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ESL-TR-12-03-03 THERMAL MASS MODELING HOW WE GOT TO WHERE WE ARE TODAY Jeff S. Haberl,

ESL-TR-12-03-03

THERMAL MASS MODELING

ESL-TR-12-03-03 THERMAL MASS MODELING HOW WE GOT TO WHERE WE ARE TODAY Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D.,

HOW WE GOT TO WHERE WE ARE

TODAY

Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E., FASHRAE

Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D.

Chunliu Mao

Ph.D., P.E., FASHRAE Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Chunliu Mao Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 March 2012 Dallas

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

March 2012 Dallas

Energy Systems Laboratory

Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings Source:

New York City has thousands of new / old buildings

Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings Source:

Source: http://juliancarr.com/files/2009/10/new_york_from_empire_state_building.jpg

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

http://thebesttraveldestinations.com/willis-tower-sears-tower-chicago-usa/

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings Same

New York City has thousands of new / old buildings Same pattern for other U.S. cities, such as Chicago

Same pattern for other U.S. cities, such as Chicago Source:

Source: http://juliancarr.com/files/2009/10/new_york_from_empire_state_building.jpg

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

http://thebesttraveldestinations.com/willis-tower-sears-tower-chicago-usa/

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings New York City has thousands of new / old buildings Same

New York City has thousands of new / old buildings Same pattern for other U.S. cities, such as Chicago

Same pattern for other U.S. cities, such as Chicago • How are we going to create

How are we going to create new high - performance buildings? Can we create high - performance buildings from existing buildings? What design methods were used to design existing buildings? How did the methods treat thermal mass?

Source: http://juliancarr.com/files/2009/10/new_york_from_empire_state_building.jpg

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

http://thebesttraveldestinations.com/willis-tower-sears-tower-chicago-usa/

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History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods What methods are currently used to size the building

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods What methods are currently used to size the building systems

What methods are currently used to size the building systems and analyze building energy use?

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods What methods are currently used to size the building

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods What methods are currently used to size the building systems

What methods are currently used to size the building systems and analyze building energy use?

Peak Heating Load Calculation
Peak Heating Load
Calculation
analyze building energy use? Peak Heating Load Calculation Peak Load Calculation Methods (R. Chapter 12; C.
analyze building energy use? Peak Heating Load Calculation Peak Load Calculation Methods (R. Chapter 12; C.
Peak Load Calculation Methods (R. Chapter 12; C. Chapter 18)
Peak Load
Calculation Methods
(R. Chapter 12; C. Chapter 18)
Load Calculation Methods (R. Chapter 12; C. Chapter 18) Peak Cooling Load Calculation Simulation Annual Building
Load Calculation Methods (R. Chapter 12; C. Chapter 18) Peak Cooling Load Calculation Simulation Annual Building
Peak Cooling Load Calculation
Peak Cooling Load
Calculation
Chapter 12; C. Chapter 18) Peak Cooling Load Calculation Simulation Annual Building Energy Use Calculation Methods
Simulation Annual Building Energy Use Calculation Methods Forward (Chapter 19, Page 19.4)
Simulation
Annual Building
Energy Use
Calculation Methods
Forward
(Chapter 19, Page 19.4)

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Inverse (Data-Driven)
Inverse
(Data-Driven)

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History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods What methods are currently used to size the building

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods What methods are currently used to size the building systems

What methods are currently used to size the building systems and analyze building energy use?

Peak Heating Load Calculation
Peak Heating Load
Calculation
analyze building energy use? Peak Heating Load Calculation Peak Load How did the methods evolve from
analyze building energy use? Peak Heating Load Calculation Peak Load How did the methods evolve from
Peak Load
Peak Load

How did the methods evolve

from 1900 to Present?

How did these methods treat the use

of thermal mass?

Energy Use Calculation Methods (Chapter 19, Page 19.4)
Energy Use
Calculation Methods
(Chapter 19, Page 19.4)

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Use Calculation Methods (Chapter 19, Page 19.4) Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Forward Inverse (Data-Driven) p.
Use Calculation Methods (Chapter 19, Page 19.4) Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Forward Inverse (Data-Driven) p.
Forward
Forward
Inverse (Data-Driven)
Inverse
(Data-Driven)

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE In 1894: • Hugh Barron, led an effort to

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE In 1894: • Hugh Barron, led an effort to establish
History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE In 1894: • Hugh Barron, led an effort to establish
In 1894: • Hugh Barron, led an effort to establish a new engineering society
In 1894:
Hugh Barron, led an effort to
establish a new engineering
society

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1894:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1894: • ASHVE was established Energy Systems

In 1894:

ASHVE was established

Engineers In 1894: • ASHVE was established Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1895:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1895: • ASHVE Transactions was first published Energy
In 1895: • ASHVE Transactions was first published
In 1895:
• ASHVE Transactions was first
published

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1904:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

In 1904: • ASRE was established
In 1904:
• ASRE was established

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1905:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1905: • ASRE Transactions was first published Energy

In 1905:

ASRE Transactions was first published

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1915:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

In 1915: • Journal of ASHVE was first published
In 1915:
• Journal of ASHVE was first
published

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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14

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1922:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

In 1922: • ASHVE Guide was first published
In 1922:
• ASHVE Guide was first
published

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1932:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1932: • The Refrigerating and Data Book by ASRE

In 1932:

The Refrigerating and Data Book by ASRE was first published

The Refrigerating and Data Book by ASRE was first published Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

