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Department of Physics


AMOR, Dana Rose Y.

2015105633 BSChE-2 Group 3


Group Report (/40):

Analysis and Conclusion (/40):

Presentation (/20):


Engr. Ericson D. Dimaunahan

October 25, 2016
During the experiment, the students encountered speed inconsistencies due
to the trigger of the dynamics cart. There were also times that the photogates
would not detect the smart timer picket fence which results to inaccuracy.
After fixing and calibrating those, the experiment went well.

The experiment had different parts: A, B, and C. In part A, the dynamics cart
moves in a straight line but with different displacements and the smart timer
records the time. The launcher is the forced used to move the cart. Since the
objective is to obtain average speed, the equation of instantaneous velocity
(eq. 1) can be used since distance traveled by the dynamics cart can be
considered as displacement.
∆𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥2 − 𝑥1
𝑣𝑥 = lim = = (Eq. 1)
∆𝑡→0 ∆𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑡2 − 𝑡1
Also, it can be observed that distance is directly proportional to time. It is
illustrated in graph 1.

In part B, the track is inclined and the force used to move the cart is the
gravity. Therefore, the acceleration of the gravity can be obtained. The
acceleration of the cart is shown by the smart timer. To obtain the
acceleration due to gravity, the following equation was used.
𝑎 = 𝑔 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 (Eq. 2)

Where: a = acceleration

g = 9.8 𝑚⁄ 2 = 980 𝑐𝑚⁄ 2

𝑠 𝑠

ϴ = inclination
After computing the gravity of each trial, the average is determined.
According to table 2, the average experimental gravity has a 4.965% error.
The reason for this is the time. The values of gravity computed are not even
accurate which is the reason for the error. Also, angle is directly proportional
with acceleration as shown in graph 2.

In part C, the acceleration due to gravity is obtained with the use of picket
fence and the photogate. The picket fence will be dropped through the
gate. The smart timer will show the acceleration of the picket fence.
According to table 3, the data has a lower % error. Most likely the reason is
that the distance traveled by the picket fence is parallel to the force acting
on it unlike part B where the distance traveled by the picket fence has an
angle with the force acting on it. Also, part C is direct in determining gravity
and part B is not.

Part A: Position Versus Time Part B: Acceleration Versus sinΘ

0.2 40.2 54.9 71.1 81.4 99.1
65 75 85 95 105 Part B: Acceleration Versus sinΘ

Graph 1 Graph 2
Table 1: Determination of the Average Velocity of a Dynamics Cart
Position of Photogate 1, Xo = 25 cm
Trial Position of Photogate 2 Cart’s Displacement Time Average Speed
1 65 cm 40 cm 0.6265 s 63.8468 cm/s
2 75 cm 50 cm 0.7808 s 64.0369 cm/s
3 85 cm 60 cm 0.9016 s 66.5484 cm/s
4 95 cm 70 cm 1.0843 s 64.5578 cm/s
5 105 cm 80 cm 1.2275 s 65.1731 cm/s

Table 2: Determination of Acceleration Due to Gravity Using Cart’s Acceleration

Cart’s Initial Position, Xo = 1 cm Track’s total length, L = 120 cm
Cart’s Final Position, Xf = 80 cm Total Displacement, X = 79 cm
Trial Height of Track Acceleration Sin Ɵ = H/L G= a/ Sin Ɵ 2X
Time = √

1 5 cm 40.2 cm/s2 0.04167 964.8 cm/s2 1.98251 s

2 7 cm 54.9 cm/s2 0.05833 941.143 cm/s2 1.69646 s
3 9 cm 71.1 cm/s2 0.075 948 cm/s2 1.49071 s
4 11 cm 81.4 cm/s2 0.09167 888 cm/s2 1.39321 s
5 13 cm 99.1 cm/s2 0.1083 914.769 cm/s2 1.26268 s
Accepted Value, g = 980 cm/s2 Average g = 931.342 cm/s2 % error = 4.96506

Table 3: Determination of Acceleration Due to Gravity Using Picket Fence and Smart Timer
Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Average % error
Acceleration 973.2 987.1 985.4 991.7 972.3 981.94 0.19796
The experiment illustrated methods in determining the acceleration due to
gravity. It also helped in deepening the knowledge regarding motion by
guiding in determining the velocity and acceleration.

By observing the data collected, the experiment prove that in acceleration,

distance is directly proportional with time. It can also be observed that in
determining the acceleration by the force of the gravity that the method
with the picket fence and smart timer is much more reliable than the method
using cart’s acceleration. It can be concluded that more computations
results to a larger percent error. In addition, speed and velocity can only be
equal if the object traveled a straight line.