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Module 1:

Self, Other and Social


Context .

Compiled by:
Alicia Swart
Risk Manager : Project Support
Unique Number : 3999550
Tel: (011) 800 4079 / 079 270 0406
Email: Alicia.swart@eskom.co.za

11 March 2008

Alicia Swart Page 1 of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.


1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... - 2 -
2. Background..................................................................................................................... - 3 -
3. Scope.............................................................................................................................. - 3 -
4. Understanding of self, in terms of learning styles and concepts of reframing................ - 3 -
4.1 Self analysis.............................................................................................................. - 3 -
4.2 Work situation application......................................................................................... - 6 -
4.2.1 Contextual setting ............................................................................................ - 6 -
4.3 Reframing ................................................................................................................. - 8 -
4.3.1 Spiral Dynamics ............................................................................................... - 8 -
4.4 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. - 10 -
5. Learning and development plan for Project Support Risk Management Department.. - 11 -
5.1 The importance of understanding yourself and your team ........................................ - 11 -
5.2 Team analysis......................................................................................................... - 13 -
5.3 Way forward ............................................................................................................... - 20 -
6. Conclusion and recommendations ............................................................................... - 20 -
7. bibliography .................................................................................................................. - 21 -

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and Social Context.
.
1. Introduction
Let’s be creative. Let us apply a creative technique called An Army of a
thousand. Just imagine we have a thousand highly skilled people to Projects
Support – Risk management department’s disposal. They know exactly what
is needed to get the job done. They have all the skills required to implement.
They do not need guidance from a manager; they are self sufficient and highly
intelligent. They are the best risk professionals in South Africa, no in the
world. Reality? No, but the concepts is ideal. If we think about the skills crises
in South Africa, is this a likely scenario? If I think about the maturity of Project
Risk management in South Africa, is this a likely scenario? No, the reality
looks very different. As Projects Support – Risk Management department we
have very specific objectives to achieve within a very short time. We need a
highly skilled army. Unfortunately Project Risk management is a relatively new
concept in South Africa, which did not deliver Risk Professionals in the
masses. There is a very limited amount in South Africa and only stars on the
rising. Where does that leave us? Reality is we need an army and nobody
available.
How do we move from where we are currently, where we want to be with the
best Risk Professionals in South Africa and the world? We achieve this
through development, coaching and intensive training. To enable us to
achieve this we need to understand the dynamics of “different strokes for
different folks”. There is a less than 5 % chance that you will react or even
learn the same as the employee next to you. This assignment will be
endeavouring to explain why it is important to understand the different
learning styles. Understand myself in terms of learning styles and managing.
From a proper understanding of the self and appropriate learning styles, it is
much easier to answer the following for employees:
 what should the specific approach to development be for a specific
employee? and
 what is the key concepts to keep in mind when embarking on a
development road?.
Once clarification is reached on the above, a manager can utilise this
knowledge to empower him/herself to reach goals that are set.

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and Social Context.
2. Background
1 January 2000, Millennium morning, 7 am on a misty table mountain.
Breathing fresh air and standing vertically, with feet firmly on the ground. My
hart is pounding so loud you can hear it on Robin Island. Top gun’s theme
song playing in my head: Highway to the danger zone. Without thinking I let
the rope go and drop 90° and gain speed, 140m abseiling horizontally down
one of South Africa’s landmarks. A rush of adrenalin, as I think: if you are not
living on the edge you are taking up to much space! Is this still me, eight years
later? Do I still live on the edge at home and at the office? We will be
answering this question by looking at the different learning styles and how all
four styles contribute to 100% of my potential for productivity. What learning
style does my current position in our organisation requires me to apply. What
are the different viewing profiles or frame people take when they look at a
situation or a problem? What is my current viewing profile or frame I look
through when I think about a situation or problem and how comfortable am I in
terms of reframing.

3. Scope
During the course of this discussion attention will be given to the following
aspects:
 Understanding of self, in terms of learning styles and concepts of
reframing;
 Implementing key learnings from the self analysis in the work place
o The understanding of self in terms of learning styles and
concepts of reframing.
o Understanding the team dynamics in collective learning.
o Crafting a learning strategy: the way forward.
 Conclusion and recommendation

4. Understanding of self, in terms of learning


styles and concepts of reframing.
4.1 Self analysis
When people act according to instinct, their energy is almost inexhaustible —
like water running downhill. But, when people are forced to act against their
instinct, their energy is rapidly depleted — like water being pumped uphill.
(Kolbe, K. 1999) We need to understand that people are different and that
there is less than 5 % chance that you react and learn instinctively the same
as the person next to you. In learning, your mind has three dimensions that
constitute the way in which you assimilate information, transform it, and then
apply it in such a manner that behaviour has changed. These three aspects
entails:
 Cognitive aspects,

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and Social Context.
 Affective aspects, and
 Conative aspects.

Cognitive this is your thinking, experience or IQ. Affective relates to your


emotions and personality. Conative is the way we act, react and interact with
the world around us, in other words our instincts (Kolbe, K. 2001). The
Cognitive and Affective part of your mind are susceptible to change over a
prolonged period. You are bound to get more experience, change the way you
think about things, improve your skills and further your education, which
means your cognitive abilities will change. The same applies for the affective
part of your mind; your emotions, feelings, preferences, motivations and even
values might change over a period of time. Opposed to the aforementioned,
the conative part of your mind will not change. This is your natural way of
acting or reacting and bringing things into being, which flows from your natural
instincts. This is not something which can be learnt. Every human being has
natural instincts, which they should be aware off, understand and use to their
advantage. Firstly we need to know what our instincts are. Nobody teaches us
about how to understand our natural instinct and work with them to get things
done, rather than against them. Does this imply some sort of instinctive
learning other than just analytical and synergistic learning?
The moment you start working with your instincts you will get more done,
than forcing yourself to constantly operate against natural instincts. When you
resist your natural instinct you will only get frustrated and induce stress
because you are not striving or enjoying what you are doing. Your natural
instincts are grouped into different learning styles.
In order to best understand your strengths and weaknesses in terms of
learning styles, it is imperative that an understanding be developed of the
different learning styles and their components. The learning styles used for
this essay The Kolbe Index A. It is a model which was created by Kathy
Kolbe, what identifies what you actually will do, and your natural instinctive
way of doing things
Kolbe, identifies four distinct styles in terms of instincts and sets forth to
purport how these different styles will assimilate, transform and apply
knowledge in a learning environment.
The different learning styles entails:
 Fact Finder,
 Follow Thru,
 Quick Start and
 Implementor. (Kolbe, K. 2001)

