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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 2

INDEX
1. Composition of matter
2. Physical changes
3. Chemical changes
4. Forms of energy

by
Rafael
Rodríguez
Pérez
INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY 9
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 2

0. INTRODUCTION

 Work in groups. Choose one material and work on it following these guidelines.
Prepare a short presentation.
- How is your material called?
- What is its state? (Solid,
liquid or gaseous)
- How many substances has
it got?
- Describe it. (Colour, size,
texture, flexibility, hardness,
flavour, smell…)
- How would you use
energy to change it?

1. COMPOSITION OF MATTER

 30’’ challenge. In pairs, find as many examples of matter and non-matter as possible.

 Dictation.
- Matter is made up of one or more substances.
- Wood, plastic, air, etc. are examples of substances.
 In groups, make some mini cards
of pure substances and mixtures.
The secretary will keep them to
play.

 Complete these sentences using the words in the box.


a. Pure substances contain only _________ type of component. separated –
b. The component in a pure substance can’t be _________ into mixtures – one
other substances.
c. _________ contain two or more substances.

 Work in groups. Read and classify the mixtures of your cards. There are two main
types of mixtures.
 Heterogeneous mixtures: The different components can be distinguished.
 Homogeneous mixtures: The different components cannot be distinguished.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 2

 Read this story and underline homogeneous mixtures red and heterogeneous
mixtures blue.
Mr. Ralph wakes up at 7 o’clock. As he breathes in the morning air he feels the
blood return to his legs and gets quickly out of the bed. He goes to the bathroom
and washes his face with soap and water, brushes his teeth with toothpaste and
puts on his face cream. After getting dressed it is time for breakfast, cereal with milk
and a cup of chocolate milk. Finally, he is ready to face his day.

 Jigsaw strategy. Choose one of the methods of separation of mixtures. Make a


group of experts with other classmates with the same choice and study it deeper.
Later, go back to your group and explain your method to your mates. Make up a
poster in groups.

2. PHYSICAL CHANGES

 Make a ball of clay, follow your teacher’s instructions and tick the correct boxes in
the table.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 2

 Work in pairs. Complete this diagram with a picture.

 Cooperative reading. Read these definitions cooperatively and guess what term
they refer to.
melting – vaporization – sublimation – condensation –
solidification – reverse sublimation

a. It happens when a solid turns into a gas. _____________


b. It happens when a gas turns into a liquid. _____________
c. It happens when a gas turns into a solid. _____________
d. It happens when a solid turns into a liquid. _____________
e. It happens when a liquid turns into a solid. _____________
f. It happens when a liquid turns into a gas. _____________
- It can happen by evaporation (slowly) or boiling (fast).

 Imagine you are ‘Physical-change man/woman’. Your super powers can change
matter physically. Make up an adventure and write your story.
- Write 150 words at least.
- Use linkers: First, first of all, to start with, second, third, later, after that, however, instead
of, because, in
addition, also,
too, finally, in
conclusion…
- Use Present
Simple:

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 2

 Read about expansion and contraction of matter and do.


MATTER EXPANDS AND CONTRACTS
Substances expand when heated and they contract when cooled.
Fill one container with hot water and another with ice water. Hold an empty and
open plastic bottle in hot water for thirty seconds, and then tightly screw on the lid.
Next, hold the bottle in ice water.

3. PHYSICAL CHANGES

 1-2-group technique. Look at this picture and define ‘chemical changes’.


CHEMICAL CHANGES

A chemical change happens when_________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

 Work in group. Read about the types of chemical reactions (chemical changes) and
prepare an explanation in group.
TYPES OF CHEMICAL CHANGES/REACTIONS
• Oxidation. It happens when some metal substances, such as iron, combine
with oxygen in the presence of water. As a result, rust is produced.
• Combustion. It happens when objects or substances are burned. This
reaction needs oxygen and produces gases (usually CO2), light and heat.
• Fermentation: It happens in some living things, such as yeast and bacteria.
Some types of fermentation are used to produce yogurt, wine or bread.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 2

 Write oxidation, combustion or fermentation. Then, check your partner’s answers.


a. It happens when cars burn fuel to move. _______________
b. Your dad cooks chicken. _______________
c. Cheese and yogurt are produced. _______________
d. Your scissors are outside, it has been raining and they has become rusted.
_______________
e. An apple has turned brown. _______________

 Read, think, do and learn.


PRODUCTION OF GAS DURING DECOMPOSITION
Smash some ripe bananas and put them into a water bottle. Stretch a balloon
over the mouth of the bottle and let it sit in a warm, sunny place until the next day.
The balloon will inflate!
It happens because, like fermentation, decomposition is a chemical change that
produces gas.

 Experiment time. Peel an egg with a chemical change. Take pictures of all the
process, glue those pictures in a sheet of paper and explain what has happened.
You will need: PROCEDURE
- An egg 1st Place the egg into the glass.
- Vinegar 2nd Pour vinegar into the glass to cover the egg.
- A glass 3rd Let it sit for 2 days.
4th You will see that the eggshell has disappeared and your egg
has become transparent. Also, your egg will possible be bouncy,
like a ball.
WHAT’S HAPPENING?
The acid in vinegar and the calcium carbonate of the eggshell react and make
calcium acetate, carbon dioxide (bubbles), and water.

4. FORMS OF ENERGY

 Listen, write and discuss. Dictation.


- All the physical and chemical changes involve energy.

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 Think and match.

 Work in groups. Choose a form of energy and prepare a short presentation.

 Work in pairs. Complete the unit diagram.

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