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EMERGING TRENDS IN INFORMATION AND

COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
BY MEENAKSHI GAUR, MCA-IV SEMESTER,
AIIT,AMITY UNIVERSITY
E-mail:aanchi_3005@yahoo.co.in

Abstract
The role of Information Communication and Technology in the current economies is
growing very fast. The technologies are being used by all the sectors, in all the
dimensions and in all disciplines of application of the Business Processes. The paper has
tried to highlight mainly the trends used by Information Communication and Technology
which already exists and which is emerging in the field of education.
The challenges faced by the educational planners are also discussed.

Introduction Three trends in ICT industry:

A need for emergence of new trends of 1) Commoditization of connectivity.


the Information Communication and 2) Standardization of services
Technology is discussed. The trends 3) Increasing value creation from
which exist in the industry are being innovation.
discussed, and then the trends which are
emerging in the ICT are discussed
thereafter, specifically the role of ICT in We can think of services at several sub-
Education is highlighted with the levels, one is developing the software;
challenges which are being faced. other is integrating delivery the software
and services.
ICT: A Vibrant, Growing
Next is standardization of software when
Industry we talk Enterprise Resource Planning
(ERP) Or CRM, the point is users and
ICT is no longer a Luxury. There may be the biggest problem in the industry is
people or governments which may be a that even the user does not know what
bit less familiar or less enthusiastic. But they need. Moving towards
no doubts that everyone regards it today standardization has both pluses and
as a crucial factor and key enabler of the minuses.
economy. And no economic activity in
any country can prevail without use of On the plus side, it means software will
ICT. be more accessible, usable and may be
cost-effective to use.
The second point is that the ICT And on the minus side for the system
industry, especially in developing integrator’s needs, if the software really
countries, and mostly in Asia represents works as desired, if it is really as easy to
one of the fastest growing sectors. work and plug and play as it claims.
The second ICT revolution has its roots
So, the standardization of software is in the 1970s, when the first “processors
going to pose a significant business on a chip” and magnetic discs were
challenge for many of the companies. constructed. But as late as 1977, Ken
Olson, the legendary president of the
The trend on SAAS- “Software AS A computer company, Digital, stated:
Service”, represents the ultimate “There is no reason anyone would want
example of the standardization of a computer in their home.”. This second
software to the point where the end user ICT revolution continues like the first:
may no longer be interested in the nuts the capacities of the machines increase,
and bolts of the software itself, or where their applications expand, and the
the software runs, but it is purely number of people who use them
interested in the utility, the services multiplies.
aspect of the software.
Revolution 3: The Microprocessor
It also can be argued that talking about
“the ICT” revolution The third ICT revolution is that
is a misnomer; for there has not been one microprocessors have become embedded
revolution, but five—so far. in an ever-widening range of products:
the steering systems of airplanes, the
Revolution 1: The Computer control panels of hydroelectric power
stations, domestic air conditioning
The first revolution started during World systems, the traffic lights in our streets.
War II, with the first large, automatic, Even when we do not recognize it, they
general electromechanical calculator, have become part of our everyday lives:
Harvard Mark 1. It was 50 feet long, in video players, credit cards, remote
eight feet tall, and weighed five tons. A controllers, cameras, hotel room door
couple of years later, ENIAC were locks, and smart buildings. There is a
presented microprocessor embedded in our digital
in Philadelphia, based on radio tubes and scale in the bathroom. Microprocessors
practically without any internal memory, translate bar codes into prices at the cash
yet using 18,000 vacuum tubes and register, monitor electronic injection of
weighing 30 tons. “Computers” became fuel in our cars, and determine where the
a new catchword, and input-output elevator stops in our building. An
technology graduated from punch cards ordinary household now contains some
to magnetic tape, faster printers, and 100 microprocessors, in everything from
more languages for programming. dishwashers to alarm systems.
Applications also were expanded, from Microprocessors constantly expand their
use in academic research to weather capacity, applications, and users.
forecasting, from airline ticketing to
accounting. This development continues;
the first ICT revolution is still under Revolution 4: The Internet
way.
The fourth ICT revolution stretches back
Revolution 2: The PC to the late 1960s, when the U.S.
Department of Defense drew up
guidelines for a communication network
among computers (ARPANET). After a Global Emerging Trends of ICT
while, universities in and outside the
United States were hooked up to it, and
Virtualization.
some started to use it to send messages.
A couple 22 of years later, surfing on the
Virtualization in storage and client
’net started, and more and more people
devices is moving rapidly , but much of
hooked up. A PC needed a modem to
the current buzz is focused on server
use its potential fully. This fourth ICT
virtualization.
revolution continues like the others as
Virtualization eliminates duplicate
more and more computers are
copies of data the real storage devices
interlinked with an ever-growing number
while maintaining the illusion to the
of “servers” and an expanding range of
systems who are accessing that the files
applications.
are as originally stored and can
significantly decrease the cost of storage
Revolution 5: Wireless Links
devices and media to hold information.
Instead of the motherboard function
The fifth ICT revolution was linking
being located in the data center
without lines—the new possibilities
hardware, it is located there as a virtual
opened by mobile phones. At first, they
machine bubble. Virtual desktop
were big and bulky. Reduction in size
capabilities will be adopted by fewer
and weight was accompanied by
than 45 percent of target users by 2010.
expansion of reach and functions, and
miniaturization was accompanied by
Cloud Computing.
multifunctionality. Linking without lines
now takes place not just
intercontinentally via satellites, but also The key characteristics of cloud
via high-frequency short-range radio computing are
transmitters covering a specific area or 1) Delivery of “as a service,”
cell (hence the name, “cellular phones”) 2) Delivery of services in a highly
and inside buildings by “Bluetooth” and scalable and elastic fashion,
infrared light. 3) Using Internet technologies and
techniques to develop and deliver the
services, and
4) Designing for delivery to external
customers.