A Fact Finder is a person who’s instinct tells them to investigate before taking
action. This person is good at doing research and analysis, calculating,
defining, listening and observing. They think things through before they act.

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and Social Context.
The following careers usually have Fact Finders, a Judge, Researcher or
Inspector.
A Follow Thru’s instinct calls for a sense of order or structure. This person is
good at paying attention to detail, thinking analytical and rational, developing
systems and seeing how they fit into one overall working system, arranging
and co-ordination for implementation. The following careers usually have
Follow Thrus, IT programmers, Project Planners, Theorists.
A Quick Start’s instinctive force is experimentation. This person is good at
thinking on their feet, embracing open-ended opportunities, finding new
innovative ways of doing things, brainstorming and risk-taking. The following
careers usually have Quick Starts, Entrepreneur, Public Speaker, Crises
Centre Director or Alternative Program Trainer.
An Implementer’s instinct is to convert ideas into something tangible. This
person is good at implementing what they have learnt, a hands-on approach,
building and crafting. The following careers usually have Implementers,
Builder, Craftsman, Operators and Agriculturist.
As every person has aspects of all four learning elements within himself, the
primary learning style will be fixed but can be flexibly applied according to how
circumstances and environmental aspects change.
Every single person has got a sum total of 100% conative talent, however it
will be determined by your unique combination of the four learning styles.
There is no right or wrong instinctive profile, you will just need to ensure that
you are applying your natural instincts effectively where you are placed in life
and at work. This is good news, because it means that we can move between
the four learning styles. We might not always like to move towards the
learning style which your profile has the lowest score in, but it can be done.
The key is to ensure that you do not operate in a situation where you are
going against your instinct and learning style constantly and continuously.
Let’s play the “guess who it is” game. I am an expert Jugler with ten balls in
the air at once. I follow my gut feeling, call it intuition if you like. I live on
diversity in life and work. I can easily think out of the box and come up with
the next wild and wacky, but interesting idea. I am a last minute deliverable
person, but will meet deadlines. I don’t like being boxed in, focusing on one
thing at a time, finishing everything I start and following a routine… might it be
Richard Branson? No, it is my natural instinct. If we look at the sumtotal of my
conative abilities (100% ) that make up my potential for productivity, I am 45%
Quick Start, 25% Fact Finder, 20% Implementor and 10% Follow Thru.
(Kolbe, K. 2001)
In terms of Kolbe, I was analysed to be the following:
Dominant Quick Start.
In general I am true to my instincts; I trust it and “Go for it” even though the
outcome of the situation is not clear. The more pressure I experience, the
more effective I become. I create challenges and opportunities for myself to
ensure I stay energised. I have the ability to think out of the box, and
experiment to see what will happen.

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and Social Context.
Fact Finder
My Fact Finder side in just right to ensure I get the essential facts on a
situation, without getting as much facts as possible. I do not simply get the
overview and move on, my instincts tell me to look at least one step deeper
and do the bear essential research to be able to explain a situation. I will
usually spend time to research key concepts or understand certain analysis,
to empower myself to understand the outcomes, but also be able to explain
high level if I have to.
Imprementor
My Imprementor learning style is more on a maintenance side, to ensure I
keep things working as they should. I would prefer to initiate and set things
into motion and handover to someone to do the actual implementation. If I
have to implement, I usually do not put a detailed plan in place, I implement
as I go, which keeps the uncertainty and the chaos close by. I will also start to
implement something, If I have not done it before and see it as a challenge,
and the moment I feel I have conquered the challenge and know how to do it,
I want to hand over to someone else to finish.
Follow Thru
My Follow Thru side is the side I resist the most. When it comes to systems
the only systems and procedures I like to produce are the shortcuts to keeping
all my balls in the air. I tend to think in pictures and colours rather than
coulombs and logical flows. I do not give enough attention to detail and I do
not like planning ahead, and then following that plan to the line. I am not very
systematic and detailed which can lead to fire fighting mode. I know that I can
do very good planning and procedures if I have to, but do not necessarily like
to do it and will get frustrated if I do it full time.

4.2 Work situation application


4.2.1 Contextual setting
I am currently the Risk Manager for Capital Expansion Projects within Projects
Support. I did not apply for my current position; my intention was to be a Risk
Manager for one of the Projects. When I was recruited I worked on the
assumption that Risk Management was already in place on the Projects and I
will just implement existing frameworks.
In reality, what I found was that there was nothing in place and I suggested we
start up a Risk Management and support section for the projects, within
Project Support. True to my form, I created an opportunity which I did not
know the outcome of, or how we are going to do it. Being A Quick Starter. The
department’s mandates became to:
 Develop and implement a Project Risk Management framework on all
the Capital Expansion projects.
 Put in place a Proof of concept and get buy in from the roll players.
 Draw up an implementation plan. Ensuring the projects has resources,
procedures, process maps, tools, training etc. to execute risk
management on their project.

