THEORY
(ENT 187/3)
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
(ENT 161/4)
Basic Laws
Introduction to Electric Circuit
Electric circuit ?can be defined as an
interconnection between components
or electrical devices for the purpose of
communicating or transferring energy
from one point to another.
2
Basic Electric Circuit
In real physical systems, the resistance of the connecting wire maybe
appreciably large, and the modeling of the system must include that
resistance.
Resistor are often used to model devices that convert electrical energy
into heat or other form of energy.
Electron
Introduction
Ohm’s Law
Nodes, Branches and Loops
Kirchhoff’s Laws
Series Resistors and Voltage Division
Parallel Resistors and current Division
Introduction
• Resistor have resisting behavior where this circuit element are used to
model the current .
v iR
• Resistance, R: denotes its ability to resist the flow of electric current (unit inΩ)
• The two extreme possible values of R:
• R= 0 is called a short circuit (v= iR=0)
• R=∞ is called open circuit v
i lim 0
R R
Ohm’s Law
A short circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching
zero
1 i
G
R v
v2 i2
p vi i R
2 or
p vi v G
2
R G
Notes:
1. The power dissipated in a resistor is a nonlinear function of
either current or voltage.
What is the voltage across a 680 W resistor if the current is 26.5 mA? 18 V
115 V V
mV
A Range
Autorange 1s
Touch/Hold 1s
10 A
V
40 mA COM
Fused
Calculate the power in each of three circuits below:
2A 1.5A
V
The linear relationship of Current and Voltage
A student takes data for a resistor and fits the straight line shown to the
data. What is the resistance and the conductance of the resistor?
Ability of an element to conduct electric
current; measured in Siemens.
16
1 1
R 676 Ω 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
G 1.48 mS
V (V)
The linear relationship of Current and Voltage
Current (mA)
6.0
What is its 0
0
resistance? 10 20 30
Voltage (V)
2.7 kW
Graph of Current versus Voltage
R constant
V Increase V, I increase
I
R
V Decrease V, I decrease
I
R
Inverse Relationship of Current and
Resistance
When resistance reduced, the current goes up
and vise versa as expressed by Ohm’s Law.
V constant 4.0
V
I Increase R, I decrease
2.0
R
V
I
0
Decrease R, I increase 0 1.0 2.0 3.0
R Resistance (kW )
Application of Ohm’s law
26.8 mA
Power Supply
V A
+15 V
Gnd 5 V 2A  +  +
Nodes, Branches and Loops
•A network – interconnection of
elements or devices.
V1 V2
V1 = V2
Nodes, Branches and Loops
Example:
Determine the number of branches and nodes in the circuit shown in
Figure 2.12. Identify which elements are in series and which are in
parallel.
Answer:
Branchs = 4 5Ω
Nodes = 3
Identify element:
10 V + 6Ω
Series : Voltage  2A
source, Resistor 5Ω
and Resistor 6Ω
30 V
+ +
 5kΩ V

in 0
Where:
N = number of branches
n 1 connected to the node
2. The sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving
the node .
i5 i1 ()i2 i3 i4 ()i5 0
i1
Rearrange:
i3 i2
i4 i1 i3 i4 i2 i5
IT IT
a a
I S I1 I 2 I 3
I1 I2 I3 =
b
b
IT I 2 I1 I 3
IT I1 I 2 I 3
KCL Apply For Parallel and series
circuit
For parallel circuit : I3
IT
IT = I1 ± I2 ± I3 ±
I2
…..
IT = I1 = I2 = I3 =…..
Kirchhoff’s Law
v
m 1
m 0
+ v2  + v3 
v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 0
+ 
v1  v4 v2 v3 v5 v1 v4
+
 v5 +
Sum of voltage drop = Sum of voltage rises
The sum of all voltage drop around a single close path in a circuit is equal
to the total source voltage in that loop.
Kirchhoff’s Law
• Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) applied to series connection of voltage sources to obtain
the total voltage.
a
+
 V1
+ a+
Vab  V2 = Vab  VS V1 V2 V3
+ +
b 
 V3
+
b 
v2 v3 v5 v1 v4
Kirchhoff’s Law
Example:
For the circuit in Fig. 2.21 find voltages v1 and v2.
2Ω 20V = V1V2
+ v1 
+ 
20V  v2 3Ω
+
Kirchhoff’s Law
Problem:
Find v1and v2 in the circuit of the Fig.
4Ω
+ v1 
+ 
10V  8V +
+ v2  Answers:
V1 = 12V
V2 = 6V
2Ω
Kirchhoff’s Law
Problem:
Determine voand i in the circuit of the Fig.
