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# FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING
[ ENT 188 ]

Circuit Theorems
INTRODUCTION
 Circuit theorems is apply to analyze the
complex circuit.
 Function – To simplify the circuit analysis.
 Circuit theorems:
Thevenin’s Theorem
Northon’s Theorem
 Require understanding of the concept of
Superposition, Source Transformation,
Maximum Power Transfer before go
through the theorem.
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Linearity Property
 Superposition
 Source Transformation
 Thevenin’s Theorem
 Northon’s Theorem
 Maximum Power Transfer
LINEARITY PROPERTY
Linearity is property of an element describing a linear relationship
between cause and effect.
A linear circuit is one whose output is linearly related (or directly
proportional) to its input.
1. Consist of linear elements, linear dependent sources and
independent sources.
2. Property of linearity:
a) Homogeneity property
• If input/ excitation is multiplied by a constant, then the
output/ response is multiplied by the same constant
• E. g. from Ohm’s law
v  iR
• If multiply by a constant k
kv  kiR
LINEARITY PROPERTY
• Response to a sum of inputs is the sum of the responses to
each input applied separately.
• E.g. Voltage-current relationship  v1  i1R  i2 R
v2 and
• Applying :

## Therefore we can say that a resistor is a linear element (voltage

–current relationship satisfies both properties).
LINEARITY PROPERTY
• Linearity principle can be illustrated by considering circuit below.
The linear circuit has no independent sources inside it.
• It is excited by a voltage source vs , which serve as the input.
The circuit is terminated by a load R.
• Suppose vs= 10V and output i=2A. Linearity principle would
gives i=0.2A when vs=1V and i=1mA when vs=5mV.

Let:
R is constant and R=5Ω
LINEARITY PROPERTY
Example: For the circuit in Figure , find I when vs=12V and vs=24V.
SUPERPOSITION
1. Use to determine the value of a specific variable (voltage or
current); based on linearity.
The superposition principle states that the voltage across (or
current through )an element in a linear circuit is the algebraic
sum of the voltage across ( or current through) that element due
to each independent source acting alone.

## 1. Steps to apply superposition principle:

a) Turn off all independent sources except one source. Find the
output (voltage or current ) due to that active source using
previous techniques.
b) Repeat step(a) for each of the other independent sources.
c) Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the
contributions due to the independent sources.

## Disadvantage – may involve more work.

SUPERPOSITION
Keep in mind:
• To consider only one independent source, every voltage sources
are replaced by 0 V (short circuit) and current sources by 0 A
(open circuit).
• Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled by
circuit variables.
SUPERPOSITION
Example: Use the superposition theorem to find v in the circuit in Figure
shown.

Solution
SUPERPOSITION
SUPERPOSITION

find i.
Solution:

## Figure 4.13 (a)

Figure 4.13 (b)
SUPERPOSITION
Figure 4.13 (c)
SUPERPOSITION
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION

## • Source transformation is another tool for simplifying circuits (like

series-parallel and wye – delta ).

## A source transformation is the process of replacing a voltage source

vs in series with a resistor R by a current source is in parallel with a
resistor R, or vice verse.

## • Basic to these tools is the concept of equivalence.

v s  is R
vs
is 
R
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION

## • Source transformation also applies to dependent source.

Note:
1. The arrow of the current source is directed toward the positive
terminal of the voltage source.
2. Source transformation is not possible when R=0 (ideal voltage
source) and R=∞ (ideal current source)
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION

## Example: Use source transformation to find vo in the circuit given.

Solution:
1. Transform the current and voltage sources.
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION
2. Combine the 4Ω and 2Ω resistors in series and transform the 12-
V voltage source.

3. Combine the 2-A and 4-A current sources to get 2-A source.

## 4. Use current division to get i.

THEVENIN’S THEOREM

## • Usage: to avoid analyzing entire circuit for every changes in

variable element .
• Provides a technique by which the fixed part of the circuit is
replaced by an equivalent circuit.