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and Social Context.
 Support the project to implement the process.
It now becomes imperative to fit the required learning styles that the role and
function requires to my predominant style.
Let us analyse what learning styles the position requires.
Develop a Risk Management framework : Quick Start. Brainstorm for new
ideas for a framework. Creative and experimental way forward. Fact Finder.
You need to research what are available, and how new model will be applied.
An evaluation needs to be done between different options to take forward.
Follow Thru. You need to be able to see the bigger picture and how it fits
together. Ensure what you developing makes logical sense and the system
can be implemented.
Put in place proof of concept and get buy in from roll players: Quick Start
Present the proof of concept to the key roll players. High level and straight to
the point. Be sure to communicate the system not a “change” to the way they
currently do things but a “enhancement” to their projects. Fact Finder / Follow
Thru : Ensure enough details are available to support the proof of concept
and the concept has a logical flow.
Draw up an implementation and roll-out plan: Follow thru. Thinking
systematically about everything that has to be done and putting it into a logical
flow of events. Mobilize and co-ordinate the implementation thereof.
Ensuring the projects has resources, procedures, process maps, tools,
training etc. Combination of Fact Finder / Follow Thru to ensure the
procedures, process maps, tools are available for use. Quick start and
Implementor for tools selections and acquirement thereof. They will also be
able to find new ways of training which is interesting, effective but fun.
Support the project to implement the process. Implementor, to support and
implement the Risk Management framework on the projects. This person does
the doing of what has been planned.
This gives you a high-level overview on what the department’s goals is, and
what kind of people is required to do the job. Well the reality was that I was
the only member in the department for over a year, where my team has now
grown to 9 members. I had to take the process from proof of concept to
ensuring the projects has resources, procedures, process maps, tools,
training etc. I had to use all my different learning styles, during that time, even
a Follow Thru. It was frustrating at times, but the all the different challenges
kept me going.
I am in the position now where I manage the output of the other people. I like
the challenge, because now that my team has grown, I have more people
contributing to our goals, which mean we can get more done, but I am busier
than ever, which once again makes me an expert Juggler. I now have the
backing team to be a Quick Start. Irony of this is that I am by nature a Risk-
taker and we are implementing a Risk Management system to help reduce
Risk. Do I practice what I preach? Well one thing is for sure, I will fist do my
risk assessment before going down table mountain and think twice, but my
instinct will probably win and I will let the rope go.

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and Social Context.
4.3 Reframing
“Leaders who can not reframe in times of crises and overload feel confused
and overwhelmed”. (Bolman, L.G: Deal, T.E [no Date])

Reframing is the ability to look at a situation or problem, from a different


contextual point of view, and gain new perspective on the situation or
problem. To be able to take a step back, put on new pair of viewing glasses,
and examine something from a different contextual point. This is not always
as easy as it sounds. It is an art to be able to detach yourself from your
current situation, take a step back, detach yourself from preconceived ideas
and biases an to reframe the problem. There is a saying which says, “the
only constant in life is change”(Unknown). Change is a part of life and of
business. Why should we be spending time on reframing, if it should be
something that is second nature to a good manager? The truth is that we limit
ourselves in terms of past experiences, preconceived ideas and perceptions.
We are able to reframe but with limited views or number of frames.

4.3.1 Spiral Dynamics


By applying the Concepts of Spiral Dynamics, we see that a manager and
employee might have very different world views and values. People think in
different ways. Through employing Spiral Dynamics as a way of handling
the complexities of human existence we bring some order and predictability to
the apparent chaos of human affairs. It provides a framework for tracking the
evolution of worldviews and a scaffold on which to stand while analyzing
situations and planning the most appropriate actions. Based on the original
research and theory of Dr. Clare W. Graves, this point of view describes how
waves of consciousness emerge and flow through individuals and groups. It
describes bio-psycho-social systems along a continuum that form an
expanding spiral. (NVC CONSULTING. [ca 2001])

Spiral Dynamics purport eight sets of viewing profiles, which are linked to a
specific colour. Beige, purple, red, blue, orange, green, yellow and turquoise.
The first six of these make up the old way of thinking about business and
management.

 BEIGE view things in loose bands and supported by survival


processes.
 PURPLE view things in tribe-like groups and is supported by circular
processes. Magic gets introduced.
 RED view things in empires and supported by exploitative power
seeking processes.
 BLUE view things in pyramidal form, and supported by purposeful,
controlling or even authoritarian processes.
 ORANGE view things in delegative forms, supported by achievement
oriented, strategic and competitive processes. Experimental and
creative thinker.
 GREEN view things in unrestricted fashion, supported by processes
that are both experiential and consensual, and driven by
communication standards. Human relationship and feeling is important.

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and Social Context.
If we think about the old way of viewing business and reframing, these
are usually the frames that are used.

The two viewing perspective that constitutes to the beginning of a new way of
thinking and reframing.

 YELLOW is flexible and integrative, both as a structure and in its


systemic processes. Thinks systematically but with a flexible side to
change.
 TURQUOISE is holistic and global in structure, and flowing in its
process. This view point seeks to become familiar with all life’s forces
to address problems which can put the future in danger.

