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14 The Straight Line

Paper 1
6. Gradient of line EF
1. Gradient of line PQ 5–2
= ––––––
QR –5 – 4
= –––– 3
PR = –––
–9
Answer: A
1
=−—
3
2. Gradient of line EF
FG Answer: D
= ––––
EG
= tan q 7. The straight line with negative gradient is JK.

Answer: C Answer: C

3. Gradient of the straight line passing through (1, −2) 8. The x-intercept = −4
and (3, 6) Answer: C
6 − (−2)
= ––––––––
3–1
9. The y-intercept = 7
8
=—
2 Answer: B
=4
Answer: C 10. Gradient of line PQ
y-intercept
= − ––––––––––
4. Gradient of the straight line passing through (1, 5) and x-intercept
(−3, 4) 10
=− –––
4–5 –2
= –––––– =5
–3 – 1
–1 Answer: B
= —–
– 4
1
=— 11. Gradient of line EF
4
y-intercept
= − ––––––––––
Answer: A x-intercept
5
=−—
5. Gradient of line PQ 6
6–2 Answer: C
= –––––––
7 – (–3)
4
= –––
10
2
=—
5
Answer: C

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

12. P(0, 1) and Q(2, 5) 17. y = 2x − 1


5–1 ⇒ gradient, m = 2
Gradient of line PQ, m = –––––
2–0 the y-intercept, c = −1
4
= — Answer: C
2
=2
The y-intercept, c = 1 1
18. y = − —x + 5...........................1
2
The equation of line PQ is
Substitute (6, 2) into equation 1.
y = mx + c
1
y = 2x + 1 2 = − —(6) + 5
2
Answer: A 2 = −3 + 5
2 = 2
13. M(0, −2) and N(4, 2) 1
Hence, (6, 2) lies on the straight line y = − —x + 5.
2 – (–2) 2
Gradient of line MN, m = –––––––
4–0 Answer: B
4
= —
4
=1
The y-intercept, c = −2 Paper 2
The equation of line MN is 1.
y = mx + c
y = 1x − 2
y=x−2
Answer: C θ

Given tan θ = 2
14. m = 4 and c = 3 hence, θ = 63.43°
The equation of line PQ is
y = mx + c 2. (a) Gradient of the straight line passing through
y = 4x + 3 (1, 3) and (2, 5)
Answer: D 5–3
= –––––
2–1
2
15. P(0, 4), Q(4, 0) = —
4–0 1
Gradient of line PQ, m = ––––– =2
0–4
= −1 (b) Gradient of the straight line passing through
The y-intercept, c = 4 (0, 4) and (4, 0)
The equation of line PQ is 0–4
= –––––
y = mx + c 4–0
y = −x + 4 – 4
= –––
4
Answer: B = −1

16. y = 3x − 2....................1 (c) Gradient of the straight line passing through


The equation of a straight line is (−2, −5) and (3, 1)
y = mx + c...................2 1 – (–5)
= –––––––
3 – (–2)
Compare equations 1 and 2. 6
m = gradient = 3 = —
5
c = y-intercept = −2
Answer: A

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

(d) Gradient of the straight line passing through 6. y


(−4, 0) and (3, −2)
–2 – 0 J(0, 8) K(12, 8)
= ––––––––
3 – (– 4)
2
= − —
7 4
x
O
L(4, 0)
3. Gradient of the straight line passing through (1, −2)
and (6, h) (a) The coordinates of J = (0, 8)
h – (–2) (b) Gradient of line LK
= ––––––––
6–1 8–0
h+2 = ––––––
= ––––– 12 – 4
5 8
4 = —
Given the gradient = — 8
5
h+2 4 =1
hence, ––––– = —
5 5
h + 2 = 4 7. y
h = 2
R(0, 10)

4. (a) x-intercept = −4 Q(–3, 6)


