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Earthquake Risk Aspects of

Industrial Facilities and


Projects with Large Damage
Potential

Dr. Martin Wieland


Chairman, ICOLD Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design
Poyry Switzerland Ltd., Zurich, Switzerland

Italy, Ischia, magnitude 4.2 earthquake, 22.8.2017

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Italy, low strength construction materials

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Natural disasters in Philippines in recent years
• 1990: Earthquake: 1990 Luzon earthquake, July 16,
1990, moment magnitude: Mw 7.7, maximum Mercalli
intensity: IX, total fatalities: 1621, location: Central Luzon
• 1991: Volcanic eruption: Mount Pinatubo, Luzon, June
15, 1991; total fatalities: 800; pyroclastic flow and lahar
• 1991: Flash flood: 1991 Ormoc flash flood due to
Tropical Storm Uring, Leyte, November 5, 1991, total
fatalities in Ormoc City: 4091, torrential rainfall with 550
mm in 3 hours, main feature: floating debris
• 2012: Earthquake: 2012 Visayas earthquake, February
6, 2012, Magnitude Mb 6.7, 72 km north of Dumaguete,
Negros; total fatalities: 51 dead, 62 missing

• 2013: Typhoon: Typhoon Haiyan, known as Super Typhoon


Yolanda in the Philippines, was one of the most intense
tropical cyclones on record; total fatalities: 6,340; highest
wind speed: 315 km/h; date: 2-11 November 2013
• 2013: Earthquake: 2013 Bohol earthquake, October 15,
2013, Bohol, Magnitude: Mw 7.2, focal depth: 12 km, total
fatalities: 222
• 2017: Earthquake: April 29, 2017, Sarangani and Davao
Occidental provinces, Mindanao, Magnitude 7.2; focal depth
of 57 km
• 2017: Earthquake: July 6, 2017, Leyte earthquake,
Magnitude 6.5, power failure in Bohol: > 2 weeks, damage in
geothermal power plants near Ormoc, Leyte; total fatalities: 2
• 2017: Earthquake: August 11, 2017, Batangas, Luzon,
Magnitude 6.3, focal depth 178 km

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Tectonic setting
in the Philippines

Earthquake hazard – a multiple hazard


• Faulting
• Ground shaking
• Landslides, rock falls
• Liquefaction
• Tsunami
Important: Earthquake shaking affects all
components of a structure at the same time

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Tectonic Features:
Faulting

Vertical fault scarp


formed by 1954
Dixie Valley
earthquake,
Nevada

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Horizontal fault movement, 1976 Guatemala earthquake

Landslides and rockfalls

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Yungay City and Mount Huascaran, Peru

Yungay avalanche, Peru, triggered by May 31, 1970


Ancash earthquake, 20,000 people killed, 50 Mm3 debris

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Usoi Landslide Dam 2500 Mm3 - Lake Sarez, Tajikistan
Created by 1911 M = 7.3 earthquake, max. height 650 m

1990 Manjil earthquake, Iran, 40,000 killed

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1964 Alaska earthquake, Turnagain heights landslide

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Soil Liquefaction

Sand boils, indicators of liquefaction

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1979 Montenegro earthquake

1970 Peru earthquake, liquefaction effects in Chimbote

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1964 Alaska earthquake, lateral spreading of highway
embankment on permafrost

Failure of river
embankment (levee)
in Japan, longitudianal
crack along crest

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Tsunami

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Tsunami damage (Sri Lanka), 2004 Andaman Sea earthquake

2004 Andaman Sea earthquake

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Seismicity in Andaman Sea after M = 9.1
earthquake of 26.12.2004
DAILY AFTER SHOCK PATTERN

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Magnitude

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Days ( 0 date starts on 26.12.2004)

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Ground Shaking

Effect of foundation type on surface ground motion

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Seismic instrumentation

Objectives of Earthquake Protection and


Earthquake-resistant Design
• Protection of life
• Protection of vital infrastructure (lifelines and
structures with large damage potential)
• Protection of environment
• Minimization of property damage and economic
losses – insurance
• Protection of cultural heritage, etc.

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Collapse of multi-storey building due to column failure

For live saving collapse of vertical structural


elements (columns, structural walls) must be prevented

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Buildings with Soft Storey

1971 San Fernando earthquake, California, Olive View


Hospital, 100% loss due to soft storey failure

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Failure of ambulance car parking structure, Olive View
Hospital

Olive View Hospital, column failure due to lack of


confining reinforcement (stirrups)

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Olive View Hospital, soft storey deformations

Olive View Hospital, plastic hinges in columns

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Olive View Hospital, deformations of lift shaft in ground floor

1979 Montenegro earthquake, column failure in ground floor

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1976 Friuli earthquake, Italy, soft storey with short columns

1976 Friuli earthquake, Italy, soft storey with rigid


superstructure

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Large Storage Dams

Elements of Modern Safety Concept for Projects


with Large Damage Potential (dams, nuclear facilities etc.)

• Structural safety (earthquake-resistant design)


• Safety monitoring (inspection, instrumentation)
• Operational safety (operation, maintenance)
• Emergency planning (for structures with high
damage potential)

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1971 San Fernando earthquake, high accelerations (1.24 g)
recorded at left abutment of Pacoima arch dam in California

1990 Manjil earthquake, Cracks in Sefid Rud Buttress Dam

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1971 San Fernando earthquake, liquefaction of hydraulic
fill San Fernando dam

1971 San Fernando earthquake

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2001 Bhuj earthquake India, 244 damaged dams

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Nuclear Power Plants (NPP)
International Agencies Publishing Design
Guidelines for NPPs
1. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(US NRC)
2. International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA)

Boiling water reactor of Leibstadt NPP in Switzerland

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Powerhouse with 1100 MW steam generator of Leibstadt NPP

Olkiluto NPP in Finland with advanced EPR 1600 reactor


under construction

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Industrial Facilities

1976 Friuli earthquake, Italy, collapsed precast roof


elements supported on flexible columns

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Collapsed roof supported on flexible columns

Damaged cooling towers

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Gas and Oil Pipelines

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Trans-Alaska oil pipeline crossing Denali fault zone

Support detail of Trans-Alaska pipeline (sliding bearings)

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Electric Power Supply
Facilities

Transmission tower, Sefid Rud dam, Iran

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Storage Tanks

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Non-structure in Buildings

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Railways

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Bridges

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Earthquake Rapid Response
and Alarm Systems

Seismic Early Warning and Early Response


System for Istanbul, Turkey

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Conclusions
General Situation: Seismic safety of most
structures is unknown as structures have not
been designed against earthquakes, or have
been designed with standards, which are
considered obsolete today
Short-term solution: Warning and rapid
response systems: applicable for systems with
large damage potential
Long-term solution: Earthquake-resistant design
and construction of all elements of a project

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