All of these frames are important because they are a critical slice of an
organizational reality, and each frame has something to contribute. It is
important to recognise that you would naturally move towards one or two of
these colours, and view life and business through these view points. A person
is not stuck in one of these levels and can move out of your viewing profile,
reframe and conceptualise from a different profiles view. This may not come
naturally, but it is a conscious decision which can be made, and a good
manager is able to do. The ability to use multiple frames has three
advantages: (a) each frame can be coherent, parsimonious, and powerful; (b)
the collection can be more comprehensive than any single frame; and (c)
multiple frames enable leaders to reframe. (Bolman, L.G: Deal, T.E [no date])
How do we reframe? You are able to do this by firstly STEPPING OUTSIDE
your own viewing profile or frame. Ensure you understand your profile and
make a conscious decision to look at a situation or a problem differently.
Choose multiple frames to view from, not just the ones you are comfortable
with. Understand the strengths of the profile to ensure it keeps you focused
when viewing through a particular view point. Secondly by recognising the
CONDITIONS that surround a particular situation or problem. Seeing the
obvious basic facts, issues or ideas. Thirdly by asking the WHY’S AND
HOW’S questions from a particular viewing frame or profile. Imagine you are
naturally the profile you are looking through and ask the right questions.
Fourthly by being able to bring a DIFFERENT CONTEXTS to the same
situation and problem.
My dominant Spiral Dynamic Styles is GREEN. I view things without
boundaries. Think creatively about situations and experiment on way
forwards. I tend to link organisational and individual needs. I achieve results
on a human scale through interaction, involvement, and purposeful learning
and teaching. I value relationships and feelings and try to empower and
support my team as much as possible. When I am faced with a situation
where it requires change this will be my first set of viewing glasses I will put
on. It is not difficult for me to move out of this profile and reframe. My next
preferred viewing style is ORANGE. I look at what needs to be done and how
are we going to do it. Goal orientated. When I think about situations and
problems, I see them as interpretive them rather than looking at the facts
objectively. I will view a situation through intuition and creativity rather than
logical and linear thinking.

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and Social Context.
The Profiles which I struggle with, but can apply, is RED, BLUE and
ORANGE. RED and BLUE is the profiles politics and power play comes in. In
a company like Eskom, it is important to be able to view a situation through
these profiles. If this is not your preferred viewing profile you might be blind
sighted to different objectives and agendas. It is sometimes necessary to
network, create coalitions, build your powerbase and negotiate compromises.
YELLOW is a very structural view point. You need to be able to see the bigger
picture, and develop a system, procedure or policies to support it. Due to my
learning style being a Quick Start and my lowest complement is a Follow
Thru, this frame becomes my last resort. I tend to over rely on the human
resource and driving for results, with non-linear thinking perspectives, and
under using my political and structural lenses. I think by relying more on the
human resource and non-linear thinking perspectives it makes me a better
leader, where if I gave more attention to political and structural lenses it will
improve my managing abilities. The key is to have a balance between being a
good leader and manager. It is important to ensure I know which lens your
team looks through to ensure you are able to reframe and look through their
viewing profile, and respond within that context.

4.4 Conclusion
So the question is, am I still hanging from Table Mountain in life and at the
office? The answer is yes. My natural instincts still Prevail. I am a Quick Start.
I create challenges and opportunities, which I do not know the outcomes off. I
strive on having too many balls in the air and I experiment with my out of the
box thinking. I am by nature a risk –taker. My position in Eskom is currently
still in line with my preferred learning style, and challenges me to the fullest.
My viewing profiles I use when I look at challenges in our section are human
resource and driving for results, with non-linear thinking perspectives. A
combination of GREEN and ORANGE. Which helps me to empower my team
and lead them dynamically. I do however realise that I need to ensure I put my
next two lenses on top of my natural profiles to ensure we get the winning
combination, which is my political, power play and systematic lenses. A
combination of RED and BLUE. I am comfortable that I am able to reframe
and look at a situation or problem, from a different contextual view point, and
gain new perspective on the situation or problem.
It is no wonder that managers are often viewed as chameleons who can adapt
to any setting, or as dispassionate manoeuvres who are guided only by
expediency. Analysis and agility are necessary, but they are not enough.
Organizations will need leaders who can provide a persuasive and durable
sense of purpose and direction, rooted deeply in human values and the
human spirit.(BOLMAN, L.G: DEAL, T.E. 1992) I am comfortable that I have
the ability to change colours, next time you will have to look more closely
because my chameleon powers might just fool you.

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Other and Social Context.
5. Learning and development plan for Project
Support Risk Management Department
5.1 The importance of understanding yourself and your team
"I'm not talking about the intelligence to do the job. Or the training. Or the
personality. I'm talking about how you'll do the job - the predictable,
determined internal force that governs how you act. It's like being in the right
sport, but the wrong event. You'd never expect a sprinter to run a long
distance race, just as you know a long-distance runner doesn't have enough
steam to excel as a sprinter. How can we so clearly see the benefit of "playing
your own game" on the sports field, when we can't see the same thing is
needed in business? (Kolbe, K. 1999)
When we think about a successful individual or team, we make a few
assumptions. We go an assumption that everyone in our team knows their
natural advantages and instincts, and that is what drives them and determines
how they spend their time. We assume they have taken their natural instincts
into account when they applied for the position, that they are in the right
position which complements their natural instinct and not resist them. We also
assume that the manager has evaluated the deliverables of the department
and has interviewed the candidates with this in mind. We assume the
manager has done a learning style evaluation of the candidate and marry it
the style required to deliver objectives, before appointment. We also assume
the manager understand their own instincts and is recruiting a team of people
which will complement his or her lower intensity learning style to become a
dynamic combination. The reality is quite different from this. This is the part of
the manager’s job description which they left out. The position usually get
advertised and driven by HR, without the manager giving it much thought and
the next time the manager gets involved is in the interview. The manager has
a set of questions they ask the candidate and a subjective decision is made. If
it is a scares type of resource you appoint without questioning. The person
joins the team and is expected to start delivering. Sometimes you have a
match and the person jumps in and strives in that position. On the other hand
you might have somebody that struggles and becomes frustrated and delivers
but maybe not to their full potential. Their natural instincts or learning style
clashes with their deliverables. They might be surviving in the short term but,
frustration and stress will eventually get the upper hand and the person will
start looking for other opportunities. This introduces a cycle of job-hopping
and constant recruitment and no continuity in a team.
This scenario can be mitigated to an extend, when you empower the
employee and the manager. The employee needs to understand their natural
instincts or learning styles and use to their advantage. They need to see how
their learning style contributes their deliverables. The manager needs to
analyse what styles is needed to deliver the objectives, and ensure they place
employees according to the winning mach of what is required and what comes
naturally to the employee. The manager needs to understand how the person
will react naturally to a satiation or problem, to be able to reframe and respond
in a way which will compliment the employee’s needs. If you have a Follow
thru learning style in you team and you are by nature a Quick Start, you will

