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JAIPUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE

JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

A
TRAINING REPORT ON
PLC SCADA AND AUTOMATION

2015-16

SUBMITTED TO
MR. S N JHANWAR

SUBMITTED BY
VIKASH RANJAN

B.Tech (EE) 7th Semester

October, 3rd 2015


INDEX

Serial No. Caption Page No.

1 Acknowledgement 3

2 Company profile 4

3 Introduction to automation 6

4 Advantage/Disadvantage 8

5 Limitation of automation 9

6 PLC 10

7 Architecture of PLC 12

8 Ladder Diagram 14

9 Programming by Ladder Diagram 15

10 Programming and Operation in PLC 25

11 Application of PLC 30

12 SCADA 31

13 SCADA Software 33

14 Architecture 34

15 INTOUCH SCADA Software 38

16 Application of SCADA 44

17 Conclusion 47

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel profound happiness in forwarding this industrial training


report as an image of sincere efforts. It is almost inevitable to
ensure indebtedness to all who generously helped by sharing
their valuable experience & devoting their precious time with us,
without whom this seminar report would have never been
accomplished.

First & foremost I extend my thanks & gratitude to the entire unit
of “KAIZEN ROBEONICS PVT.LTD. JAIPUR” along with “Mr.
Manoj Sharma (DIRECTOR)”,“SMr. Amit Kumar (Assistant
Professor)” whose guidance, teaching and invaluable suggestions
provided me a deep insight in my chosen field of technology,
enhanced my knowledge and supported in widening my outlook
towards the communication industry. I am also very thankful to
all the engineers of the department for their kind support
throughout the training.

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COMPANY PROFILE
Kaizen is a Japanese term for improvement. More than a word it is
the philosophy that focuses upon the continuous improvement in
any process. It can be applied to any field in the world – from self
improvement to business processes and from scientific research
to education. Kaizen aims at improving the activities and process
thus eliminating waste.

Robeonics–We believe that Robeonics is not a subject or a hobby


or a cliché science. Robeonics is in itself a complete science.
Robeonics has many dimensions which deal with the theoretical,
practical, educational, technological and scientific aspects. Robotics
combined with different branches of science and engineering like
electronics, electrical, mechanical and computer programming. Their
overall combination with robotics is called as Robeonics, which is a
complete science in itself.

Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is an original manifestation of


Kaizen and Robeonics which combines and fulfil the meaning of both
together. Continuous development and innovation in the field of
science and technology and in all the aspects of engineering is the
goal of Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd.. Kaizen Robeonics

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Research Pvt. Ltd. accomplish this task by providing education in
Robeonics and carrying out research and development activities in
the field for the overall development of science and technology.
Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is also aimed to continuously
improve its processes in education and research.

Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. strives for achieving perfection


and aligning us to the changing world and minds. For our success we
believe upon our ability to creatively and effectively serve our clients,
students and stakeholder’s and we continue to improve ourselves
through our capabilities and resources, making Kaizen Robeonics
Research Pvt. Ltd. a rewarding place to work and innovate.

Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is more than an organization it


is a dream of passionate and ambitious technocrats. It was started
with the name Kaizen Robeonics in 2008, with the dream of an
entrepreneurial engineering graduate and electronics genius – Manoj
Sharma. With a deep desire to spread practical technological
education and the lack of resources and support to robotics
enthusiast in India, Manoj took the initiative to do it himself. Today,
Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is a heaven for many robeonics
enthusiasts.

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INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

Automation is the use of control systems such as computers to


control industrial machinery and process, reducing the need for
human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation
is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization
provided human operators with machinery to assist them with
physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the
need for human sensory and mental requirements as well.
Processes and systems can also be automated.

Automation Impacts:

1. It increases productivity and reduce cost.


2. It gives emphasis on flexibility and convertibility of
manufacturing process. Hence gives manufacturers the ability
to easily switch from manufacturing products.
3. Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality
in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase
quality substantially.
4. Increase the consistency of output.
5. Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments.