10
y-intercept = 6
(b) Gradient of line PQ P O
x
y-intercept
= − ––––––––––
x-intercept (a) The y-intercept of line QR
6 = 10
= − –––––
(– 4)
3 (b) Gradient of line QR
= — 10 – 6
2 = ––––––––
0 – (–3)
5. 4
= —
y 3
D B(0, 4)
8. y
4 H
18 J
3
x
A(–3, 0) O 9 L

x
y-intercept O K(18, 0)
(a) Gradient of line AB = − ––––––––––
x-intercept
4 4 1
— = − — (a) OL = — OK
3 t 2
4t = −4(3) 1
12 = — (18)
t = – ––– 2
4 = 9
= −3
The coordinates of J = (18, 18)
(b) AB = OA2 + OB2
(b) J(18, 18) and L(0, 9)
= 32 + 42 Gradient of line JL
= 5 units 9 – 18
BD = AB = ––––––
0 – 18
= 5 units 1
= —
Hence, the coordinates of D = (−5, 4) 2

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

9. y
11. A(2, 3) and m = 4
E(6, h)
The equation of line AB is
G
y = mx + c
0 2 F
x 3 = 4(2) + c
3 = 8 + c
c = 3 − 8
= −5
H Hence, the equation of line AB is y = 4x − 5.

3
(a) E(6, h) and G(2, 0) 12. P(4, −2) and m = − —
2
h–0
Gradient of line EG = ––––– The equation of line PQ is
6–2
y = mx + c
h
2 = — 3
4 −2 = − —(4) + c
h = 2 × 4 2
= 8 −2 = −6 + c
(b) Let H = (0, k) −2 + 6 = c
c = 4
k–0
Gradient of line GH = ––––– 3
0–2 Hence, the equation of line PQ is y = − —x + 4.
k 2
7 = − —
2
13. The equation of line QR is y = 4.
k = 7 × (−2)
= −14
14. Q(5, 0) and m = −2
Hence, the y-intercept of line GH = −14
The equation of line PQ is
y = mx + c
10. (a)
y 0 = −2(5) + c
0 = −10 + c
E(0, 16) c = 10
Hence, the equation of line PQ is y = −2x + 10.
F(h, 6)

x 15. x − 2y = 12..................1
0 G(t, 0) (a) Substitute x = 0 into equation 1.
0 − 2y = 12
Let G = (t, 0) 2y = −12
16 – 0 y = −6
Gradient of EG = ––––––
0–t
16 Hence, the y-intercept = −6
−2 = − –––
t (b) Substitute y = 0 into equation 1.
16 x − 2(0) = 12
t = –––
2 x = 12
= 8
Hence, the x-intercept = 12
Hence, the x-intercept of line EG = 8
16. Gradient of line AB
16 – 6
(b) Gradient of line EF = –––––– y-intercept
0–h = − ––––––––––
x-intercept
10
−2 = ––– 4
–h =−—
2
10
h = ––– = −2
2
= 5

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

For the line CD, m = −2 and c = 6. 22. Gradient of line QR


= Gradient of line PS
The equation of line CD is
10 – 4
y = mx + c = ––––––
y = −2x + 6 4–0
6
=—
4
17. Gradient of line QR 3
=—
= Gradient of line OP 2
2–0
= –––––
4–0 23. Gradient of line BC
2 = Gradient of line OA
=— = −2
4
1 For the line BC, m = −2 and c = 7.
=—
2 The equation of BC is
y = mx + c
y = −2x + 7
18. Gradient of line DO
= Gradient of line AB
y-intercept
= − ––––––––––
x-intercept
3
=− —
4
Paper 1
1. Substitute y = 0 into 3x + 2y – 12 = 0.
19. Equation of line PQ: 3x + 2(0) – 12 = 0
1 3x = 12
y = − —x + 3
2
x = 12
Gradient of line RS 3
= Gradient of line PQ = 4
1 Hence, x-intercept = 4
=−—
2
Answer: C
20. Equation of line AB:
3x − 2y = 8 2. Gradient of line PQ
3x = 2y + 8 7–1
= ––––––
2y = 3x − 8 –2 – 3
3 8 6
y = —x − — =–—
2 2 5
3 Answer: B
y = —x − 4
2
Gradient of line CD 3. 3y + kx = 24
= Gradient of line AB 3y = –kx + 24
3 y = – k x + 8
=—
2 3
OF : OE = 4 : 3
OF = 4
21. Gradient of line AB OE 3
= Gradient of line OC
Gradient = – 4
5–0 3
= –––––
2–0
– = – 4
k
5 3 3
= —
2 k = 4
Answer: B

