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S&2« Concrete Society Technical Report No.11 including Addendum (1987) - 3 JUN 1987 BURO HAPPOLD Ligrany \y <7 BATH Re neon ONS F Renta core testing Pees il a Tyee ee Ree CE at Working i Fela sf The Gonorete Society Concrete Society Technical Report No.11 including Addendum (1987) Contents 1 Scope ... Page 2 Aims Definitions 2 Introduction . 3 The reasoning behind the procedures: Non-destructive test methods Background to the two procedures Conversion factors Use of estimated values BS 1881-1970 Other uses for cores 3. Procedures for obtaining and compressive testing of cores, and interpreting the results ... 6 3.1 Making the decision to drill cores 3.2 Planning and preliminary work 33 Obtaining the cores 3.4 Laboratory work 3. Estimating Actual or Potential Strength 36 Interpretation of results Appendix 1: Correcting Core Strength for the influence of Excess Voidage . Appendix 2: A method of estimating Excess Voidage by visual means ..... Appendix 3: The infivence of curing history upon Core Strength. . er Appendix 4: Correcting Core Strength for the influence of included steel... . +28 ‘Appendix 5: 4 worked example using the recommended Procedures ...... : + 29 4 Other uses for cores “ 5 Evidence from research and practice . 33 Introduction Relationship between Core Strength and Actual Strength Estimation of Actual Strength Relationship between Actual and Potential Strength Estimation of Potential Strength Difference between Actual and Potential Strength Effect of age upon Core Strength Variability of results Further research References 1-128 ... oat “The index on page 6 constitutes the detailed contents of Section 3 Concrete core testing for strength Report of a Concrete Society Working Pay = 25a 7G Addendum ..... page 45 Introduction eee 46 Procedures for obtaining and compressive testing of cores and interpreting results 46 Recommended modifications to the procedures of CSTRI1 Revision of BS 1881 for core testing BS 6089:1981 Guide fo the assessment of concreie strength in existing structures Making judgements on estimated in situ cube strength - an assessment of the present situation Summary of recommendations for interpretation Evidence from research and practice .... Relationship between core strength and in situ cube strength Diameter of core Length/diameter ratio of cores Direction of driling Method of end preparation Reinforcement Moisture condition of core Estimation of in situ cube strength ‘Summary of recommendations for the estimation of in situ cube strength Relationship between in situ cube strength and potential strength Differences in mix proportions Differences in compaction Differences in curing Difference between in situ cube strength and potential strength ‘Summary of recommendations for the estimation of potential strength Effect of age upon in situ cube strength . Variability of results . . sa3950 Further research .. 87 References 200-240 . 58 Concrete core testing for strength Part 1. Scope The aim of this report is to recommend procedures to be followed when drilling and testing cores to assess the strength of concrete in pavements, in situ structures.and precast units. The procedures are designed, on evidence from practice and research. primarily for concretes made with Portland cements and natural aggregates and for res sampled, treated and tested to BS 1881 : Part 4 1970. The conversion factors given in the report are considered to be applicable generally to concretes containing admix- tures, but should be used with more caution for concretes which contain lightweight or artificial aggregates: contain cements other than Portland; have extreme values for mix proportions; are inadequately compacted: have been subjected to unusual, variable or extreme con- ditions; have deteriorated. These cautions apply more to estimations of Potential Strength than to estimations of Actual Strength. Definitions ‘The quality of concrete, as assessed by making and testing cubes in accordance with 8S 1881, is different from that concrete in an in situ element, a pavement or a precast unit. There are many reasons for this, arnong them being that the methods of compacting the cubes and storing them until they are tested differ from the treatment given to the remainder of the concrete. In this report, the following terms are used for compres sive strength relating to ‘potential’ or ‘actual’ quzlity of concrete. All except No. 4, Core Strength, are cube strengths or equivalent cube strengths. 1, Standard Cube Strength The compressive strength of a cube sampled, mou! and tested as defined in 8S 1881 : 1970. 2. Potential Strength The notional strength of concrete considered as the average Standard Cube Strength at 28 days fora single batch of concrete moulded wholly as standard cubes. 3. Estimated Potemtial Strength An estimate of Potential Strength from a limited number of standard cubes or cores. 4. Core Strength The ‘measured compressive strength’ of a core as de- fined in BS 1881 : Part 4 : 1970, clause 3.3. 5. Actual Strength The notional strength of concrete at a single location. considered as the strength of a cube of the concrete a5 it exists in the structure. 6. Estimated Actual Strength An estimate of Actual Strength from the test of @ core drilled from the structure.