale.
Practice: improvise a four-beat rhythm using  aqa

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S

Warm-up • Body warm-up


• Beat activity
When the Saints Go Marching In, folk, arr. by Louis Armstrong
(1901–1971)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon. 211
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.

Sing known songs “I am Standing in the Shoes of John”


CSP: C
• Ss sing the song and keep the beat; Ss sing in canon after two
beats.
• Ss continue the beat into the next song.

Develop tuneful “Cock Robin”


singing CSP: A
Tone production • T directs Ss to sing the song in canon after two beats.
Diction • Ss lightly hum the song while T monitors for proper vocal
Expression resonance and tone.
• Ss sing with solfège syllables reading from T’s hand signs.
• T improvises a simple hand sign accompaniment.
• Ss sing in two parts from T’s hand signs.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 20
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Review known “Riding in a Buggy”


songs and melodic CSP: D
elements • Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing
with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her
Petticoat,” “Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that use
the solfège syllables l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-sing
using solfège syllables and hand signs both as a class and
individually.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Hush-a-Bye”
CSP: D
• T sings the song and accompanies on an instrument.
• Ss discover the form of the composition.
Develop knowledge “Land of the Silver Birch”
of music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Create a • Review kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
representation of • Ss identify all the pitches included in the target phrase. (la, do
what you hear re mi so la)
• Ss sing the pitches and their intervals from lowest to highest
and highest to lowest.
• T sings third phrase of “Land of the Silver Birch” and asks Ss
212 to create a visual representation of all the pitches in the target
phrase.
• Ss share representations with each other.
• T invites one S to the board to share a representation
with the class. Make corrections by reviewing the aural
awareness questions and making adjustments in the written
work.
• Ss sing all the pitches in the target phrase of “Land of the
Silver Birch” with solfège syllables and point to the
representation.
• T sings “Long Road of Iron” on a neutral syllable as Ss put away
supplies. Ss will identify the song and move into places for the
game.
Creative movement “Long Road of Iron”
CSP: A
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Practice music “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”


performance and CSP: F
literacy skills • Ss sing the song and read the rhythm from the board.
Improvisation 2$aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 aqa\qq\
 sdsd\qQ|
• T will remove the rhythm of phrase 4.
• T will reveal two to three alternate options for the fourth
phrase:
○ 2$aqa\sdq|
○ 2$aqa\qQ|
○ 2$aqa\aqa|
• Ss sing phrases 1 through 3, and T will perform one of the new
options.
• T sings phrases 1 through 3, and Ss will perform one of the new
options.
• Ss create syncopated ostinato on xylophones to accompany any
of their known songs.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Hush-a-Bye”
outcomes CSP: D
Review the new • Ss sing the song and T sings a second part from
song Denise Bacon’s 46 Two-Part American Folk Songs,
p. 55.
213

Unit 3, la Pentatonic, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label the la pentatonic scale with solfège


syllables
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Overture to The Marriage of Figaro, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756–1791)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
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Sing known “Old Mr. Rabbit”


songs CSP: C
• T and Ss sing song.
• T chooses individual Ss to sing phrases.
“Hush-a-Bye”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in canon after two beats and/or four beats.
Develop tuneful “Mush Toodin”
singing CSP: F
Tone production • T and Ss sing song.
Diction • Sing longer phrases; sing two phrases in one breath.
Expression • Ss sing “Mush Toodin” with a “koo” sound.
• Lip trills. T directs Ss to then use lip trills to sing the song using a
slower tempo.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 21
Review “Canoe Song”
known songs CSP: A
and melodic • Ss sing the song in two-part canon.
elements • Ss sing with solfège syllables and hand signs; then sing the solfège
of phrase 4.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing
with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her Petticoat,”
“Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that use the solfège
syllables l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-sing using solfège
214 syllables and hand signs.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “John Kanaka”
CSP: A
• T sings as Ss identify phrases and beats per phrase, and label form.
• Ss sing the entire song.
• Ss sing the song while T sings phrase 4 of “Land of the Silver
Birch.”
Presentation of “Land of the Silver Birch”
music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing the song in canon.
Describe what • T reviews kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness activities.
you hear with • Ss sing the tone set and intervals found in the target phrase from
solfège syllabus low to high (low la do re mi so la)
• T: “We call this the ‘la pentatonic scale’ because it has five pitches
and it ends on la. There are skips between low la and do, and
between mi and so.”
• T sings the la pentatonic scale, ascending and descending.
Ss echo.
• Ss sing the whole song with solfège syllables and hand signs.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Creative “Big Fat Biscuit”


movement CSP: F
• Ss sing and play the game.
• T selects Ss to choose instruments and create an accompaniment
for the song.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next song.
Presentation of “Sioux Indian Lullaby”
music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss sing.
Describe what • Ss sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
you hear with • Ss identify and sing the pitches and intervals of the
solfège syllables tone set.
• T: “We call this the ‘la pentatonic scale’ because it has five pitches
and it ends on la.” T guides Ss to discover the skips and steps
between intervals of this scale.
• Ss inner-hear from T’s hand signs as he or she shows another
known la pentatonic song (“Gallows Pole”).
• Ss identify and sing other known songs built with the la
pentatonic scale:
○ “Canoe Song”
○ “See-Line Woman”
○ “Cock Robin”
○ “Mush Toodin”
• Ss sing song and T plays a descending la pentatonic scale on a
xylophone, using it to accompany the song.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S 215
Review the “John Kanaka”
lesson outcomes CSP: A
Review the new • Ss sing the entire song and T accompanies with melodic ostinato
song on a pitched instrument.

Unit 3, la Pentatonic, Lesson 5

Outcome Presentation: notation for the la pentatonic scale


I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up Overture, The Marriage of Figaro, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756–1791)
• Body warm-up
• Breathing exercise
• Beat/movement activity
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Sing known “The Jolly Miller”


songs CSP: D
• Ss sing the song and step the beat.
• Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
“Hey, Ho, Nobody Home” (new song but can be taught
quickly)
CSP: E
• Ss sing the song in canon after eight-beats.
• T directs the class to sing in three-part canon.
Develop “See-Line Woman”
tuneful CSP: B
singing • Ss sing “See-Line Woman” while T sings “Hey, Ho,
Tone Nobody Home.”
production • T directs part of the class to sing the last “See-Line” as a melodic
Diction accompaniment to the song. Switch.
Expression • Work on practicing legato and staccato singing.
• Sing song with solfège syllables, focusing on pure
vowel sounds.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 22
Review “Hill and Gully Rider”
known songs CSP: E
and melodic • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
elements • T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing with
solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her Petticoat,”
216 “Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that use the solfège
syllables l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-sing using
solfège syllables and hand signs both as a class and
individually.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new “Chairs to Mend”
song CSP: B
• T sings the song while Ss trace the phrases; identify the number of
phrases; identify the form.
• Ss sing the song in canon with T.
• Ss sing the song in three-part canon.
Presentation “Land of the Silver Birch”
of music CSP: D
literacy • Ss sing the song in canon.
concept • Ss point to representation of phrase 3 in the air.
Notate what • Ss sing phrase 3 with solfège syllables and hand signs.
you hear • T reviews the Rule of Placement for notes of “Land of the Silver
Birch.”
• Ss sing phrase 3 with solfège syllables and hand signs reading from
staff notation.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss identify and T writes the tone set of the phrase on the board (low
la do re mi so la) from the staff notation.
• Ss write the la pentatonic scale on a worksheet.
• Ss play the la pentatonic scale on xylophones.
Creative “Long Road of Iron”
movement CSP: A
• Ss will continue the ostinato while they sing the song and move into a
circle.
• Ss will sing and play the game. Eliminated players must help
continue the ostinato, which may be performed on percussion
instruments.
Presentation “Sioux Indian Lullaby”
of music CSP: D
literacy • Ss sing the song.
concept • Ss identify and T writes the tone set of the phrase on the board (low
Notate what la do re mi so la) on staff notation.
you hear • Ss sing song and point to the notes on staff notation.
• Ss sing the song and T sings a second part of song from Sourwood
Mountain, p. 1.
• T “remembers” another song also built with the la pentatonic
scale.
• T points out the melody of “Gallows Pole,” phrase 1, on the tone
ladder while Ss inner-hear.
• Ss identify and sing “Gallows Pole” with solfège syllables and hand
signs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S 217
Review “Chairs to Mend”
the lesson CSP: B
outcomes • Ss sing the song in canon with T.
Review the
new song
218
Unit 4, Dotted Quarter Followed by Eighth Note

