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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Region X- Northern Mindanao
DIVISION OF MISAMIS ORIENTAL

Alubijid National Comprehensive High School


Name of School

Alubijid, Misamis Oriental


Address of School

Person-Job Fit: Examining the Work Force in Alubijid Misamis Oriental and its
Neighboring Municipalities: A basis for
TVL track/specialization re alignment.

Submitted by:

Larosa, Alexis V.
Guinitaran, Marybel A.
Muňez, Cherry Ann B.
Abstract

This paper examines the labor demand and supply with respect to Technical

Vocational and Livelihood track and specialization in Alubijid National high School

and the industries and sectors potentially offering jobs. The literature on this topic

is abundant, especially in light of aligning the K-12 curriculum and its offering in

the TVL track in the aforementioned school and the industries surrounding it. The

goal of this work is not to add evidence to the causes and effects of labor demand

and supply but rather to sketch the broader picture of their equilibrium and then to

try to anticipate what type of specialization in the TVL track is needed.

The study determined the correlation between skills demand and market

labor demand in Alubijid and its neighboring Municipalities.Specifically, it

answered the following questions: 1) what are the sectors with the highest skills

demand in: Region X, Misamis Oriental, and its neighboring municipalities? 2) what

are the 10 highest sector market labor demand in the Local Government Unit of

Alubijid and neighboring municipalities? 3) what are the TVL tracks offered in

ANCHS in terms of number of enrollees? 4) there a significant positive correlation

between skills demand and market labor demand in Alubijid and its neighboring

Municipalities.

The design of the study is quantitative in nature and collection of data is

through the Go Negosyo Centers of the three municipalities and city covered in

this study.

The statistical treatments used in analyzing the data gathered is Pearson r

product moment correlation to determine the relationship between labor market


demands and the number of enrollees and its specialization in the TVL track at

ANCHS.

The result was that there is a big discrepancy in the number of

establishment / sectors generating jobs versus the number of enrollees. This

suggests that there is a big gap between potential jobs and number of enrollees in

a specified specialization.

Acknowledgement

The researchers conveys their heartfelt gratitude and greetings to the

following persons who extended their invaluable assistance and cooperation for

the completion of this work:

To Hon. Mayor Edgar S. Lignas (El Salvador City), Hon. Mayor Alvin G.

Labis (Alubijid) and Hon. Mayor Diosdado T. Obsioma (Laguindingan) for sharing

to us valuable data used in this research.

To Dr. Randolph B. Tortola, our School Division Superintendent, for giving

us the opportunity to conduct this basic research.

To Mr. Lindo M. Cayadong, DepEd Mis. Or. Senior Research and Planning

Specialist for guiding us in the conduct of this research.

To Reynaldo S. Cabillan, Ph.D, ANCHS Principal for his inspiring words of

wisdom who never fails to amaze us during times of confusion in the conduct of

this research.

To Ms. Marie Emerald A. Cabigas, Ph.D., ANCHS Asst. Principal for the

unwavering support and guidance. Our ever supportive mentor who had never

failed to nurture us in developing our potentials.


And above all to God our Almighty for his constant blessings and

Providence that gives us the wisdom and strength.

Introduction of the Research

In today’s global economic and social environment, the level and quality of

education provided by institutions in any country will determine the level of the

country’s development and stability. Leathes defines education as "the process by

which an individual is adjusted to his whole ambit of existence, the whole being is

the subject of education; and the whole of life is its end" (Leathes, 2009: 34).

However, it is widely acknowledged that education enables countries to boost their

social and economic development by providing well educated and skilled

individuals to the labor market. For example, Jacob Mincer in the 1970s had

indicated how earnings are related to the individual’s education and other human

capital. This work has initiated a good number of studies. See, for example: Card

(1990), Ashenfelter and Card (2000), Heckman et al. (2000), Hanushek and Welch

(2006).

The mismatch between the skills of young people and the labor market has

become a national growing trend and concern. Over-education and over-

qualification coexist with undereducation and under-qualification and, more and

more, with outdated skills as a result of long term unemployment. Because of this

mismatch it is even more difficult to craft and implement solutions for the young

professional employment dilema and more time and money is necessary to

implement them. Furthermore, as young people are effectively overqualified for the

jobs they perform, society loses their valuable skills as well as any potential
productivity gains if these young people had been employed at their appropriate

level of education. In addition, many of them opt to go outside the country bringing

with them their brilliant talents and minds, thus reinforcing the brain drain.

Project JobsFit is the latest labor market study of the Department of Labor

and Employment that highlights the in-demand and hard-to-fill occupations of the

key industries that are projected to be the main source of employment growth in

the country for the next seven years. The study is a product of extensive

environmental scanning and consultation with key stakeholders nationwide.

The different tracking/specialization in the Technical Vocational and

Livelihood strand in the Senior High School in Alubijid National Comprehensive

High School, Misamis Oriental aims to equip students with necessary skills and

competence anticipating that they would be able to work after graduation.