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

4. 2y = 8 – x y-intercept
8.   Gradient = – ––––––––––
2y = –x + 8 x-intercept
1
 y=– x+4 y-intercept
2 – 2 = – ––––––––––
1 3 6
Gradient = – and y-intercept = 4
2
y-intercept = 2 × 6
y 3
= 4
4 Answer: A

x
0 8
9. Gradient of line EF
Answer: A y-intercept
= − ––––––––––
x-intercept
6
y-intercept = − ––––
5. Gradient = – (–2)
x-intercept
=3
3
=– Answer: C
4
Hence, the y-intercept = 3 and the x-intercept = 4.

10. Substitute (0, 4) into y = –2x + c.


y

4 = –2(0) + c
3 c=4
x The equation of the straight line is y = –2x + 4.
0 4 When the straight line intersects x-axis, y = 0.
0 = –2x + 4
Answer: A x=2
Hence, the point of intersection is (2, 0).
6 Answer: C
6. 3y + —x = 1
5
6
3y = − —x + 1
5 11. 3x – 5y = 15
2 1 5y = 3x – 15
y = − —x + —
5 3 3
2 y = x – 3
Hence, the gradient = − — 5
5
Answer: D Hence, the y-intercept = –3
Answer: C
7. y

12. y
P R x
O E
–4 5
13 units

–4 Q F
x
O 12
The y-intercept of QR = –4
OE2 = EF 2 – OF 2
y-intercept
Gradient of line QR = – OE =  132 – 122
x-intercept
–4 = 25 
3 = – = 5 units
x-intercept
–4 The y-intercept = 5
x-intercept = –
3 y-intercept
Gradient of line EF = –
4 x-intercept
=
3 5
=–
Answer: D 12
Answer: B

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

13. 1
y m = − — and H(−2, 9)
2
The equation of line GH is
F y = mx + c
1
9 = − —(−2) + c
0
x 2
9 = 1 + c
E(1, –4) c = 9 − 1
= 8
1
m = 3 and E(1, −4) Hence, the equation of line GH is y = − —x + 8.
2
The equation of line EF is 1
Substitute y = 0 into y = − —x + 8.
y = mx + c 2
−4 = 3(1) + c 1
0 = − —x + 8
− 4 − 3 = c 2
1
c = −7 — x = 8
2
The equation of line EF is y = 3x − 7. x = 2 × 8
= 16
Substitute (4, 5) into y = 3x − 7.
Hence, the x-intercept = 16
5 = 3(4) − 7
5 = 12 − 7
5 = 5 2. (a) Equation of line CD:
4y = x − 7
Hence, F = (4, 5)
1 7
y = —x − —
Answer: C 4 4
Gradient of line AB
y-intercept = Gradient of line CD
14. Gradient of line PQ = − –––––––––– 1
x-intercept = —
1 (– 4) 4
− — = − –––––––––– 1
3 x-intercept m = — and B(4, 6)
x-intercept = 4 × (−3) 4
= −12 The equation of line AB is
Answer: D y = mx + c
1
6 = —(4) + c
4
6 = 1 + c
Paper 2 c = 6 − 1
= 5
1. (a) Equation of line EF:
2y + x = 3 1
Hence, the equation of line AB is y = —x + 5.
2y = −x + 3 4
1 3 1
y = − —x + — (b) Substitute y = 0 into y = —x + 5.
2 2 4
1
3 0 = —x + 5
The y-intercept = — 4
2
1
3 − —x = 5
Hence, the equation of line FG is y = —. 4
2 x = −4 × 5
(b) Gradient of line GH = −20
= Gradient of line EF Hence, the x-intercept = −20
1
= − —
2