## Thevenin’s theorem states that a linear two – terminal circuit can

be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source
VTH in series with a resistor RTH, where VTH is the open circuit
voltage at the terminals and RTH is the input or equivalent
resistance at the terminals when the independent sources are
turned off.
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

## Let’s consider the figure: • We would like to replace the

original linear two-terminal
circuit by its equivalent Thevenin
circuit.
• The circuits are said to be
equivalent if they have same
voltage-current relation at their
terminals.
• If the terminals a-b are made
open-circuited (by removing the
load), no current will flows, so
that the terminals a-b must be
equal to the voltage source VTH ,
since the two circuits are
equivalent, Therefore:

VTh  voc
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

## • With the load disconnected and terminals a-b open-circuited,

we turn off all independent sources.
• The input resistance of the dead circuit at the terminals a-b
must be equal to RTH since the two circuits are equivalent,

RTh  Rin
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

cases:

## Finding VTh and RTh

Case 1:
If the network has no dependent sources, we turn off all
independent sources. RTh is the input resistance of the network
looking between terminals a and b.
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

Case 2:
If the network has dependent sources, we turn off all
independent sources. We apply a voltage source vo at the
terminals a and b determine the resulting current io.
Then RTh= vo/io as shown below. Alternatively, we may insert a
current source io at terminals a-b and find the terminal voltage
vo. Again RTh= vo/io (either of the two approaches will give the
same result.)
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

## • Important of Thevenin’s theorem- helps simplify a circuit (a

large circuit may be replaced by a single independent voltage
source and a single resistor)
• The current IL through the load and the voltage VL across the
load are easily determined once the Thevenin equivalent of the
circuit at the load’s terminals is obtained. :

V Th
IL 
RTh  RL
RL
VL  RL I L  VTh
RTh  RL

## Note: A negative RTh value shows that

the circuit is supplying power (circuit
with dependent source)
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

## Example: Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit shown in Figure below,

to the left of the terminals a-b. Then find the current through RL=6,
16, and 36Ω.

Solution:
THEVENIN’S THEOREM
THEVENIN’S THEOREM
THEVENIN’S THEOREM

## Exercise: Using Thevenin’s theorem, find the equivalent circuit to

the left of the terminals in the circuit shown. Then find I.
NORTHON’S THEOREM

## Norton’s theorem states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be

replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a current source
IN in parallel with a resistor RN
where
IN is the short circuit current between two output terminals in
the circuit and
RN is the total equivalent resistance at the terminals when the
independent sources are turned off.

## We find RN in the same way we find RTh

RN  RTh Simplified to
this
NORTHON’S THEOREM

To find IN:
• Determine the short-circuit current
flowing from terminal a to b in both
circuits.
• Since the two circuits are equivalent,

I N  isc

## From Thevenin equivalent, use Source

transformation to determine IN

VTh
IN 
RTh
NORTHON’S THEOREM

## To determine the Thevenin or Northon equivalent circuit, we

must find:
• The open – circuit voltage vc across terminals a and b, since
Vth=voc.
• The short – circuit current Isc at terminals a and b , since
IN=ISC
• The equivalent or input resistance Rin at terminals a and b
when all independent sources are turned off, yields:

voc
RTh   RN
isc
NORTHON’S THEOREM

## Example: Find the Northon equivalent of the circuit at terminal a-b.

Solution:
NORTHON’S THEOREM
NORTHON’S THEOREM
NORTHON’S THEOREM

Exercise: Find the Northon equivalent circuit for the circuit shown.
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER

## • Practically, a circuit is designed to provide power to a load.

• Certain application, e. g., communication – desirable to
maximize the power delivered to a load.
• Thevenin equivalent is useful in finding the maximum power a
linear circuit can deliver to a load.
• By assuming that the load resistance, RL can be adjusted, the
power delivered to the load is:

2
 VTh 
p  i RL  
2
 RL
 RTh  RL 
Where VTh and RTh are fixed
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER

## By varying the load resistance RL,

the power delivered to the load
varies as sketched in Figure 4.49.

## Where maximum power occurs when RL=RTh.

MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER

## • Maximum power theorem stated that the maximum power is

Thevenin resistance as seen from the load (RL=RTh)
• Therefore when RL=RTh, maximum power is equal to:

VTh2
pmax 
4 RTh
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER

## Example: Find the value of RL for maximum power transfer in the

circuit shown. Find the maximum power.

Solution:
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER