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ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

THEORY
(ENT 187/3)
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
(ENT 161/4)

Basic Laws
Introduction to Electric Circuit
 Electric circuit ?can be defined as an
interconnection between components
or electrical devices for the purpose of
communicating or transferring energy
from one point to another.

 The components of electric circuit are


always referred to as circuit elements.

2
Basic Electric Circuit

Simple electrical circuit Schematic diagram of electrical


circuit.
Basic Electric Circuit

The direction of conventional


flow ( Iconventional) is a opposite to
that of electron flow ( Ielectron).
Example : Lighting system

Before this, we have assumed that connecting wires are perfect


conductor with zero resistance.

In real physical systems, the resistance of the connecting wire maybe
appreciably large, and the modeling of the system must include that
resistance.

Resistor are often used to model devices that convert electrical energy
into heat or other form of energy.

Equivalent circuit of lighting system


Energy loss and voltage drop in a resistance

Electrons have lower energy


on positive side of circuit.

Energy drop in this direction

Electron have highest


energy level at the negative
side of the circuit.

Electron

• Electrons are flowing out of the negative terminal of the battery.


• They have acquired energy from the battery and they have highest energy
level at the –ve side of the circuit.
• As the electron move through the resistor, they lose energy.
• The electrons emerging from the upper end of the resistor are at a lower
energy level than those entering the lower end.
• The drop in energy level through the resistor create a potential differences
or voltage drop across the resistor.
 By following the direction of conventional flow
 There is a rise in voltage across the battery (- to + )
 Drop in voltage across the resistor ( + to - )
CONTENTS of Basic Law

 Introduction
 Ohm’s Law
 Nodes, Branches and Loops
 Kirchhoff’s Laws
 Series Resistors and Voltage Division
 Parallel Resistors and current Division
Introduction

• Fundamental laws – govern electric circuits:


1. Ohm’s Law
2. Kirchhoff’s law

• Technique commonly applied:


1. Resistors in series/ parallel
2. Voltage division
3. Current division
4. Delta-to-wye and wye-to-delta transformations
Ohm’s Law

• Materials in general have a characteristics behavior of


resisting the flow of electric charge.
• Resistance: ability to resist current (R) .

R
A
Material Resistitivity( Ω.m ) Usage
Silver 1.64 x 10-8 Conductor
Copper 1.72 x 10-8 Conductor
Aluminum 2.8 x 10-8 Conductor
Gold 2.45 x 10-8 Conductor
Carbon 4 x 10-5 Semiconductor
Germanium 47 x 10-2 Semiconductor
Silicon 6.4 x 102 Semiconductor
Paper 1010 Insulator
Mia 5 x 1011 Insulator
Glass 1012 Insulator
Teflon 3 x 1012 Insulator
Ohm’s Law

• Resistor have resisting behavior where this circuit element are used to
model the current .

Ohm’s law states that the voltage v across a resistor is directly


proportionally to the current i flowing through the resistor.

• Georg Simon Ohm (1787 – 1854), a German physicist, is credited with


finding the relationship between current and voltage for a resistor.
• Ohm- defined the constant of proportionality for a resistor resistance, R

v  iR

• Resistance, R: denotes its ability to resist the flow of electric current (unit inΩ)
• The two extreme possible values of R:
• R= 0 is called a short circuit (v= iR=0)
• R=∞ is called open circuit v
i  lim 0
R   R
Ohm’s Law
A short circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching
zero

An open circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching


infinity.
• Resistor is either fixed or variable.
• Fixed resistors have constant resistance.
• The two common types of fixed resistors:
• Wire wound
• Composition
• Variable resistor have adjustable resistance. Example potentiometer.
• Reciprocal of resistance, known as conductance, G:

1 i
G 
R v

The conductance is the ability of an element to conduct electric current , it is


measured in mhos or Siemens (S).
Ohm’s Law

• The power is dissipated by a resistor is expressed by:

v2 i2
p  vi  i R 
2 or
p  vi  v G 
2
R G

Notes:
1. The power dissipated in a resistor is a nonlinear function of
either current or voltage.

2. Since R and G are positive quantities, the power dissipated


in a resistor is always positive( resistor- absorbs power from
circuit. Thus resistor is a passive element, incapable of
generating energy.
Examples:
1.2 A
What is the current in from a 12 V source if the resistance is 10 W?

