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Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
Procedia Structural
Structural IntegrityIntegrity
(2017) 171–178
(2016) 000–000

2nd International Conference on Structural Integrity, ICSI 2017, 4-7 September 2017, Funchal,
2nd International Conference on Structural Integrity,
Madeira, ICSI 2017, 4-7 September 2017, Funchal,
Madeira, Portugal
Investigation of aggregate size effects on the compressive behavior
Investigation of aggregate
XV Portuguese Conference sizePCF
on Fracture, effects on the
2016, 10-12 compressive
February 2016, Paço debehavior
Arcos, Portugal
of concrete by electromechanical and mechanical impedance
of concrete by electromechanical and mechanical impedance
Thermo-mechanical modeling of a high pressure turbine blade of an
airplane gas turbine engine
Baris Arslan*a, Tuncay Kamasb *a
Baris Arslana
, Tuncay b
Kamasb c
EskisehirP. Brandão
Osmangazi , V.Civil
University, Infante , A.M.
Eng. Dept. Eskisehir,Deus *
26480, Turkey
baEskisehir Osmangazi University, Civil Eng. Dept. Eskisehir, 26480, Turkey
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Mech. Eng. Dept. Eskisehir, 26480, Turkey
Department of Mechanical
Eskisehir Instituto
Osmangazi SuperiorMech.
University, Técnico,
Eng.Universidade de Lisboa,
Dept. Eskisehir, 26480,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa,
IDMEC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa,
CeFEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa,
Abstract Portugal
Concrete is a composite material that is composed of cement mortar and aggregate. The size of the aggregates in the internal
Concrete is concrete
structure of a composite material
affects that is composed
the mechanical properties of and
cement mortar and
compressive aggregate.
strength of theThe size ofInthe
concrete. thisaggregates in the internal
study, three-dimensional
Abstractof concrete
models are affects
createdtheby mechanical
idealizing theproperties
materialand compressive
properties such strength of theofconcrete.
as modulus elasticityInandthismass
study, three-dimensional
density which were
concrete modelsacquired
experimentally are created by idealizing
in order the the
to investigate material properties
effect of suchofasthe
varying size modulus
aggregatesof elasticity and mass density
on the compressive strengthwhich were
of concrete
cubes in the ageacquired
their operation, in order
of 28 days. modern to investigate the effect
aircraft ceramic
Piezoelectric engine of varying
patches (PZT)aresize of the aggregates
embedded the on theofcompressive
to inincreasingly
core the concretestrength
demanding operating of conditions,
cube models concrete
cubes in theinthe
aggregates age ofmedium,
fine, 28pressure
days.and Piezoelectric
turbine sizesceramic
coarse(HPT) blades. patches
and the Such (PZT)
harmonic are embedded
analyses are these in the
simulated core of the
to commercial
in undergo concrete
different types
software, cube models with
of time-dependent
ABAQUS ® using

the in fine,
multi-physics one medium,
of which
finite and
element coarseA(MP-FEA).
is creep.
method sizes
model and theEventually,
using harmonic analyses
the finite element are simulated
electromechanical (FEM) in
impedance commercial
developed, software,
spectroscopy in order
to be
results asusing
able ®to predict
as the
the creep behaviour
mechanical of spectroscopy
finite element
impedance blades.(MP-FEA).
Flight results
(MIS) dataEventually,
records (FDR) toforhighlight
a specific
are obtained aircraft,
the provided
changes inbythe
relativespectroscopy a commercial
(EMIS) results as
impedance aviation
as company,
depending onwere
mechanical used to spectroscopy
the aggregate obtain thermal
sizes. Thus, and and
EMIS mechanical
MISare data forresults
simulation three different
to highlight theflight
are employed incycles.
relative Inpredict
order to order to
in the effectsthe
impedance of 3D model
needed sizes
aggregate for the
on the FEM
onaggregate analysis, astrengths
sizes. Thus,
the compressive HPTEMISblade
MISwas scanned,
concrete and its
models.results are chemical
employedcomposition and material
in order to predict properties
the effects were
of varying
aggregate Theondata
sizes thethat was gathered
compressive was fed
strengths intoconcrete
of the the FEM model and different simulations were run, first with a simplified 3D
rectangular block shape, in order to better establish the model, and then with the real 3D mesh obtained from the blade scrap. The
© 2017
© 2017The
Authors. Published
Published by Elsevier
byinElsevier B.V. B.V.
© overall
2017 Theexpected
Authors. behaviour
Published terms
by of displacement was observed, in particular at the trailing edge of the blade. Therefore such a
Peer-review under
under responsibility
responsibility of of Elsevier
the Scientific
B.V. Committee
the Scientific
Committee ICSIof ICSI 2017.
model can be useful in the goal of predicting turbine of blade 2017
life, given a set of FDR data.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of ICSI 2017.
Keywords: SHM; concrete; aggregate size effect; electromechanical impedance; mechanical impedance; FEM
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: SHM; concrete; aggregate size effect; electromechanical impedance; mechanical impedance; FEM
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of PCF 2016.