Advantages of Automation:

1. Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical


or monotonous work.
2. Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size,
weight, endurance etc.
3. Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy
of enterprises, society or most of humanity.

Disadvantages of Automation:
1. Technology limits: Current technology is unable to automate all
the desired tasks.

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2. Unpredictable development costs: The research and
development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost
saved by the automation itself.
3. High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant
requires a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit
cost of the product.

Applications

 Automated video surveillance:


Automated video surveillance monitors people and vehicles
in real time within a busy environment. Existing automated
surveillance systems are based on the environment they are
primarily designed to observe, i.e., indoor, outdoor or
airborne, the amount of sensors that the automated system
can handle and the mobility of sensor, i.e., stationary camera
vs. mobile camera. The purpose of a surveillance system is to
record properties and trajectories of objects in a given area,
generate warnings or notify designated authority in case of
occurrence of particular events.

 Automated manufacturing:
Automated manufacturing refers to the application of
automation to produce things in the factory way. Most of the
advantages of the automation technology has its influence in
the manufacture processes.
The main advantages of automated manufacturing are
higher consistency and quality, reduced lead times,
simplified production, reduced handling, improved work
flow, and increased worker morale when a good
implementation of the automation is made.

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 Home automation:
Home automation designates an emerging practice of
increased automation of household appliances and
features in residential dwellings, particularly through
electronic means that allow for things impracticable, overly
expensive or simply not possible recent past decades.
 Industrial automation:
Industrial automation deals with the optimization of energy-
efficient drive systems by precise measurement and control
technologies. Nowadays energy efficiency in industrial
processes are becoming more and more relevant.
Semiconductor companies like Infineon Technologies are
offering 8-bit microcontroller applications for example
found in motor controls, general purpose pumps, fans, and e-
bikes to reduce energy consumption and thus increase
efficiency.

Limitations to automation:
Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks.

As a process becomes increasingly automated, there is less and


less labour to be saved or quality improvement to be gained.
This is an example of both diminishing returns and the logistic
function.

Similar to the above, as more and more processes become


automated, there are fewer remaining non-automated
processes. This is an example of exhaustion of opportunities.

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PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

HISTORY OF PLC:

In the 1960's Programmable Logic Controllers were first


developed to replace relays and relay control systems. Relays,
while very useful in some applications, also have some problems.
The primary reason for designing such a device was eliminating
the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based
machine control systems for major U.S. car manufacturers. These
controllers eliminated the need of rewiring and adding additional
hardware for every new configuration of logic. These, along with
other considerations, led to the development of PLCs. plc was
more improved in 1970’s. In 1973 the ability to communicate
between PLCs was added. This also made it possible to have the
controlling circuit quite a ways away from the machine it was
controlling. However, at this time the lack of standardization in
PLCs created other problems. This was improved in the
1980's.The size of PLC was also reduced then, thus using space
even more efficiently. The 90's increased the collection of ways in

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which a PLC could be programmed (block diagrams, instruction
list, C, etc.).

INTRODUCTION OF PLC:

 A programmable logic controller (PLC) is an industrial


computer control system that continuously monitors the state
of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom
program to control the state of output devices.
 It is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements,
extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and
resistance to vibration and impact.
 They are used in many industries such as oil refineries,
manufacturing lines, conveyor systems and so on, wherever
there is a need to control devices the PLC provides a flexible
way to "soft wire" the components together.
 The basic units have a CPU (a computer processor) that is
dedicated to run one program that monitors a series of
different inputs and logically manipulates the outputs for the
desired control. They are meant to be very flexible in how they
can be programmed while also providing the advantages of
high reliability (no program crashes or mechanical failures),
compact and economical over traditional control systems.

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In simple words, Programmable Logic Controllers are relay
control systems put in a very small package. This means that one
PLC acts basically like a bunch of relays, counters, timers, places
for data storage, and a few various other things, all in one small
package.