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

3. (a) Equation of line EF: 3


(b) Substitute y = 0 into y = – x – 8.
2y = px + 18 2
p 3
  y= x+9 0 = – x–8
2 2
3
Equation of line HG: x = – 8
2
y = –2x + 7 2
x = –8 ×
3
Gradient of line EF = Gradient of line HG 16
p = –
= – 2 3
2
p = –4 16
Hence, the x-intercept = –
3
(b) Substitute y = 0 into y = –2x + 9. 6.
  0 = –2x + 9 y
A(–2, 9)
2x = 9
9
 x =
2 D
x
B (–2, 0) O
4. (a) Gradient of line QR C(3, –6)
= Gradient of line OP
5–0 (a) Gradient of line AD
= = Gradient of line BC
–4 – 0
5 0 – (– 6)
=– = ––––––––
4 –2 – 3
Using Q(2, –8) and y = mx + c 6
= − —
5 5
–8 = − (2) + c
4 6
5 m = − –– and A(−2, 9)
–8 = – +c 5
2 The equation of line AD is
11 y = mx + c
c = –
2 6
9 = − –– (−2) + c
5 11 5
Hence, the equation of line QR is y = − x– . 12
4 2 9 = ––– + c
5
5 11
(b) Substitute y = 0 into y = − x–  . 12
4 2 c = 9 − –––
5
5 11
0 = − x– 33
4 2 = –––
5
5 11
x = –
4 2 Hence, the equation of line AD is
22 6 33
x = – y = − ––x + ––– .
5 5 5
22 6 33
Hence, the x-intercept of line QR is – . (b) Substitute y = 0 into y = − ––x + ––– .
5 5 5
6 33
5. (a) Gradient of line GH 0 = − ––x + –––
5 5
= Gradient of line EF 6 33
3 ––x = –––
=– 5 5
2
3 6x = 33
m=– and G(–4, –2)
2 33
The equation of line GH is y = mx + c x = –––
6
3 11
–2 = –  (–4) + c = –––
2 2
c = –8
11
3 Hence, the x-intercept = –––
Hence, the equation of line GH is y = – x – 8. 2
2

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

7. (a) Gradient of line GH y-intercept


3. Gradient of line PQ = − ––––––––––
= Gradient of line EF x-intercept
6–0 5 y-intercept
= ––––– − — = − ––––––––––
0–3 2 4
6 4×5
= ––– y-intercept = –––––
–3 2
= −2 = 10
m = −2 and G(−4, 5) Answer: A
The equation of line GH is
y = mx + c
4. P(0, 12), Q(−4, 0), R(−3, h)
5 = −2(−4) + c
Gradient of line RQ = Gradient of line PQ
5 = 8 + c
c = 5 − 8 h–0 12 – 0
–––––––– = ––––––––
= −3 –3 – (–4) 0 – (–4)
h 12
Hence, the equation of line GH is y = −2x − 3. –– = –––
1 4
h = 3
(b) Substitute y = 0 into y = −2x − 3.
0 = −2x − 3 Answer: D
2x = −3
3 5. Q(2, 0), R(6, k)
x = − —
2 k–0
3 Gradient of line PQR = –––––
Hence, the x-intercept = − — 6–2
2
k
3 = ––
4
k = 3 × 4
= 12
Answer: A

Paper 1 6. Let T = (0, k)


y-intercept k–0
Gradient of line TV = –—––
1. Gradient of line PQ = − –––––––––– 0–3
x-intercept
4 k
8 − — = − —
2 = − –––––––––– 3 3
x-intercept
k = 4
8 TV 2 = OV 2 + OT 2
x-intercept = − ––
2 = 32 + 42
= −4 TV = 25
= 5 units
Answer: A
WV = TV
= 5 units
y-intercept Hence, the coordinates of point W = (3, 5)
2. Gradient of line EF = − ––––––––––
x-intercept Answer: C
3 6
− –– = – ––––––––––
4 x-intercept 7. Substitute x = 0 into 2x − 3y = 12.
6×4 0 − 3y = 12
x-intercept = –––––
3 3y = −12
= 8 12
y = − –––
Answer: C 3
= −4
Hence, the y-intercept = −4
Answer: B

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

8. 3x + 4y = −16 13. Substitute y = 0 into 2x + 5y − 7 = 0.