What is the voltage across a 680 W resistor if the current is 26.5 mA? 18 V

What is the (hot) resistance of OFF V

the bulb? 132 W


Hz

115 V V

mV

A Range
Autorange 1s

Touch/Hold 1s
10 A
V

40 mA COM

Fused
Calculate the power in each of three circuits below:

2A 1.5A

(a) (b) (c)

P = 24 Watts P = 36 Watts P = 9 Watts


P = 24 W P = 36 mW P = 9 000W = 9kW
What happen if I doubled, V remain What happen if V halved, R remain What happen if R doubled, I remain
the same? the same? the same?
Linear Relationship of Current and
Voltage
 In resistive circuits, current and voltage are linearly
proportional.
 Linear means if one of the quantities is increased or
decreased by certain percentage, the other will increase
or decrease by the same percentage.
 Assume the value of resistance is constant.

V
The linear relationship of Current and Voltage

A student takes data for a resistor and fits the straight line shown to the
data. What is the resistance and the conductance of the resistor?
Ability of an element to conduct electric
current; measured in Siemens.
16

The slope represents the


14
conductance.
14.8 mA - 0 mA
G  1.48 mS 12
I (mA)
10.0 V - 0 V
The reciprocal of the 8
conductance is the
resistance: 4

1 1
R    676 Ω 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
G 1.48 mS
V (V)
The linear relationship of Current and Voltage

Graph of Current versus Voltage

Notice that the plot of current 10

versus voltage for a fixed resistor is


a line with a positive slope. What is 8.0
the resistance indicated by the
graph?

Current (mA)
6.0

What is its 4.0


conductance?
0.37 mS 2.0

What is its 0
0
resistance? 10 20 30
Voltage (V)
2.7 kW
Graph of Current versus Voltage

R constant
V Increase V, I increase
I
R

V Decrease V, I decrease
I
R
Inverse Relationship of Current and
Resistance
 When resistance reduced, the current goes up
and vise versa as expressed by Ohm’s Law.

Graph of Current versus Resistance


10
If resistance is varied for a
constant voltage, the current 8.0
verses resistance curve plots a
hyperbola.
Current (mA)
6.0

V constant 4.0
V
I Increase R, I decrease
2.0
R
V
I
0
Decrease R, I increase 0 1.0 2.0 3.0
R Resistance (kW )
Application of Ohm’s law

26.8 mA

The four bands resistor is green-blue


brown-gold. What should the ammeter
read?
C Am meter -
D
+

Power Supply

V A

+15 V
Gnd 5 V 2A - + - +
Nodes, Branches and Loops
•A network – interconnection of
elements or devices.

• A circuit – network providing one/


more closed paths.
5Ω b
a
• Branch represents a single elements
such as a voltage source or resistor. A
branch represents any two-terminal
10 V + 2Ω 3Ω
2A
element. -

• Node is the point of connection between


two or more branches. It usually indicated c
by a dot in a circuit.

• Loop is any closed path in a circuit ;


formed by starting at a node, passing
through a set of nodes, and returning to the
starting node without passing through any
node more than once.
Nodes, Branches and Loops

1. Two or more elements are in series if they exclusively


share a single node and consequently carry the same
current.
i i

2. Two or more elements are in parallel if they are


connected to the same two nodes and consequently
have the same voltage across them.

V1 V2
V1 = V2
Nodes, Branches and Loops

Example:
Determine the number of branches and nodes in the circuit shown in
Figure 2.12. Identify which elements are in series and which are in
parallel.

Answer:
Branchs = 4 5Ω
Nodes = 3

Identify element:
10 V + 6Ω
Series : Voltage - 2A
source, Resistor 5Ω
and Resistor 6Ω

Parallel : Resistor 6Ω Figure 2.12


and Current Source.
Example
 In the circuit shown in Fig 2.8, calculate
the current I, the conductance G and the
power p.
i

30 V
+ +
- 5kΩ V
-

Figure 2.8 Simple electrical circuit


Kirchhoff’s Law
• First introduced in 1874 by the German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff
(1824-1887)
• 1st Law is based on the law of conservation of charge ( Kirchhoff ’s current
law (KCL))
• 2nd Law is based on the principle of conversation of energy ( Kirchhoff ’s
voltage law (KVL))
• Kirchhoff ’s current law (KCL):
1. The algebraic sum of currents entering a node (or close boundary) is
zero.
Closed
boundary N

 in  0
Where:
N = number of branches
n 1 connected to the node

In = the nth current


entering or leaving the
node.
Fig: Currents at a node illustrating KCL
Kirchhoff’s Law
 Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL):

2. The sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving
the node .

i5 i1  ()i2  i3  i4  ()i5  0
i1
Rearrange:
i3 i2
i4 i1  i3  i4  i2  i5

Fig: Currents at a node illustrating KCL


Kirchhoff’s Law

Simple application of KCL is combining current source in parallel.