In 1954:

ASHVE changed its name to ASHAE

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

In 1959: ASHAE and ASRE merged and became ASHRAE
In 1959: ASHAE and ASRE merged
and became ASHRAE

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Air-Conditioning Engineers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 In 1961: ASHRAE Guide and Data book was published

In 1961: ASHRAE Guide and Data book was published

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1967:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers In 1967: ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals was first published

In 1967: ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals was first published

In 1967: ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals was first published Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 1972

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE

History of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE, ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 1972

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

1972 ASHRAE 1981 ASHRAE 1997 ASHRAE 2005 ASHRAE 1989 ASHRAE Handbook Handbook Handbook Handbook Handbook
1972 ASHRAE
1981 ASHRAE
1997 ASHRAE
2005 ASHRAE
1989 ASHRAE
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
1977 ASHRAE
1985 ASHRAE
1993 ASHRAE
2001 ASHRAE
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/ashrae-and-industry-history

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings CBECS Survey: U.S. Census Regions and Divisions Energy Systems Laboratory

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings CBECS Survey: U.S. Census Regions and Divisions Energy Systems Laboratory ©

CBECS Survey: U.S. Census Regions and Divisions

Buildings CBECS Survey: U.S. Census Regions and Divisions Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/census_maps.html

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Observations : • 52.3% of the buildings were built from1970

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Observations : • 52.3% of the buildings were built from1970 to1999
Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Observations : • 52.3% of the buildings were built from1970 to1999

Observations:

52.3% of the buildings were built from1970 to1999

39.7% of the buildings were built in South

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Pre 1945 1946 - 1969 1970 - 1989 1990 –

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Pre 1945 1946 - 1969 1970 - 1989 1990 – Present
Pre 1945 1946 - 1969 1970 - 1989 1990 – Present
Pre 1945
1946 - 1969
1970 - 1989
1990 –
Present

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Pre WW II

WW II Pre Computer Early Computer

Present

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Observations : • 39.7%of buildings were built in South •

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Observations : • 39.7%of buildings were built in South • 27.9%
Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings Observations : • 39.7%of buildings were built in South • 27.9%

Observations:

39.7%of buildings were built in South

27.9% in Midwest, 18.2% in West and 14.2% in Northeast

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings CBECS Survey Summary • 52.3% of the buildings were built

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings

Distribution/Age of U.S. Commercial Buildings CBECS Survey Summary • 52.3% of the buildings were built from1970

CBECS Survey Summary

• 52.3% of the buildings were built from1970 to1999 • Four periods are studied: –
52.3% of the buildings were built from1970 to1999
Four periods are studied:
– Pre 1945
– 1946 – 1969
– 1970 – 1989
– 1990 – present
39.7% of buildings were built in South, 27.9% in Midwest,
18.2% in west and 14.2% in Northeast

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods Pre 1945 1946 - 1969 1970 - 1989 1990

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods

History: Building Energy Load Calculation Methods Pre 1945 1946 - 1969 1970 - 1989 1990 –
Pre 1945 1946 - 1969 1970 - 1989 1990 – Present
Pre 1945
1946 - 1969
1970 - 1989
1990 –
Present

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Pre WW II

WW II Pre Computer Early Computer

Present

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History : Pre 1945 – Guide Books Guide Books: 1904 Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and

History: Pre 1945 Guide Books

History : Pre 1945 – Guide Books Guide Books: 1904 Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and Builder’s

Guide Books:

History : Pre 1945 – Guide Books Guide Books: 1904 Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and Builder’s

1904 Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and Builder’s

Handbook

1922 ASHVE Guide

1932

The Refrigerating Data Book by ASRE

1938

Trane Air Conditioning Manual

1904
1904

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Data Book by ASRE 1938 Trane Air Conditioning Manual 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 1938
Data Book by ASRE 1938 Trane Air Conditioning Manual 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 1938
1938 p. 28
1938
p.
28
History: Pre 1945 – Guide Books Computer Development:  1822 - 1832 Charles Babbage and

History: Pre 1945 Guide Books

History: Pre 1945 – Guide Books Computer Development:  1822 - 1832 Charles Babbage and Joseph

Computer Development:

1822 - 1832 Charles Babbage and Joseph Clement

Produced the first Difference Engine

1815-1852: first computer programmer: Ada Lovelace

In 1930, differential analyzer available

In 1946, first large scale electronic digital

available  In 1946, first large scale electronic digital computer available - ENIAC Source:

computer available - ENIAC

large scale electronic digital computer available - ENIAC Source: http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/engines/;
large scale electronic digital computer available - ENIAC Source: http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/engines/;
large scale electronic digital computer available - ENIAC Source: http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/engines/;

Source: http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/engines/; http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/adalovelace/;

http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/analog-computers/3/143/311;

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

K. Kempf "Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps," U.S. Army Photo

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History: Pre 1945 – Important Developments In 1848, Dr. John Gorrie invented his “ice machine”

History: Pre 1945 Important Developments

History: Pre 1945 – Important Developments In 1848, Dr. John Gorrie invented his “ice machine” Energy

In 1848, Dr. John Gorrie invented his “ice machine”

In 1848, Dr. John Gorrie invented his “ice machine” Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: http://www.ashrae.org/File%20Library/docLib/Public/200362795143_326.pdf

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History: Pre 1945 – Important Developments In the late 1880s, “War of the Currents” began

History: Pre 1945 Important Developments

History: Pre 1945 – Important Developments In the late 1880s, “War of the Currents” began between

In the late 1880s, “War of the Currents” began between Edison and Tesla

Thomas Edison

the Currents” began between Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison DC motor V.S. Nikola Tesla AC motor
the Currents” began between Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison DC motor V.S. Nikola Tesla AC motor

DC motor

began between Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison DC motor V.S. Nikola Tesla AC motor Source:

V.S.