Song Repertoire
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Songs to Prepare Songs to Prepare Creative Songs to
Tuneful Review Known Next New Concepts:  ra Movement Practice Known
Singing Rhythmic Concepts: fa Elements: la
Elements Pentatonic Scale
Lesson 1 “Riding in the “Above the “Canoe Song” “Hungarian “Liza Jane” “Bump up “Land of the Silver
Buggy,” “Chairs to Plain” Canon” Tomato” Birch”
Mend” (New Song)
Lesson 2 “Come Thru ’Na “Hey, Ho, “Gallows Pole” “Hungarian “Liza Jane” “John Kanaka” “Land of the Silver
Hurry,” “Chairs to Nobody Canon” Birch”
Mend” Home”
Lesson 3 “Hill and “Above the “Weevily Wheat” “Redbirds and “Liza Jane” “Rabbit and “Land of the Silver
Gully Rider,” Plain” Blackbirds” Possum” Birch”
“Hungarian
Canon”

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Known Songs Songs for Songs to Songs to Prepare Songs to Present Creative Songs to Present
Tuneful Review Known Next New Concepts:  ra Movement Concepts: ra
Singing Rhythmic Concepts: fa
Elements
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Lesson 4 “Riding in the “Hey, Ho, Come Thru ’Na “Go Tell Aunt “Liza Jane” “Long Road of “Chairs to Mend,”
Buggy” Nobody Hurry” Rhody” Iron” “John Kanaka”
“Redbirds and Home”
Blackbirds”
Lesson 5 “Weevily Wheat,” “Hush-a-Bye” “Hill and Gully “Whistle “Liza Jane” “John Kanaka” “Chairs to Mend”
“Go Tell Aunt Rider” Daughter,
Rhody” Whistle”
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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Here is a chart of the primary musical skills that are developed in the five lessons
associated with teaching the concept of dotted quarter note followed by an eighth note.
Remember, in the first three lessons Ss practice the previous musical element, in this case
la pentatonic, which was learned in kindergarten.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5


Reading Ss read “Land Ss read the
of the Silver rhythm
Birch” and of “Liza
additional la Jane” from
pentatonic traditional
songs with rhythm
hand signs notation.
from steps,
tradition
notation with
solfège, and
then staff
notation.
Writing Ss write “Land Ss write
of the Silver the rhythm
Birch” with of “Liza
hand signs Jane” using
from steps, tradition
traditional rhythm
notation with notation.
solfège, and 219
then staff
notation.
Improvi­ T sings a
sation question
phrase written
on the board;
Ss sing an
answer phrase
that ends on
low la.
Movement “Bump up “John Kanaka” “Rabbit and “Long “John
Tomato” or the Possum” Road of Kanaka”
“John Kanaka” Iron”
Listening “Evening in the
Village,” from
Hungarian
Sketches, by
Béla Bartók
(1881–1945)
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Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize the concept of two sounds distributed


over two beats (the second sound occurring after the second beat)
through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: read a la pentatonic melody.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Symphony No. 94, Movement II, by Franz Joseph Haydn
(1732–1809)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Riding in the Buggy”
CSP: E-flat
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing the song, using the rhythm from phrase 1 of the chorus
as a rhythmic ostinato (2$aqa\qQ>).
“Chairs to Mend”
CSP: B-flat
• Ss sing the song; Ss sing the song in canon
220 Develop tuneful “Above the Plain”
singing CSP: B-flat
Tone production • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
Diction • Ss sing each phrase on neutral syllables “ee”, “neh”, “nah”
Expression and “noh.” T monitors for proper vowel shape, tone, and
resonance.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 37
Review known “Canoe Song” (My Paddle)
songs and rhythmic CSP: A
elements • Ss sing the song and continue the ostinato.
• Ss sing with rhythm syllables.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a
Buggy,” “Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” and “Hill and Gully
Rider”; Ss echo-sing each phrase singing with rhythm
syllables while tapping the beat both as a class and
individually.
• Ss sing the two part arrangement of “Canoe Song” found in
Denise Bacon’s 46 Two-Part American Folk Songs, p. 16.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Hungarian Canon” (from Edward Bolkovac and Judith Johnson, 150
Rounds for Singing and Teaching, New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1996,
p. 56, no. 4)
CSP: F
• T sings song to Ss on “loo.”
• T sings and Ss write down the rhythm.
• Ss identify the form of the song.
Develop knowledge “Liza Jane”
of music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Internalize music • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
through kinesthetic • T directs half of the class to sing and clap the rhythm while
activities the remainder sing and perform the beat. Switch. Ss sing and
perform the beat and rhythm in canon.
• Ss sing the target phrase (phrase 3, first four beats) and point to
a representation on the board.
________ __ ____ ____
• Four to six Ss come to the board to point to the representation
while the class sings together.
• Ss sing the first four beats of the target phrase with solfège
syllables and hand signs (d’ s l s).
• Ss sing these four pitches as straight quarter notes.
• Ss use this melodic motif as a transition into the next
song.
Creative movement “Bump up Tomato” 221
CSP: F-sharp
• T sings song.
• Ss sing and play the game.
Practice music “Land of the Silver Birch”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Reading • Ss sing the song with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss sing the song with solfège syllables and hand signs from the
staff.
• Ss write the tone set on board while the class sings song.
• Ss sing the tone set from the bottom to the top, identifying
“steps” and “skips.”
• T demonstrates intervals using child’s piano.
• Ss read the scale on the staff from the board with absolute pitch
names. (d minor, e minor, and g minor)
• Ss read from the Kodály Choral Library, 333 Elementary
Exercises: nos. 164, 173, 176, 178, 179, 181, and 184.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

• T points out the melody of phrase 1 of Bartók’s Mikrokosmos,


vol. 3, no. 78 on the tone ladder. Ss echo with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
• Ss read/follow along silently while listening to recording of
Mikrokosmos, vol. 3, no. 78, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945), and
sing phrases they recognize with solfège syllables and hand
signs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Hungarian Canon”
outcomes CSP: F
Review the new • Ss sing song in canon with T.
song

Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze the concept of two sounds distributed over two


beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat, through
aural activities.
Practice: write a la pentatonic scale.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
222 Mikrokosmos, Vol. 3, No. 78, by Béla Bartók (1881–1945)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song; Ss sing song with an ostinato
(4$xcccsdsdq>).
“Chairs to Mend”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in canon.
Develop tuneful “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
singing CSP: F
• T directs part of the class to continue the ostinato while the
remainder sing the song.
• Ss sing on a pure vowel in three-part canon.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 38