4Ω
i 2vo
+ 
+ v1 
+ 
12V  4V +
+ vo 
6Ω
Answers:
і =  8A
Vo = 48 V
Kirchhoff’s Law
Problem:
Find current io and voltage vo in the circuit shown in Fig. below.
io
+ vo 
0.5io 4Ω
3A
Answers:
іo = 6A
Vo = 24 V
Series and Parallel Circuit
3 type of circuit connection:
Series Circuit
Parallel Circuit
Combination seriesparallel circuit
Series Circuits
RT R1 R2 R3 R4 ... RN
For example, the resistors in a series circuit are 680 W,
1.5 kW, and 2.2 kW. What is the total resistance?
R1
680 W
VS R2
12 V 1.5 kW
4.38 kW
R3
2.2 kW
Example
Determine the total resistance of the series connection in
Figure 1.
7.04kΩ
Figure 1
Connection of series resistors
RT NR
Where N = the number of resistors in the string.
The total series resistance is not affected by the order in which the
components are connected.
Example
Determine the total resistance of the series resistor in
Figure 2.
RT NR
RT = 4 ( 3.3 kΩ )
RT = 13.2 kΩ
Series circuit rule for current
Because there is only one path, the current everywhere
is the same.
+ 2.0 mA _ R1 + 2.0 mA _
VS R2
_ _
2.0 mA + 2.0 mA +
Total resistance (RT) is all the
source “sees.”
Once RT is known, the current
drawn from the source can be
determined using Ohm’s law:
Vs
Is
RT
Since Vs is fixed, the magnitude
of the source current will be
totally dependent on the
magnitude of RT .
REMEMBER : NO POLARITY FOR THE RESISTOR
Vs
SERIES CIRCUITS
Consider a singleloop circuit with two resistors in series
i + v1  + v2  Applying Ohm’s law of each resistor
•a
R1 R2
v1 iR v2 iR2 (1)
+
v  If apply KVL to the loop (CW), we have
b (2)
• v v1 v2 0
i + v Combing (1) and (2):

•a v
Req v v1 v2 i( R1 R2 ) or i
R1 R2
+
v  v iReq Req R1 R2
b
•
Example 4.3
For the series circuit in Figure 4.3:
a. Find the total resistance RT
b. Calculate the resulting source current IS .
c. Determine the voltage across each resistor.
RT = 8Ω
Is = 2.5 A
Vs
V1 = 5 V
V2 = 2.5 V
V3 = 12.5 V
Figure 4.3
Example 4.4
For the series circuit in Figure 4.4:
a. Find the total resistance RT
b. Calculate the resulting source current IS and indicate its
direction on the circuit.
c. Find the voltage across resistor R2 and indicate the polarity
on the circuit.
RT = 25Ω
Is = 2 A
Vs
V2 = 8 V
Figure 4.4
Example 4.5
Given RT and I3 , calculate R1 and Vs
Vs
Figure 4.5
VOLTAGE SOURCE IN SERIES
VT VS1 VS 2 VS 3 VSn
Where n= 1,2,3,4,n…..
V1
V1
V2
V2 VT VT
V3
V3
Vs
Mathematically,
N
Req R1 R2 R3 ... RN RN
n 1
VS
R1
Assume R1 is twice the size of 12 V
R2. What is the voltage across
R1? 1Ω R2
8V
R1
Voltage divider 15 kW
VS + R2
20 V 10 kW
What is the voltage across R2?
R1
470 W
VS + R2
Use the voltage divider rule to 20 V 330 W
find V1 and V2. Then find the
power in R1 and R2 and PT.
Ground
symbol Voltage source symbol
A
Circuit Ground R1
5.0 kW
VS +
The term “ground” typically means a 12 V B
common or reference point in the circuit. R2
10 kW
Voltages that are given with respect to C
ground are shown with a single subscript. For
example, VA means the voltage at point A with
respect to ground. VB means the voltage at point B
with respect to ground. VAB means the voltage
between points A and B.
What are VA, VB, and VAB for the circuit shown?
VA = 12 V VB = 8 V VAB = 4 V
Parallel Circuit
RESISTORS IN PARALLEL
A
R1 R2 R3 R4
B
Schematic representations of three parallel resistors.
a) Parallel resistors; (b) R1 and R2 are in parallel; (c) R3 is in parallel with
the series combination of R1 and R2.
PARALLEL RESISTORS
For resistors in parallel, the total resistance
is determined from
(6.1)
(6.4)
R 12W
RT 4W
N 3
SPECIAL CASE: TWO PARALLEL
RESISTORS
A special case: The total resistance of two
resistors is the product of the two divided by
their sum.