IT IT
a a
I S  I1  I 2  I 3
I1 I2 I3 =

b
b

IT  I 2  I1  I 3

IT  I1  I 2  I 3
KCL Apply For Parallel and series
circuit
 For parallel circuit : I3

IT
IT = I1 ± I2 ± I3 ±
I2
…..

 For series circuit : I1 I2

IT = I1 = I2 = I3 =…..
Kirchhoff’s Law

• Kirchhoff ’s voltage law (KVL):


1. The algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.
M

v
m 1
m 0

2. Sum of voltage drops is equal to sum of voltage rises.

+ v2 - + v3 -
 v1  v2  v3  v4  v5  0

+ -
v1 - v4 v2  v3  v5  v1  v4
+

- v5 +
Sum of voltage drop = Sum of voltage rises
The sum of all voltage drop around a single close path in a circuit is equal
to the total source voltage in that loop.
Kirchhoff’s Law

• Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) applied to series connection of voltage sources to obtain
the total voltage.
a
+

- V1
+ a+

Vab - V2 = Vab - VS  V1  V2  V3
+ +

b -
- V3
+

b -
v2  v3  v5  v1  v4
Kirchhoff’s Law

Example:
For the circuit in Fig. 2.21 find voltages v1 and v2.

2Ω 20V = V1-V2

+ v1 -
+ -
20V - v2 3Ω
+
Kirchhoff’s Law

Problem:
Find v1and v2 in the circuit of the Fig.

4Ω

+ v1 -
+ -
10V - 8V +
+ v2 - Answers:
V1 = 12V
V2 = -6V
2Ω
Kirchhoff’s Law

Problem:
Determine voand i in the circuit of the Fig.

4Ω
i 2vo
+ -
+ v1 -
+ -
12V - 4V +
+ vo -

6Ω
Answers:
і = - 8A
Vo = 48 V
Kirchhoff’s Law

Problem:
Find current io and voltage vo in the circuit shown in Fig. below.

io
+ vo -

0.5io 4Ω
3A

Answers:
іo = 6A
Vo = 24 V
Series and Parallel Circuit
 3 type of circuit connection:
 Series Circuit
 Parallel Circuit
 Combination series-parallel circuit
Series Circuits

All circuits have three


common attributes. These R1
are:
VS + R2
1. A source of voltage.
2. A load.
R3
3. A complete path.

A series circuit is one that has


only one current path.
Series Resistor
The total resistance of resistors in series is
the sum of the individual resistors.

RT  R1  R2  R3  R4  ...  RN
For example, the resistors in a series circuit are 680 W,
1.5 kW, and 2.2 kW. What is the total resistance?
R1
680 W
VS R2
12 V 1.5 kW
4.38 kW
R3
2.2 kW
Example
Determine the total resistance of the series connection in
Figure 1.

7.04kΩ

Figure 1
Connection of series resistors

 When series resistors have the same value,

RT  NR
 Where N = the number of resistors in the string.
 The total series resistance is not affected by the order in which the
components are connected.
Example
Determine the total resistance of the series resistor in
Figure 2.

RT  NR
RT = 4 ( 3.3 kΩ )
RT = 13.2 kΩ
Series circuit rule for current
Because there is only one path, the current everywhere
is the same.

For example, the reading on the first ammeter


is 2.0 mA, What do the other meters read?

+ 2.0 mA _ R1 + 2.0 mA _

VS R2

_ _
2.0 mA + 2.0 mA +
 Total resistance (RT) is all the
source “sees.”
 Once RT is known, the current
drawn from the source can be
determined using Ohm’s law:

Vs
Is 
RT
 Since Vs is fixed, the magnitude
of the source current will be
totally dependent on the
magnitude of RT .
REMEMBER : NO POLARITY FOR THE RESISTOR

 The polarity of the voltage across a resistor is


determined by the direction of the current.

Current entering a resistor create a drop in voltage


with the polarity indicated in Figure (a).
Reverse the direction the polarity will reverse, Figure
(b)
Using voltmeters to measure the voltages across the
resistors
SERIES CIRCUITS
The magnitude of the voltage drop across each
resistor can be found by applying Ohm’s Law using
only the resistance of each resistor.
That is,
V1  I s R1 V2  I s R2 V3  I s R3

Vs
SERIES CIRCUITS
Consider a single-loop circuit with two resistors in series
i + v1 - + v2 - Applying Ohm’s law of each resistor
•a
R1 R2
v1  iR v2  iR2 (1)
+
v - If apply KVL to the loop (CW), we have

b (2)
•  v  v1  v2  0
i + v Combing (1) and (2):
-
•a v
Req v  v1  v2  i( R1  R2 ) or i
R1  R2
+
v - v  iReq Req  R1  R2
b

Example 4.3
For the series circuit in Figure 4.3:
a. Find the total resistance RT
b. Calculate the resulting source current IS .
c. Determine the voltage across each resistor.

RT = 8Ω

Is = 2.5 A
Vs
V1 = 5 V
V2 = 2.5 V
V3 = 12.5 V

Figure 4.3
Example 4.4
For the series circuit in Figure 4.4:
a. Find the total resistance RT
b. Calculate the resulting source current IS and indicate its
direction on the circuit.
c. Find the voltage across resistor R2 and indicate the polarity
on the circuit.
RT = 25Ω

Is = 2 A
Vs
V2 = 8 V

Figure 4.4
Example 4.5
Given RT and I3 , calculate R1 and Vs

Vs

Figure 4.5
VOLTAGE SOURCE IN SERIES
VT  VS1  VS 2  VS 3  VSn
Where n= 1,2,3,4,n…..

Voltage sources in series add algebraically.


For example, the total voltage of the sources +
9V
shown is 27 V
+ IS
9V
What is the total voltage if one battery is
reversed? +
9V
+9 V + 9V - 9V = 9V
Reducing series dc voltage sources to a
single source.

V1
V1

V2
V2 VT VT

V3
V3

By following the direction of conventional flow:


- There is a rise in potential across the battery (- to + )
- There is drop in potential across the resistor ( + to - )
R1
680 W
VS R2
12 V 1.5 kW
Series circuit R3
2.2 kW
Tabulating current, resistance, voltage and power is a
useful way to summarize parameters in a series circuit.
Continuing with the previous example, complete the
parameters listed in the Table.

I1= 2.74 mA R1= 0.68 kW V1= 1.86 V P1= 5.1 mW


I2= 2.74 mA R2= 1.50 kW V2= 4.11 V P2= 11.3 mW
I3= 2.74 mA R3= 2.20 kW V3= 6.03 V P3= 16.5 mW
IT= 2.74 mA RT= 4.38 kW VS= 12 V PT= 32.9 mW
Summary R1
680 W
VS R2
12 V 1.5 kW
Kirchhoff’s voltage law R3
2.2 kW

Notice in the series example given earlier that the sum


of the resistor voltages is equal to the source voltage.

I1= 2.74 mA R1= 0.68 kW V1= 1.86 V P1= 5.1 mW


I2= 2.74 mA R2= 1.50 kW V2= 4.11 V P2= 11.3 mW
I3= 2.74 mA R3= 2.20 kW V3= 6.03 V P3= 16.5 mW
IT= 2.74 mA RT= 4.38 kW VS= 12 V PT= 32.9 mW
VOLTAGE DIVISION IN A SERIES CIRCUIT
 The voltage across the
resistive elements will
divide as the magnitude of
the resistance levels.

Vs

 The greater the value of


a resistor in a series
circuit, the more of the
applied voltage it will
capture.
VOLTAGE DEVIDER RULE
The VDR permits
determining the voltage
levels of a circuit
without first finding the Vs
current of the circuit.
Series Resistors and Voltage Division

The equivalent resistance of any number of resistors connected in series is the


sum of the individual resistances.

Mathematically,
N
Req  R1  R2  R3 ...  RN   RN
n 1

To determine the voltage across each resistor shown in Fig,


R1 R2
v1  v , v2  v
R1  R2 R1  R2
Principle of voltage division:
RN
vn  v
R1  R2  ...  RN
VOLTAGE DEVIDER RULE
Voltage divider rule states that

The voltage drop across any given resistor in a series


circuit is equal to the value of that resistor times the total
applied voltage divided by the total resistance of the series
configuration

VS
R1
Assume R1 is twice the size of 12 V
R2. What is the voltage across
R1? 1Ω R2
8V
R1
Voltage divider 15 kW
VS + R2
20 V 10 kW
What is the voltage across R2?

The total resistance is 25 kW. Notice that 40% of


the source voltage is
Applying the voltage divider formula:
across R2, which
 R2   10 kW 
V2  VS    20 V   8V represents 40% of
 RT   25 kW  the total resistance.
Voltage divider

Voltage dividers can be set up for a variable output using


a potentiometer. In the circuit shown, the output voltage
is variable.
R1
20 kW
VS +
15 V
What is the largest output R2
10 kW VOUT
voltage available? 5.0 V
Power in Series Circuits

R1
470 W
VS + R2
Use the voltage divider rule to 20 V 330 W
find V1 and V2. Then find the
power in R1 and R2 and PT.

Applying the voltage The power dissipated by each


divider rule: resistor is:
11.75 V 
2
 470 W 
V1  20 V    11.75 V P  0.29 W
 800 W  470 W 2
1
PT =
 330 W 
V2  20 V 
 8.25 V  } 0.5 W
  8.25 V P2   0.21 W
 800 W  330 W
Interchanging Series Elements
 Elements of a series circuit can be interchanged
without affecting the total resistance, current, or
power to each element
 In the Figures below, resistors 2 and 3 are
interchanged without affecting the total resistance

Insert Fig 5.19 Insert Fig 5.20


Notation

Voltage sources and grounds

Ground
symbol Voltage source symbol
A
Circuit Ground R1
5.0 kW
VS +
The term “ground” typically means a 12 V B
common or reference point in the circuit. R2
10 kW
Voltages that are given with respect to C
ground are shown with a single subscript. For
example, VA means the voltage at point A with
respect to ground. VB means the voltage at point B
with respect to ground. VAB means the voltage
between points A and B.
What are VA, VB, and VAB for the circuit shown?
VA = 12 V VB = 8 V VAB = 4 V
Parallel Circuit
RESISTORS IN PARALLEL

Resistors that are connected to the same two


points/nodes are said to be in parallel.

A
R1 R2 R3 R4

B
Schematic representations of three parallel resistors.
a) Parallel resistors; (b) R1 and R2 are in parallel; (c) R3 is in parallel with
the series combination of R1 and R2.
PARALLEL RESISTORS
 For resistors in parallel, the total resistance
is determined from

(6.1)

 Note that the equation is for the reciprocal


of RT rather than for RT.
 Once the right side of the equation has been
determined, it is necessary to divide the result into
1 to determine the total resistance
PARALLEL RESISTORS
 Since G=1/R, the equation can also be written in
terms of conductance as follows:
GT  G1  G2  G3  ...  GN (Siemens, S) (6.2)

As the number of resistors in parallel increases, the


input current level will increase for the same applied
voltage.
 This is the opposite effect of increasing the number of
resistors in a series circuit.
PARALLEL RESISTORS
The total resistance of any number of parallel
resistors can be determined using
1
RT  (6.3)
1 1 1 1
   ... 
R1 R2 R3 RN

Ifthe smaller resistor of a parallel combination is


much smaller than the other parallel resistors, the
total resistance will be very close to the smallest
resistor value.
EXAMPLE 5.1
a) Find the total conductance of
the parallel network in Figure
6.1.
b) Find the total resistance of the
same network using the result
of part (a) and using Eq. (6.3)
(a)
1 1
G1    0.333S
R1 3W Applying Eq.6.3
1 1
G2    0.167 S
R2 6W 1 1
RT  
GT  G1  G2  0.333S  0.167 S  0.5S 1 1 1 1
 
R1 R2 3W 6W
(b)
1 1
1 1    2W
RT  
GT 0.5S
 2W 0.333S  0.167 S 0.5S
PARALLEL RESISTORS
For equal resistors in parallel:

(6.4)

Where N = the number of parallel resistors.


EXAMPLE 5.2
Find the total resistance of the parallel circuit

R 12W
RT    4W
N 3
SPECIAL CASE: TWO PARALLEL
RESISTORS
A special case: The total resistance of two
resistors is the product of the two divided by
their sum.

