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13 Mathematical Reasoning

Paper 2

(d) False (Cube root of 27 is 3.)

 1. (a) It is a statement. (Because it is true.) (e) False (−5 , 4) (b) It is a statement. (Because it is false.) (f) True (c) It is a statement. (Because it is true.) (g) False (−1 − 3 = −4) (d) It is not a statement. (Because it is neither true nor false.) (h) True 4. (a) True (e) It is a statement. (Because it is false.) (b) False (f) It is not a statement. (2 is not divisible by 4.) (Because it is neither true nor false.) (c) True (g) It is not a statement. (Because it is neither true nor false.) (d) True
 (h) It is not a statement. (Because it is neither true nor false.) 2. (a) It is not a statement. (b) It is a statement. (c) It is a statement. (d) It is a statement. (e) It is a statement. (f) It is not a statement. (g) It is not a statement. (h) It is a statement. 3. (a) False (−3 , 3) (b) True (c) True

5. All prime numbers are odd numbers. No (2 is a prime number but not an odd number.)

(a)

(b) All sets have elements. No (Empty set has no element.)

(c) All acute angles are less than 90°. Yes

(d) a 2
Yes

0 for all values of a.

6. Some rectangles are square. Yes

(a)

(b) Some prime numbers are even numbers. Yes

(c) Some hexagons are regular hexagons. Yes

(d) Some trapeziums have a pair of parallel sides. No (All trapeziums have a pair of parallel sides.)

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7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

Mathematics SPM Chapter 13

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

True

True

True

False

 Statement Truth n 2 . 1 True ∼n 2 , 1 False

(a)

(b)

(c)

1 m 3 = 10 4 cm 2

1° = 60

1

2

1

3

.

 4 > 3 2 is a factor of 3. 3 is a factor of 5.

(a) a 2 = a × a and

1

2

= 0.5.

 (b) The opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal and a trapezium is a four-sided figure. (a) 8 2 = 16 1 — = 0.2 5 (b) A square has two lines of symmetry. Sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 90°. (a) 5 0 = 1 or −2 − 4 = 6. (b) A parallelogram has no line of symmetry or all the angles of a square are 90°. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) False (a) True (b) True (c) True (d) False

2

 15. Antecedent (a) : a , 0 Consequence : a 2 . 0 (b) Antecedent : x is a prime number. Consequence : 2x is an even number. 16. If k + 4 = 10, then k = 6. (a) (b) If ABCDE is a pentagon, then ABCDE has 5 sides. 17. If m + 3 = 5, then m = 2. (True) (a) (b) If x , 4, then x , 1. (False) (c) If x 2 = 4, then x = −2. (False) (d) If 2a is an even number, then a is an even number. (False)

18. Implication 1: If m . n, then m + 1 . n + 1. Implication 2: If m + 1 . n + 1, then m . n.

19. Implication 1: If ab , 0, then a , 0 or b , 0. Implication 2: If a , 0 or b , 0, then ab , 0.

20. P is divisible by itself and number one.

21. 3 is a factor of 24.

22. x

23. A hexagon is a polygon.

24. y is an obtuse angle.

25. 2m is not negative.

26. Cube A with sides 2 cm has a volume of 8 cm 3 .

27. Circle Q with radius 6 cm has an area of 36π cm 2 .

28. 2n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …

29. 2n 1, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …

30. 12 5n, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …

Mathematics

SPM Chapter 13

Paper 2

 1. 3 is a factor of 15 and 3 is divisible by 6. (a) (i) (ii) False (b) n ≠ –1

(c)

Implication 1: If (–2) n is a positive number, then n is an even number. Implication 2: If n is an even number, then (–2) n is a positive number.

 7. (a) (i) All rhombuses have a total interior angles of 360°. (ii) Some hexagons are regular. (b) If 3m . n, then m . n. (False) Example: If m = 2, n = 5 3(2) . 5 2 . 5 (False) (c) p < 3

2. False (Because (–2)(–3) ≠ –5)

(a)

Paper 2

(b)

(c)

Implication 1: If 3x = 3 , then x = 1 . Implication 2: If x = 1 , then 3x = 3 .

Sum of the first 10 positive integers 10(1 + 10)

 1. False (Because both statements are false) (a) (i) (ii) True

m

Implication 1: If —

, 1, then n . m.

, 1.

n

Implication 2: If n . m, then

m

n

 = 2 (b) = 55 3. (a) True (Because 4 × 2 = 8) (c)

A rhombus has a sum of interior angles of 360°.

(b)

(c)

4. (a)

(b)

(c)

Some numbers divisible by 2 are divisible by 4.

Implication 1: If

Implication 2: If h = 6, then

1

2 h = 3, then h = 6.

2 1 h = 3.

False

If x is a factor of 10, then x is a factor of 5. (False)

The perimeter of the square is not 12 cm.

 5. (a) (i) False (Because 3 2 ≠ 6) (ii) True

(b)

(c)

3 is a negative number.

Implication 1: If 2p . 10, then p . 5. Implication 2: If p . 5, then 2p . 10.

 2. (a) (i) True (ii) False (Because 64 ≠ 4 2 ) (b) x = 2

(c)

3n 2 1, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …

 3. (a) (i) Not a statement (ii) A statement

(b)

(c)

Implication 1: If 4a is positive, then a is negative. Implication 2: If a is negative, then 4a is positive.

p is not an even number.

 6. (a) (i) True (ii) False

(b)

(c)

Implication 1: If ABC is an equilateral triangle, then all the sides of ABC are equal. Implication 2: If all the sides of ABC are equal, then ABC is an equilateral triangle.

tan x ≠ 1

4.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(i)

(ii) 2a × b

4 6

=

2 (A true statement)

2a + b (A false statement)

All regular polygons have equal sides.

3n + 2, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …

3