(6.5)
R1 R2
RT
R1 R2
3W 6W
3W 6W
18
W 2W
9
PARALLEL RESISTORS
Parallel resistors can be interchanged
without changing the total resistance or
input current.
For parallel resistors, the total resistance
will always decrease as additional parallel
elements are added.
Parallel Circuits
Parallel circuits
+ R1 R2 R3 R4
VS
Parallel Circuits
Parallel circuit rule for voltage
Because all components are connected across the same
voltage source, the voltage across each is the same.
For example, the source voltage is 5.0 V. What will a volt
meter read if it is placed across each of the resistors?
+5.0 V +5.0 V +5.0 V +5.0 V
 +  +  +  +
VS R1 R2 R3
+5.0 V 680 W 1.5 kW 2.2 kW
Parallel Circuits
Voltageis always the same across parallel
elements.
V1 = V2 = VS
V1 V2
V1 Vs V2 Vs
I1 and I 2
R1 R1 R2 R2
Parallel Circuits
For singlesource parallel networks, the source
current (I ) is equal to the sum of the individual
s
branch currents.
Is I1 I 2
For a parallel circuit, source current equals the
sum of the branch currents. For a series circuit,
the applied voltage equals the sum of the
voltage drops.
Parallel Circuits
For parallel circuits, the greatest current
will exist in the branch with the lowest
resistance.
Vs Vs
I s I1 I 2
R1 R2
Power Distribution in a Parallel Circuit
For any resistive circuit, the power applied
by the battery will equal that dissipated by
the resistive elements.
R1 R2
RT R1 R2
I1 IT IT
R1 R1
R2
I1 I T
R1 R2
R1
I 2 I T
R1 R2
Summary
Current divider
When current enters a junction it divides with current
values that are inversely proportional to the resistance
values.
The most widely used formula for the current divider
is the tworesistor equation. For resistors R1 and R2,
R2 R1
I1 IT and I 2 IT
R1 R2 R1 R2
Notice the subscripts. The resistor in the numerator is
not the same as the one for which current is found.
Open and Short Circuits
For example:
R1
1.0 kW is equivalent to R1
2.0 kW
R2
1.0 kW
Another example:
is equivalent to
R1 R2 R1,2
1.0 kW 1.0 kW 500 W
R1
1.0 kW R3 R 1,2 R3
R2 4.7 kW 3.7 kW 4.7 kW
2.7 kW
is equivalent to
Vs
Example 6.2
Determine currents I4 and Is and voltage V2
Vs
LADDER NETWORKS
Repetitive structure that looks like a ladder
Method 1 – Calculate the total resistance and
resulting source current, and then work back
through the ladder until the desired current or
voltage is obtained.
Method 2 – Assign a letter symbol to the last
branch current, and work back through the
network to the source, maintaining this assigned
current or other current of interest.
Example 6.3
Exercise : For ladder network, determine RT,
current I and the power delivered to R7.
Answer:
RT = 5.53 Ω
I = 7.23 A
P = 0.281 W
Wye – Delta Transformation
•circuit analysis when the resistor connection are neither in parallel nor in series.
•Implementation – three – phase networks, electrical filters, etc.
•Delta to wye conversion: each resistor in the Y network is the product of the
resistors in the two adjacent ∆ branches, divided by the sum of the three ∆ resistors.
Rb Rc
R1
Ra Rb Rc
Rc Ra
R2
Ra Rb Rc
Ra Rb
R3
Ra Rb Rc
Wye – Delta Transformations
Wye to delta conversion: each resistor in the network is the sum of all possible
products of Y resistors taken two at a time, divided by the opposite Y resistor.
R1 R2 R2 R3 R3 R1
Ra
R1
R1 R2 R2 R3 R3 R1
Rb
R2
R1R2 R2 R3 R3 R1
Rc
R3
Wye – Delta Transformations
R1 R2 R3 RY Ra Rb Rc R
Rc Ra R1 R2 R2 R3 R3 R1
R2 Rb
Ra Rb Rc R2
Ra Rb
R3 R1R2 R2 R3 R3 R1
Ra Rb Rc Rc
R3
R1 R2
a b a b
R1
R2
R3
R3
c c
c
(a) Wye (b) Tee
Delta/Pi Circuit
Same type of Connections
Rc Rc
a b a b
Rb Rb Ra
Ra
c c
c
(a) Delta (b) Pi
Example
In the circuit shown in figure 1, determine Req and the current I flow
through the circuit.
4Ω 2Ω 1Ω
6Ω
12Ω
8Ω 2Ω
20V
2Ω4
10 3