4y = −3x − 16 2x + 0 − 7 = 0
3 16 2x − 7 = 0
y = − ––x − –––
4 4 2x = 7
3 7
y = − ––x − 4 x = —
4 2
3 Answer: C
Hence, the gradient = − ––
4
Answer: B 4
14. 2y − —x = 1
5
4
2 2y = —x + 1
9. Substitute y = 0 into y = ––x − 4. 5
3
4 1
2 y = –––––x + —
0 = ––x − 4 5×2 2
3
2 2 1
4 = ––x y = —x + —
3 5 2
4 × 3 = 2x 2
Hence, the gradient = —
12 5
x = –––
2 Answer: B
= 6
Hence, the x-intercept = 6
Answer: D Paper 2
1. y
10. E(0, 3), F(4, 5)
Gradient of line EF Q R(2, 4)
5–3
= –––––
4–0 0
x
2
=—
4 P(–6, –4)
S(0, –4)
1
= —
2 (a) Gradient of line PQ
Answer: A = Gradient of line SR
4 – (–4)
= –––––––
2–0
11. Substitute point (3, 1) into 2y − kx + 7 = 0.
8
2(1) − k(3) + 7 = 0 = —
2
2 − 3k + 7 = 0
=4
9 = 3k
9 m = 4 and P(−6, −4)
k = — The equation of line PQ is
3
= 3 y = mx + c
−4 = 4(−6) + c
Answer: C −4 = −24 + c
−4 + 24 = c
12. Substitute x = 0 into 4x − 5y = 20. c = 20
0 − 5y = 20 Hence, the equation of line PQ is y = 4x + 20.
5y = −20
20 (b) Substitute y = 0 into y = 4x + 20.
y = − ––– 0 = 4x + 20
5
= −4 −20 = 4x
20
Hence, the y-intercept = −4 x = – –––
4
Answer: C = −5
Hence, the x-intercept = −5

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

2. 1 7
y (b) Substitute y = 0 into y = —x + —.
4 4
H(–5, 6) G(3, 6)
1 7
0 = —x + —
4 4
7 — 1

− = x
x 4 4
0
x = −7
E(0, –4) F(3, –4) Hence, the x-intercept = −7

(a) The equation of line EF is y = −4. 4.


y R(3, k)
(b) The coordinates of G are (3, 6).
(c) Gradient of line HE
P(0, 2)
6 – (–4)
= –––––––
–5 – 0
10 x
= ––– O Q(3, 0)
–5
= −2 (a) Equation of line PQ:
2x + 3y = 6.............................1
m = −2 and c = −4
The equation of line HE is Substitute x = 0 into equation 1.
y = mx + c 2(0) + 3y = 6
y = −2x − 4 6
y = —
3
Substitute y = 0 into y = −2x − 4.
= 2
0 = −2x − 4
2x = −4 Hence, P = (0, 2)
x = −2
Substitute y = 0 into equation 1.
Hence, the x-intercept = −2 2x + 3(0) = 6
2x = 6
6
x = —
3. (a) Gradient of line BC 2
= Gradient of line OA = 2
1–0 Hence, Q = (3, 0)
= –––––
4–0
The equation of line QR is x = 3.
1
= —
4 (b) Gradient of PQ
1 2–0
m = — and C(1, 2) = –––––
4 0–3
The equation of line BC is 2
= − —
y = mx + c 3
1 Let R = (3, k)
2 = —(1) + c
4 k–2
1 Gradient of line PR = –––––
2 − — = c 3–0
4
7 1 k–2
c = — — = –––––
4 2 3
Hence, the equation of line BC is 3
k − 2 = —
1 7 2
y = —x + —. 3
4 4 k = — + 2
2
7
= —
2
2 7
m = − — and R(3, —)
3 2