Nikola Tesla

Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison DC motor V.S. Nikola Tesla AC motor Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm
Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison DC motor V.S. Nikola Tesla AC motor Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm

AC motor

and Tesla Thomas Edison DC motor V.S. Nikola Tesla AC motor Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm Energy

Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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History: Pre 1945 – Important Developments In the late 1880s, “War of the Currents” began

History: Pre 1945 Important Developments

History: Pre 1945 – Important Developments In the late 1880s, “War of the Currents” began between

In the late 1880s, “War of the Currents” began between Edison and Tesla

Thomas Edison

Nikola Tesla

began between Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison Nikola Tesla V.S. Before that, air handling systems were
began between Edison and Tesla Thomas Edison Nikola Tesla V.S. Before that, air handling systems were

V.S.

Before that, air handling systems were

steam-driven!

V.S. Before that, air handling systems were steam-driven! Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm Energy
V.S. Before that, air handling systems were steam-driven! Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm Energy

Source: http://staff.fcps.net/rroyster/war.htm

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook Peak

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook Peak Load

Frank E. Kidder Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook Peak Load Calculation:

Heat Loss Calculation

1904
1904

In 1904, “There appears to be no rule

by which the architect can determine the size of the furnace that should be

used to heat a given building other than by using the tables given by the

various manufacturers……”

1904:

There were no standardized annual building energy use calculations

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and

Radiators

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and
History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and
History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

1904

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History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s

Radiators

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s
History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s

1904

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

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History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Size of Room Size of Radiators 1904

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Radiators Size of Room Size of Radiators 1904 Energy

Radiators

Size of Room Size of Radiators
Size of Room
Size of Radiators
Load Calculation Radiators Size of Room Size of Radiators 1904 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

1904

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

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History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and

Boilers

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and
History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder
1904 p. 37
1904
p.
37
History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and

Boilers

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Architect’s and

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

1904 p. 38
1904
p.
38
History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p.

Boilers

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p.
No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p. 39
No. of Radiators
Size of Boilers
1904
p.
39
Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p. 39 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:
Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p. 39 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p.

Boilers

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p.
No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p. 40
No. of Radiators
Size of Boilers
1904
p.
40
Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p. 40 1904: Method existed for sizing the
Boilers No. of Radiators Size of Boilers 1904 p. 40 1904: Method existed for sizing the

1904:

Method existed for sizing the steam radiator

Steam boilers were sized = number/type of radiators

Air conditioning had yet to used commercially

Source: Architect’s and Builder’s Handbook in 1904 by Frank E. Kidder

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation In 1911, Willis Carrier developed his Psychrometric chart

History: Pre 1945 Heating Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Heating Load Calculation In 1911, Willis Carrier developed his Psychrometric chart Energy

In 1911, Willis Carrier developed his Psychrometric chart

In 1911, Willis Carrier developed his Psychrometric chart Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: Carrier, W.,

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Carrier, W., 1911. Rational Psychrometric Formulae: their relation to the problems of meteorology and of air conditioning. ASME Transactions, Vol.33

p.

41

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1928, the first high-rise air-conditioned office building

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1928, the first high-rise air-conditioned office building in

In 1928, the first high-rise air-conditioned office building in U.S. was built in San Antonio “The Milam Building”

in U.S. was built in San Antonio “The Milam Building” The Milam Building

The Milam Building

Source:www.alamoashrae.org/database/articles/Milam_Building_Report.pdf

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Milam _ Building _Report.pdf Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Original Carrier Centrifugal Refrigeration Unit p. 42

Original Carrier Centrifugal

Refrigeration Unit

p.

42

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1928, the first high-rise air-conditioned office building

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1928, the first high-rise air-conditioned office building in

In 1928, the first high-rise air-conditioned office building in U.S. was built in San Antonio “The Milam Building”

in U.S. was built in San Antonio “The Milam Building” The Milam Building

The Milam Building

Source:www.alamoashrae.org/database/articles/Milam_Building_Report.pdf

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Tallest Reinforced-Concrete High- Rise Office Building

Air-Conditioning System was

designed by Carrier Engineering

Corporation

11 AHUs provided cooling, two Chillers with a Maximum 375-ton Capacity provided Chilled Water

Radiant Heat was Absorbed by the Heavy Construction

Venetian Blinds, Cloth Window Shades, Duct damprs were Added to

Solve the Problem

p.

