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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative Research Content

PRELIMINARIES

1. Use A4 size substance 20 bond paper


2. Margins: 1 inch for top, bottom and right margins; 1.5 inches for left margin
3. Chapter title is at the center heading. Not all capital letters. Only the beginning of the
word is capitalized, and use the numeral. e.g. Chapter 1
4. Use 3 single spaces after encoding Chapter 1, then encode the next title heading:
INTRODUCTION. This should be all capital letters; written in bold; not underlined. This is
still at the center
5. Use 2 single spaces after encoding: INTRODUCTION
6. Type: Rationale- at the left margin. This is NOT italicized; bold, not all caps.
7. All subsequent side subheadings are NOT italicized, e.g. Theoretical Lens, etc.
8. Use double space all throughout the manuscript
9. Right justified
10. Pagination: Except for the Chapter page, where no pagination is done, the rest have
page number at the upper right hand portion.
11. As much as possible, the ink in your computer should produce a clear print-out.

Abstract (150-200 words in block format)

Should reflect the Five Elements:

1. Research Objective- What is the main problem? Note: mention the qualitative
approach applied.
2. Methodology- contextualize the qualitative approach used: Phenomenology, Case
Study, Biographical Narrative, Ethnography, Grounded Theory
3. Participants- number of participants of IDI and FGD with brief presentation of inclusion
criteria, also mention the setting
4. Triangulation- present how triangulation of data was addressed
5. Results- briefly present the themes per Research Question

(5) Five Keywords that would start with the degree/program, 3 keywords of the title and the
last word is Philippines
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
Rationale
 First paragraph: If a vignette/ quotations/ anecdotes are first presented, discuss your
vignette in relation to your study.
 Readings should be about topics or studies conducted related to the present research
 Present the research gap, the urgency or the need to conduct the study. Then cite
problems in the global, national and local setting if applicable. It is recommended that
personal experiences be presented in relation to the problem and the outcomes it has
caused.
 Use Inventory RRL here.

Purpose of the Study : Follow the format below :


__________________________________________________________________________
SAMPLE

Purpose of the Study :


The purpose of this ________________________ ( phenomenological, grounded theory,
ethnographic, biographical, case) study is ( was? Will be? To grounded ___________________(
understand ? Describe? Develop? Discover?) the ___________________________________(
central focus for the study ) for ____________________ ( the unit of analysis: a person ?
Processes? Group? Site?. At this stage in the research, _______________________ ( central
focus, being Studied) will be generally defined as ________________________________(
provide a general definition of the central concept).
______________________________________________________

Identify Formation of Self in Early Career


Teachers : A Qualitative Study

Purpose of the Study :

The intent of this phenomenological study was to better understand how teacher’ self
perception and understanding of teaching evolve and change across their professional lives and
what events contribute to these understandings. In this study, I focused specially on the
perceptions of identity with a group of teachers who had taught for four to six years in the
public schools. It is generally accepted that identity is a multidimensional entity that evolves
through a continuous process of negotiating oneself in a variety of setting. As a teacher,
educator, I am interested in understanding the processes of teachers’ search for self and the
development of their professional identity as a teacher.
Little research has discussed teacher’ professional identity and processes through which
teachers develop this identity( Beijard, Verloop & Vermunt, 2000). Attention to the evolvement
of teacher identity is important if we accept the notion that teaching is journey – a
development process that benefits from the individual reflection, growth and renewal as a
teacher. As emphasized by Marsh (2002), the development of insights into how teachers’ self
perceptions evolve and change across their professional lives will help us understand how to
support and sustain teachers.
___________________________________________________________________________

Research Questions
 At least 2 to 3 Research Questions

Note: In making the Interview Guide Follow the Matrix below, however this should not be
included in the Research Question Section

 Interview Guide Questionnaire

Research Questions Main Questions Probe Questions

Theoretical Lens

 The theory, proposition, concept or a result of a study that the present research is
anchored with at least 3 support theories.

Significance of the Study

 Two paragraphs only


 The first paragraph should contain the importance of the study (personal statement).
 The Second paragraph should present the beneficiaries of the study from macro to
micro level (Example for Education : From DepEd Officials , school heads, teachers,
students, parents (if applicable), community residents ( if applicable), and future
researchers.

Definition of Terms

 Define not-too-familiar terms used in the study including the key terms in the title.
Follow format :
Sample:

Non- readers. These are pupils who cannot read any printed material and they

belong to frustrated reading level. These are schoolchildren with inability to read

properly. They have the behavior of withdrawing from reading situations (Luz, 2007).