(6.5)

The equation was developed to reduce the effects


of the inverse relationship when determining RT
Summary

Special case for resistance R1 R2


of two parallel resistors

The resistance of two parallel resistors can be found by


1 R1 R2
either: RT  or RT 
1

1 R1  R2
R1 R2

What is the total resistance if R1 = 37 kW and


R2 = 46 kW are connected in parallel ?
20.5 kW
EXAMPLE 5.3
a) Find the total resistance
of the same network
using Eq. (6.5)

Previously Applying Eq.6.3

R1 R2
RT 
R1  R2


3W 6W 
3W  6W
18
 W  2W
9
PARALLEL RESISTORS
 Parallel resistors can be interchanged
without changing the total resistance or
input current.
 For parallel resistors, the total resistance
will always decrease as additional parallel
elements are added.
Parallel Circuits
Parallel circuits

A parallel circuit is identified by the fact that it has


more than one current path (branch) connected
to a common voltage source.

+ R1 R2 R3 R4
VS
Parallel Circuits
Parallel circuit rule for voltage
Because all components are connected across the same
voltage source, the voltage across each is the same.
For example, the source voltage is 5.0 V. What will a volt-
meter read if it is placed across each of the resistors?
+5.0 V +5.0 V +5.0 V +5.0 V
- + - + - + - +

VS R1 R2 R3
+5.0 V 680 W 1.5 kW 2.2 kW
Parallel Circuits
Voltageis always the same across parallel
elements.
V1 = V2 = VS

V1 V2

The voltage across resistor 1 equals the voltage


across resistor 2, and both equal the voltage supplies
by the source.
Parallel Circuits
 The source current can be determined using Ohm’s
Law:
Vs
Is 
RT
 Since the voltage is the same across parallel element,
the current through each resistor can also be
determined using Ohm’s Law. That is,

V1 Vs V2 Vs
I1   and I 2  
R1 R1 R2 R2
Parallel Circuits
 For single-source parallel networks, the source
current (I ) is equal to the sum of the individual
s

branch currents.

Is  I1  I 2
 For a parallel circuit, source current equals the
sum of the branch currents. For a series circuit,
the applied voltage equals the sum of the
voltage drops.
Parallel Circuits
 For parallel circuits, the greatest current
will exist in the branch with the lowest
resistance.
Vs Vs
I s  I1  I 2  
R1 R2
Power Distribution in a Parallel Circuit
 For any resistive circuit, the power applied
by the battery will equal that dissipated by
the resistive elements.

PVS  PR1  PR2  PR3  ...  PRN

 The power relationship for parallel


resistive circuits is identical to that for
series resistive circuits.
Summary
Parallel circuit + R1 R2 R3
VS
680 W 1.5 kW 2.2 kW

Tabulating current, resistance, voltage and power is a


useful way to summarize parameters in a parallel circuit.
Continuing with the previous example, complete the
parameters listed in the Table.

I1= 7.4 mA R1= 0.68 kW V1= 5.0 V P1= 36.8 mW


I2= 3.3 mA R2= 1.50 kW V2= 5.0 V P2= 16.7 mW
I3= 2.3 mA R3= 2.20 kW V3= 5.0 V P3= 11.4 mW
IT= 13.0 mA RT= 386 W VS= 5.0 V PT= 64.8 mW
Current Divider Rule
 The current divider rule (CDR) is used to find
the current through a resistor in a parallel circuit.
General points:
 For two parallel elements of equal value, the current will
divide equally.
 For parallel elements with different values, the smaller
the resistance, the greater the share of input current.
 For parallel elements of different values, the current will
split with a ratio equal to the inverse of their resistor
values.
Current Divider Rule
Vs  I T RT
Vx  Vs where x  1,2,3,....n
I x Rx  I T RT
I T RT
Ix 
Rx
 RT 
I x    I T RT 
1
 Rx  1

1 1
  ... 
R1 R2 R3
1
RN
Example 5.5
 For the parallel network, determine current I1
Current Divider Rule
RT
Ix  IT
Rx
Special case: Two Parallel Resistor

Substituting RT into this equation for current I1


results in

 R1 R2 
 
RT  R1  R2 
I1  IT  IT
R1 R1
 R2 
I1    I T
 R1  R2 
 R1 
I 2    I T
 R1  R2 
Summary

Current divider
When current enters a junction it divides with current
values that are inversely proportional to the resistance
values.
The most widely used formula for the current divider
is the two-resistor equation. For resistors R1 and R2,
 R2   R1 
I1    IT and I 2    IT
 R1  R2   R1  R2 
Notice the subscripts. The resistor in the numerator is
not the same as the one for which current is found.
Open and Short Circuits

 An open circuit can have a potential difference


(voltage) across its terminal, but the current is
always zero amperes.
Open and Short Circuits
A short circuit can carry a current of a level
determined by the external circuit, but the potential
difference (voltage) across its terminals is always zero
volts.