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Other and Social Context.
automatically communicate the instructions high level and creatively, but what
the employee needs is detailed information and instructions from you to
complement their natural instincts. As a manager you need to understand you
team and manage them accordingly. A good team has employees with
different learning styles to have a balance, which means as a manager you
will have to be able to reframe according to all the learning styles. Any person
has a portion of all four learning styles in them and the manager needs to be
able to draw from them.
As an additional dimension to supporting and understanding the employees in
your team, you need to understand the persons drive for achievement,
willingness to accept responsibility, and experience in relation to a specific
task. Every person is at a different level of commitment and competence for
every task they take on. The leadership they will require from you as a
manager will vary according to where they are in terms of commitment and
competence, when it comes to the specific task. This concept is called
situational leadership. You need to assess what the employee’s competence
and commitment is and plot it in the following figure 1 – Situational leadership
quadrants. You will then have to reframe according to what leadership style is
required to support employee.
Let’s look at how situational leadership works. If your subordinate is a
beginner at a specific task, they tend to be very enthusiastic about the
challenge. They are in quadrant 1 and a D1 . Words like hopeful, exited,
curious can be used to describe the employees. As a manager you will have
to apply a directive leadership style- S1. You will have to help define, plan and
check and monitor progress. As the subordinate becomes experienced in the
task and take on more responsibility, they will move into quadrant 2 and
become a D2. The person understands the basics but do not have the
competence to deliver on their own. They start knowing what they do not
know and the commitment drops. Words like confused, demotivated and
frustrated can be used to describe this person. As a manager, you have to
endure you move into a Coaching style – S2, role to support this individual
and ensure they move to Quadrant 3 as soon as possible. This is a very
dangerous quadrant to get stuck in as, people usually give up. As a manager
you need to explain, clarify, encourage and praise a person. When the
employee moves to the 3rd Quadrant, the employee has gained the
experience to do the task, but is not an expert – D 3. Words like cautious,
capable, self-critical, contributing can be used to describe this employee. As a
manager you need to move out of the full time guidance on how to do a task,
but let the employee run with it and move to a supporting style – S 3. . As a
manager you need to listen, reassure and give feedback. If the person has
mastered the task they move over to Quadrant 4. The employee becomes a
specialist, a D4. Words used to describe this person will be, expert, self
assured and accomplished. As a manager you will need to apply a
declarative leadership style – S 4. You need to empower, acknowledge and
trust this employee. This concept is visually represented in figure 1. –
situational leadership quadrants.

Alicia Swart Page - 12 - of 19 Module 1: Self,


Other and Social Context.
Manager: S 3 Manager: S 2
Supporting Style Coaching style

Employee: D 3
Employee: D 2
(Capable but cautious
performer- (Disillusioned learner-

Moderate to high Low to some competence -


competence – variable Low commitment
commitment

Manager: S 4 Manager: S 1
Delegating style Directing style

Employee: D 4 Employee: D 1
(Self reliant achiever- (Enthusiastic beginner – low
high competence – High competence, High
commitment commitment)

Figure 1 – Situational leadership quadrants.


(Source – Blanchard, K: Zigarmi, P et. 2001.Situational leadership 2)

It is important to apply the right leadership style to the right level of


competence and commitment of an employee. If you apply the wrong style
you and the employee will be frustrated.

5.2 Team analysis


I have evaluated my team to see what is the individual’s learning styles. The
basic assessment provided in the Da Vinci study material was used to do the
assessment. We have also assessed what the employees work deliverables
is and looked if it is in line with their learning style. We have done a diagnosis
of the person’s competence and commitment to every deliverable and
identified the style of management I need to apply to support delivering for
every task. We have also looked at the basic training needs required and
linked it to preferred way of learning. The results were recorded per individual
and demonstrated on the profile breakdown on the separate pages
underneath. We have also plotted the departments overall complement of
staff and graphically represented and overview.