Cloud computing is a style of computing


that providers deliver a variety of IT
enabled capabilities to consumers. It
enables very small companies to grow.

Social Software and Social


Networking.
Social software includes a broad range pathways, identifying relevant learning
of technologies, such as social resources, creating collaborative learning
networking, social collaboration, social opportunities, and providing insight and
media and social validation. Soon a support both during formal class time
social platform should be adopted and outside of the designated time.
Organizations should be adopted so that
your views and voice should not left Ubiquitous learning.
mute in a dialogue where your voice
must be heard. With the emergence of increasingly
robust connectivity infrastructure and
Redefinition of learning spaces. cheaper computers, college systems
around the world are developing the
The ordered classroom of 40 desks in ability to provide learning opportunities
rows of 5 may quickly become a picture to students “anytime, anywhere”. This
of the industrial age as colleges around trend requires a rethinking of the
the world are making them thinking the traditional 40 minute lesson. In addition
most appropriate learning environments to hardware and Internet access, it
to increase collaborative, cross- requires the availability of virtual
disciplinary, students centered learning. mentors or teachers, and/or opportunities
Concepts such as greater use of light, for peer to peer and self-paced, deeper
colors, and circular tables, individual learning.
spaces for students and teachers, and
smaller open learning spaces for project- ICT in education:
based learning are increasingly
emphasized. Information communication technology
Teacher-generated open content. is changing the trends and norms that
School systems are increasingly were set for the contemporary world. It
empowering teachers to identify and is not only connected the world at one
create the learning resources that they single platform but also helping in
find most effective in the classroom. reducing the gap of digital divide and
Many online texts allow teachers to edit, digital opportunity.
add to, or otherwise customize material The main purpose of the strategy for
for their own purposes, so that their information and communication
students receive a tailored copy that technology. Implementation in education
exactly suits the style and pace of the is ti provide the trends of integration of
course. Such activities often challenge ICT into general activities which serves
traditional notions of intellectual to education.
property and copyright. Whether school students usually do their
formal studying in school, the case is not
Teacher managers/mentors. same for the students in higher
education, a growing minority of whom
The role of the teacher in the classroom may study only partly-or not at all-on the
is being transformed from that of the campus of the university that is running
font of knowledge to an instructional their course. In developed countries, this
manager helping to guide students is often because students are working
through individualized learning while studying.
Most of pure distance universities, build With the rapid change in technology,
on older techniques of distance learning. training cannot be a one-shot affair; we
Many universities offer a mix of delivery have to be updated continuously to stay
methods. Annually, the goal is to widen abreast of developments. Planning and
access into markets that can not easily be designing educational systems so that
reached with more traditional approach. they familiarize students with a
Some offer the same course online and technology that is being modified and
in a classroom, otherwise a hybrid mix evolving continuously is not just an
of electronic and traditional methods of intellectual challenge, it is also an
delivery some setup satellite campuses economic one.
with broadband links through which the
students can learn partly at a distance. Acknowledgement:
Challenges
I express my deepest thanks to “Mrs.
The problem for educational planners is Ritu Punhani, Assistant Professor, AIIT
how to reach, within a reasonable time, and Mrs. Alpana Kakkar Assistant
the needs of the majority who are poor, Professor, AIIT” . They helped me lot
uneducated, and live in rural areas: how during the research.
to fund, implement, and maintain the
educational part of ICT networks. This
question is all the more to be highlight
because most major international References:
teleoperators do not include sub-Saharan
Africa or the remote areas of Central 1. By Meoli Kashorda, Ph.D., MIEEE,
Asia in their business strategy plans. The MIET, Faculty of Information
bitter fact is this: What happens in a Technology, Strathmore University.
country does not depend on the state of Emerging trends in ICT education
the art, but on the state of its economy.

Equally important question is not that 2. 10 Global Trends in ICT and


who can use the internet, but who can education:
produce it. Both IT workforce and IT http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/10-
professionals are required who can global-trends-in-ict-and-education
produce a content material for internet.

The cyber law in India also imposes 3. Emerging Trends in ICT and
certain restrictions and their violations Education
may take the form of offences and http://www.usq.edu.au/course/material/e
contraventions. Cyber crimes in India du5472/content/mod11.htm
are taken care of by the Information
Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000),
but not completely helpful in preventing 4. By: John LeBaron Jay M. Robinson
them. These aspects must be kept in Distinguished Professor of Educational
mind by Companies, Individual and even Technologies Western Carolina
by the Government. University University of North Carolina
Cullowhee, NC, USA
Research Report for GeSCI Meta-
Review of ICT in Education

5. By Praveen Dayal.
ICT trends in INDIA-2006.