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Copyright © 2014 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Mooij, Marieke K. de, 1943–

Global marketing and advertising : understanding cultural paradoxes / Marieke de Mooij. — Fourth Edition.

pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4522-5717-4

1. Target marketing—Cross-cultural studies.


2. Advertising—Cross-cultural studies. 3. Consumer behavior—Cross-cultural studies. I. Title.

HF5415.127.M66 2013
658.8’02—dc23 2013016276

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Brief Contents
Foreword
Geert Hofstede
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Summary of the Book

Chapter 1. The Paradoxes in Global Marketing Communications

Chapter 2. Global Branding

Chapter 3. Values and Culture

Chapter 4. Dimensions of Culture

Chapter 5. Culture and Consumer Behavior

Chapter 6. Researching and Applying Cultural Values

Chapter 7. Culture and Communication

Chapter 8. Culture and the Media

Chapter 9. Culture and Advertising Appeals

Chapter 10. Culture and Executional Style

Chapter 11. From Value Paradox to Strategy

Appendix A: Hofstede Country Scores and Gross National Income (GNI)/Capita at Purchase Power Parity 2011, for 66
Countries
Appendix B: Data Sources

Index
About the Author
Detailed Contents
Foreword
Geert Hofstede
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Summary of the Book

Chapter 1. The Paradoxes in Global Marketing Communications


The Value Paradox
The Global-Local Paradox
The Technology Paradox
The Media Paradox
Paradoxes in Global Marketing Theory
Local Markets Are People, Global Markets Are Products
Focus on a Unique Individual
Globalization
Convergence and Divergence of Consumer Behavior
The Global-Local Dilemma in Global Marketing
Global Communities
Global or Local? The Standardization-Adaptation Debate
Review of a 50-Year Debate
Variables Influencing the Standardization-Adaptation Decision
Effect on Performance
Summary
Notes

Chapter 2. Global Branding


Branding
The Brand Concept and Branding Models
Brand Equity
Brand Architecture
The Global Brand
Perception of Global Brands by Consumers
Global Brand Strategies
The Global Company’s Brand Portfolio
Global Brand Communications
The Importance of Culture for Global Communications
The Brand as an Association Network
Summary
Notes

Chapter 3. Values and Culture


The Value Concept
Values Are Enduring
The Value Paradox: The Desirable and the Desired
Culture Defined
Levels of Culture
Cultural Universals
Selective Perception
Stereotyping
Manifestations of Culture
Signs, Symbols, and Body Language
Imagery and Music
Thinking Patterns and Intellectual Styles
Language
Comparing Cultures
Comparing Nations: Homogeneity and Heterogeneity
Summary
Notes

Chapter 4. Dimensions of Culture


Classifying Cultures
High-Context and Low-Context Cultures
Dimensions of Time
Closure
Time Orientation Toward the Past, Present, or Future
Time Is Linear or Circular
Monochronic and Polychronic Time
Cause and Effect
Relationship of Man With Nature
The Three Major Large-Scale Dimensional Models
Individualism and Collectivism
Power Distance
Long-/Short-Term Orientation
Assertiveness and Male-Female Roles
Uncertainty Avoidance
Other Dimensions
Configurations of Dimensions
The United States
The Netherlands
Japan
Summary
Notes

Chapter 5. Culture and Consumer Behavior


Consumer Behavior
Consumer Attributes
The Concept of Self
Personality
Personality Traits
Identity and Image
Personality and Identity in Marketing
Attitude
Lifestyle
Social Processes
Needs
Motivation
Buying Motives
Emotion
Emotions in Advertising
Group Processes
Public and Private Space
Opinion Leaders
Mental Processes
Learning, Memory, Language, and Perception
Categorization
Field Dependency
The Creative Process
Locus of Control
Information Processing
Decision Making
Consumer Behavior Domains
Product Acquisition, Ownership, and Usage
Shopping and Buying Behavior
Complaining Behavior
Brand Loyalty
Diffusion of Innovations
Summary
Notes

Chapter 6. Researching and Applying Cultural Values


Value Research
Values, Beliefs, Traits, and Norms
Value Priorities Vary
Mixing Terminal and Instrumental Values
Stability and Value Shift
Culture-Specific Values
Belgian Values
Dutch Values
Indian Values
Japanese Values
Important Values Don’t Translate
Measuring Cultural Values
Measuring the Desired Versus the Desirable
Survey Questions
Individual and Culture Level
Equivalence of Survey Data
Sample Equivalence
Linguistic and Conceptual Equivalence
Metric Equivalence
Comparing Dimensional Models
Applying Cultural Dimensions to Marketing and Advertising
Understanding Manifestations of Dimensions
Sampling Countries for Research
Cause-Effect
Commercial Value and Lifestyle Research
Summary
Notes

Chapter 7. Culture and Communication


Communication
Communication Theory
Orality and Literacy
Culture and Communication Styles
Interpersonal Communication Styles
Digital Communication
Mass Communication Styles
Underlying Models
Advertising Styles
The Purpose of Marketing Communication
Informational Versus Emotional
Measuring Advertising: Persuasion or Likeability
How Advertising Works
The Hierarchy of Effects
High and Low Involvement
Visuals in Advertising
Appreciation of Advertising in General
Website Design
Design
Summary
Notes

Chapter 8. Culture and the Media


An Ever-Changing Media Landscape
Media Usage Across Cultures
Television
About the Author
Marieke de Mooij, PhD (Netherlands), is an independent researcher and consultant in cross-cultural communications and has wide experience
in teaching about culture, marketing, and advertising around the world. She is a retired profesora asociada at the University of Navarra, Spain.
She is the author of several academic publications on the influence of culture on marketing, advertising, and consumer behavior. Her other book
published by SAGE is titled Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising (2nd edition). A book
on communication theory and culture is titled Human and Mediated Communication Around the World: A Comprehensive Review and
Analysis (Springer International).