Keywords: High Pressure Turbine Blade; Creep; Finite Element Method; 3D Model; Simulation.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 5326381441.
E-mail address:author. Tel.: +90 5326381441.
E-mail address:
2452-3216 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review underThe
2452-3216 © 2017 responsibility of theby
Authors. Published Scientific Committee of ICSI 2017.
Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review underauthor.
* Corresponding responsibility
Tel.: +351of218419991.
the Scientific Committee of ICSI 2017.
E-mail address:

2452-3216 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of PCF 2016.
2452-3216  2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of ICSI 2017
172 Baris Arslan et al. / Procedia Structural Integrity 5 (2017) 171–178
2 Baris Arslan et al. / Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

1. Introduction

Structural health monitoring (SHM) is employed by researchers in order to provide information regarding to the
quantification of structural identities in terms of durability. Due to their fast response time and simple structure,
piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) have been widely used in SHM applications recently. Depending on the advances in
PZT sensor technology, electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) has emerged. EMIS utilizes the
electromechanical coupling property of PZT actuator-sensor, which is based on actuating high frequency vibrations
and sensing the local dynamic responses of the affixed structure simultaneously. In 1994, Liang et. al. [1,2] analyzed
electromechanical coupling relationship between PZT patches and the body structures. After this study, many
researchers in the field of civil engineering have showed their interests on EMIS. In 1995, Sun et. al. [3], applied this
technology in order to monitor health conditions and structural reliability of truss structures. Between the years 1999
and 2001, Park et. al. [4–6] affixed PZT patches to the reinforced brickwork, the joint part of steel bridge and the pipe
network in order to obtain relative changes in the EMIS results of these structures. Subsequently, in 2002, Bhalla et.
al. and Naidu et. al. [7,8] monitored the initial damage in concrete and the increased strength of the concrete during
the curing process by employing EMIS and obtained the correlation between the concrete stiffness and the impedance
peaks. Afterwards, several researchers [9,10] studied the quantification of the strength development in concrete by
using EMIS.
So far, all of the mentioned studies above, focused on affixing PZT patches on the surface of the structures by using
appropriate adhesives. Both in theory and practice, this method resulted in many problems, like uncontrolled quality
of the adhesive layers and the environmental conditions [11]. While EMIS technology has been developing, embedded
PZT-concrete structures has been emerged [12–14]. In this case, embedded PZT patches are employed to investigate
the vibration characteristics of the host structures. When the PZT actuator, which is embedded into the host structure,
is imposed with AC voltage, high frequency vibrations are generated by the structure. These vibrations are sensed
conversely and the electrical impedance of the PZT patch is affected. By investigating these changes in EMIS,
structural properties and the stiffness of the host structures can be theoretically evaluated [15].
Concrete is a composite material, whereas approximately 75% of the volume of the concrete is occupied by the
aggregates [16]. Many researchers concluded that the mechanical properties and the compressive strength of concretes
are influenced by the varying sizes of the aggregates [16–22]. However, these investigations are performed by
employing destructive methods such as stress-strain failure tests. These tests require long time periods until concrete
is settled. As a result, early-age developments cannot be monitored. In order to investigate the early-age developments,
non-destructive methods (NDM), such as radiography, acoustic emission, magnetic field, thermal field and ultrasonic
techniques are employed by researchers to estimate the quality of the concrete [12,15]. Most of these techniques are
referred to vibration propagations and the change-in-stiffness methods which are closely related to the mechanical
properties and directly related to the change in modulus of elasticity and density [23].
Due to the varying sizes of the aggregates; resistance, stiffness and the mass of the concrete are identified. These
are all present in one single object, mechanical impedance [12]. Mechanical impedance is the measure of how much a
structure resisted against the motion when subjected to a harmonic force; namely defined as the complex ratio of force
vector to velocity vector ( Z M  F / u) . The mechanical impedance is also a function of the frequency ω of the
applied force and could change the frequency greatly. At the resonance frequencies, the mechanical impedance would
be lower, in such a way that less force is needed to cause a structure to move at a given velocity. Thus, the changes in
mechanical properties can be explored by monitoring the changes in the mechanical impedance spectroscopy (MIS)
[9]. However, especially in a bulk material like concrete, MIS is currently difficult to obtain experimentally at high
frequencies unless computational FEM analyses are done.
In this study, in order to predict the effects of the varying aggregate sizes on the compressive strength of the
concrete models, consequently, the PZT patches and the hosted concrete cubes are modelled by using the mechanical
material properties that are reported in the literature previously [18,24]. Direct dynamic harmonic analyses are done
on both the PZT patches and the host concrete cubes to investigate MIS and EMIS results. The relative MIS and EMIS
results are obtained due to the interactions between the embedded PZT patches and the host concrete models.
Eventually, correlations between MIS, EMIS and the compressive strength of the concrete models are interpreted.
Baris Arslan et al. / Procedia Structural Integrity 5 (2017) 171–178 173
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2. Material Properties