43

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1938 p. 44 Until 1938, TRANE Company Published

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

1938
1938
p. 44
p.
44

Until 1938, TRANE Company Published its first

design manual, called “TRANE Air-Conditioning

Design Manual” and Provided a load estimate sheet for engineers to use.

and Provided a load estimate sheet for engineers to use. Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: 1938 TRANE Air Conditioning Manual

History: Pre 1945 – Load Estimate Sheet TRANE Air-Conditioning Manual Design Data Conduction Heat Gains

History: Pre 1945 Load Estimate Sheet

History: Pre 1945 – Load Estimate Sheet TRANE Air-Conditioning Manual Design Data Conduction Heat Gains Excess

TRANE Air-Conditioning Manual

Design Data

Conduction Heat Gains Excess Solar Heat Gains Solar Temperature Difference Method Duct Heat Gains
Conduction Heat Gains
Excess Solar Heat Gains
Solar Temperature
Difference Method
Duct Heat Gains

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Body Heat Gains Equipment Heat Gains Infiltration Heat Gains Miscellaneous Heat Gains Summary of Heat
Body Heat Gains
Equipment Heat Gains
Infiltration Heat Gains
Miscellaneous Heat Gains
Summary of Heat Gains
Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils
Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils
Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils
Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils

Heat Load of Ventilation Air

Total Cooling Load on Coils

Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils
Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils
Heat Load of Ventilation Air Total Cooling Load on Coils

p.

45

History: Pre 1945 – Load Estimate Sheet TRANE Air-Conditioning Manual Body Heat Gains Design Data

History: Pre 1945 Load Estimate Sheet

History: Pre 1945 – Load Estimate Sheet TRANE Air-Conditioning Manual Body Heat Gains Design Data Equipment

TRANE Air-Conditioning Manual

Body Heat Gains Design Data Equipment Heat Gains Conduction Heat Gains Infiltration Heat Gains Miscellaneous
Body Heat Gains
Design Data
Equipment Heat Gains
Conduction Heat Gains
Infiltration Heat Gains
Miscellaneous Heat Gains
No direct treatment of thermal mass
Excess Solar Heat Gains
Summary of Heat Gains
Solar Temperature
Difference Method
Heat Load of Ventilation Air
Duct Heat Gains
Total Cooling Load on Coils
p.
46
Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010
History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature Method

In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature Method which was published by ASHVE

Sol-Air Temperature Method which was published by ASHVE Thermal Conductance Decrement Factor kρc Curve 0.606( t

Thermal Conductance

Decrement Factor

kρc Curve 0.606( t  t )  t   t m i 
kρc Curve
0.606(
t
 t
)
t
 
t
m
i
t
Inside Surface Temperature
o
i
n n
0.856
 L / k
n  1

cos(15

 

n

n

n

)

There is time lag for the peak and a reduction in amplitude.

Source: Mackey, C.O., Wright, L.T., 1944. Periodic Heat Flow-Homogeneous Walls or Roofs. ASHVE Journal;

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Mcquiston, Parker, 1994. Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Analysis and Design, Fourth Edition

p.

47

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature Method

In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature Method which was published by ASHVE

Sol-Air Temperature Method which was published by ASHVE Thermal Conductance Decrement Factor kρc Curve 0.606( t

Thermal Conductance

Decrement Factor

kρc Curve 0.606( t  t )  t   t m i 
kρc Curve
0.606(
t
 t
)
t
 
t
m
i
t
Inside Surface Temperature
o
i
n n
0.856
 L / k
n  1

cos(15

 

n

n

n

)

There is time lag for the peak and a reduction in amplitude.

Source: Mackey, C.O., Wright, L.T., 1944. Periodic Heat Flow-Homogeneous Walls or Roofs. ASHVE Journal;

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Mcquiston, Parker, 1994. Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Analysis and Design, Fourth Edition

p.

48

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature Method

In 1944, Mackey and Wright developed Sol-Air Temperature Method which was published by ASHVE

Sol-Air Temperature Method which was published by ASHVE Thermal Conductance Decrement Factor Effect of thermal

Thermal Conductance

Decrement Factor Effect of thermal mass could be kρc Curve calculated ! 0.606( t 
Decrement Factor
Effect of
thermal mass could be
kρc Curve
calculated !
0.606(
t
 t
)
t
 
t
m
i
t
cos(15
n
 
)
Inside Surface Temperature
o
i
n n
n
n
0.856
 L / k
n  1
There is time lag for the peak and a reduction in amplitude.
Source: Mackey, C.O., Wright, L.T., 1944. Periodic Heat Flow-Homogeneous Walls or Roofs. ASHVE Journal;
p.
49
Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010
Mcquiston, Parker, 1994. Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Analysis and Design, Fourth Edition
History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation Sol-Air Temperature Method: Later in 1961, sol-air temperature

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation Sol-Air Temperature Method: Later in 1961, sol-air temperature method

Sol-Air Temperature Method:

Later in 1961, sol-air temperature method was

tabulated in the ASHRAE Guide and Data Book Fundamentals and Equipment

ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals and Equipment Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 p. 50

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

50

Source: 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book Fundamentals and Equipment

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals and
History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals and
History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals and

1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book Fundamentals

and Equipment Total Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook

Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook There is time lag for the peak and a
Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook There is time lag for the peak and a
Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook There is time lag for the peak and a

There is time lag for the peak and a reduction in amplitude.

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book Fundamentals and Equipment

p.

51

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals and
History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book – Fundamentals and

1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book Fundamentals

and Equipment Total Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook

Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook The curves shown in Mackey and Wright and ASHRAE
Equivalent Temperature Difference tabulated in the Handbook The curves shown in Mackey and Wright and ASHRAE

The curves shown in Mackey and Wright and

ASHRAE original test data were finally tabulated in the ASHRAE Guide and Data Book

There is time lag for the peak and a reduction in amplitude.

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book Fundamentals and Equipment

p.