ARCHITECTURE OF PLC:
The PLC give output in order to switch things on or off. The PLC’s
output is proportionally activated according on the status of the
system’s feedback sensors and input terminal which is connected
to PLC. The decision to activate output are based on logic
programmes. The logic programme stored in RAM or ROM
memory. The PLC also have same as computer, a CPU, data bus
and address bus

Fig : PLC internal architecture

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to communicate with external devices such as programmers,
display monitor The next diagram shows a simplified diagram of
PLC’s structure. The central processing unit control everything
according to a programme stored in a memory (RAM/ROM
).Everything is interconnected by two buses ,the address bus and
data bus . The system must be able and a/d converter.

Fig : Simplified PLC structure

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Fig : Basic plc sections

Ladder Diagram (LD):

The Ladder Diagram is also a graphics oriented programming


language which approaches the structure of an electric circuit.
Ladder Diagram consists of a series of networks. Each network
consists on the left side of a series of contacts which pass on from
left to right the condition "ON" or "OFF" which correspond to the
Boolean values TRUE and FALSE. To each contact belongs a
Boolean variable. If this variable is TRUE, then condition pass
from left to right.

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Fig : ladder diagram

COMMUNICATION/PROGRAMMING WITH SOFTWARE RSLINX

This chapter explains how to program the PLC. It describes how


to write a program, how the program is structured and
representation of the programming language.

PROGRAMING BY LADDER DIAGRAM:

Ladder logic is a method of drawing electrical logic schematics. It


is now a graphical language very popular for programming
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). It was originally
invented to describe logic made from relays. The name is based
on the observation that programs in this language resemble
ladders, with two vertical "rails "and a series of horizontal "rungs"
between them. A program in the ladder logic, also called ladder
diagram is similar to a schematic for a set of relay circuits.
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The Ladder Diagram is also a graphics oriented programming
language which approaches the structure of an electric circuit.
The Ladder Diagram consists of a series of networks. A network is
limited on the left and right sides by a left and right vertical
current line. In the middle is a circuit diagram made up of
contacts, coils, and connecting lines.
Each network consists on the left side of a series of contacts
which pass on from left to right the condition "ON" or "OFF"
which correspond to the Boolean values TRUE and FALSE. To
each contact belongs a Boolean variable. If this variable is TRUE,
then the condition is passed from left to right along the
connecting line. Otherwise the right connection receives the value
OFF.

INPUT represented by I
OUTPUT represented by O.
Addressing method:
1 slot=32 bit=2 word (1 char./word=2 byte=16 bit)

Input addressing:
File letter:Slot number.Word number/Bit number
For example I:2.1/1

Output addressing:

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File letter:Slot number.Word number/Bit number
For example O:2.1/1

GENERALLY USED INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOL FOR PLC


PROGRAMMING:

Input Instruction:
1. --[ ]-- This Instruction is Called XIC or Examine If Closed.
ie; If a NO switch is actuated then only this instruction will be
true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be
true and hence output will not be generated.
2. --[\]-- This Instruction is Called XIO or Examine If Open
ie; If a NC switch is actuated then only this instruction will be
true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be
true and hence output will not be generated.

Output Instruction:
1. --( )-- This Instruction Shows the States of Output(called
OTE).
ie; If any instruction either XIO or XIC is true then output will
be high. Due to high output a 24 volt signal is generated from
PLC processor.
2. --(L)-- Output Latch (OTL)

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OTL turns a bit on when the rung is executed, and this bit
retains its state when the rung is not executed or a power cycle
occurs.
3. --(U)-- Output Unlatch(OTU)
OTU turns a bit off when the rung is executed, and this bit
retains its state when the rung is not executed or when power
cycle occurs.

Rung:
Rung is a simple line on which instruction are placed and logics
are created
E.g.; ---------------------------------------------

Timer:
Timer has three bit:
 EN: Enable bit :
The Timer Enable (EN) bit is set immediately when the rung
goes true. It stays set until the rung goes false.
 TT: Timer timing bit :
The Timer Timing (TT) bit is set when the rung goes true. It
stays set until the rung goes false or the Timer Done (DN) bit is
set (i.e. when accumulated value equals preset value).
 DN: Done bit:

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The Timer Done (DN) bit is not set until the accumulated value
is equal to the preset value. It stays set until the rung goes false.
Timer is three type:
1. TON 2. TOF 3. RTO
1. TON: Timer On
Counts time base intervals when the instruction is true.

