Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

The Search for a Periodic Table

Lecture 4 • By 1860, scientists had already discovered


60 elements and determined their atomic
masses.
• They noticed that some elements had similar
properties.
• They wanted to organize the elements into a
system that would show similarities and
differences.
• It was logical to use atomic mass as the
basis for these early attempts, because no
one knew about protons at that time!

Döbereiner’s Triads Döbereiner’s Triads


• In 1829, the German chemist J.W. • For example, triads showed a relationship using
Döbereiner classified some densities. Within a triad, density increased
elements into groups of with increasing atomic mass.
three, which he called
“triads”.
• The concept of triads suggested that the
• The elements in a triad had properties of an element are related to its
similar chemical properties, atomic mass.
and their physical
properties varied in an
orderly way according to
their atomic masses.

1
The Periodic Table The Periodic Table
Demetri Mendeleev Demetri Mendeleev
•Mendeleev used atomic mass to put the •He found that these chemical properties
elements known at that time in order. repeated themselves “periodically”.
•He then grouped these elements according •This is the principal known as “periodicity”:
to their properties. the tendency for something to re-occur on
a regular basis.
•Using this pattern, he was able to predict
the existence of undiscovered elements!

A
@
B How he did it…
it… How he did it…
it…
# C
@D E First, he put all the
A B …he arranged
% &
F known elements in order
@ # them by their
G by atomic weight… C D E F G properties…
* # H @ % & # (here, the
I * properties are
@
J H I J K L
% the special
@ % & * #
& K symbols)…
* L M N O P
# M @ % #
*
Then… @ N
%
O P
* #

2
How he did it…
it… How he did it…
it…
A B Then, he looked A B He called his
@ # for patterns… @ # vertical columns
C D E F G C D E F G “families” or
His table was so
@ % & # @ % & # “groups”,
* good, he * because they
H I J K L predicted new H I J K L
had similar
@ % &
* # elements that @ % &
* #
properties…
M N X O P hadn’t even been M N X O P
@ % & # discovered! @ % & #
* *

How he did it…


it… How he did it…
it…
A B He called his Because all the known elements at that
@ # horizontal rows time had been extracted from compounds,
C D E F G “periods”, Mendeleev had no knowledge of the Noble
@ % & # because the Gases.
* properties
H I J K L Since these elements don’t naturally react
repeated
@ % & * #
themselves with anything, they were never part of any
M N X O P “periodically” as compound and not discovered for years
@ % &
* # each new row afterward!
started.

3
Organization of the elements by relative atomic
Dmitri Mendeleev mass and periodic properties.
A periodic table is a
tabular arrangement
of the elements
 Mendeleev’s discovery of the that groups similar
periodic table came as a result of elements together.
attempting to systemize properties of
the elements for presentation in a In the table,
Mendeleev arranged
chemistry textbook. the elements into
eight groups and
 His highly influential book went twelve rows. The
through eight editions in his life-time 2
formulas R O, RO,…,
Dmitri Mendeleev and five more after his death. are those of the
elements oxides; the
(1834 – 1907). formulas RH4, RH3,…,
are those of the
element hydrides.

Mendeleev’s table
Mendeleev’ A new group for the periodic table
 Medeleev succeeded where others had failed for two reasons:
 He left blank spaces in his table for undiscovered elements.
 He corrected some atomic mass values.  One group of elements that Medeleev did
not anticipate was the noble gas. He left
no blanks for them.
 William Ramsay proposed placing them in
a separate group of the table.
 Ramsay placed the new group, which he
called Group 0, 0, between the halogen
elements (Group
(Group VII)
VII) and the alkali metals
The blanks in his table came at atomic masses 44 (Scandium), 68

(gallium), 72 (germanium) and 100 (technetium). (Group I).
I).
• Two of the atomic mass values he corrected were those of indium and
uranium.

4
The Modern Periodic Table
• The atomic number of an element is equal to
• There are several places in the modern table the number of protons in the nucleus.
where an element of higher atomic mass • Atomic number
comes before one of lower atomic mass. increases by one
as you move from
• This is because the basis for ordering the element to
elements in the table today is the atomic element across a
number, not atomic mass. row.

• Each row (except the first) begins with a


metal and ends with a noble gas.

The Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table


• In between, the properties of the elements The statement that…
change in an orderly progression from left …”the physical and chemical properties of the
to right. elements repeat in a regular pattern when
they are arranged in order of increasing
• The pattern in properties repeats after atomic number”…
column 18.
…is known as the periodic law.
• This regular cycle is what we call
“periodicity” in the properties of the
elements.

5
Family (or “group”) IA
The Modern Periodic Table Family (or “group”) IIA(or “group”) VIIIA
Family
Family
Family
Family
(or
Family
(or
“group”)
Family
(or
“group”)
(or
“group”)
(or
“group”)
IIIA
“group”)
IVAVA
VIAVIIA
metalloids
Non-metals 1st Period
2nd Period
metals
3rd Period

Alkali metals Noble gases

Halogens
Representative KNOW THESE
Elements FAMILY NAMES!

Transition
Metals

Inner Transition Metals

6
Using the Periodic Table Using the Periodic Table
Remember “valence” (outside) electrons and 13 14 15 16 17
Lewis Dots?
The reason that “families” of elements exist is
that the elements in a family…
…HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF VALENCE
ELECTRONS!!!
At
(watch the pattern…)
Also note that the last number of the family
gives the number of valence electrons!!!

A Word About “Metalloids”


Metalloids”
The elements along the “stairstep” between
the meals and nonmetals on the Periodic
Table are called “metalloids”.

Not only are they metalloids


between metals and
nonmetals on the table, their PROPERTIES
are also between metals and nonmetals!

7
The Modern Periodic Table
Carbon, for example, is very common as
metalloids
graphite – the same stuff in your pencil lead.
While graphite is brittle, (ever break your
pencil lead?) like a nonmetal…
Graphite also conducts electricity like a
metal!
Graphite (carbon) is a metalloid because it
acts like a metal AND a nonmetal.

A Final Note…
Note…
SEVEN of the elements, when NOT in
compounds, are normally found as….
…”DIATOMIC” MOLECULES!
They are: H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, & I2
It will become very important to know this
later!
(sulfur is usually found as “S8”, while
phosphorus is usually “P4”)