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Review known “Gallows Pole”


songs and rhythmic CSP: F
elements • T directs half of the class to sing “Gallows Pole” while the
remainder sing “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home.”
• Ss sing both songs with rhythm syllables.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing
with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a Buggy,”
“Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” and “Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss echo-
sing each phrase singing with rhythm syllables both as a class
and individually.
• Ss clap the rhythm of the last phrase of “Gallows Pole” as a
rhythmic ostinato into the next song (2$sdxcd\qQ>).
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Hungarian Canon”
CSP: F
• T sings the melody as Ss continue the ostinato.
• T sings again while Ss draw phrases on the board.
• T sings each phrase; Ss echo with rhythm syllables while T
writes stick notation on the board.
• Ss label the form of the song. (ABCD)
• Ss sing phrases A and B; T sings C and D.
• T sings phrases A and B; Ss sing C and D.
• T and Ss sing the whole song together.
• Ss sing the song alone.
• Ss sing the song in canon. 223
Develop knowledge “Liza Jane”
of music literacy CSP: D
concepts • Ss continue clapping the rhythm of “Hungarian Canon” while
Describe what you singing “Liza Jane.”
hear • Review kinesthetic awareness activities with “Liza Jane.”
• T and Ss sing the first four beats of phrase 4 on “loo” while
keeping the beat before asking each of these questions:
• T: “Andy, how many beats did we tap?” (four)
• T: “Andy, which beats have one sound?” (3 and 4)
• T: “Andy, how many sounds did we sing on beats 1 and 2?”
(two)
• T: “Andy, describe the sounds on beats 1 and 2 using the words
long and short.” (the first is long, the second is short)
• Ss clap the rhythm of the rhythm of the entire last phrase (all
eight-beats) long short ta ta ta di—di ta—ah.
• Ss sing the first four pitches of the target phrase with solfège
syllables. (high do s l s)
• Ss continue these four (high do s l s) pitches as a melodic
ostinato into the next song.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Creative movement “John Kanaka”


CSP: A
• Ss continue the ostinato while T sings the song.
• Ss sing the song and move into formation.
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss clap the rhythm of the second phrase as an ostinato into the
next song (4$rasdsd\qqqQ>).
Practice music “Land of the Silver Birch”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss continue the ostinato while singing the song.
Writing • Ss sing the song with solfège syllables while T writes them
under the standard rhythmic notation of the song.
• Ss sing the tone set of the song.
• Ss write the tone set on the staff in D = la, E = la and
A = la.
• Ss sing the tone set with solfège syllables and hand signs, and
with letter names and hand signs.
• Ss play the tone set on xylophones as an accompaniment to this
and other known songs in a minor tonality.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Hungarian Canon”
outcomes CSP: F
Review the new song • Ss sing the song in canon.

224
Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of two sounds


distributed over two beats, the second sound occurring after the
second beat.
Practice: improvisation activity based on the la pentatonic scale.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Jamaican Rhumba, by Arthur Benjamin (1893–1960)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Sing known songs “Hill and Gully Rider”


CSP: B
• Ss sing the song and create a rhythmic accompaniment.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next song.
“Hungarian Canon”
CSP: E
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing in canon (up to four parts if possible).
Develop tuneful “Weevily Wheat”
singing CSP: B
Tone production • Ss sing the song.
Diction • Sing the song with a “koo” syllable.
Expression • Ss sing the song in four-part canon.
• Ss sing the song with different dynamics.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 39
Review known “Cock Robin”
songs and rhythmic CSP: B
elements • Ss sing the song in canon.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a Buggy,”
“Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” and “Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss
echo-sing each phrase singing with rhythm syllables both
individually and as a class.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Redbirds and Blackbirds”
CSP: B 225
• Ss identify the number of phrases.
• Ss sing phrases 1 and 2; T sings 3 and 4. Switch.
Develop knowledge “Liza Jane”
of music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song while continuing the ostinato.
Create a • Ss sing the song in canon after four beats.
representation of • Review kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
what you hear • T sings target phrase on “loo” while Ss pat the beat.
• T: “Create a picture of what you heard.”
• T selects an individual to draw a representation on the board.
• Ss sing and point to the representations of the first four beats
of phrases 3 and 4.
• T and Ss label all known elements:
2$sdsd\sdq\aqa\w\
  sdsd\sdq\aqa\w\
  ---- - \qq\aqa\w\
  ---- - \qq\aqa\w|
• Ss sing “Liza Jane” with all known elements as T sings “Rabbit
and Possum” as a partner song.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Creative movement “Rabbit and Possum”


CSP: D
• T sings the song and explains the rules of the game.
• T sings while Ss play the game.
Practice music “Land of the Silver Birch”
performance and CSP: D
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Improvisation • Ss identify the tone set and scale of the song.
• T sings the first phrase of the song and identifies it as the
“question” phrase:
2$qsd\sdq\qsd\qq|
  l,   l,l, mmm  l,   l,l,   m  m

• T sings phrase 1 again, altering the last phrase, and identifies it


as the “answer” phrase:
2$qsd\sdq\qsd\qq|
  l,   l,l, mmm   l,   l,l,   l,   l,
• T sings the “question,” and Ss sing the “answer.”
• T reveals another “answer” phrase (another modified version
of phrase 1):
2$qsd\sdq\qsd\qq|
  l,   l,l, mmm   l,  l,l,   d   l,
• T sings the “question,” and Ss sing whichever “answer” T
indicates.
• T reveals another “answer” phrase (another modified version
of phrase 1):
2$qsd\sdq\qsd\qq|
226   l,   l,l, mmm  r  dd   l,   l,
• T sings the “question,” and Ss sing whichever “answer” T
indicates.
• T sings the “question,” and individual Ss answer with
whichever “answer” they choose.
• Ss may create their own answer by improvising
pitches from the la pentatonic scale in the last four
beats.
• Ss play their improvisations on xylophones; the
improvisations may be used to accompany any of their known
minor songs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Redbirds and Blackbirds”
outcomes CSP: B
Review the new • Ss sing song.
song

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label the concept of two sounds distributed over


two beats, the second sound occurring after the second beat with
rhythm syllables
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Jamaican Rhumba, by Arthur Benjamin (1893–1960)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Riding in the Buggy”
CSP: E
• Ss sing the song and perform the movements of the game.
• Ss perform the rhythm of the last four beats as a rhythmic
ostinato into the next song (2$aqa\qQ>).
“Redbirds and Blackbirds”
CSP: B
• Ss sing the song; Ss sing the song with their own lyrics
(changing the birds to other animals).
• Ss perform the rhythm of the song while T sings the next.
Develop tuneful “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
singing CSP: E 227
Tone production • Ss sing the song while performing the rhythm of the previous
Diction song.
Expression • Ss sing the song in three-part canon.
• Ss sing the song with a light and resonant hum.
• Ss sing the song with a “koo” syllable.
• Ss sing the sequence of OH-OO-AH on notes of phrase 2 of
“Hey, Ho, Nobody Home.”
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 40
Review known “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”
songs and rhythmic CSP F-sharp
elements • Ss sing song.
• Ss sing song with rhythm syllables.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing
with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a Buggy,”
and “Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss echo-sing each phrase singing
with rhythm syllables both individually and as a class.
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C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
CSP: B
• T sings the song and accompanies on an instrument.
• Ss identify the form, meter and rhythms of song.
• T sings song and Ss follow the rhythmic notation of song
written in traditional notation.
Presentation of “Liza Jane”
music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Describe what you • Review kinesthetic, aural, and visual awareness
hear with rhythm activities.
syllables • T: “We call two uneven sounds over two beats where the
second sound happens after the second beat ta---di.”
• T sings target phrase with rhythm syllables.
• Ss echo with rhythm syllables.
• Ss sing the last two phrases with rhythm syllables; half of the
class sings rhythm syllables and claps the rhythm while the
other half sings the rhythm syllables and performs the beat.
Switch.
• Ss conduct and sing the song with rhythm syllables.
Creative movement “Long Road of Iron”
CSP: A
• Ss sing and play game.
• Ss choose instruments and create a rhythmic ostinato with
228 which to accompany the song.
Presentation of “John Kanaka”
music literacy CSP: A
concepts • Ss sing song.
Describe what you • T is “reminded” of another song that may have ta---di in it
hear with rhythm (“John Kanaka”).
syllables • Ss listen and identify where they hear ta---di in the song.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing
with rhythm syllables.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables while tapping
the beat.
• T sings the text of each phrase of the following to both
the class and individual Ss, who echo-sing with rhythm
syllables.
○ “Long Road of Iron”
○ “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”
○ “Above the Plain”
○ “Chairs to Mend”
○ “The Birch Tree”

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss create ostinato that contain the  ra rhythm pattern and


perform them on xylophones as an accompaniment to any of
their known songs.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
outcomes CSP: B
Review the new song • Ss sing song.
• Ss listen to Ella Jenkins’ recording of song.

Unit 4, Dotted Quarter and Eighth Note, Lesson 5

Outcome Presentation: notate the concept of two sounds distributed


over two beats, the second sound occurring after the second
beat with rhythm syllables, with a dotted quarter note and an
eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Jamaican Rhumba, by Arthur Benjamin (1893–1960)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
229
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for
singing.
Sing known songs “Weevily Wheat”
CSP: G-sharp
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing “Weevily Wheat” while T sings “Go Tell Aunt Rhody” as
a partner song.
“Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
CSP: G-sharp
• Ss sing the song.
• T sings song in parallel minor but starting note is G.
Develop tuneful “Hush-a-Bye”
singing CSP: E
Tone production • Ss sing the song.
Diction • Ss sing each phrase of the song on the vowels a ah
Expression (wide); e eh (horizontal); i ee (smile); o oh; u oo
(smaller).
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 41
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Review known “Hill and Gully Rider”


songs and CSP: A
rhythmic • Ss sing song with text.
elements • Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and keep the beat.
• T sing phrases of the song with text; individual Ss echo sing with
rhythm syllables.
• T sings the text of each phrase of “Weevily Wheat”, “Riding
in a Buggy,” and “Come Thru ’Na Hurry”; Ss echo-sing each
phrase singing with rhythm syllables both as a class and
individually.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Whistle, Daughter, Whistle”
CSP: B
• T sings the song.
• T sings phrases and Ss echo with rhythm syllables.
• T sings with text.
• Ss sing the song.
Presentation of “Liza Jane”
music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Notate what you • Review aural presentation.
hear • Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T: “When the beat is a quarter note and when we have two
uneven sounds over two beats, the first is one and a half beats
in length and the second is half a beat in length, it can be
230 represented by a dotted quarter and an eighth note when the
beat is a quarter note”.
• T presents the dotted quarter and eighth note in standard
notation.
• Ss may briefly practice drawing a dotted quarter and
eighth note.
• T: “Our target phrase would look like this in standard
notation:”
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• Ss read the target phrase with rhythm syllables and
keep beat.
• T demonstrates how to read the target phrase with numbers for
counting and conducting the.
• T: “If we were going to write our target phrase, we would use
stick notation and it would look like this.”

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss read the target phrase in stick notation.


• Ss continue clapping the target phrase for “Liza Jane” as T sings
“John Kanaka.”

Creative “John Kanaka”


movement CSP: A
• Ss sing “John Kanaka” and play the circle game.
• Ss sing and play while singing rhythm syllables.
• Ss choose instruments and create a rhythmic ostinato containing
a dotted quarter and eighth note as an accompaniment to the
song.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next song.

Presentation of “Chairs to Mend”


music literacy CSP: A
concepts • Ss sing the song.
Notate what you • Review aural presentation.
hear • Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables.
• T: “When we have two sounds, where the first is one and a half
beats and the second is half a beat, it can be represented by a
dotted quarter and an eighth note.”
• T presents rhythmic notation for phrase 1.
• Ss write the first phrase of “Chairs to Mend” using rhythm
notation.
• Ss create ostinato that contains the  ra rhythm pattern and
perform them on xylophones as an accompaniment to any of
their known songs.
231

SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S

Review lesson “Whistle, Daughter, Whistle”


outcomes CSP: B
Review the new • Ss sing song with text.
song
232
Unit 5, fa

Song Repertoire
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Songs to Prepare Next Songs to Creative Songs to
Tuneful Singing Review Known New Concepts: Triple Prepare Movement Practice Known
Melodic Meter Concept: fa Elements: ra
Elements
Lesson 1 “Mush “Go Tell Aunt “Jim Along “Rise Up, Oh Flame” “Hungarian “Rabbit and the “Liza Jane”
Toodin,” Rhody” Josie” Canon” Possum”
“Chairs to
Mend”
Lesson 2 “See-Line “Redbirds and “See-Line “Rise Up, Oh Flame” “Hungarian “Rabbit and the “Liza Jane”
Woman,” Blackbirds” Woman” Canon” Possum”
“Chairs to
Mend”
Lesson 3 “Gallows “Are You “Phoebe in Her “Pretty Saro” “Hungarian “Long Road of “Liza Jane”
Pole,” “Rise Sleeping?” Petticoat” Canon” Iron”

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Up, Oh
Flame”
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Review Songs to Prepare Next Songs to Present Creative Songs to Present
Tuneful Singing Known Melodic New Concepts: Triple Concept: fa Movement Concept: fa
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Elements Meter
Lesson 4 “Pretty Saro” “Chairs to Mend” “Liza Jane” “Oh How Lovely Is the “Hungarian “Long Road of “Go Tell Aunt
Evening” Canon” Iron” Rhody”
Lesson 5 “Oh How “Whistle, “Old Mr. “Coffee Canon” “Hungarian “Alabama, “Go Tell Aunt
Lovely Is the Daughter, Rabbit” Canon” Mississippi” Rhody”
Evening” Whistle”
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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Here is a chart of the primary musical skills that are developed in the five lessons associated
with teaching the concept of fa. Remember, in the first three lessons Ss practice the previous
musical element, in this case dotted quarter note followed by an eighth note.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5


Reading Ss read the Ss read
rhythm “Hungarian
of “Liza Canon” with
Jane” and hand signs
additional from steps,
songs traditional
from rhythmic
tradition notation with
rhythm solfège, and on
notation. staff notation.
Writing Ss write Ss write
the rhythm phrase 2 of
of “Liza “Hungarian
Jane” and Canon” in
additional rhythmic
songs in notation with
traditional solfège syllables
rhythm and staff
notation. notation.
Improvi­ T claps an eight-
sation beat question
233
phrase written
on the board
in traditional
rhythm
notation; Ss clap
an eight-beat
answer phrase
using rhythm
syllables and a
dotted quarter
note followed by
an eighth note.
Movement “Rabbit “Rabbit “Long Road of “Long Road “Alabama,
and the and the Iron” of Iron” Mississippi”
Possum” Possum”
Listening Little
Fugue in G
minor, by
J. S. Bach
(1685–
1750)
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Unit 5, fa, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize a pitch a whole step below so and a half step