Fig : Timer on
2. TOF: Timer off
Delay Counts time base intervals when the instruction is false.

Fig : Timer off


3. RTO: Retentive Timer
This type of timer does NOT reset the accumulated time when the
input condition goes false. Rather, it keeps the last accumulated
time in memory, and (if/when the input goes true again)
continues timing from that point.

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Fig : Retentive Timer

 Addressing of timer:

Fig : Addressing of timer

Table : Status of bits in timer

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Set When Accumulated value wraps around to +32,768 (from: 32
767) and
Counter:
Counter has three bit:
 Count Up bit (CU):
Set When Rung conditions are true and remains set till rung
conditions go false or a RES instruction that has the same
address as the CTD instruction is enabled.
 Done bit ( DN):
Set when the accumulated value is => the present value and
remains set till the accumulated value becomes less than the
present value.
 Overflow ( OV):
continues counting from there and remains set till a RES
instruction that has same address as the CTD instruction is
executed or the count is incremented greater than or equal to
+32,767 with a CTU instruction.

Counter is two type:


1. CTU
2. CTD
CTU: Count Up

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Increments the accumulated value at each false-to true transition
and retains the accumulated value when the instruction goes false
or when power cycle occurs.

Fig : Count Up
CTD: Count Down
Decrements the accumulate value at each false-to true transition
and retains the accumulated value when the instruction goes false
or when power cycle occurs.

Fig: Count Down

Addressing of counter:

Fig: Addressing of timer

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RESET: --(RES)--
Reset the accumulated value and status bits of a timer or counter.
A C5:0
-------[ ]---------------------(RES)--------------------------
When A is true than counter C5:0 is reset.

BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN BY LADDER DIAGRAM:


1. AND logic:
Y0=X0.X1

Fig 3.5: AND logic ladder diagram

2. OR logic:
Y1=X0+X1

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Fig 3.6: OR logic ladder diagram
3. NOT logic:
Y3=X0

Fig 3.7: NOT logic ladder diagram

4. NAND logic:
Y0=X0.X1

Fig : NAND logic ladder diagram


5. NOR logic:
Y1=X0+X1

Fig : NOR logic ladder diagram


6. X-OR logic:
Y2=X0 + X1

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Fig : XOR logic ladder diagram
7. X-NOR logic:
Y2=X0 + X1

Fig : X-NOR logic ladder diagram

PROGRAMING AND OPERATIONS IN PLC:


To understanding the programming and operation we consider a
example .
We have a car parking place which has five car parking capacity
and we want to control the parking gate/light. We have one input
sensor, one exit sensor, for power supply start stop push button,
and for indication LED light
Making programme:
STEP: 1
Making start stop push button logic:

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Fig : Push button logic ladder diagram
Here button a is start push button and b is stop push button and x
is binary type output.
STEP: 2
Making input side sensor logic:

Fig : Input sensor logic ladder diagram


Here we use one input sensor and one counter which is CTU
(counter up) and take CTU preset value 5.
STEP: 3
Making exit side sensor logic:

Fig : Output sensor logic ladder diagram

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Here we use one Exit sensor and one counter which is CTD
(counter down) and take CTD preset value 5.
STEP: 4
Making parking light (LED) control logic:

Fig : led light logic ladder diagram


Here we take done bit (DN) of counter for controlling the led light
.

Operation:
After program making ,it is download in plc. This program store
in plc memory.
When we push the start button than plc scan the input means
input condition of button A is true(1).so the binary output is also
true(1).

Fig : operation of Push button logic(on pressing NO switch)

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When start button release than input condition of button A is
false. But the start button and binary input both are in parellel.
The address of binary output and binary input are same so we get
continuous supply.