Far-flung schools. These are schools at a considerable distance or largely in

space or time. These are remote schools as to what extent they can be reached by any

means of transportation.

Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

 First paragraph: introduce the subjects/ participants of the study, the organizations/
companies they belong and the place where the study is to be conducted. How the data
are to be gathered (Number of IDI and FGD).
 Second paragraph: State the limitations and delimitations of the study by stating similar
with this: ….
Sample:
The study is dependent on the ability of the informants and participants to

describe their experiences and answer the interview questions. Informants and

participants have varying degrees of knowledge and experiences with bullying, and

therefore, may be subjective. Since administrative permission is necessary to gain acess

to informants, principals and superintendents were informed of the study and its

purpose. This may have affected the teacher’s response because of the concerns that

administration would find out what teachers stated in the interviews. To avoid a

negative public perception of their school or their teaching, teachers were less

compelled to reveal their true thoughts on some issues.

 Finally, state the generalizability of the study similar to presentation below :


Sample:
However, I acknowledge the weaknesses which may not allow this research to

achieve the expected generalizability of this study. Due to the small sample who

participated in the study, results may not be generalized and cannot adequately support

claims of having achieved valid conclusions. In addition, I cannot guarantee the perfect

recollection of all the experiences of the participants due to the fact that the real stories

shared are past events and are subject for human error in terms of memory.

Organization of the Study

 First paragraph : Opening paragraph


 Second paragraph : Explain how the research is to be presented. Describe briefly how
many chapters the manuscript has, the content of each chapter. It is an overview of
what the manuscript contains.

Sample:
Chapter 1. This presents the very nature of gay lingo that is unique in the

Philippines and particularly in schools in Tagum City. It also presents the factor of gay

lingo conversations. It is here were some simple questions on its origin was answered

and will be the basis for a more elaborate discussion in the outcome of the qualitative

research. Moreover, bringing about all these essential facts on gay lingo would give way

to why such study is necessary.

Chapter 2. This discusses varied studies and readings on gay lingo, sexuality,

factors of gender, sexuality indexing and the findings of other related studies specifically

on how indexing contributes on the linguistic features of gay lingo.


Chapter 3. It deals with the design of the study, the role of the researcher and

the participants involved. Data Collection and analysis is included. Trustworthiness and

Credibility of the study is explained together with its ethical consideration.

Chapter 4. It discusses the results of the study based from research questions

conducted to the participants, which would shed light on reasons underlying the

phenomenological aspects of views. These are the views gathered from the participants

involved.

Chapter 5. It shows the basis of findings and its divergence of the theories

presented by sociolinguistic authors. It also discusses the explanation of its implication

in the practice, sociolinguistics and further research to be conducted together with its

concluding remarks.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Review of Related Literature :
 Extensive literature on the different topics related to the study.
 Use inventory format for readings with multiple sources
 To ensure continuity of the ideas presented, use the needed transitional devices.
 It is recommended that references or sources be cited after the sentence or paragraph.
 Use the 5 domains of RRL in order to have depth and breadth of the study.

Sample:
Distress as a personal experience by any individual needs to be understood

better and clearer by studying very closely its origin and the theories that formed the

phenomenon because oftentimes, it is used interchangeably with stress without

difference. Psychological distress is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral response to a


severe form of stressor (also called chronic stress) characterized by extreme anxiety,

anger, sorrow, pain, unhappiness and suffering that affects the mind, emotion and the

physical body including the level of functioning (Maier & Watskin, 2010; Moberg, 2011;

Montgomery & McCrone, 2010; Potter, 2012).

On the other hand, distress can be used to describe a state in which an organism,

has difficulty to adapt to one or more stressors, and is no longer coping with its

environment, where its well-being is compromised. It is widely used term to describe

unpleasant feelings or emotions that impact the level of functioning and it is a

subjective experience. That is, the severity of psychological distress is dependent upon

the situation and how we perceive it. In addition, it is the difficulty or even the inability

to cope with stressful condition that is both painful physically and mentally (Anderson,

2011).

Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

 Opening Paragraph – presentation of the coverage of this chapter.

Research Design

 What type of qualitative research you are adopting? (Phenomenology, ethnography,


etc. ). Why you are going to use that type of qualitative research design?
 This presentation is followed by a thick/ long/ extensive RRL on this type of qualitative
research design (4 to 5 pages).

Role of the Researcher

Why did you choose this topic? What is the relation of this study with your profession or
role in the community? Why is this research meaningful to you?
Aside from the main researcher, who will be involved in the conduct of the study (IDI,
FGD, etc.)