above mi through kinesthetic activities.
Practice: read an eight-beat rhythmic pattern containing a dotted
quarter and eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Symphony No. 5, movement 4, “Allegro,” by Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770–1827)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Mush Toodin”
CSP: F
• Ss sing the song with an ostinato.
2$ra\qq>
“Chairs to Mend”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in unison.
• Ss sing the song in canon; Ss add a broken bordun as
234 accompaniment.
Develop tuneful “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
singing CSP: A
Tone production • Ss sing song with accompaniment.
Diction • Ss sing each phrase on the vowels “a” “ah” (wide); “e” “eh”
Expression (horizontal); “i” “ee” (smile); “o” “oh.”
• Ss sing the song on a “koo” syllable.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 42
Review known “Jim Along Josie”
songs and melodic CSP: A
elements • Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing the song with solfège syllables reading from T’s hand
signs.
• T sings the text of individual phrases to both the class and
individual Ss, who echo-sing with solfège syllables and hand
signs.
• Ss individually sing phrases of the song with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Phoebe in Her Petticoat,” “Old Mr. Rabbit,”
or other known songs that use the solfège syllables l s m r d low
la and low so; Ss echo-sing using solfège syllables and hand signs
both as a class and individually.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Rise Up, Oh Flame” (This is a known song but it is important to
practicing singing in canon.)
CSP: D
• T sings song; Ss listen while showing the phrases.
• Ss identify the number of phrases. (two)
• Ss identify the number of beats in each phrase. (twelve)
• Ss identify the form of the song. (AB)
• Ss sing the song without assistance.
• Ss sing while T adds accompaniment on the xylophone, playing
an open chord on beat 1 only.
• Ss sing in canon.
Develop “Hungarian Canon”
knowledge of CSP: D
music literacy • Ss sing the song.
concepts • Ss sing phrase 2 and show the contour of the phrase.
Internalize music • Ss point to the contour of phrase 2 on the board.
through kinesthetic • Ss sing with rhythm syllables while clapping melodic contour
activities for phrase 2.
• Ss sing the rhythm syllables of the target phrase and clap the
contour, mirroring with a partner.
• Ss show the contour of the target phrase by clapping hands
together with a partner.
• Ss continue clapping the rhythm of the target phrase
(2$sdsd\qq>) as a rhythmic ostinato into the next song.
Creative “Rabbit and Possum” 235
movement • CSP: D
• Ss sing the song while continuing the ostinato.
• Ss sing the song and move into position for the game.
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice music “John Kanaka”
performance and CSP: A
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Reading • Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and conducting.
• Ss read the rhythm of the song from traditional rhythmic
notation:
2$aqa\ra\qq\w\
  ra\sdsd\qq\w\
  aqa\ra\qq\w\
  ra\sdsd\qq\w\
  qq\qq\qq\w\
  ra\sdsd\qq\w|
• Ss inner-hear phrases 1, 3, and 5; sing phrases 2, 4, and 6.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

• T erases phrases 1, 3, and 5 and modifies the rhythm of phrases


2, 4, and 6:
2$ra\sdsd\qq\QQ\
  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ\
  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ|
• T erases phrase 2, adding in a rhythm:
2$sdsd\qsd\qq\QQ\
  sdsd\qsd\qq\QQ\
  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ\
  ra\sdsd\qq\QQ|
• T: “Listen for this new pattern in the fourth movement of
Symphony No. 4, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893).”
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson ““Rise Up, Oh Flame”
outcomes CSP: D
Review new song • Ss sing song in canon with T.

Unit 5, fa, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: analyze repertoire that contains a pitch a half step


above mi.
Practice: write an eight-beat rhythm patterns containing a dotted
quarter and eighth note.
236 I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
Symphony No. 5, movement 4, by Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770–1827)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the
support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Chairs to Mend”
CSP: B
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing in three-part canon.
Develop tuneful “Redbirds and Blackbirds”
singing CSP: B
Tone production • Ss sing song.
Diction • Ss sing song on the syllables “mi-oh.”
Expression • Ss sing in canon after eight-beats.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss sing the last four beats (“nestle in the tree tops”) on “loo” as a
melodic ostinato into the next song.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 43
Review known “See-Line Woman”
songs and melodic CSP: E
elements • Ss sing the song with an ostinato: 2$aqa\qQ>
• Ss sing song with solfège syllables.
• T sing each phrase with text; Ss echo-sing with solfège syllables
and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her Petticoat,”
“Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that use the solfège
syllables l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-sing using solfège
syllables and hand signs as a class and individually
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Rise Up, Oh Flame”
CSP: D
• T sings the song while Ss continue the ostinato.
• Ss draw the phrases on the board while T sings.
• Ss write beat lines under each phrase while T sings. (twelve in
each phrase)
• Ss label the phrases as T sings. (AB)
• Ss sing the song (may add accompaniment).
• Ss sing in canon in three parts.
Develop “Hungarian Canon”
knowledge of CSP: D
music literacy • Ss sing the song.
concepts • Review kinesthetic awareness activities. 237
Describe what you T and Ss sing phrase 2 on “loo” and tap the beat before asking each of
hear these questions:
• T: “Andy, how many beats did we pat?” (four)
• T: “Andy, in which direction does the melody move?” (up)
• T: “Andy, how many different pitches did we sing in the
phrase?”(five)
• T: “Andy, do our five pitches sound like they move in steps or
skips?”(steps)
• (T asks this only if he or she believes Ss can answer correctly)
T: “Andy, are all the steps the same distance apart?” (no, step
3–4 is smaller step)
• Ss perform the last four beats of the song (2$sdsd\qq>) as
a rhythmic ostinato into the next song.
Creative movement “Rabbit and the Possum”
• CSP: D
• Ss sing the song while continuing the ostinato.
• Ss sing and move into position for the game.
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss choose instruments and create ostinati with which to
accompany the song.
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• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.


• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice music “Liza Jane”
performance and CSP: F-sharp
literacy skills • Ss sing the song.
Writing • Ss sing with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• T isolates phrase 4. Ss pat the beat and sing with rhythm
syllables.
• Ss complete worksheet by writing the rhythm of phrase 4 of
“Liza Jane” or other related song material.
• Ss play the first four beats of phrase 4 of “Liza Jane” on a
xylophone as an accompaniment to any of their known songs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Rise Up, Oh Flame”
outcomes CSP: D
Review the new • Ss sing in canon.
song

Unit 5, fa, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of a pitch a half step above


238 mi and a whole step below so.
Practice: improvise four-beat rhythmic patterns containing dotted
quarter and eighth note.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
The Liberty Bell, by John Philip Sousa (1854–1932)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known “Gallows Pole”
songs CSP: D
• Ss sing the song and keep the beat; Ss continue the beat into the
next song.
• T sings the text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing
with solfège syllables and hand signs.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

“Rise Up, Oh Flame”


CSP: D
• Ss sing song; Ss sing as canon.
Develop tuneful “Are You Sleeping?”
singing CSP: F
Tone production • Ss sing song.
Diction • Ss sing in four-part canon.
Expression • Ss sing the fourth phrase on “koo.” Repeat, moving up by half
steps as a vocal exercise.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 45
Review known “Old Mr. Rabbit”
songs and CSP: F
melodic elements • Ss sing song in three-part canon.
• T sings individual phrases with text; Ss echo-sing with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her Petticoat,”
“Dance Josey,” or other known songs that use the solfège syllables
l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-sing using solfège syllables and
hand signs both as a class and individually.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Pretty Saro”
CSP: C
• T performs song with an instrument.
• T sings the first verse while Ss show the phrases.
• Ss identify the number of phrases in the song. (four)
• Ss identify the form. 239
• T repeats, Ss listen, draw phrases, and keep the beat.
Develop “Hungarian Canon”.
knowledge of CSP: F
music literacy • Ss sing the song.
concepts • Review kinesthetic and aural activities.
Create a • Ss create a representation of the melodic contour of phrase 2.
representation of • Ss share with each other.
what you hear • Individual Ss draws their representation on board; the remaining
Ss point and sing.
• Ss identify the half step in the pattern.
• T and Ss identify all known rhythmic elements.
Creative “Long Road of Iron”
movement CSP: A
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
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Practice “Liza Jane”


performance and CSP: F-sharp
music literacy • Ss sing song.
skills • Ss sing with rhythm syllables.
Improvisation • Ss read phrase 4 of the song from standard rhythmic
notation:
2$ra\qq\aqa\qQ|
• T uses this as a “question” phrase.
• T reveals the first “answer” for Ss to read (this should be a close
derivative of the “question”):
1. 2$ra\qq\sdsd\qQ|
• T performs the “question”; Ss perform the “answer.”
• T performs the “question”; individual Ss perform the
“answer.”
• T repeats the same process with the next two “answers”:
2. 2$ra\ra\qq\qQ|
3. 2$ra\qq\ra\qQ|
• T performs the “question,” and individual Ss perform an ”answer”
from the choices above or create their own.
• Ss play the first four beats of phrase 4 of “Liza Jane” on a
xylophone as an accompaniment to any of their known
songs.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Pretty Saro”
outcomes CSP: C
240 Review the new • Ss sing song in canon with T.
song

Unit 5, fa, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label the sound of a pitch a whole step below so and a half
step above mi as fa with solfège syllables.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Hoedown,” from Rodeo, by Aaron Copland (1900–1990)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Sing known “Pretty Saro”


songs CSP: C
• Ss read an ostinato from the board.
• T may add instruments to the ostinato.
• Ss sing song with the ostinato.