2.1. Concrete model

The effects of the varying aggregate sizes on the mechanical properties of the concrete are investigated by many
researchers[16–22,25–30]. Elices and Rocco [19] reported a detailed literature review regarding the effects of the
varying aggregate sizes on the mechanical properties of simple concrete. It was reported that the modulus of elasticity
decreases as the aggregate size increases. Likewise, the same trend was observed by Saouma et. al. [18] and Tasdemir.
et. al. [16].
In this study, in order to investigate the effects clearly; the mechanical properties of the concretes, which are used
in FEM analyses, are chosen from the study by Saouma et. al.[18] in which the sizes of the aggregates are varying
most significantly within the range of 19, 36 and 76 mm respectively. Detailed mechanical properties of the concrete
groups that were obtained experimentally are given in Table 1.

Table 1. The mechanical properties that were obtained experimentally from the study by Saouma et. al [18].
Max. size of Density E (Mpa) fc (Mpa) ft (Mpa)
aggregate (mm) (kg/m3)
19 2390 18000 25.60 2.81
38 2420 16900 24.80 2.67
76 2480 16500 18.90 2.41

The concrete cubes are meshed with hexagonal C3D8 stress elements which have 8-node linear bricks as shown in
Fig. 1. The size of the elements is refined locally in order to translate the driving forces which are generated by the
PZT patch, efficiently. The mesh sizes of the concrete cube near the PZT patch are 0.25 mm and other parts are
relatively coarse, which have a mesh size of 5 mm as shown in Fig. 2. Interactions between the concrete model and
the PZT patch are defined as surface-based tie constraint in which all degrees of freedom (DOF) are tied kinematically.

Fig. 1. Full concrete model Fig. 2. Locally refined concrete and PZT mesh structure

2.2. Piezoelectric Ceramic (PZT-5H)

A piezoelectric material responds to an electric potential gradient by straining, while stress causes an electric
potential gradient in the material. This coupling between the electric potential gradient and the strain is the
piezoelectric property of the material.
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In this study, the square PZT patch has a dimension of 10×10×0.5 mm and modelled using C3D8E element, which
has an 8-node linear brick. The electrical potentials of the top and the bottom surfaces of the PZT patches are coupled
to the electrical potentials of the master nodes assigned to each surface using linear constraint equations[31]. The
electrical potentials and the reaction charges can be applied to and monitored on these master nodes. During the
analysis, 0.5V of electrical potential is applied using the boundary condition on both master nodes.

In Abaqus [31], the piezoelectric behaviour is described by equations:

  D    E  D (  d E )
 
e E

Q e D E
 
 2


 is the stress vector (GPa) , q is the electrical displacement vector (C/m ) ,  is the strain vector, E is the

φ φ
electrical field vector (V/m) , D is the elasticity matrix (GPa) , D is the electric permittivity matrix (F/m) and e

, d are the piezoelectric matrices respectively defined in stress (C/m ) and strain (m/V) . The material matrices are

determined as following by using piezoelectric material properties for PZT-5H [24];

Stiffness matrix;