52

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In the 1967 ASHRAE Handbook, the Sol-Air Temperature

History: Pre 1945 Cooling Load Calculation

History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In the 1967 ASHRAE Handbook, the Sol-Air Temperature table
History: Pre 1945 – Cooling Load Calculation In the 1967 ASHRAE Handbook, the Sol-Air Temperature table

In the 1967 ASHRAE Handbook, the Sol-Air Temperature table was further modified:

A heat balance at a sunlit surface gives:

/

q A

I

t

h t

o

( )

o

t

s

R

In terms of the sol-air temperature, t e

q

/

A h t t

o

(

e

s

)

where,

t

e

t I / h R / h

o

t

o

o

Source: 1967 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

I / h    R / h o t o o Source: 1967 ASHRAE

p.

53

History: 1946 – 1969 Guide Books Guide Books: 1955 TRANE Air Conditioning Design Manual 1960

History: 1946 1969 Guide Books

History: 1946 – 1969 Guide Books Guide Books: 1955 TRANE Air Conditioning Design Manual 1960 Handbook

Guide Books:

History: 1946 – 1969 Guide Books Guide Books: 1955 TRANE Air Conditioning Design Manual 1960 Handbook

1955

TRANE Air Conditioning Design Manual

1960

Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design by Carrier

1961

ASHRAE Guide and Data Book

1967

ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

1955
1955
1960
1960
Guide and Data Book 1967 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1955 1960 1967 Energy Systems Laboratory ©
1967
1967

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

54

History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Peak Cooling Load Calculation:  1961 TETD/TA Method:

History: 1946 1969 Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Peak Cooling Load Calculation:  1961 TETD/TA Method: 
History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Peak Cooling Load Calculation:  1961 TETD/TA Method: 
History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Peak Cooling Load Calculation:  1961 TETD/TA Method: 

Peak Cooling Load Calculation:

1961 TETD/TA Method:

Total Equivalent Temperature

Difference/Time Averaging Method

Original Outlined by Stewart in 1948

TETD table added to ASHRAE Guide and

Data Book in 1961

Basic heat gain equation for exterior surface:

q UA(TETD)

heat gain equation for exterior surface: q  UA ( TETD ) Thermal mass is in

Thermal mass is in the TETD

Source: 1961 ASHRAE Guide and Data Book- Fundamentals and Equipment

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p. 55
p.
55
History: 1970 – 1989 Cooling Load Calculation In 1977 TETD/TA replaced with CLTD/CLF Method: 

History: 1970 1989 Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1970 – 1989 Cooling Load Calculation In 1977 TETD/TA replaced with CLTD/CLF Method:  Firstly

In 1977 TETD/TA replaced with CLTD/CLF Method:

Firstly developed by Rudoy and Duran in 1974 and published by ASHRAE Transactions

Later appeared in 1977 ASHRAE handbook

Roof, Wall, Glass: q  UA(CLTD ) Solar: Internal Lights:
Roof, Wall, Glass:
q  UA(CLTD )
Solar:
Internal Lights:

Source: 1977 ASHRAE Handbook; Mcquiston and Paker, Heating and Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Analysis and Design

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

q A SC SHGF CLF q INPUT CLF q No. Sens.H .G. CLF

People:

p.

56

History: 1970 – 1989 Cooling Load Calculation CLDT/CLF permitted hourly estimations of heat gain for

History: 1970 1989 Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1970 – 1989 Cooling Load Calculation CLDT/CLF permitted hourly estimations of heat gain for each

CLDT/CLF permitted hourly estimations of heat gain for each surface/orientation, opaque/fenestrations = Totalized by zone.

opaque/fenestrations = Totalized by zone. CLTD CLF Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: 1977

CLTD

opaque/fenestrations = Totalized by zone. CLTD CLF Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: 1977 ASHRAE

CLF

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: 1977 ASHRAE Handbook

p.

57

History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Other Developments: Finite Difference /Finite Element Method :

History: 1946 1969 Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Other Developments: Finite Difference /Finite Element Method : 
History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Other Developments: Finite Difference /Finite Element Method : 

Other Developments:

Finite Difference /Finite Element Method :

FDM/FEM became available in 1960

Mainly used as a basis for a computer algorithm

Chartered Institution of Building Services

Engineers (CIBSE) Admittance Method:

Original developed by Loudon in 1968

Standard method in UK

The concept of thermal admittance was first

introduced by Institution of Heating and

Ventilating Engineers (IHVE) Guide in 1970

Later selected by CIBSE Guide A

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

58

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Annual Building Energy Use Calculation: Heating Degree-Day Method:

History: 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Annual Building Energy Use Calculation: Heating Degree-Day Method: Classic

Annual Building Energy Use Calculation:

Heating Degree-Day Method:

Classic Heating Degree-Day Method:

Degree Days first used to predict snow melt.

Manual method was adopted in mid

1960s

Later appeared in1981 ASHRAE Handbook

Equivalent Full Load Hours Method :

E

H

L

D 24

t k V

C

D

Where, E: fuel or energy consumption for the estimate period, Btu H L : design heat loss, including infiltration and ventilation, Btu/h. D: number of 65 F degree days in the estimation period Δt: design temperature difference, F k: a correction factor that includes the effects of rated full load efficiency, part load performance, oversizing and energy conservation devices V: heating value of fuel, units consistent with H L and E C D : empirical correction factor for heating effect versus 65 F degree-days

Cooling Season Power:

Manual method was adopted in the

mid-1960s

Cooling energy requirement calculation

Later appeared in 1981 ASHRAE Handbook

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Pc

0.746( ) ( )

t

bhp T H

e

E

Where, Pc: cooling season power (kWh) (bhp) t : brake horsepower per ton T: maximum refrigeration design load (tons) H e : equivalent full-load refrigeration operating time (h) E: motor efficiency at average load(decimal)

p.