Develop “Chairs to Mend”


tuneful singing CSP: C
Tone • Sirens. Ss imitate the sound of a siren with the voice. Challenge
production them to make soft and loud, high and low, long and short
Diction sirens, and sirens that ascend, descend, or do both.
Expression • Falling off a cliff. Ss pretend to fall off a cliff and say
“aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
• Ss sing the song in three-part canon.
• Ss sing the song with a combination of vowels
“oh-oo–ah.”
• Ss sing the song and conduct.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 50

Review “Liza Jane”


known songs CSP: F-sharp
and melodic • Ss sing song.
elements • Ss sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss sing in canon.
• T sings text of each phrase to individual Ss, who echo-sing using
solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her 241
Petticoat,” “Old Mr. Rabbit,” or other known songs that
use the solfège syllables l s m r d low la and low so; Ss echo-
sing using solfège syllables and hand signs both as a class and
individually.

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S

Teach a new “Oh How Lovely Is the Evening”


song CSP: F
• T may accompany on an instrument while
singing.
• T sings song while Ss draw phrases in the air.
• Ss identify the number of phrases. (three)
• Ss identify the form of the song.
• Ss sing the song; T follows in canon.
• If possible, Ss sing the song in canon.
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Presentation of “Hungarian Canon”


music literacy CSP: F
concepts • Ss sing song in four-part canon.
Describe what • Review kinesthetic, aural, and visual activities.
you hear with • T: “We can sing the “Hungarian Canon” with do re
rhythm or mi fa so.
solfège syllables • T: shows the hand sign for fa.
• T sings phrase 2 of “Hungarian Canon” with solfège syllables and
hand signs. Ss echo.
• T echo-sings with at least eight Ss.
• T shows the large and small seconds using a child’s
piano.
• Ss sings the whole song from T’s hand signs.
Creative “Long Road of Iron”
movement CSP: A
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss create an accompaniment based on melodic or rhythmic elements
of the song.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text
Presentation of “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
music literacy CSP: F-sharp
concepts • Ss sing the song.
242 Describe what • Ss read from T’s hand signs.
you hear with • T sings phrases with text and Ss echo with solfège syllables and hand
rhythm or signs.
solfège syllables • Ss sing “Go Tell Aunt Rhody” and practice performing each phrase
on xylophones.
SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review “Oh How Lovely Is the Evening”
the lesson CSP: F
outcomes • Ss sing the song; T follows in canon.
Review the new
song

Unit 5, fa, Lesson 5

Outcome Presentation: notation strategies for fa, a pitch a whole step below so


and a half step above mi.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
The Liberty Bell, by John Philip Sousa (1854–1932)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for
singing.
Sing known songs “Oh How Lovely Is the Evening”
CSP: F
• T and Ss sing song (T may accompany on an instrument).
• T and Ss sing in canon.
Develop tuneful “Whistle, Daughter, Whistle”
singing CSP: A
Tone production • Ss sing the song, pat beats 1 and 2, and clap 3 and 4.
Diction • Ss sing beats 1 and 2 aloud, and hiss the rhythm of beats 3 and
Expression 4. Switch.
• Ss perform the song singing on a “koo” syllable.
• Ss sing the song with solfège syllables reading from T’s hand
signs.
• Ss sing the song in canon after two beats.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly, no. 50
Review known “Old Mr. Rabbit” 243
songs and CSP: D
melodic elements • Ss sing song.
• Ss sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings the text phrase by phrase to individual students; Ss echo-
sing with solfège syllables and hand signs.
• T sings phrases of “Jim Along Josie,” “Phoebe in Her
Petticoat,” and “Dance Josey” with text or on “loo”; Ss echo-
sing using solfège syllables and hand signs both as a class and
individually.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Coffee Canon”
CSP: C
• T sings song while Ss show the phrases.
• Ss identify the form of the song. (ABC)
• Ss identify the meter of the song.
• Ss clap the rhythm of song from notation as T sings song.
• Ss sing the song.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Presentation of “Hungarian Canon”


music literacy CSP: F
concept • Ss sing the song.
Notate what you • Ss sing the target phrase with solfège syllables.
hear • Ss identify and place known solfège syllables on the tone ladder.
• T shows placement of fa on the tone ladder.
s
f
m
r
d

• T points to the tone ladder and Ss sing phrase 2 with solfège


syllables and hand signs.
• T writes the focus pattern in standard notation with solfège
syllables. Ss read the phrase with solfège syllables and hand
signs.
2$sdsd\qq|
 dr mf s s
• T reviews the Rule of Placement for fa using the finger staff.
• T shows the phrase on hand staff (G = do).
• Ss echo with solfège syllables while pointing to their hand staff.
• T places the phrase on the staff in G.
• T presents the Rule of Placement for fa.
• Ss sing the phrase while pointing to the staff.
• T shows the phrase in C = do.
244 • T: “When we write the pitches of ‘Hungarian Canon’ in
ascending order, we discover that there are five adjacent pitches.
We can label these pitches with the solfège syllables do-re-mi-
fa-so and numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively.”
• T: “The last note of the composition is do, so we can refer to this
as the tonic note. We call this collection of notes a do pentachord
scale. The do pentachord scale is made up of the solfège syllables
do-re-mi-fa-so. The intervals between do and re, re and mi, and fa
and so are large steps or major seconds and the interval between
mi and fa is a small step or minor second.”
• Ss sing the do pentachord from low to high, and high to low.
• With the help of the child’s piano, Ss sing the intervals of the do
pentachord (“do to re—major second” etc. … with mi to fa as
minor second).

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

• Ss read from T’s hand signs:


drmd
rmfd
drmdrmfd

Creative “Alabama, Mississippi”


movement CSP: F
• S sing and keep the beat.
• T and Ss sing and play.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.

Presentation of “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”


music literacy CSP: A
concept • Ss read the target phrase from the staff with F = do.
Notate what you • T sings the phrase without altering the B.
hear • Ss identify the note that sounds wrong.
• T: “Where does it sound different?” (the fourth note of the
scale)
• T: “Is it too high or low?” (too high).
• Introduce the B-flat sign.
• Name the lowered sound as B-flat, give the flat symbol, and show
it on the staff.
• The flat sign is placed before the note.
• Ss sing the phrase with letter names, calling the B-flat “bess.”
245
• T sings with solfège syllables; S echo with letter names.

SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S

Review Lesson “Coffee Canon”


outcomes CSP: C
Review the new • Ss sing the song and T sings in canon.
song
246
Unit 6, Triple Meter

Song Repertoire
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Review Songs to Songs for Creative Movement Songs to
Tuneful Known Rhythmic Prepare Next Preparing Practice Known
Singing Elements Concepts: low ti Concept 3$ Elements: fa
Lesson 1 “Big Fat “Pretty Saro” “Chairs to Mend” “The Birch Tree” “Rise Up, Oh “Alabama, “Hungarian
Biscuit,” “Coffee Flame” Mississippi” Canon”
Canon”
Lesson 2 “Hey, Ho, “Coffee “Chairs to Mend” “Viva Viva la “Rise Up, Oh “Alabama, “Hungarian
Nobody Home,” Canon” Musica!” Flame” Mississippi” Canon”
“The Birch
Tree”
Lesson 3 “Above the “Oh How “Liza Jane” “Viva Viva la “Rise Up, Oh “Debka Hora” “Hungarian
Plain,” “Viva Lovely Is the Musica!” Flame” Canon”
Viva la Evening”

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Musica!”
Known Songs Songs for Songs to Review Songs to Prepare Songs to Creative Movement Songs to Present
Tuneful Known Rhythmic Next Concepts: Present Concept: 3$
Singing Elements low ti Concept: 3$
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Lesson 4 “Liza Jane,” “Pretty Saro” “Go Tell Aunt “Autumn Canon” “Rise Up, Oh “Rabbit and the “Coffee Canon,”
“Viva Viva la Rhody” Flame” Possum” “Pretty Saro”
Musica!”
Lesson 5 “John Kanaka,” “Coffee “Above the Plain” “When I First “Rise Up, Oh “Debka Hora” “Oh How Lovely Is
“Autumn Canon” Came to This Flame” the Evening”
Canon” Land”
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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Here is a chart of the primary musical skills that are developed in the five lessons associated
with teaching the concept of triple meter. Remember, in the first three lessons Ss practice the
previous musical element, in this case fa.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5


Reading Ss read Ss read the
“Hungarian rhythm of
Canon” with “Rise Up, Oh
hand signs Flame” from
from steps, tradition
traditional rhythm
notation with notation.
solfège, and
then staff
notation.
Writing Ss write Ss write the
phrase 2 of rhythm of
“Hungarian “Rise Up, Oh
Canon” in Flame” from
rhythmic traditional
notation rhythm
with solfège notation.
syllables and
staff notation.
Improvi­ T sings a
sation question
247
phrase
written on
the board,
using the
notes of
a major
pentachord;
Ss echo
an answer
phrase that
uses the same
notes and
ends on do.
Movement “Alabama, “John “Debka “Rabbit “Debka Hora”
Mississippi” Kanaka” Hora” and the
Possum”
Listening Rondo No. 1
for piano, by
Béla Bartók
(1881–1945)
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Unit 6, Triple Meter, Lesson 1

Outcome Preparation: internalize one strong beat followed by two weak beats


through kinesthetic activities
Practice: read a piece of music containing fa with four phrases of four
beats
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Dance of the Swan,” from Swan Lake, by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1893)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known “Coffee Canon”
songs CSP: C
• Ss sing the song.
• Ss sing song and keep a beat ostinato, pat clap clap.
• Ss sing the song in canon (two or three parts).
Develop “Pretty Saro”
tuneful singing CSP: C
Tone • T and Ss sing the song.
248 production • Ss identify the tone set of the song (low so low la d r m s l) and place
Diction the pitches correctly on the tone ladder.
Expression • T points to the solfège syllables and Ss sing the song with solfège
syllables and hand signs.
• Ss identify the ending pitch as so, and label the song scale on which
the song is built as so pentatonic.
• Τ adds fa to the tone ladder.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly: select from fa exercises in
the introduction of the volume.
Review known “Chairs to Mend”
songs and CSP: A
rhythmic • Ss sing the song.
elements • Ss sing the song and conduct.
• Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• Ss sing the song in canon.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Liza Jane,” and
“Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss echo-sing each phrase singing with
rhythm syllables while tapping the beat both as a class and
individually.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new “The Birch Tree”
song CSP: A
• T sings the song while Ss sing the accompaniment.
• Ss draw the phrases over the blank measures that T has prepared on
the board:
• Ss identify the form of the song. (AA’BB)
• T sings while Ss fill in the rhythms of the first phrase.
• T repeats with the remaining phrases.
• Ss sing the B phrases; T sings A and A’.
• Ss sing all phrases of the song without assistance.
Develop “Rise Up, Oh Flame”
knowledge of CSP: D
music literacy • T sings the song while Ss continue the ostinato.
concepts • T directs part of the class to sing the song while the rest continue
Internalize the ostinato.
music through • Ss sing the song in canon.
kinesthetic • Ss sing with an ostinato showing the strong and weak beats.
activities • Ss point to a representation of the pattern of strong and weak beats
as they sing again.
• Ss sing the song, clap the rhythm, and step on the strong beats.
• Ss step the strong beats while inner-hearing the song and clapping
the rhythm.
• Ss step the strong beats while inner-hearing the song and clapping
the rhythm in canon.
• Ss continue stepping the strong beats while T sings the next song. 249
• Ss must “make the song fit” the strong beats.
Creative “Alabama, Mississippi”
movement CSP: F
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss choose instruments and create an ostinato with which to
accompany the song.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
• Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.
Practice music “Hungarian Canon”
performance CSP: D
and literacy • Ss sing the song in canon.
skills • Ss sing the song with solfège and hand signs.
Reading • Ss read the song from standard rhythm notation and solfège
syllables.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

• T writes out the tone set on the board.


• T points to the melody of the listening example.
• T may also write the rhythmic notation of the listening example on
the board and gradually fill in the solfège syllables for Pachabell’s
Canon in D.
• Ss find the new melody while listening to a recording of Pachelbel’s
Canon in D.
• Ss should inner-hear the melody and show the hand signs while
listening, and then play the recording to have Ss sing with solfège
syllables and hand signs.

SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S

Review lesson “The Birch Tree”


outcomes CSP: A
Review the new • Ss sing song in canon with T.
song

Unit 6, Triple Meter, Lesson 2

Outcome Preparation: internalize one strong beat followed by two weak beats


250 through aural activities.
Practice: write melodies that include fa.

I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S

Warm-up • Body warm-up


• Beat activity
“Spring,” from The Four Seasons, by Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices. Make
sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Sing known “Hey, Ho, Nobody Home”


songs CSP: F
• Ss conduct and sing in canon.
• Ss continue conducting into the next song.
“The Birch Tree”
CSP: A
• Ss sing the song and conduct.
• Ss sing the song in canon.

Develop “Coffee Canon”


tuneful singing CSP: C
Tone • Ss sing the song.
production • Ss sing the song with a pat clap clap ostinato.
Diction • Ss sing the song in two- and three-part canon.
Expression • Ss sing the song on a staccato “Yip.”
• Ss sing the song with a legato “Koo.”
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly: select from fa exercises in
introduction of the volume.

Review known “Chairs to Mend”


songs and CSP: A
rhythmic • Ss sing the song.
elements • Sing song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• T sings individual phrases with text and Ss echo-sing with rhythm
syllables both as a class and individually.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a Buggy,” “Liza
Jane,” and “Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss echo-sing each phrase, singing with
251
rhythm syllables while tapping the beat both as a class and individually.

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new “Viva Viva la Musica!”
song CSP: C
• T sings each phrase on a neutral syllable; Ss echo with rhythm
syllables.
• T writes the rhythm in the blank beats on the board after Ss echo:
4$raqsd\qqw\
  raqsd\qqw\
  qwq\qqw|
• T sings the song with rhythm syllables, pausing after each phrase for
Ss to label the form. (ABC)
• Ss sing and conduct.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Develop “Rise Up, Oh Flame”


knowledge of CSP: D
music literacy • Ss sing the song with a pat, clap, clap ostinato.
concepts • Ss sing in three-part round.
Describe what • Ss point to a representation of strong and weak beats as they sing
you hear the first phrase. T can clap the strong beats and tap the weak
beats.
•oo | •o o | •o o | •o o |
• T and Ss sing the first phrase on “loo” and keep the beat before
asking each of these questions:
• T: “Andy, do all of the beats feel the same?” (no, some are strong and
some are weak)
• T: “Andy, describe the pattern of strong and weak beats.” (strong,
weak, weak)
• T: “Let’s sing the song again and show our strong and weak beats
using a pat-snap-snap ostinato.”
• All sing the song with the ostinato.
• Ss continue the strong beats only while T sings the next song.

Creative “Alabama, Mississippi”


movement CSP: F
• Ss sing and play the game.
• Ss choose instruments and create an ostinato with which to
accompany the song.
• Compose a rhythmic ostinato for a percussion instrument.
• Compose a melodic ostinato for a pitched instrument.
252 • Create a new game movement.
• Create a new text.

Practice “Hungarian Canon”


of music CSP: F
performance • Ss sing “Hungarian Canon.”
and literacy • Ss sing with rhythm syllables and conduct.
skills • One S writes the rhythm on board.
Writing • Ss sing phrase 2 with solfège syllables.
• Individual Ss write solfège syllables under the rhythmic notation at
the board.

• Each S completes the fa writing worksheet, filling in the tone


ladder with the tone set of the second phrase, solfège syllables
beneath the standard rhythmic notation and writing phrase 2 in
staff notation.
• Ss play the “Hungarian Canon” on xylophones.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

SU M M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson “Viva Viva la Musica!”
outcomes CSP: C
Review the new • Ss sing and T sings in canon.
song

Unit 6, Triple Meter, Lesson 3

Outcome Preparation: create a visual representation of one strong beat


followed by two weak beats.
Practice: improvise a four-beat melody containing fa.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Spring,” from The Four Seasons, by Antonio Vivaldi
(1678–1741)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch
how air is released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and
high voices. Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling
correctly with the support muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known songs “Above the Plain”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in canon. 253
“Viva Viva la Musica!”
CSP: C
• Ss sing the song in canon.
Develop tuneful singing “Oh How Lovely Is the Evening”
Tone production CSP: F
Diction • Ss sing the song.
Expression • Ss imitate the sound of a siren with the voice.
Challenge them to make soft and loud, high and low,
long and short sirens, and sirens that ascend, descend,
or do both.
• Ss pretend to fall off a cliff and say “aaaahhhhhhhhhh!”
• Ss sing the song on the syllables “oh-oo-ah” performed
on each of the three beats of each measure of the song.
• Ss sing in canon.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly: select from fa
exercises in introduction of the volume.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Review known songs and “Liza Jane”


rhythmic elements CSP: F-sharp
• Ss sing the song in canon and conduct.
• Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• T sings each phrases with text; Ss echo-sing
with rhythm syllables both as a class and individually.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a
Buggy,” ”Come Thru ’Na Hurry,” and “Hill and Gully
Rider”; Ss echo-sing each phrase, singing with rhythm
syllables while tapping the beat both as a class and
individually.
C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new song “Autumn Canon”
CSP: D
• T sings the song; Ss draw phrases.
• Ss listen several time breathing with the phrase.
• Ss eventually sing the song without assistance.
Develop knowledge of “Rise Up, Oh Flame”
music literacy concepts CSP: D
Create a visual • Ss sing “Rise Up, Oh Flame.”
representation of what you • Ss sing the song in canon (two to four parts).
hear • Review kinesthetic and aural awareness activities.
• T sings the first four measures on a neutral syllable and
asks Ss to create a visual representation of the
beat pattern using either manipulatives or pencil and
254 paper.
• Ss share their representations with each other.
• T invites one S to the board to share a representation
with the class. If necessary, corrections to the
representation can be made by reviewing the aural
awareness questions.
• Ss sing the song with rhythm syllables while pointing
to the beat representation.
Creative movement “Debka Hora”
CSP: A
• T sings the song and demonstrates the movements. Ss
echo and copy.
• Ss make choices as to what instruments should be
added to create an accompaniment.
• Ss continue their accompaniment into the next
song.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

Practice of music “Hungarian Canon”


performance and literacy CSP: F
skills • Ss sing Hungarian Canon on “loo.”
Improvisation • Ss sing using solfège syllables and hand signs.
• Ss read the solfège syllables from standard rhythmic
notation:
2$sdsd\sdq\
  dr mf  mrm
sdsd \qq\
drmf    s   s
sdsd \sdq\
smsf mrm
sdsd \qq|
drmr d  d
• T modifies measure 2 of phrase 1 to resemble phrase
2. Ss read the changes:
2$sdsd\qq\
  drmf  s   s
  sdsd \qq\
  drmf  s   s
  sdsd \sdq\
  smsf mrm
  sdsd \qq|
  drmr d  d
• T modifies phrase 2 and 3, and Ss read the changes:
2$sdsd\qq\
  drmf  s  s 255
  sdsd \qq\
  drmf   s   d
  sdsd \sdq\
  smsf   mrs
  sdsd \qq|
  drmr d  d
• Ss identify the question and answer; noting that the
question ends on so and the answer ends on do, T
modifies phrases 2 and 3. Ss read the changes.
• T sings phrase 1 as the question phrase, and individual
Ss choose one of the answers as their own.
• T sings phrase 1 as the question phrase, and individual
Ss create their own answer.
SUM M A RY AC T I V I T I E S
Review lesson outcomes “Autumn Canon”
Review the new song CSP: D
• T sings the song and Ss sing in canon.
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Kodá ly in t he F ourt h G r a de Cl a s sro om

Unit 6, Triple Meter, Lesson 4

Outcome Presentation: label the metric pattern of one strong beat followed by two
weak beats as triple meter.
I N T ROD U C TORY AC T I V I T I E S
Warm-up • Body warm-up
• Beat activity
“Fossils,” from Carnival of the Animals, by Saint-Saëns (1835–1921)
• Breathing: Ss practice blowing a balloon and watch how air is
released when deflating the balloon.
• Resonance: explore a cow sound using low and high voices.
Make sure Ss are inhaling and exhaling correctly with the support
muscles.
• Posture: remind Ss of the correct posture for singing.
Sing known “Liza Jane”
songs CSP: F-sharp
• Ss sing the song in canon and conduct.
• Ss sing song with rhythm syllables and conduct.
• T hums motifs and Ss sing echo sing with rhythm syllables.
Develop “Pretty Saro”
tuneful CSP: C
singing • Ss sing the song.
Tone • Ss sing pat beat 1 and snap or clap beats 2 and 3.
production • Ss sing the song with ostinato using the syllable “koo.”
Diction • Ss sing the song with solfège syllables reading from T’s
256 Expression hand signs.
Kodály Choral Library, Let Us Sing Correctly: select from fa exercises in
introduction of the volume.
Review “Go Tell Aunt Rhody”
known songs CSP: A
and rhythmic • Ss sing the song.
elements • Ss read the solfège syllables from standard rhythmic
notation:
4$wqq\wqQ\
  m   m  r  d  d
  wqq\qqqQ\
  r   r  f  m r  d
  wqq\wqq\
  s    s   f   m   m m
  qqqq\wW|
  r d  r  m  d
• T sings individual phrases with text; Ss echo-sing with rhythm
syllables both as a class and individually.
• T sings each phrase of “Weevily Wheat,” “Riding in a
Buggy,” “Liza Jane,” and “Hill and Gully Rider”; Ss echo-sing
with rhythm syllables while tapping the beat both as a class and
individually.

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Unit Plans and Lesson Plans

C OR E AC T I V I T I E S
Teach a new “Autumn Canon”
song CSP: D
• T sings the song.
• T sings and Ss trace th