Alicia Swart Page - 13 - of 19 Module 1: Self,


Other and Social Context.
Situational Leadership
Learning styles
Required from style required (to be Preferred way of
Learning style profile Deliverables required for Next steps
manager reviewed on Monthly learning
deliverables
Basis)
Egan’s Learning Style Profile Perform user testing and report of D 3 - Capable but cautious
errors in development and execution Implementor performer - Has done it before
phase of software development S 3 - Supporting role Learning by doing :
Do's:
Simulations, on the job
*Show responsiveness to new Liaising with the development team on D 3 - Capable but cautious
Fact ideas enhancements as per func. Spec Implementor performer - Has done it before
training, learnerships
Finder *Demonstrate interest in (Stakeholder Management) S 3 - Supporting role
specific action plan
18% * Ensure enough details is D 2 - Disillusioned learner
Fulfill a super-user role for Prism Risk *Show techniques to
provided when given a task Implementor / Follow Thru - System not mature
* Encourage to experiments Manager
S 2 - Coaching role do things
and implement results. *Monthly review to be
D 2 - Disillusioned learner *Try out and proactive
*Link current problems to Provide System Training for the held on progress on
current situations Implementor / Quick Start - Have not done training before techniques deliverables.
projects
Implementor *Encourage short term wins S 2 - Coaching role *Demonstrations by *Areas of support to
*Support with escalating D 2 - Disillusioned learner experts
38% Develop training CD for Prism Risk Fact Finder / Quick Start / be identified
- Have not done training before
operational issues (political Manager Follow Thru *Immediate * Review on
frame) S 2 - Coaching role
Ensure projects are set up on the
implementation after Situational leadership,
D 3 - Capable but cautious learning
system and access is give to the linked to deliverables
Follow Thru Implementor performer - Has done it before
projects (Risk matrix, consequence
23% S 3 - Supporting role on a monthly basis.
tables, WBS, etc)
D 3 - Capable but cautious * Ensure training is
Don't: Ensure Prism is used effectively on the Training Required:
Implementor performer - Has done it before arranged
* Drive research before projects and information is live.
S 3 - Supporting role
* Presentation Skills -
Quick implementing. Only bear
D 2 - Disillusioned learner Short course
Start essential research to be done Continuous software support for
Implementor / Follow Thru - Software not mature * Train the trainer
21% * Ensure level of creativity projects
links to what needs to be done
S 2 - Coaching role course - Practical
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner demonstrations
*Do not have to long detailed Co-ordinating Knowledge Management
Fact finder / Follow Thru - New challenge
session which does not repository * Software interactive
S 1- Directing role
directly concern him. training and couching
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
C-ordinating Web Page development from developers
Implementor / Follow Thru - New challenge
and regular updating
S 1- Directing role

Alicia Swart Figure 2 – Egan’s Profile Page - 14 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.
.
Situational Leadership
Learning styles
Required from style required (to be Preferred way of
Learning style profile Deliverables required for Next steps
manager reviewed on Monthly learning
deliverables
Basis)

Susan’s learning style profile DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURE


D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
TO DO MONTHLY CONTRACT RISK
ASSESSMENT ON ALL PROJECTS
Fact Finder / Follow Thru - New challenge Learning by Listening
S 1- Directing role and Asking: Attending
CONTRACTS
Do's: lectures and seminares
* Show intrest in respectable
intellectual idea IMPLEMENTATION OF
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner or talking to subject
Implementor - New challenge *Ensure you partner
* Give as much information as PROCEDURES TO THE PROJECTS mater experts
S 1- Directing role up with your team
possible on the systems or
concept in a situation or
members to help
Implementor D 2 - Disillusioned learner implement. It is one of
activity. CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
19% Follow Thru - System to be understood
* Give attantion to detail GUIDELINE *Allow time to be Tlakale's strong
Fact Finder S 2 - Coaching role
* Communicate objectives in
D 2 - Disillusioned learner
methodical points. Manage her
22% detail * Questioning the logic correctly.
NEC & FIDIC GUIDELINE Follow Thru - System to be understood
* Explain the bigger picture
S 2 - Coaching role behind an existing *Monthly review to be
and ensure she understands
where she fits in and what CORPORATE GOVERNANCE D 2 - Disillusioned learner system held on progress on
PROJECT MANAGEMENT Follow Thru - System to be understood * analyzing the deliverables.
need to be done.
GUIDELINE S 2 - Coaching role
complexity of a *Areas of support to
TRAINING STRATEGY FOR RISK
D 2 - Disillusioned learner situation be identified
Quick Start MANAGEMENT TO BE DEVELOPED
Follow Thru /Quick Start - new challange * Review on
24% S 2 - Coaching role
Don't: Situational leadership,
Follow Thru Training Required:
*Do not force her to simplify D 2 - Disillusioned learner linked to deliverables
35% TRAINING DAY ORGANISATION Implementor - has not done it before
* AdvanceContract
thinking on a monthly basis.
* Do not force to mentor S 2 - Coaching role management course -
* Ensure training is
someone with different D 2 - Disillusioned learner formal with subject
MARKETING STRATEGY FOR arranged
learning style or different
PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT
Follow Thru /Quick Start -New challange matters.
intelectual level S 2 - Coaching role * Advance risk
* Just jump in and do
D 2 - Disillusioned learner management course -
something whith out fully MARKETING AWARENESS
understanding CAMPAIGN
Implementor / Quick Start - has not done it before formal with subject
S 2 - Coaching role matters.

Figure 3 – Susan’s Profile


Alicia Swart Page - 15 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.
Situational Leadership
Learning styles
Required from style required (to be Preferred way of
Learning style profile Deliverables required for Next steps
manager reviewed on Monthly learning
deliverables
Basis)

Tlakale's learning style profile SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF


D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
PROCEDURE TO DO MONTHLY
Fact Finder / Follow Thru - New challenge
Learning by Listening
Do's:
CONTRACT RISK ASSESSMENT ON and Doing: Attending
* Show intrest in respectable S 1- Directing role
ALL PROJECTS CONTRACTS
intellectual idea lectures and seminares
* Give as much information as
IMPLEMENTATION OF
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner or implementing what *Ensure you partner
possible on the systems or Implementor - New challenge have learnt up with your team
PROCEDURES TO THE PROJECTS
concept in a situation or S 1- Directing role
members to help
activity. D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
* Give attantion to detail CO-DEVELOP CONTRACT *Allow time to be deliver overall
Follow Thru - New challenge
* Communicate objectives in MANAGEMENT GUIDELINE methodical objectives. Support
Fact Finder S 1- Directing role
Implementor detail * Questioning the logic Susan with
23% D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
28% * Explain the bigger picture CO-DEVELOP NEC & FIDIC behind an existing implementation.
Follow Thru - New challenge
and ensure she understands GUIDELINE
S 1- Directing role system Communicate
where she fits in and what
need to be done. CO-DEVELOP CORPORATE D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner * analyzing the effectively.
* Encourage practical GOVERNANCE PROJECT Follow Thru - New challenge complexity of a *Monthly review to be
MANAGEMENT GUIDELINE S 1- Directing role
application and situation held on progress on
implementation D 2 - Disillusioned learner *Practical Application deliverables.
TRAINING STRATEGY FOR RISK
Follow Thru /Quick Start - new challenge *Demonstrations *Areas of support to
MANAGEMENT TO BE DEVELOPED
S 2 - Coaching role be identified
Follow Thru Training Required:
Don't: D 2 - Disillusioned learner * Contract * Review on
Quick Start 33% ASSIST TRAINING DAY
*Do not force her to simplify Implementor - has not done it before Situational leadership,
16% ORGANISATION management course -
thinking S 2 - Coaching role
* Do not force to mentor formal with subject linked to deliverables
D 3 - Capable but cautious on a monthly basis.
someone with different MARKETING STRATEGY FOR
Follow Thru /Quick Start performer - Has done it before
matters.
learning style or different PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT
S 3 - Supporting role * risk management * Ensure training is
intellectual level course - formal with arranged
* Just jump in and do
MARKETING AWARENESS D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner subject matters.
something with out fully
understanding CAMPAIGN TO BE IMPLEMENTED Implementor / Quick Start - New challenge * Communication and
ON THE PROJECTS S 1- Directing role assertiveness short
course
Figure 4 –Tlakale’s Profile