59

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Bin Method:  Manual method was adopted in

History: 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Bin Method:  Manual method was adopted in the
History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Bin Method:  Manual method was adopted in the

Bin Method:

Manual method was

adopted in the mid-1960s

Heating and Cooling

Energy Calculation

Later appeared in1981

ASHRAE Handbook

Balance Point Temperature

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

60

History : 1946 – 1969 Computer Developments  In 1957, FORTRAN I complier was developed

History : 1946 1969 Computer Developments

History : 1946 – 1969 Computer Developments  In 1957, FORTRAN I complier was developed by

In 1957, FORTRAN I complier was developed by John Backus and colleagues at IBM

During 1958 – Present, FORTRAN II, III, IV, FORTRAN 66, FORTRAN 77, Fortran 90, Fortran 95, Fortran 2003, Fortran 2008 are available

In 1960, PDP-1, the first commercial mini computer

was available

PDP-1, the first commercial mini computer was available  In 1964, BASIC programming was available IBM

In 1964, BASIC programming was available

was available  In 1964, BASIC programming was available IBM Mainframe Computer 704 Series PDP-1 Mini

IBM Mainframe Computer 704 Series

programming was available IBM Mainframe Computer 704 Series PDP-1 Mini Computer IBM PC 5150 Today, most

PDP-1 Mini Computer

IBM Mainframe Computer 704 Series PDP-1 Mini Computer IBM PC 5150 Today, most whole building simulation

IBM PC 5150

Today, most whole building simulation programs are still using FORTRAN

Source: http://www.mainframegurukul.com/ibm/what-is/mainframe-computer.html;

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

http://pdp-1.computerhistory.org/pdp-1/index.php?f=showitem&id=26.21&l=1&popupwin=1; http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/pc25/pc25_intro.html

p.

61

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  Thermal Network Model varies

History: 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  Thermal Network Model varies 

Thermal Network Method:

Thermal Network Model varies

Refinement of the Heat balance method

Thermal network model was available in 1958

Later appeared into1997 ASHRAE Handbook

in 1958  Later appeared into 1997 ASHRAE Handbook Source: Buchberg, H., 1958. Cooling Load from

Source: Buchberg, H., 1958. Cooling Load from Thermal Network Solutions. ASHAE Transactions, Vol.64, pp. 111-128

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

62

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  Thermal Network Model varies

History: 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

Thermal Network Method:

 Thermal Network Model varies  Refinement of the Heat balance method  Thermal network
Thermal Network
Model varies
Refinement of the Heat balance method
Thermal network
model was available in
1958
Later appeared into1997 ASHRAE Handbook
Exterior Wall
Interior Radiation Network
from Thermal Network Solutions. ASHAE
Radiation Network from Thermal Network Solutions. ASHAE Exterior Wall Source: Buchberg, H., 1958. Cooling Load
Exterior Wall

Exterior Wall

Exterior Wall

Source: Buchberg, H., 1958. Cooling Load

Transactions, Vol.64, pp. 111-128

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

63

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  Thermal Network Model varies

History: 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

Thermal Network Method:

 Thermal Network Model varies  Refinement of the Heat balance method  Thermal network
Thermal Network
Model varies
Refinement of the Heat balance method
Thermal network
model was available in
1958
Later appeared into1997 ASHRAE Handbook
Exterior Wall
Interior Radiation Network
from Thermal Network Solutions. ASHAE
Radiation Network from Thermal Network Solutions. ASHAE Exterior Wall Thermal mass was represented by an electrical
Exterior Wall

Exterior Wall

Exterior Wall

Thermal mass was represented by an electrical RC network

Source: Buchberg, H., 1958. Cooling Load

Transactions, Vol.64, pp. 111-128

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

64

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  RC Network allowed for

History: 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  RC Network allowed for layered

Thermal Network Method:

1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  RC Network allowed for layered walls,
1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Thermal Network Method:  RC Network allowed for layered walls,

RC Network allowed for layered walls, roofs.

RC Network allowed for nodal temperatures to be determined.

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: Buchberg, H., 1958. Cooling Load from Thermal Network Solutions. ASHAE Transactions, Vol.64, pp. 111-128

p.

65

History : 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Computer Algorithms: Thermal Response Factor Method: 

History : 1946 1969 Annual Energy Use

History : 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Computer Algorithms: Thermal Response Factor Method:  First

Computer Algorithms:

Thermal Response Factor Method:

First developed by Stephenson and Mitalas in 1967

Later appeared as Weighting Factor Method in1981 ASHRAE

Handbook

Heat Gain Weighting Factors:

0

,,, , w , w

1

2

1

2 ,

For each type of heat gain q θ, cooling load for Q θ:

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Q

0

q

1

q

1

w Q w Q

1

1

2

2

Air Temperature Weighting Factors:

g

0

, g , g ,

1

2

, P , P

1

2 ,

p.

