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A Presentation


Carbon Footprints

Presented by
Information Systems Engineering,
Doğuş University
Environmental Pollution

 Environmental Pollution can be defined as any undesirable

change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of any
component of the environment i.e. air, water, soil which can cause
harmful effects on various forms of life or property.

 Pollution: The term pollution can be defined as influence of any

substance causing nuisance, harmful effects, and uneasiness to
the organisms

 Pollutant:- Any substance causing Nuisance or harmful effects or

uneasiness to the organisms, then that particular substance may
be called as the pollutant.
Types of Pollution



Municipal Waste Water
Land Pollution
Industrial Waste
Plastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries,
nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms,
coal-fired power plants, metals production factories
and other heavy industry all contribute to land
Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals,
particulate matter, or biological materials that
cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living
organisms, or cause damage to the natural
environment or built environment, into the

A substance in the air that can cause harm to

humans and the environment is known as an air
Causes of Air Pollution
 Carbon dioxide-this happens because of
Deforestation and fossil fuel burning.

 Sulfur dioxide –Due to the burning of sulfur

containing compounds of fossil fuels.

 Sulfur oxides- very dangerous to humans at a

high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere
is responsible for acid rain.
Consequences of Air Pollution

 CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also

partially restricts infrared radiation going back
from the earth into space, which produces the so-
called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic
cooling of the Earth during the night.

 CO2 in atmosphere --> GLOBAL WARMING

Some Proof of Global Warming
Portage Glacier Alaska now….
Portage Glacier Alaska then….
Colorado River, As of
Colorado River, As of
December 2010
June 2002
Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major
Greenhouse gas emissions are the driving force behind
climate change.
Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse gases are those which contribute to the
greenhouse effect . The six regulated gases are:
• Carbon dioxide (CO2)
• Methane (CH4)
• Nitrous oxide (N2O)
• Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
• Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
• Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

The most influential greenhouse gas for climate change is

carbon dioxide (CO2).
Where does all the Carbon dioxide come from?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released when we burn carbon based
Almost all fuels are carbon-based, including:
• Petrol and diesel in our cars, vans and generators.
• Electricity generated from fossil fuel power stations.
• Coal, oil and gas in our power stations (and businesses).
• Jet fuel in aero planes.

Virtually all human activities cause CO2 emissions that lead to

climate change.
Hence every person is responsible for CO2 emissions.
So in actual its ‘carbon dioxide footprint’.
Effect of greenhouse gases on environment
• Easily trap the sun's heat.
• Keep the earth warm.
• Too much gases in the air leads to climate change, what we
call Global warming.
• Methane and nitrous oxide have high heat-trapping capacity
to carbon dioxide.
• But major role is played by carbon dioxide.
Classification of greenhouse gases
• Direct emissions that result from activities of the
organisation controls.
• Indirect emissions from the use of electricity.
• Indirect emissions from products and services.
Classification of Greenhouse gases
Difference between Global
Warming and the Greenhouse
Global warming refers to a rise in the
temperature of the surface of the earth.

The Greenhouse Effect is a process by which

thermal radiation from a planetary surface is
absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases,
and is re-radiated in all directions.
What Is A Carbon Footprint?

• A carbon footprint is a
measure of the impact our
activities have on the
environment, and in
particular climate change.
It relates to the amount of
greenhouse gases
produced in our day-to-day
lives through burning fossil
fuels for electricity, heating
and transportation etc.
• The carbon
footprint is a
measurement of all
greenhouse gases
we individually
produce and has
units of tonnes (or
kg) of carbon
dioxide equivalent
• A carbon footprint is "the total
set of greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions caused by an
organization, event, product or
person." Greenhouse gases can
be emitted through transport,
land clearance, and the
production and consumption of
food, fuels,
• manufactured goods,
materials, wood, roads,
buildings, and services. For
simplicity of reporting, it is
often expressed in terms of
the amount of carbon
dioxide, or its equivalent of
other GHGs, emitted.

Carbon footprint ranking
1) Forest fire – 100 million tons
CO2e 12) Beef cheeseburger – 2.5 kg
2) Having a child – 700 tons CO2e
13) A pint of beer – 500g CO2e
3) 2.5 Acres deforestation – 500 tons
14) Bottle of water – 200g CO2e
15) Cycling a mile – 100g CO2e
4) A new car – 17 tons CO2e 16) Banana – 80g CO2e
5) Flight (LA to Spain) – 4.6 tons 17) Walking through a door –
10g CO2e
6) A new computer – 720 kg CO2e 18) A web search – 2g CO2e
7) Road trip: SF to LA – 500 Kg CO2e
8) Light on for a year – 400 kg CO2e
9) $100 on groceries – 62 kg CO2e
10) Moderate cell phone use (year) –
47 kg CO2e
11) 10 lbs of trash – 3.1 kg CO2e
The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol
•A widely used standard for emissions reporting.
•Covers project emissions reporting and corporate emissions
•The corporate emissions reporting standard provides a
methodology for calculation of a carbon footprint.

ISO 140645
•ISO 140645 is an international standard for corporate
emissions reporting.
•It builds on the approach outlined in the Greenhouse Gas
• Certificates issued to countries those reduce their
emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) which causes global
• Came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of
the need for controlling emissions.

Key points
• One Carbon Credit is equal to one ton of Carbon Dioxide
• Methane and nitrous oxide have approximately 21 times
and 310 times, respectively, the heat-trapping capacity of
carbon dioxide.
• Reducing methane by one ton is equivalent to reducing
carbon dioxide by 21 tons.
How can we reduce our’s
carbon footprint?
1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
2. Turn off and unplug all electrical
appliances when not in use
3. Walk, Cycle, Carpool, Use public
transport when possible
4. Take a shower instead of a bath
5. Reuse your shopping bags
6. Close doors to keep heat in
7. Use low energy light bulbs
8. Plant a tree
10. Only turn on the dishwasher/
washing machine when full
12. Separate your rubbish
• It can be concluded that carbon footprints as well as
carbon credits carries an importance in our daily life.
• Everyone should realize its effect and should try to
protect the nature from its adverse effects.
• The carbon credit business is a rapidly changing
business, and people should be aware that market rates,
protocols, and registration programs can change