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

The equation of the straight line parallel (b) Let L = (0, p)


to line PQ and passing through point R is y-intercept
y = mx + c Gradient of line LM = − ––––––––––
x-intercept
7 2 1 p
— = − — (3) + c — = − —
2 3 2 6
7 6
— = −2 + c −p = —
2 2
7 p = −3
c = — + 2
2
Hence, the coordinates of L are (0, −3).
11
= –––
2
2 11 7.
Hence, the equation is y = − —x + –––. y
3 2
S

5. (a) The equation of line CD is y = 3. R(4, 0)


x
(b) Gradient of line BC O

= Gradient of line AD P(0, –4)


3–0
= ––––––––
0 – (–1)
3
= — Q(4, –10)
1
=3 (a) Gradient of line RS
m = 3 and B(4, 0) = Gradient of line PQ
The equation of line BC is –4 – (–10)
= –––––––––
y = mx + c 0–4
0 = 3(4) + c 6
= –––
c = −12 –4
Hence, the equation of line BC is y = 3x − 12. 3
= − —
2
(c) The y-intercept of line BC is −12.
3
m = − — and R(4, 0)
2
The equation of line RS is
6. y
y = mx + c
N(6, 10) 3
0 = − —(4) + c
P 2
0 = −6 + c
c = 6
x 3
O M(6, 0) Hence, the equation of line RS is y = − —x + 6.
L 2
(b) The y-intercept = 6
1
(a) m = — and N(6, 10)
2
The equation of line PN is 8. (a) Gradient of line SRT
y = mx + c = Gradient of line PQ
1 3–1
10 = —(6) + c = –––––––
2 –4 – 4
10 = 3 + c 2
10 − 3 = c = –––
–8
c = 7 1
= − —
Hence, the equation of line PN is 4
1
y = —x + 7.
2

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

1 10. (a) Gradient of MN = 2


m = − –– and R(2, 9)
4 6–k
––––– = 2
The equation of line SRT is 2–0
y = mx + c 6 − k = 2 × 2
1 6 − k = 4
9 = − ––(2) + c
4 6 − 4 = k
1 k = 2
9 = − –– + c
2
19 (b) m = 2 and T(0, 9)
c = ––– The equation of line ST is
2
y = mx + c
Hence, the equation of line SRT is y = 2x + 9
1 19
y = − ––x + –––.
4 2 (c) Substitute y = 0 into y = 2x + 9.
1 19 0 = 2x + 9
(b) Substitute y = 0 into y = − ––x + –––. −9 = 2x
4 2
1 19 9
0 = − ––x + ––– x = − ––
4 2 2
1 19 9
––x = ––– Hence, the x-intercept = − ––
4 2 2
19
x = 4 × –––
2 11.
= 38 y
D(k, 21)
Hence, the x-intercept = 38
E
15
A
9. y B
6
A(6, 8)
x
B(9, 6) O C F
D(p, q)
(a) Line ABC:
x
O C(6, 0) 3x + y = 6
y = −3x + 6
(a) Gradient of line OA Gradient of line ABC = −3
8–0 Gradient of line DEF = −3
= –––––
6–0
m = −3 and c = 15
4
= — The equation of line DEF is
3
y = mx + c
4 y = −3x + 15
(b) m = — and C(6, 0)
3
Using y = mx + c (b) Substitute D(k, 21) into y = −3x + 15.
4 21 = −3k + 15
0 = —(6) + c
3 3k = 15 − 21
0 = 8 + c 6
k = − ––
c = −8 3
Hence, the equation of the straight line parallel = −2
4
to OA and passes through C is y = —x − 8.
3 (c) Substitute y = 0 into y = −3x + 15.
(c) Let D = (p, q) 0 = −3x + 15
Given B is the midpoint, 3x = 15
6+p 8+q 15
x = –––
then ––––– = 9 and ––––– = 6 3
2 2
= 5
6 + p = 2 × 9 8 + q = 6 × 2
p = 18 − 6 q = 12 − 8 Hence, the x-intercept = 5
= 12 = 4
Hence, D = (12, 4)