66

History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use Computer Algorithms: Thermal Mass: Transfer Function Method: 
History: 1946 – 1969 Annual Energy Use
Computer Algorithms:
Thermal Mass: Transfer Function Method:
 Firstly introduced by 1972 ASHRAE Handbook of
Fundamentals
 Associated Sol-Air Temperature
Heat gain through a wall or roof:
q
 n 
A
[
b
(
t
)
d
(
e , r
)
t
c
]
q e r
,
n
e
,
 
n
n
A
rc
n
n
0
n
1
n
0
where,
b
c d
n
n
n
Transfer function coefficients
p.
67
Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010
Source: 1972 ASHRAE Handbook; Stephenson and Mitalas, 1967, Cooling Load Calculations by Thermal response Factor Method
History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Computer Algorithms: Heat Balance Method:  Early used

History: 1946 1969 Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1946 – 1969 Cooling Load Calculation Computer Algorithms: Heat Balance Method:  Early used for

Computer Algorithms:

Heat Balance Method:

Early used for general thermal modeling in aerospace and other industries

Detailed calculation procedures by Buchberg in 1958

Later appeared in 1981 ASHRAE handbook

System Heat Transfer:

q sys

j

a bt

a

j

where,

t

a

j

a

N

i 1

A h t

i

ci si

i , j

cV

inf

il

f

t

o

j

q

c

, int

j

 

b

N

i 1

A h

i

ci

cV

inf

il

j

cV

vent

j

 i  1 A h i ci  cV  inf il j  cV

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Schematic of Heat Balance Processes in Zone (Source: 2009 ASHRAE Handbook)

p.

68

History: 1970 – 1989 Annual Energy Use Computer Algorithms: DOE-2 (Weighting Factor Method) Complete Set

History: 1970 1989 Annual Energy Use

History: 1970 – 1989 Annual Energy Use Computer Algorithms: DOE-2 (Weighting Factor Method) Complete Set of

Computer Algorithms:

1970 – 1989 Annual Energy Use Computer Algorithms: DOE-2 (Weighting Factor Method) Complete Set of ASHRAE

DOE-2

(Weighting Factor

Method)

Complete Set of ASHRAE

Algorithms

Source:1985 ASHRAE Handbook;2009 ASHRAE Handbook

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

69

History: 1970 – 1989 Guide Books Guide Books: 1972 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1977 TRANE

History: 1970 1989 Guide Books

History: 1970 – 1989 Guide Books Guide Books: 1972 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1977 TRANE Air

Guide Books:

History: 1970 – 1989 Guide Books Guide Books: 1972 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1977 TRANE Air

1972

ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

1977

TRANE Air Conditioning Manual

1975

ASHRAE Task Group on Energy Requirements:

Procedure for Determining Heating and Cooling

Loads for Computerizing Energy Calculations

1972
1972

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

1977
1977
p.
p.

70

History: 1990 – Present Guide Books Guide Books: 1993 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1996 TRANE

History: 1990 Present Guide Books

History: 1990 – Present Guide Books Guide Books: 1993 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1996 TRANE Air
History: 1990 – Present Guide Books Guide Books: 1993 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1996 TRANE Air

Guide Books:

1993 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1996 TRANE Air Conditioning Manual

1993 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1996 TRANE Air Conditioning Manual Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 1996

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

1996
1996

p.

71

History: 1990 – Present Cooling Load Calculation Source: Steven F. Bruning 2012 ASHRAE Journal Computer

History: 1990 Present Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1990 – Present Cooling Load Calculation Source: Steven F. Bruning 2012 ASHRAE Journal Computer Algorithms:

Source: Steven F. Bruning 2012 ASHRAE Journal

Calculation Source: Steven F. Bruning 2012 ASHRAE Journal Computer Algorithms: Radiant Time Series Method:  First

Computer Algorithms:

Radiant Time Series Method:

First proposed by Spitler, Fisher and Pedersen in 1997

Later appeared in 2001 ASHRAE Handbook

of Fundamentals

 Later appeared in 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Source: 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Energy

Source: 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

p.

72

History: 1990 – Present Cooling Load Calculation Residential Heat Balance (RHB) and Residential Load Factor

History: 1990 Present Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1990 – Present Cooling Load Calculation Residential Heat Balance (RHB) and Residential Load Factor (RLF)

Residential Heat Balance (RHB) and Residential Load Factor (RLF) Methods:

First introduced by Barnaby, Spitler and Xiao in 2004 ASHRAE

Final Report

Both methods used for residential calculations

Later appeared in 2005 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

 Later appeared in 2005 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: 2005

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: 2005 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

p.

73

History: 1990 – Present Cooling Load Calculation Modeling Radiant Systems Using a Heat Balance Simulation:

History: 1990 Present Cooling Load Calculation

History: 1990 – Present Cooling Load Calculation Modeling Radiant Systems Using a Heat Balance Simulation: 

Modeling Radiant Systems Using a Heat Balance Simulation:

First studied by Strand & Pedersen in 1994.

First published by Strand in 2001 thesis.

Required the development of new type of transfer functions.

Now a module in the EnergyPlus program

functions.  Now a module in the EnergyPlus program Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: 2005
functions.  Now a module in the EnergyPlus program Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 Source: 2005

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

Source: 2005 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

p.

