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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

INDEX
1. Sexual characteristics
2. The reproductive systems
3. Sex cells and fertilization
4. Pregnancy, birth and lactation

by
Rafael
Rodríguez
Pérez
REPRODUCTION 1
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

0. INTRODUCTION

 Look at this word and complete the chart.

What my partner and I


What I know What my group knows
know

 Dictation.

- Reproduction is the basic life process that living things have to create new
organisms similar to themselves.

 Work in pairs and, later, in groups.


In pairs, draw a woman or man (your teacher will
choose). Later, make a couple with another pair’s man or
woman. Look at the adults’ physical characteristics and draw
their possible child.

Remember that the child needs to be similar to his/her


parents.

1. SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS

 Look, read and answer.

PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS


These are the reproductive organs, also known as the genital organs. We are
born with these characteristics.
- What are the
differences between boys’
primary sexual
characteristics and girls’
primary sexual
characteristics?

REPRODUCTION 2
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

 Secondary sexual characteristics make men and women’s bodies more different.
Classify these into male and female.

more developed muscles –


breasts – more body hair –
facial hair – higher voice –
less body hair – deeper
voice – wider hips

 In pairs, explain why each of these secondary sexual characteristic appears.


• Men: facial hair, deeper voice, more body hair, more developed muscles.
• Women: Breasts, wider hips, higher voice, less body hair.

 Watch these two videos and answer.

- What is puberty? Explain to


one another in pairs. Later,
explain to one another in
groups. Finally, find the best
explanation for puberty and
tell the rest of the class.
Puberty in boys Puberty in girls
https://www.youtube.com https://www.youtube.com/
/watch?v=Yvw7QGytgNQ watch?v=j_mFJ2d0qxQ

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

 Read cooperatively, think and discuss.


Puberty is the stage of life when reproductive organs start working and
secondary sexual characteristics develop.
Puberty may take place between the ages of 10 and 14 in girls, and 12 and 16 in
boys. However, these ages differ from person to person.
Puberty also causes emotional changes. Our mood can change quickly, and we
become more sensitive and self-conscious. Be careful because emotional changes
may cause confusion and anxiety.
During puberty, talking to your parents or an adult friend about feelings is a very
good idea.

2. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

 1-2-group work. Look at these pictures and read the descriptions of its parts.
Match each part and it description.
a. They contain the female sex cells (egg cells or ova).
b. It is the external part of the female reproductive system.
It is formed by folds of skin called labia. It protects the opening
of the vagina and the urethra through which urine is
expelled.
c. They are fine tubes that connect the testes to the
urethra.
d. It produces liquids which help to transport
spermatozoa and give them nutrients. The mixture of these
liquids and sperm is called semen.
e. They connect the ovaries to the uterus.
f. It is a hollow organ with a muscular wall. The baby
develops here during pregnancy.
g. They produce sperm, which contains the male sex cells
(sperm cell or spermatozoa).
h. It is a tube that transports semen to the outside of the
body. It also expels urine.
i. It is a muscular tube between the uterus and the
outside of the body.
j. It is the organ that contains the urethra.

 Group work. Make a poster of the reproductive systems with flaps. Each
flap must contain the description of one part so that you can read it
when you open it.

 Complete these sentences about the reproductive systems.


FEMALE GENITALS
a. The __________ contain the female sex cells, called egg cells or ova.
b. The __________ is a hollow, muscular organ where the baby develops during
pregnancy.
c. The __________ is a muscular tube between the uterus and the outside of the body.
d. The __________ connect the ovaries to the uterus.
e. The __________ is the external, protective organ of the female reproductive system.

REPRODUCTION 4
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

MALE GENITALS
a. The __________ produce male sex cells called sperm cells or spermatozoa.
b. The __________ connect the testes and the urethra.
c. The __________ produces liquids to transport sperm cells.
d. The __________ transports semen and urine.
e. The __________ is an external organ of the male reproductive system.

3. SEX CELLS AND FERTILIZATION

 Read, look and guess. What is the male sex cell? And the female one?