Insert Fig 6.44


Series Parallel Circuits
Combination circuits

Most practical circuits have combinations of series


and parallel components. You can frequently
simplify analysis by combining series and parallel
components.
An important analysis method is to form an equivalent
circuit. An equivalent circuit is one that has

characteristics that are electrically the same as


another circuit but is generally simpler.
Combination circuits

For example:

R1
1.0 kW is equivalent to R1
2.0 kW
R2
1.0 kW

There are no electrical measurements that can


distinguish the boxes.
Combination circuits

Another example:
is equivalent to

R1 R2 R1,2
1.0 kW 1.0 kW 500 W

There are no electrical measurements that can


distinguish the boxes.
is equivalent to

R1
1.0 kW R3 R 1,2 R3
R2 4.7 kW 3.7 kW 4.7 kW
2.7 kW

is equivalent to

There are no electrical


R1,2,3
measurements that can
2.07 kW
distinguish between the
three boxes.
Reduce and Return Approach
 Reduce:
Reduce the circuit to its simplest form
across the source and then determine the
source current (Is).
Return:
 Using the resulting source current (Is) to
work back to the desired unknown.
Example 6.1
Find current I3 for the series-parallel network in
Figure 6.1

Vs
Example 6.2
 Determine currents I4 and Is and voltage V2

Vs
LADDER NETWORKS
 Repetitive structure that looks like a ladder
 Method 1 – Calculate the total resistance and
resulting source current, and then work back
through the ladder until the desired current or
voltage is obtained.
 Method 2 – Assign a letter symbol to the last
branch current, and work back through the
network to the source, maintaining this assigned
current or other current of interest.
Example 6.3
Exercise : For ladder network, determine RT,
current I and the power delivered to R7.

Answer:
RT = 5.53 Ω
I = 7.23 A
P = 0.281 W
Wye – Delta Transformation

•circuit analysis when the resistor connection are neither in parallel nor in series.
•Implementation – three – phase networks, electrical filters, etc.
•Delta to wye conversion: each resistor in the Y network is the product of the
resistors in the two adjacent ∆ branches, divided by the sum of the three ∆ resistors.

Rb Rc
R1 
Ra  Rb  Rc

Rc Ra
R2 
Ra  Rb  Rc

Ra Rb
R3 
Ra  Rb  Rc
Wye – Delta Transformations

Wye to delta conversion: each resistor in the network is the sum of all possible
products of Y resistors taken two at a time, divided by the opposite Y resistor.

R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
Ra 
R1

R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
Rb 
R2

R1R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
Rc 
R3
Wye – Delta Transformations

Y and ∆ networks are said to be balanced when

R1  R2  R3  RY Ra  Rb  Rc  R

Therefore conversion formulas:


R
R1  R  3RY
3
Each resistor in the Y network is the product of the resistors in the two
adjacent ∆ branches, divided by the sum of the three ∆ resistors.

Delta to wye Wye to delta conversion


conversion
Rb Rc R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
R1  Ra 
Ra  Rb  Rc R1

Rc Ra R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
R2  Rb 
Ra  Rb  Rc R2

Ra Rb
R3  R1R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
Ra  Rb  Rc Rc 
R3

Each resistor in the ∆network is the sum of all possible product of Y


resistors taken two at a time , divided by the opposite Y resistors.
Delta (Δ) to Wye (Y) and Wye (Y) to
Delta (Δ) transformation
Wye/Tee Circuit
 Same type of connections

R1 R2
a b a b
R1
R2
R3
R3

c c
c
(a) Wye (b) Tee
Delta/Pi Circuit
 Same type of Connections
Rc Rc
a b a b

Rb Rb Ra
Ra

c c
c
(a) Delta (b) Pi
Example
In the circuit shown in figure 1, determine Req and the current I flow
through the circuit.

4Ω 2Ω 1Ω
6Ω

12Ω

8Ω 2Ω
20V

2Ω4
10 3