Alicia Swart Page - 16 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.


Situational Leadership
Learning styles
Required from style required (to be Preferred way of
Learning style profile Deliverables required for Next steps
manager reviewed on Monthly learning
deliverables
Basis)

Mahali's learning style profile Draft of risk management D 2 - Disillusioned learner


implementation plan for Peaking Follow thru - new challenge Learning by Listening
Do's: projects S 2 - Coaching role
and Doing: Attending
* Show interest in respectable Facilitate Implementation of plan for D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner lectures and seminars
intellectual idea Peaking projects and ensure dates are Implementor - New challenge
* Give as much information as
or implementing what
met. S 1- Directing role
possible on the systems or have learnt *Ensure you allign with
D 2 - Disillusioned learner
concept in a situation or Support Prism set up for Peaking overall roll-out plan -
Implementor - System not mature
activity. projects
Fact S 2 - Coaching role team work
Implementor * Give attention to detail *Allow time to be
Finder Facilitate risk workshops for Peaking
D 3 - Capable but cautious *Encourage informal
* Communicate objectives in Implementor performer - Has done it before methodical
28% 24% Projects mentoring of other
detail S 3 - Supporting role
* Explain the bigger picture
* Questioning the logic collegues, to help you
Offer assistance to Peaking behind an existing *Monthly review to be
and ensure she understands D 3 - Capable but cautious
Management with regards to risk
where she fits in and what management procedures, risk
Follow thru performer - Has done it before system held on progress on
need to be done. S 3 - Supporting role * analyzing the
reporting etc deliverables.
* Encourage practical complexity of a
application and Lessons learnt report to be provided
*Areas of support to
implementation D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner situation be identified
for every Peaking project and
Fact Finder / Follow Thru - New challenge *Practical Application
communicated to approved knowledge * Review on
S 1- Directing role *Demonstrations Situational leadership,
repository. Every three months.
linked to deliverables
Quick Follow Thru D 2 - Disillusioned learner Training Required:
Don't: Coordinate Risk Management on a monthly basis.
Implementor - has not done it before * risk management
Start 32% *Do not force her to simplify procedure training for Peaking projects * Ensure training is
S 2 - Coaching role course - formal with
16% thinking
D 2 - Disillusioned learner arranged
* Don't give to many balls in Recorded training session for Risk subject matters.
Follow thru - has not done it before
the air Management Procedure
S 2 - Coaching role
* Communication and
* Just jump in and do assertiveness short
something with out fully D 2 - Disillusioned learner
Ensure Prism load up and update of course
understanding Implementor - System not mature
data by the projects *Presentation skills-
S 2 - Coaching role
practical application
Figure 5 –Mahali’s Profile
Alicia Swart Page - 17 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.
Situational Leadership
Learning styles
Required from style required (to be Preferred way of
Learning style profile Deliverables required for Next steps
manager reviewed on Monthly learning
deliverables
Basis)
D 2 - Disillusioned learner
Sibo’s learning style profile Draft of risk management
Follow thru - new challenge
implementation plan for PDP projects Learning by Doing and
S 2 - Coaching role
Do's: Facilitate Implementation of plan for D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner Reading: Simulations,
* *Show responsiveness to PDP projects and ensure dates are Implementor - New challenge on the job training,
new ideas met. S 1- Directing role
*Demonstrate interest in
learnerships. Referring
specific action plan D 2 - Disillusioned learner to a book or a journal *Ensure you align with
* Ensure enough details is Support Prism set up for PDP projects Implementor - System not mature overall roll-out plan -
provided when given a task S 2 - Coaching role team work
Fact * Encourage to experiments
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner *Show techniques to *Lets work on
Finder and implement results. Facilitate risk workshops for PDP confidence and
Implementor Implementor - New challenge do things
*Link current problems to Projects
28% 28% S 1- Directing role *Try out and proactive communication
current situations
* Suggsest activities can be
Offer assistance to PDP Management D 2 - Disillusioned learner techniques * Monthly review to be
with regards to risk management Follow thru - Knowledge not extensive held on progress on
observed if he has to, before
procedures, risk reporting etc S 2 - Coaching role
*Immediate
implementation implementation after deliverables.
*Encourage research and Lessons learnt report to be provided *Areas of support to
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner learning
understanding for every PDP project and be identified
Fact Finder / Follow Thru - New challenge *Research projects
communicated to approved knowledge * Review on
repository. Every three months.
S 1- Directing role * analysis and reports
Situational leadership,
Quick Follow D 2 - Disillusioned learner Training Required: linked to deliverables
Coordinate Risk Management
Don't: Implementor - has not done it before * risk management on a monthly basis.
Start Thru procedure training for PDP projects
*Encourage to risky behavior S 2 - Coaching role course - formal with * Ensure training is
18% 26% D 2 - Disillusioned learner
and tasks, without allowing Cost recoveries co-ordination for subject matters. arranged
time for preparation Follow thru - has not done it before
department * Communication and
* Just jump in and do S 2 - Coaching role
something with out fully assertiveness short
understanding D 2 - Disillusioned learner course
Ensure Prism load up and update of
Implementor - System not mature
data by the projects *Presentation skills-
S 2 - Coaching role
practical application
Figure 6 – Sibo’s Profile
Alicia Swart Page - 18 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.
Situational Leadership
Learning styles
Required from style required (to be Preferred way of
Learning style profile Deliverables required for Next steps
manager reviewed on Monthly learning
deliverables
Basis)
D 2 - Disillusioned learner
Chuene’s learning style profile Draft of risk management
Follow thru - new challenge Learning by Doing and
Do's: implementation plan for RTS projects Listening: Attending
S 2 - Coaching role
* *Show responsiveness to lectures and seminars
Facilitate Implementation of plan for D 2 - Disillusioned learner
new ideas
*Demonstrate interest in
RTS projects and ensure dates are Implementor - new challenge or talking to subject
met. S 2 - Coaching role mater experts. On the
specific action plan
* Ensure enough details is D 2 - Disillusioned learner job training.
*Ensure you align with
provided when given a task Support Prism set up for RTS projects Implementor - System not mature
Fact Finder * Encourage to experiments S 2 - Coaching role *Show techniques to overall roll-out plan -
Implementor
21% and implement results. do things team work
30% Facilitate risk workshops for RTS
D 2 - Disillusioned learner
*Link current problems to
Implementor - new challenge *Try out and proactive *Lets work on
current situations Projects techniques confidence and
S 2 - Coaching role
Show intrest in respectable
Offer assistance to RTS Management D 2 - Disillusioned learner *Immediate communication
intellectual idea
with regards to risk management Follow thru - new challenge implementation after *Monthly review to be
* Give as much information as
procedures, risk reporting etc S 2 - Coaching role learning held on progress on
possible on the systems or
concept in a situation or *Allow time to be deliverables.
activity. Lessons learnt report to be provided methodical *Areas of support to
D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
for every RTS project and * Questioning the logic be identified
Fact Finder / Follow Thru - New challenge
communicated to approved knowledge behind an existing * Review on
S 1- Directing role
repository. Every three months.
Follow Situational leadership,
Don't:
Thru *Do not force him to simplify Training Required: linked to deliverables
30% thinking Coordinate Risk Management
D 2 - Disillusioned learner * risk management on a monthly basis.
Quick * Just jump in and do procedure training for RTS projects
Implementor - has not done it before
course - formal with * Ensure training is
Start something with out fully S 2 - Coaching role
subject matters. arranged
19% understanding Co-ordinate Safety permits for D 1- Enthusiastic Beginner
Implementor * Communication and
* Ensure level of creativity department - New challenge
links to what needs to be done assertiveness short
*Do not have to long detailed D 2 - Disillusioned learner course
session which does not Ensure Prism load up and update of
Implementor - System not mature *Presentation skills-
directly concern him. data by the projects
S 2 - Coaching role practical application