Fig : operation of Push button logic (on releasing NO switch)

Binary output we can use as a input in next step ,its status is true
for sense the entering car we use a input sensor and for counting
the car we use a CTU because accumulator value less than preset
value.
Similarly when fifth car enter than CTU count it’s accumulator
value .Now counter done bit is true because CTU address is C5:0
and take its preset value 5 because parking place capacity is 5.
When first car enter then input sensor status goes true . Due to
this CTU count one in it’s accumulator value .but counter done bit
does not true accumulator value equal to preset value.

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Fig : operation of input sensor logic
When done bit goes true than LED output is true so parking light
is on.

Fig : operation of led with input sensor logic


At exit side, one car is goes outside form parking place. Now four
car is present in the parking place but CTU done bit is on so LED
light is on. To remove this interlocking problem we use same
address for both counter (CTU and CTD).
Both counter have same address so CTU accumulator value and
CTD accumulator value both are same.

Fig : operation of exit sensor logic


At exit side for sense the car we use a exit sensor .when one car is
exit. Than exit sensor status is true and CTD count and update the
accumulator value .

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Now both counter’s accumulator value less than preset value so
done bit goes false and parking light off .

Fig : programme on window

APPLICATIONS OF PLC:

1. The PLC can be programmed to function as an energy


management system for boiler control for maximum efficiency
and safety.
2. In automation of blender recliners
3. In automation of bulk material handling system at ports.
4. In automation for a ship unloaded.
5. Automation for wagon loaders.
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6. For blast furnace charging controls in steel plants.
7. In automation of brick molding press in refractory.
8. In automation for galvanizing unit.
9. For chemical plants process control automation.
10. In automation of a rock phosphate drying and grinding
system.
11. Modernization of boiler and turbo generator set.
12. Process visualization for mining application.
13. Criteria display system for power station.

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SCADA
(SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION)

INTRODUCTION

SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. As


the name indicates, it is not a full control system, but rather
focuses on the supervisory level. As such, it is a purely software
package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is
interfaced, in general via Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs),
or other commercial hardware modules.
SCADA systems are used to monitor and control a plant
or equipment in industries such as telecommunications, water
and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining and transportation.
These systems encompass the transfer of data between a SCADA
central host computer and a number of Remote Terminal Units
(RTUs) and/or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), and the
central host and the operator terminals. A SCADA system gathers
information (such as where a leak on a pipeline has occurred),
transfers the information back to a central site, then alerts the
home station that a leak has occurred, carrying out necessary
analysis and control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and
displaying the information in a logical and organized fashion.
SCADA systems consist of:

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1. One or more field data interface devices, usually RTUs, or PLCs,
which interface to field sensing devices and local control
switchboxes and valve actuators
2. A communications system used to transfer data between field
data interface devices and control units and the computers in
the SCADA central host. The system can be radio, telephone,
cable, satellite, etc., or any combination of these.
3. A central host computer server or servers (sometimes called a
SCADA Center, master station, or Master Terminal Unit (MTU)
4. A collection of standard and/or custom software [sometimes
called Human Machine Interface (HMI) software or Man
Machine Interface (MMI) software] systems used to provide
the SCADA central host and operator terminal application,
support the communications system, and monitor and control
remotely located field data interface devices.

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Fig : Typical SCADA System

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ARCHITECTURE:

Generally SCADA system is a centralized system which monitors


and controls entire area. It is purely software package that is
positioned on top of hardware. A supervisory system gathers data
on the process and sends the commands control to the process.
For example, in the thermal power plant the water flow can be set
to specific value or it can be changed according to the
requirement. The SCADA system allows operators to change the
set point for the flow, and enable alarm conditions incase of loss
of flow and high temperature and the condition is displayed and
recorded. The SCADA system monitors the overall performance of
the loop. The SCADA system is a centralized system to
communicate with both wire and wireless technology to Clint
devices. The SCADA system controls can run completely all kinds
of industrial process.
EX: If too much pressure in building up in a gas pipe line the
SCADA system can automatically open a release valve.