74

History: 1960 – Present Annual Energy Use Building Energy Modeling Programs: HCC (1967) Post Office

History: 1960 Present Annual Energy Use

History: 1960 – Present Annual Energy Use Building Energy Modeling Programs: HCC (1967) Post Office NECAP

Building Energy Modeling Programs:

HCC (1967)
HCC
(1967)
Post Office NECAP CAL-ERDA DOE-1.0 DOE-2.0 DOE - 2.1a DOE - 2.1b Program (1975) (1977)
Post Office
NECAP
CAL-ERDA
DOE-1.0
DOE-2.0
DOE - 2.1a
DOE - 2.1b
Program
(1975)
(1977)
(1978)
(1979)
(1981)
(1983)
(1971)
DOE 2.1e-
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE – 2.1e
087
2.1e-107
2.1e-113
2.1e-119
2.1e-121
(1993)
(1995)
(2000)
(2001)
(2002)
(2003)
PowerDOE
eQuest
eQuest
eQuest
eQuest
v 1.0
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v 1.2
v 2.17c
v 3.6
(1996)
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v14.1
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v15
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TRACE 700
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TRACE 77
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First Window
Full Version
(1977)
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Version
(2001)
(1998)

DOE - 2.1c

(1984)

BLAST 1.2 (1977) TRNSYS TRNSYS v12.1 v16 (1984) (2004)
BLAST 1.2
(1977)
TRNSYS
TRNSYS
v12.1
v16
(1984)
(2004)
1.2 (1977) TRNSYS TRNSYS v12.1 v16 (1984) (2004) DOE – 2.1d (1989) eQuest v 3.64 (2010)
DOE – 2.1d (1989) eQuest v 3.64 (2010)
DOE – 2.1d
(1989)
eQuest
v 3.64
(2010)

EnergyPlus

V 6.0

(2010)

TRNSYS

v17

(2010)

NBSLD

(1974)

TRNSYS

v6.0

(1975)

TRACE direct

version

(1972)

Commercial

Load v1.0

(1981)

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TRACE 700

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HAP v HAP v HAP v HAP v HAP v HAP v HAP v HAP
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HAP v
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HAP v
Bin Opcost
Analysis v 1.0
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4.0
4.1
4.2
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4.4
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HAP v

4.5

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History: 1990 – Present Summary Thermal Mass Studies (Examples):  Thermal structure factors proposed by

History: 1990 Present Summary

History: 1990 – Present Summary Thermal Mass Studies (Examples):  Thermal structure factors proposed by Kossecka
History: 1990 – Present Summary Thermal Mass Studies (Examples):  Thermal structure factors proposed by Kossecka

Thermal Mass Studies (Examples):

Thermal structure factors proposed by Kossecka in 1992 Thermal mass factors introduced by ISO Standards 9869 in 1994

Radiant Floor Heating and Cooling systems (Olesen 1997, 2002)

Floor Heating and Cooling systems (Olesen 1997, 2002) p. 76 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 October

p.

76

Floor Heating and Cooling systems (Olesen 1997, 2002) p. 76 Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 October

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

October 14-17, 1998.

Source: Kossecka, E. and Kosny, J. - “The Effect of Structure of Exterior Walls on the Dynamic Thermal Performance of a Whole Buildings” - Propblemy

Projektowania, Realizowania i Eksploatacji Budynków o Niskim Zapotrzebowaniu na Energie - Politechnika Krakowska - IV Conference - Krakow-Mogilany, Poland -

History: Overview Chart 1900 - Present Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 p. 77

History: Overview Chart 1900 - Present

History: Overview Chart 1900 - Present Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 p. 77

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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77

• Summary: Important to consider age of building stock in the U.S. 1900 to present

Summary:

• Summary: Important to consider age of building stock in the U.S. 1900 to present •

Important to consider age of building stock in the U.S.

1900 to present

History of building load calculation methods tied to:

– The development of ASHVE, ASRE, ASHAE,

ASHRAE.

– The development of computers, programming

language.

1904 – 1938 no direct consideration of thermal mass

in building heat load calculation.

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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•

Summary

• Summary Other considerations: •1848 - Invention of refrigeration •Late 1800s – resolution of A.C. vs

Other considerations:

•1848 - Invention of refrigeration

•Late 1800s – resolution of A.C. vs D.C. for electric

motors •1911 – psychrometric chart (Willis Carrier)

•1928 – first air-conditioned office building (Milam

Building, San Antonio, TX)

• 1944 – First use of thermal mass: Mackey and Wright

develop sol-air temperature with decrement factor. 1961 adopted into ASHRAE Guide and Data Book

• 1961 – Total Equivalent Temperature Difference/Time Average (TETD/TA) Method

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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Summary • 1977 – TETD/TA replaced with Cooling Load Temperature Difference/Cooling Load Factor (CLTD/CLF) Method

Summary

Summary • 1977 – TETD/TA replaced with Cooling Load Temperature Difference/Cooling Load Factor (CLTD/CLF) Method •

• 1977 – TETD/TA replaced with Cooling Load Temperature Difference/Cooling Load Factor (CLTD/CLF) Method

• Annual Calculation Methods: 1960s - heating degree days, equivalent full load hours, bin method.

• 1958 – thermal network models created based on electrical RC circuits.

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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•

Summary

• Summary Computer Algorithms (1960 – present): • Thermal response factors, • transfer functions, • weighting

Computer Algorithms (1960 – present):

• Thermal response factors,

• transfer functions,

• weighting factors,

• heat balance method,

• radiant time series,

• residential heat balance, residential load factors

• new transfer functions for radiant heating

• Examples of Thermal Mass Studies: thermal

mass structural factors, thermal mass factors,

radiant floor systems

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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Questions? Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 p. 82

Questions?

Questions? Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 p. 82
Questions? Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010 p. 82

Energy Systems Laboratory © 2010

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