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1

Initial conditions

• Steady-state problem -> completely determined by BC

• Limit-cycle oscillation -> completely determined by BC

• Transient computation of an initial-value problem is

dependent on the initial conditions

• Initial conditions may be important for the convergence to

steady state

– Set to constant value

– Solve simplified equation (potential flow – ”hybrid”)

– Solve on coarser grids (FMG = full multi-grid)

2

Boundary flow field

• Supersonic inflow

– All information from boundary to interior

• Subsonic inflow

– Most information from boundary to interior

– pressure related information from interior to boundary.

• Subsonic outflow

– Only pressure related information from boundary to interior

• Supersonic outflow

– No information from boundary to interior

• Must be

– Numerically stable

– Well posed

3

Boundary influence

If interaction between the boundary and interior flow fields is

a problem:

• Extend the boundaries for external flows

– typically 10-50 times the size of the object

– Less problem in 3D flows

• Include more of the true inflow/outflow geometries for

internal flows

• Make empirical/mathematical corrections on the

boundaries

• Warning for recirculation

– Inflow at outflow boundaries, or

– Outflow at inflow boundaries

4

External flow B.C.

Example: Cylinder wake (picture, thanks to one of you)

• Real problem: one isolated cylinder in free air

• How to define the domain and boundary conditions?

5

External flow B.C.

As symmetry or periodic BCs

6

External flow B.C.

As symmetry or periodic BCs

• Corresponds to a row of cylinders

• Distance set by domain size

• Flow accelerates in between

• Higher forces

• OK if distance is large

7

External flow B.C.

As pressure BCs (pressure outlet)

• Velocity and pressure not constant at the boundary

• Might be a local inflow – numerical instability?

• OK if distance is large

8

External flow B.C.

As inlet BCs (velocity inlet)

• Velocity and pressure not constant at the boundary

• Might be a local outflow – numerical instability?

• OK if distance is large

9

External flow B.C.

As inlet BCs (velocity inlet)

• Inflow everywhere – numerical stable

• How large distance?

– 2D wing: 20-100c may be needed

– 3D: 10-20c

– Far-field grid can

be VERY coarse

10

External flow B.C.

Far-field boundary condition (compressible flows only)

• Can handle both inflow and outflow

• Both sub- and supersonic flows

• Good alternative,

if distance is large

11

Inflow B.C.

• Velocity inlet

– External and internal flows

• Pressure inlet

– Sets total (stagnation) condition at inflow

– Internal flows

– Sets mass flow rate over the inflow

– Internal flows

12

Inflow conditions for turbulence

• At inflow boundaries the turbulence quantities must be

prescribed for turbulent computations

• Inflow turbulence levels mostly not fully known

• Solution may be strongly dependent on the inflow

turbulence levels, but mostly only minor dependencies

• Important to prescribe realistic values for solution

accuracy and numerical stability

from the region of interest.

• The turbulence levels at the inflow boundary are also

applicable as initial conditions.

13

Turbulence level

• Turbulence level,

– Relation between rms of fluctuations and mean velocity

– Assuming isotropic turbulence, turbulence kinetic energy

becomes

3

2

– Must be specified on inlet boundaries and for initial values

• Estimate

– 0.3% in external aerodynamic flows

– 1% in wind tunnels

– 5 10% in internal turbo machinery flows

– 2 3% usually do not influence the mean flow field

14

Turbulence length scale

• Viscosity ratio /

– Often recommended to be 1 10 in external flows

– Results in length scale

/

K

, , C 0.09

– For models: ≡ /

• Turbulence length scale,

– Easier estimated than viscosity ratio

– 1 10% of geometrical scales

• Turbulence advection length scale,

– Should not be much smaller than typical geometrical scales

15

Transition to turbulence

• The location of the transition point (or region)

– Depends on surface roughness, free stream turbulence

levels, noise, etc.

– No general method to predict

– Difficult to measure

• The flow may be dependent on the transition location

– Try to get information from experiments

– Try to estimate (specific empirical relations exist)

– Compute the growth rate of disturbances (a subject as big

as CFD)

– Assume the flow fully turbulent (if transition is unimportant)

• Transition location prescribed in CFD by setting laminar or

turbulent walls

– Laminar: Re < 103

– Turbulent: Re > 106

16

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