Hardware Architecture:
The generally SCADA system can be classified into two parts:
 Clint layer
 Data server layer

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The Clint layer which caters for the man machine interaction. The
data server layer which handles most of the process data
activities. The SCADA station refers to the servers and it is
composed of a single PC. The data servers communicate with
devices in the field through process controllers like PLCs or RTUs.
The PLCs are connected to the data servers either directly or via
networks or buses. The SCADA system utilizes a WAN and LAN
networks, the WAN and LAN consists of internet protocols used
for communication between the master station and devices. The
physical equipments like sensors connected to the PLCs or RTUs.
The RTUs convert the sensor signals to digital data and sends
digital data to master unit.

Fig 5.5: Hardware Architecture

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Software Architecture:
Most of the servers are used for multitasking and real time
database. The servers are responsible for data gathering and
handling. The SCADA system consists of a software program to
provide trending, diagnostic data, and manage information such
as scheduled maintenance procedure, logistic information,
detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine and expert
system troubleshooting guides. This means the operator can sea a
schematic representation of the plant being controlled.
EX: alarm checking, calculations, logging and archiving; polling
controllers on a set of parameter, those are typically connected to
the server.

Human machine interface:


The SCADA system uses human machine interface. The
information is displayed and monitored to be processed by the
human. HMI provides the access of multiple control units which
can be PLCs and RTUs. The HMI provides the graphical
presentation of the system. For example, it provides the graphical
picture of the pump connected to the tank. The user can see the
flow of the water and pressure of the water. The important part of
the HMI is an alarm system which is activated according to the
predefined values.

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Fig : Human machine interface

For example: The tank water level alarm is set 60% and 70%
values. If the water level reaches above 60% the alarm gives
normal warning and if the water level reach above 70% the alarm
gives critical warning.

Monitoring/Control:
The SCADA system uses different switches to operate each device
and displays the status at
the control area. Any part of the process can be turned ON/OFF
from the control station using these switches. SCADA system is
implemented to work automatically without human intervention
but at critical situations it is handled by man power.

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DESIGN SCADA WITH INTOUCH WONDERWARE SOFTWARE
AND APPLICATION:
SCADA is main interface between your control system and
Operator. Maximum data and
features available on SCADA give you better control and clarity
about the system. SCADA
needs to read data from various devices like:-
 PLC/Controllers
 RTU
 Energy meters/Load managers/Data loggers
 Field instruments like Flow meters and positioners
Each of above data communicates with SCADA on various
protocols . SCADA reads or
writes the data in format of tags.

INTOUCH WONDERWARE SCADA SOFTWARE:


First we crate the animated object from “Wizard Selection” tool
than specify tag name as require. We can create almost any screen
animation effect imaginable. We can make objects
change colour, size, location, visibility, fill level, and so on.
Animation link selection dialog box are shown in fig

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Fig : Animation Link Selection Dialog Box
TOUCH LINK
A. User Input touch links:
Discrete: Used to control the value of a discrete tagname.
Analog: Used to input the value of an analog (integer or real)
tagname.
String: Used to create an object into which a string message may
be input.
B. Sliders touch links:
Vertical& Horizontal:
we can move the slider position horizontally or vertically.
C. Touch Pushbutton links:
Discrete Value:

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Used to make any object or symbol into a pushbutton that
controls the state of a discrete tagname. Pushbutton actions can
be set, reset, toggle, momentary on (direct) and momentary off
(reverse) types.
Action:
Allows any object, symbol or button to have up to three different
action scripts linked to it; On Down, While Down and On Up.
Show Window:
Used to make an object or symbol into a button that opens one or
more windows when it is clicked or touched.
Hide Window:
Used to make an object or symbol into a button that closes one or
more windows when it is clicked or touched.