127.20 80.21 84.67 0 0 0

 80.21 127.20 84.67 0 0 0
 D   84.670 84.67 117.43 0 0 0
 GPa
 0 0 22.98 0 0
 0 0 0 0 22.98 0
 0 0 0 0 
0 23.47 

Piezoelectric coupling matrix (Strain); Permittivity matrix;

 0 0 0 0 741 0   31.3 0 0
d 

 0 0 0 741 0 0   10  mm/V
D   
 0
31.3 0   10  F/mm
 274 274 593 0 0 0  0 0 34 

3. Analyses and Results

3.1. Electromechanical Impedance

The method for EMIS computation is based on the direct solution steady-state dynamic analysis, which is used to
calculate the steady-state dynamic linearized response of a system to harmonic excitation. In a direct-solution steady-
state analysis, the steady-state harmonic response is calculated directly in terms of the physical DOF of the model
using the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the system [31].
Direct harmonic analyses are run within the frequency range between 0-20 kHz with no material damping. Due to
the fact that all forms of damping are ignored, the real-only system matrix is factored. The type of frequency spacing
is selected as linear and the specified frequency range is divided by 1000 points. Indeed, the direct solution is able to
bias the excitation frequencies toward the approximate values that generate a response peak by employing the bias
parameter. The bias parameter can be used to provide closer spacing of the results points, either toward the middle or
toward the ends of each frequency interval. The bias parameter is selected as 1.0 for a range frequency interval [31].
Nodal electric charges, Qk , are obtained at the end of each analysis, afterwards, are derived by time in order to
obtain electrical current intensity, I k , in Matlab. Finally, EMIS results are obtained from the Eq. 4 [12].
Baris Arslan et al. / Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5
Baris Arslan et al. / Procedia Structural Integrity 5 (2017) 171–178 175

Ik  k


Zk  lim 4
Ik x 

Concrete groups which have aggregate sizes 19, 38 and 76 mm are named A19, A38 and A76 respectively, in order
to avoid confusions.

Fig 3.a Free PZT patch impedance results Fig 3.b A19 impedance results

Fig. 3.c A38 impedance results Fig. 3.d A76 impedance results

Fig. 3. a,b,c,d Free PZT patch and concrete groups impedances

First peak point of the free PZT patch occured around 1200 Hz, and the second is around 10500 Hz. Resonance
and antiresonance values could be seen easily as shown in Fig.3.
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3.2. Mechanical Impedance

The method for the mechanical impedance computation is associated with mass, stiffness and frequency.
Considering sinusoidal driving force (F) which has a magnitude of F0 and angular frequency of ω;

F  F0e jt

The application of this force to a linear mechanical system results in velocity;

v  v0e j (t  )

Where; v0 is the magnitude of the velocity and φ is the phase angle between F and v. Thus; MIS of structural
system Z m at the point of application of the force is given by;

Zm 

In this study, in order to investigate the MIS results, the corner node of the PZT patch which is situated on the tie
constraint between the PZT patch and the concrete, is selected. Nodal forces and the velocities which are on the
polarization direction of the PZT patch are obtained and arranged according to Eq.7. Results are plotted in Fig. 4.

Fig 4.a Freq between 0-2000 Hz Fig 4.b Freq between 2000-4000 Hz
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Fig 4.c Freq between 4000-6000 Hz Fig 4.d Freq between 6000-8000 Hz

Fig 4. A19, A38 and A76 MIS results in between 2000 Hz intervals

4. Conclusion

This paper aims to be a prestudy to the future research in which the experimental analyses will be done. FEM based
EMIS and MIS results demonstrated that varying trendlines due to the varying modulus of elasticity and the densities
are given an opportunity to speculate results even in the low frequency range.
Considering the varying compressive strength data due to the varying sizes of aggregates, the most durable conrete
group is A19 which have a 25.6 Mpa of compressive strength, where A38 and A76 have 24.80 and 18.90 MPa in
decreasing order respectively. When we probe the MIS results, between 0-2000 Hz intervals, the first peak is observed
on A19 group, further, A38 and A76 as expected. However, the amplitudes of MIS data are aligned in reverse order.
In contrast to the compressive strength data, the concrete groups have densities in increasing order due to the
increasing size of aggregates; 2390, 2420 and 2480 kg/m respectively. This reverse trendline could be associated
with these reverse orders of density.
To conclude, in order to prove these FEM results, experimental analyses are required. For future studies,
experimental setup will be presented. Hence, comparing the experimental and numerical results, more accurate
analyses will be provided.


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