Sex cells are an essential part of reproduction. They are produced in the
reproductive system and are different in men and women.

 Watch this video and discuss.

‘Miracle’ of life
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE_lI86boUU
 Look at the sex cells and write OVA or SPERMATOZOA next to each sentence.
a. They are found in the ovaries from birth. ______
b. They are large, round cells that can be seen with the naked eye. ______
c. They are produced in testes, starting at puberty. ______
d. They contain all the nutrients for the development of an embryo. ______
e. They are very small and can only be seen under a microscope. ______
f. They have a small head and a long tail which they use to move. ______
g. They mature during puberty. ______

 Make up a complementary poster about sex cells for your reproductive system one.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

 In pairs, prepare an explanation about fertilization and the development of the


embryo. You can use this picture, the information below and your creativity.

- Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell joins an


egg cell.
- Semen gets into the woman’s vagina.
- The spermatozoa travel through her uterus
into the Fallopian tubes.
- If, at the same time, ovulation takes place and
an egg cell is released from one of the ovaries
to the Fallopian tube, fertilization can occur.
- If fertilization occurs, a new cell, called zygote,
is formed.
- The zygote divides into more cells and they
form an embryo.
- The embryo goes to the uterus, where it
attaches itself to the wall and continues to
grow.

4. PREGNANCY, BIRTH AND LACTATION

 Class chat.
 Do you know any case of pregnancy? Speak
about it.
 How long does a human pregnancy last?

 Work in pairs. Make up an information leaflet about ‘A Healthy Pregnancy’ for


pregnant women. You can use this doctor’s advice.

DOCTOR’S ADVICE FOR A HEALTHY PREGNANCY


Staying healthy during pregnancy is crucial for the
mother and baby. Here is some advice for a healthy
pregnancy:
- Eat a balanced diet, high in proteins,
calcium and iron.
- Drink plenty of water.
- Exercise regularly, but don’t do intense and
high-impact activities.
- Rest and sleep.
- Don’t drink alcohol or smoke.

REPRODUCTION 6
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

 Write an interview to your mother about her pregnancy. Interview her and write
her answers.
- Use 8 questions, at least. - Use past simple:

 Look at the picture, read and find 5 errors.

a. The embryo is surrounded by a sac called the umbilical


cord, which is filled with liquid and provides protection.
b. A new organ, called the amnion, forms inside the uterus.
It provides nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the
zygote. It eliminates waste products produced by the embryo.
c. The embryo and the placenta are connected by the
uterus.
d. The initial embryo becomes a sperm cell, and at about 3
months, all the body parts can be distinguished.

 Watch this video about birth and discuss.

Labour and delivery during vaginal child birth


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cnGKVskrdM

 Read and write sentences about the


advantages and disadvantages of a caesarean
section.
When there are complications during
labour, a doctor performs a caesarean section
to remove the baby directly from the mother’s
uterus.

REPRODUCTION 7
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 1

 Read and answer.


A UNIQUE EXPERIENCE
Giving birth to a child is a special and unique experience. After waiting anxiously for
months, the parents finally get to see their new baby.
However, giving birth was more difficult in the past. Labour was painful and
dangerous in many ways. Today, the pain can be controlled with anaesthesias which
eliminate the mother’s pain, but allow her to remain conscious during the birth of her
child.
In addition, thanks to many medical advances, risks to mother and baby can be
monitored and often avoided, making the birth process much safer. Even simple
improvements in hygiene have dramatically reduced the risk of infections during birth.
- Why is giving birth a unique experience?
- How was labour different in the past?
- What makes it less painful and safer today?
- Why has the risk of infections decreased?
- Do you think fathers are more involved in the birth process today? Why?

 Read about lactation and debate.


Lactation is the period when the mother’s breasts produce milk. It happens after giving
birth.
Breast milk provides all the nutrients that a baby needs to grow, and substances that
protect against diseases. Breastfeeding consists of the baby feeding on its mother’s milk.
This is the best way to feed a baby, but babies can also be fed artificial milk, called formula
milk.

 Jigsaw technique. Complete the unit diagram.

REPRODUCTION 8