Fig : push button dialog box


COLOR LINKS:
Discrete:
Used to control the fill, line and text colours attributes of an object
or symbol that is linked to the value of a discrete expression.
Analog:

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The line, fill, and text colour of an object or symbol can be linked
to the value of an analog tag name (integer or real) or an analog
expression. Five value ranges are defined by specifying four
breakpoints. Five different colours can be selected which will be
displayed as the value range changes.
Discrete Alarm:
The text, line, and fill colour of an object can all be linked to the
alarm state of a tag name, Alarm Group, or Group Variable. This
colour link allows a choice of two colours; one for the normal
state and one for the alarm state of the tag name. This link can be
used for both analog and discrete tag names. If it is used with an
analog tag name, it responds to any alarm condition of the tag
name
Analog Alarm:
The text, line, and fill colour of an object can all be linked to the
alarm state of an analog tag name, Alarm Group, or Group
Variable. Allows a specific colour to be set for the normal state as
well as a separate colour for each alarm condition defined for the
tag name.

Fig : Fill colour dialog box

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OBJECT SIZE LINKS:
We use Object Size links to vary the height and/or width of an
object according to the value of an analog (integer or real) tag
name or analog expression. Size links provide the ability to
control the direction in which the object enlarges in height and/or
width by setting the "anchor" for the link. Both height and width
links can be attached to the same object.

Fig : object height dialog box

PERCENT FILL LINKS:


We use Percent Fill Links to provide the ability to vary the fill
level of a filled shape (or a symbol containing filled shapes)
according to the value of an analog tag name or an expression that
computes to an analog value. For example, this link may be used
to show the level of liquids in a vessel. An object or symbol may
have a horizontal fill link, a vertical fill link, or both.

42
Fig : vertical fill dialog box
LOCATION LINKS:
We use Location Links to make an object automatically move
horizontally, vertically, or in both directions in response to
changes in the value of an analog tag name or expression

Fig : horizontal location dialog box


MISCELLANEOUS LINKS:
There are four type of miscellaneous links.
Visibility:
Use to control the visibility of an object based on the value of a
discrete tag name or expression.

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Blink:
Used to make an object blink based on the value of a discrete tag
name or expression.
Orientation:
Used to make an object rotate based on the value of a tag name or
expression.
Disable:
Used to disable the touch functionality of objects based on the
value of a tag name or expression.
VALUE DISPLAY LINKS:
Value Display Links provide the ability to use a text object to
display the value of a discrete, analog, or string tag name. There
are three types:
Discrete :
Uses the value of a discrete expression to display an On or Off
user defined message in a text object.
Analog:
Displays the value of an analog expression in a text object.
String:
Displays the value of a string expression in a text object.

APPLICATIONS OF SCADA:

SCADA systems can be relatively simple, such as one that


monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or
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incredibly complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity
in a nuclear power plant or the activity of a municipal water
system.
SCADA monitors and controls industrial, infrastructure, or
facility-based processes, as described below:
.

 Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include


water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and
treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission
and distribution, wind farms, civil defence siren systems, and
large communication systems.
 Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private
ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and space stations.
They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy
consumption.
Industries that are catered to are:
 Automotive
 Building Automation
 Cement & Glass
 Chemical
 Electronics
 Food and Beverage
 Machinery & Manufacturing
 Aerospace & Defence
 Metals & Mining

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 Oil & Gas
 Pharmaceutical
 Power, Utilities & Generation
 Transportation
 Water & Wastewater

ADVANTAGES:
 The SCADA system provides on board mechanical and
graphical information
 The SCADA system is easily expandable. We can add set of
control units and sensors according to the requirement.
 The SCADA system ability to operate critical situations.

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CONCLUSION:

With the speed of changing technology today it is easy to lose


sight or knowledge of the basic theory or operation of
programmable logic. Most people simply use the hardware to
produce the results they desire. Hopefully, this report has given
the reader a deeper insight into the inner workings of
programmable logic and its role in mechanical operations. The
idea of programmable logic is very simple to understand, but it is
the complex programs that run in the ladder diagrams that make
them difficult for the common user to fully understand. Hopefully
this has alleviated some of that confusion. SCADA is used for the
constructive working, using a SCADA system for control ensures a
common framework not only for the development of the specific
applications but also for operating the detectors. Operators
experience the same ”look and feel” whatever part of the
experiment they control. However, this aspect also depends to a
significant extent on proper engineering.

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