Figure 7 – Chuene’s Profile


Alicia Swart Page - 19 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social Context.
Fact Finder
Quick Start Alicia (manager)

Egan

Follow Thru
Implementor

Susan
Chuene
Sibo

Mahali
Tlakale

Figure 8 – Overview of department’s Learning Style complement

5.3 Way forward


On a monthly basis I will sit with and the employee and discuss progress on deliverables. We
will incorporate where the employee is in terms of competence and commitment on every
task and discuss how I will manage and support them. Concerns should be raised from the
employee’s and manager’s side to ensure we partner up for performance and deliver our
objectives.

6. Conclusion and recommendations


Managers can optimise individual and group performance by:
• Giving people the freedom to be themselves.
• Assigning jobs suited to instinctive strengths and learning styles.
• Communicating in ways that trigger the effective use of the natural, universal and
unbiased energy of creative instincts and learning styles.
• Reframing and contextualising a situation from a different view point.
• Adapting your leadership style to support an employee’s learning through doing
what is expected of them.

We have the ability to lead, manage and reframe. It is up to us to put it to good use and get
the work done!

Alicia Swart Page - 20 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social


Context.
.
7. bibliography
• KOLBE, K. 1999. Kolbe.
http://www.kolbe.com/the_kolbe_concept/the_kolbe_concept.cfm. 3rd March 2008.
• KOLBE, K. 2001.Kolbe A Index – Alicia Manser. Kolbe corp.
• BOLMAN, L.G: DEAL, T.E. What makes a team work? Organizational Dynamics.
Issue number. 34 – 44.
• NVC CONSULTING. [ca 2001] A mini-course in Spiral Dynamics.
www.spiraldynamics.org.
• BOLMAN, L.G: DEAL, T.E. Leadership lessons from Mikhail Gorbachev. Human
resource development quarterly. Vol 3. no 1. Spring 1992.
• Blanchard, K: Zigarmi, P et. 2001. Situational Leadership 2. Participant workbook. The
Ken Blanchard companies. Pp 3:1-21, 4:1-20
• SMITH, P.J : DE J CRONJE, G.J et. 2004. Management Principles, a comtemporary
edition for Africa. 4th ed. Juta and co.ltd. p. 282, 306

Alicia Swart Page - 21 - of 19 Module 1: Self, Other and Social


Context.