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under some specified loads or combinations of loads

and deformations / displacements

system, state of the constituent materials, occurrence of

damage / failure etc.

Why is Structural Analysis needed and how does it fit into the "Big Picture?"

(Role of Structural Analysis in the Design Process)

Consider a design project: say Bridge

Things to consider:

Type of bridge

Loading classification Simple Beam bridge

Traffic/Live Load,

EQ, Winds, Snow, Stream Ice

Temperature Thermal

Impact / Blast*

Fatigue Truss

Design Life ~50 years

• Design Process

Assume a solution (based on experience, requirements)

Preliminary structural analysis

Refine the design Arch

Check with detailed structural analysis

ASD - Allowable Stress Design

LRFD - Load & Resistance factor design

Cable-stayed

• It can be framed as an optimization problem also:

Choose design parameters (criteria)

Material / Construction costs

Performance-based criteria

IntroReview Page 1

Problem Statement for Structural Analysis

Given:

• Structure Geometry,

• Loading,

• Material properties

• Support (boundary) conditions

Indeterminate Determinate

• External reactions

• Internal stresses and stress-resultants (axial force, shear force, bending moment)

• Deflections / displacements

• Strains

• Material response

2. Compatibility of Deformations

3. Material Behavior

• Force (flexibility) method

• Displacement (stiffness) method

of components

IntroReview Page 2

Statics: Equilibrium of Forces and Moments

Statics for:

• Point particles

• Rigid bodies

• Deformable bodies

Example

Consider the frame shown.

Radius of both pulleys = 0.2 m

1. Is the frame statically determinate?

2. Draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment

diagram for member AE

Deflected shape

IntroReview Page 3

Statics: Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies

of components

Stress

IntroReview Page 4

Concepts of Traction and Stress

In general,

any (external) surface of a body or a part of a body.

Traction is a vector represented with a 3x1 matrix in 3D.

Stress is a physical quantity that completely characterizes the distributed internal forces per unit area that

develop at a point within a body or a part of a body, at any orientation of the internal surface.

Stress is a tensor and is represented with a 3 x 3 matrix.

(Note: A tensor operates upon a vector to give another vector;

just like a 3×3 matrix multiplied with a 3×1 vector gives another 3×1 vector.)

IntroReview Page 5

Transformation of stress (Change of co-ordinate axes)

The components of this 3×1 vector depend upon the choice of axes.

Note:

where

IntroReview Page 6

Equilibrium equations in terms of stresses

IntroReview Page 7

Stress Resultants and Equilibrium for Beams

Consider a small ∆x length of any beam carrying a distributed load.

FBD of ∆x

element:

IntroReview Page 8

Concept of Strain

any deformable body undergoes

changes in its shape and size.

(i.e. it deforms).

measures these changes in shape and size

at a point in a body.

Example

More precisely:

In general Displacements:

Strain (tensor):

IntroReview Page 9

Displacement-strain relationships

Normal Strains

Shear Strains

Shear angle

Compatibility of strains

Compatibility conditions:

IntroReview Page 10

Stress-strain relationship (Material behavior)

One of the simplest material behavior is characterized by the

linear-elastic Hooke's law (model).

In lD

E: Young's Modulus

ν : Poisson's Ratio

IntroReview Page 11

2D Plane Problems

IntroReview Page 12

Final Problem Statement of Structural Analysis

Note:

• For most practical problems, analytical (exact) solutions to the above system of PDEs,

are not possible to obtain.

• Structural engineers resort to

○ make simplifying assumptions,

○ obtain approximate solutions to the above PDEs using numerical techniques like the

finite element method.

IntroReview Page 13

Structural Mechanics: Beam theory

Kinematic Assumption: Assume that a beam consists of infinitely many RIGID CROSS- SECTIONS

that are connected with a FLEXIBLE STRING (at their centroids).

Pure

Bending

Pure

Shear

Pure

Axial Actual response is some combination of all 3 "modes."

Note:

• The theory that accounts for all 3 modes of deformation above is called the Timoshenko Beam Theory.

This theory is more general and is more suitable for "deep" / "short" beams i.e. beams whose depth/length

ratio is less than 5.

This is because for such beams bending deformations ane small and shear deformations contribute

significantly to the response.

• An alternative theory which neglects the shear deformation is called the Bernoulli-Euler Beam theory.

This theory is applicable only to "long" / "slender" beams whose depth / length ratio is greater than 10.

For such beams, the bending deformations are much larger in comparison to the shear deformations, so

neglecting shear deformations is justified.

IntroReview Page 14

Negligible Shear Deformations Assumption:

If we further assume that shear deformations are negligible, then:

(Osculating Circle)

(Curvature)

Furthermore:

beam equations:

IntroReview Page 15

Calculating Deflections

(Ref: Chapter 8)

Sign Convention

Moment: Left Counter & Right Clockwise

(Smiley: positive)

Deflections

Deflected shape (elastic curve) can be sketched by:

• Analyzing the loads and support conditions

• Bending moment diagram (using +/- curvatures and inflection points)

Examples

IntroReview Page 16

Examples

IntroReview Page 17

Double Integration

Deflected shapes of beams can also be calculated precisely by integrating the governing equation

of beam equilibrium:

Note:

• Constants are evaluated using boundary and compatibility conditions at supports or interior points.

• If M(x) diagram is discontinuous or has discontinuous changes in slope, then a single equation will not

be possible for deflections and all segments would have to be integrated separately.

Example:

IntroReview Page 18

Example:

IntroReview Page 19

In addition, overall deflected shape and internal stresses and stress resultants have also been calculated.

IntroReview Page 20

Moment-Area Theorems

An alternative to the double integration method is to use a semi-graphical method involving moment-

area theorems.

Note:

• Useful in situations where there are multiple segments of the beam (with different M/EI functions)

that would lead to several boundary / continuity conditions to be solved for each segment.

• Usually this method doesn't give the slope or deflection directly.

You have to use a geometrical construction in terms of the unknowns to solve for them.

The change in slope of the deflected shape (elastic curve) of a beam between two points A and B

is equal to the area under the M/EI diagram between these points.

Examples

Slope at the ends of a simply supported

Slope at tip of cantilever with tip load: beam with center point load:

IntroReview Page 21

Theorem 2 (dtC = xC.dθ)

For any two points A and B on a beam, the vertical distance between the tangents from A and from

B at a third point C is equal to the 1st moment of area under the M/EI diagram between A and B

taken about point C.

Tangents

from A and B (Hibbeler)

measured at C

Examples

IntroReview Page 22

Example

φ is small =>

Note: This method does not give us an expression/equation for the slope or deflection at ALL points of

the beam (as required by the general Problem statement of Structural Analysis), whereas the method of

double integration does.

Nevertheless, one can find extremal values of slopes and deflections using this method, and usually these

are sufficient for Structural Analysis and Design.

IntroReview Page 23

Example

IntroReview Page 24

Conjugate Beam Analogy

The conjugate beam method analogy relies simply on the similarities between the governing equations

of beam theory and those of beam equilibrium.

(Double Integration)

(Statics) Reactions

Loading Slopes

Shear Force Diagram

Bending Moment Diagram Displacements

In addition,

Boundary and

Interior conditions

Example

IntroReview Page 25

Boundary and Interior conditions for Conjugate Beams

REAL CONJUGATE

Examples

IntroReview Page 26

Example

IntroReview Page 27

IntroReview Page 28

Example:

Determine the slope and deflection at C

using the conjugate beam analogy.

IntroReview Page 29

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