Research Participants

What are your criteria in the selection of participants? Cite reference/ sources as bases for
selection.

How many IDIs, Number of participants in FGD? Cite reference that you are within the
recommended number by experts.

How did you select the participants (IDI, FGD)? Cite references.

(How many times will you verify the participants‘ response to reach data saturation? Cite
references).

Data Collection

 What is the process you followed in data gathering ( Before interview, during interview,
and after interview) ? Cite references.
 Before conducting the interview, Give justifications with support of the following :
a) The need to observe ethical issues,
b) Conduct of the preliminary meeting with participants to establish rapport and trust.
 Importance of triangulation of data and how should it be done.
 Ensuring accuracy and confidentiality. Cite reference
 Things to be done to ensure validity and reliability (Removing bias or misconception).
Cite sources.
 Justify the number of participants in the IDI and FGD. Cite support

Analysis of Data

 Analysis of data in a research study involves summarizing the mass of data collected and
presenting the results in a way that communicates the most important features (
Hancock et al,2007).
 Make justifications why Data are to be analyzed using a method which include data
reduction, data display, conclusion drawing and verification ( Zhang and
Wildemuth,2007). Expound further each method. Cite sources.
 Process in the derivation of Conceptual Framework.
Trustwothiness

 Explain the importance of trustworthiness in the research and the how it should be
establish.
 Discuss the components of trustwothiness namely : credibility, confirmability,
transferability and dependability. Cite references.

Ethical Consideration

 How to ensure that the study was guided by ethical principles as described by (Mack et
al, 2005),namely: respect for persons, beneficence. Justice, consent and confidentially.
Describe each with references/ support.

Chapter 4

RESULTS
Results
 Opening Paragraph: Describe what your study is all about ; enumerate the research
questions ; and the 4 parts of this chapter.

“This chapter is divided into four parts. Part 1 tackles the participants data from which the
qualitative data were collected. Part 2 covers the data analysis procedures and the steps in the
categorization of the emergent themes from the result of the in-depth interviews and focus
group discussion. Part 3 deals with the response to the in-depth interviews and Focus Group
Discussion questions under each research problem and part 4 contains the summary of the
informants and participants ‘ responses “.

Participants

 Key Informants- How many? Cite reference. From where? What are your criteria of
selection?
 Focus Group- How many? Cite reference. From where? What are your criteria of
selection?
 Table 1- Participants’ Information
Assumed Location Years of Level Study Group Institution
Name Experience

 Describe the experiences during the conduct of the interviews ( IDI and FGD).
Categorization of Data
 Reiterate the discussion of the three steps that were undertaken which included data
reduction, data display, conclusion drawing & verification ( Zhang and Wildemuth, 2007)
in actual conduct of the study.
 How trustworthiness was ensured ( Confirmability, transferability, and dependability).
 Research Question No. 1 :
a) Present the question guide under this question.
b) Present the major themes generated in this question.
Table 2. ( Based on Research Question No. 1)

Source (if. Applicable) Core Ideas Frequency of Major Themes


(Code) Responses(Optional)
General
Typical
Variant

 Major Theme No.1 ( Side head) : Present the responses of informants including the
FGD. Narrate responses of participants using the core ideas presented in Table 1 ( Italics
side head). Responses in the vernacular as answered by the participants are to be
translated into English (in parentheses and heavily margined). Each response can be
traced placing the coded participants at the end of each statement. All major themes
should be presented using the same procedure.
 Research question No. 2, 3, 4, etc. – Follow the same procedure as above.

Chapter 5

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


Discussion
 First Paragraph : Scope of the study and the general objective of the study.
 Second paragraph : Justify the qualitative design used in the study with references.
 Major theme no. 1 : Present some responses of participants with reference support.
Discuss all major themes of each research question using the same procedure. Always
discuss results with reference. Use personal accounts every now and then supported
with references.

Implications for Practice


 Similar to recommendations in quantitative research but use the term “implies that..”
Presentation may be based on the research questions using major themes.
 Should be in several paragraphs.
 Should be based on the findings of the study.
 Use first person pronoun, “I” in narrating since this is a personal account.

Implications for Further Research

 In several paragraphs, what other researches of the same topic may be done in order to
strengthen and validate the research findings since the study is not generalizable ?
 May be based on findings or methods of the study.
 Use first person pronoun, “I” since this is a personal account.

Concluding Remarks

 Based on personal judgment with reference to the generated themes.


 Use first person pronoun, “I” in narrating since this is a personal account.