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  Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14

12. y 13. y
P(–4, 12) S

P(0, 7)

N(0, 6)
R(8, 3)
Q
Q(2, 1)
x x
0
M(–4, 0) O
(a) Gradient of line PQ
(a) Substitute y = 0 into 3x + 2y = 12. 7–1
= –––––
3x + 0 = 12 0–2
3x = 12 6
= –––
12 –2
x = ––– = −3
3
= 4 m = −3 and c = 7
Hence, the x-intercept = 4 The equation of line PQ is
y = mx + c
(b) The equation of line PM is x = − 4. y = −3x + 7
(c) Line NP: (b) m = −3 and R(8, 3)
3x + 2y = 12 The equation of line RS is
2y = −3x + 12 y = mx + c
3 3 = −3(8) + c
y = − —x + 6
2 3 = −24 + c
Hence, N = (0, 6) c = 3 + 24
= 27
Gradient of line PQ
= Gradient of line MN Hence, the y-intercept = 27
y-intercept
= − ––––––––––
x-intercept 14. (a) Line TUV:
6 3y + 4x = 24
= − –––
– 4 3y = −4x + 24
6 4
= — y = − ––x + 8
4 3
3 Hence, the y-intercept = 8
= —
2
(b)
y
3
m = — and P(− 4, 12)
2
The equation of line PQ is V(0, 8)
y = mx + c U(3, 4)
3
12 = — (− 4) + c
2 O
x
P T
12 = −6 + c
c = 12 + 6 Gradient of line PV
= 18 = Gradient of line OU
3 4–0
Hence, the equation of line PQ is y = —x + 18. = –––––
2 3–0
4
= —
3

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 Mathematics  SPM  Chapter 14 

4 16. (a) Gradient of line EF


m = — and c = 8
3 3 – (–2)
= –––––––
The equation of PV is – 4 – 1
y = mx + c 5
= –––
4 –5
y = —x + 8
3 = −1

(b) m = −1 and H(2, 9)


15. (a) Line QR: y = 3x − 9........................... 1
The equation of line HG is
Substitute R(2, w) into equation 1. y = mx + c
w = 3(2) − 9 9 = −1(2) + c
= 6 − 9 9 = −2 + c
= −3 c = 9 + 2
(b) (i) Gradient of line PQ = 11
= Gradient of line SR Hence, the equation of line HG is y = −x + 11.
2 Substitute y = 0 into y = −x + 11.
= —
5 0 = −x + 11
2 x = 11
m = — and Q(5, 6)
5 Hence, the x-intercept = 11
The equation of line PQ is
y = mx + c
2 17. (a) Substitute y = 0 into 4x − y + 3 = 0.
6 = —(5) + c 4x − 0 + 3 = 0
5
6 = 2 + c 4x = −3
3
c = 6 − 2 x = − —
4
= 4
3
Hence, the equation of line PQ is Hence, the x-intercept = − —
4
2
y = —x + 4. (b) Line UV:
5
4x − y + 3 = 0
2 y = 4x + 3
(ii) Substitute y = 0 into y = —x + 4.
5
2 Gradient of line PQR
0 = —x + 4
5 = Gradient of line UV
2 =4
—x = −4
5
m = 4 and Q(2, 0)
– 4 × 5
x = ––––––– The equation of line PQR is
2
y = mx + c
= −10
0 = 4(2) + c
Hence, the x-intercept = −10 c = −8
Hence, the equation of line PQR is y = 4x − 8.

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