Literature Review
Alignment is best understood as a multi-directional process. Activities like

mapping that systematically represent and construct the relationship between

shared outcomes and the educational practices that foster those outcomes at the

course and program level are critical. But what is also needed are conversations

where individuals in a wide range of roles can explore the meaning of outcomes in

their particular contexts. In this sense, outcomes shape practice but practice can

also shape the character and understanding of outcomes (Adelman, 2015).

K‐12 and postsecondary education should be aware of the jobs and skills

most demanded by their state (and in their region) to ensure their postsecondary

capacity, career and technical education, workforce development and job training
programs are aligned with those needs and can help develop prepared members

of the workforce (STRATEGIES FOR K‐12 AND WORKFORCE

ALIGNMENT,2010).

Revisiting the DepEd k-12 program goal of “Trabaho, Negosyo , Kolehiyo”

wherein TechVoc student should be work ready after graduation, question arises

on where do they work. Obviously, the community where they live in the most direct

source of employment.

LGU leaders should think broadly about how their education and economic

development policies can be intertwined and work towards the same purpose. The

goal of the K-12 curriculum is to ensure more students leave high school well‐

prepared for college( KOLEHIYO), entrepreneurship (NEGOSYO), or high‐skill,

well‐paid jobs(TRABAHO).

It is too simple and potentially polarizing to say that alignment is either a

top-down or bottom-up activity. Work in both directions is in evidence on many

campuses, and the two approaches can clearly be mutually reinforcing—with an

overarching conceptual framework (a top-down orientation) coupled to creative,

critical refinement, improvement, and elaboration (a more bottom-up orientation).

In this sense, mapping is an appropriate and useful metaphor for alignment, but so

also is the image of conversation, which presents a different and complementary

view—less linear, more organic and inductive, and closer to the daily work of

faculty (National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, 2018).

While this call for improved labor market alignment in education is not new,

stakeholders are still conceptualizing the proper role of the education sector in
employment. This lack of clarity likely exists because of broad changes in

employment practices as well as student expectations. Many employers have

reduced the amount of training for entry-level workers while raising expectations

that students will develop more work readiness skills while in school

(Cappelli,1999, 2011, 2012; Tejada, 2000; Bishop, 1994; Reich, 1992). Students,

parents, and other funders of higher education, however, increasingly expect that

a college degree will lead to a well-paying job (Mourshed, Farrell, & Barton, 2012;

Pew Research Center, 2014). These changes represent shifting social

expectations about a college education — which many higher education

institutions have not yet fully agreed to support (Capelli, 2014).

Labor market alignment includes two intertwined goals: “job vacancy”

alignment and “skills” alignment. Stakeholders interested in higher education LMA

focus on one or both of two often intertwined but conceptually distinct goals. The

first goal, which we call job vacancy alignment, involves matching the number of

graduates from particular programs with the quantitative demand for workers with

these credentials. Job vacancy alignment involves “getting the numbers right.” It

seeks to answer the question: do the number of graduates’ match with the number

of job openings? For example, several reports suggest that higher education

should align with the labor market by increasing the number of college graduates,

in general, or in specific areas such as science, technology, engineering, and math

(STEM), to meet future national demand for workers (Carnevale, Smith, & Strohl,

2010, 2013; Carnevale, Smith & Melton, 2011; Cooper, Hersh, & O’Leary, 2012;

Wilson, 2014).
According to Mausbach and Mooney (2008), foundational concepts

inherent in curriculum alignment efforts are: (a) opportunities for instructors to

participate in professional development efforts that enhance the process (learn–

then do); and (b) opportunities for instructors and content experts to work in teams

to plan, review, and improve instruction and work with instructional leaders.

Engaging in both of these efforts enhances the quality of alignment results and

communication across institutions involved in curriculum alignment efforts.

Re-aligning Student Skills with Workforce Needs through opening relevant

specialization in the Technology Vocational and Livelihood track.

Research Questions

The study determined the correlation between skills demand and market

labor demand in Alubijid and its neighboring Municipalities.

Specifically, it answered the following questions: 1) what are the sectors

with the highest skills demand in: Region X, Misamis Oriental, and its neighboring

municipalities? 2) what are the 10 highest sector market labor demand in the Local

Government Unit of Alubijid and neighboring municipalities? 3) what are the TVL

tracks offered in ANCHS in terms of number of enrollees? 4) there a significant

positive correlation between skills demand and market labor demand in Alubijid

and its neighboring Municipalities.


Scope and Limitation

This study focused on the matching of the K-12 TVL tracks/ specialization

and the top ten (10) market labor demands in Municipality of Alubijid, Misamis

Oriental and its neighboring municipalities. Specifically, from the from the

Municipality of Alubijid, and Laguindingan and its nearest City, El Salvador City.

Data from the ANCHS school, concerned government agencies the LGU

was the primary source for matching and analysis.

This study however does not include the quality of Senior High Graduate ,

the jobs they had landed and the place where work immersion was conducted.

Research Methodology

Descriptive method of research was used in this study. This method was

deemed fit necessary for the study whose intention was to describe things as it

was seen and happened involving data gathering analysis and interpretation of the

results based on the data gathered. It also describes with emphasis on what

actually exists.

For this study, list of top ten labor market in municipality of Alubijid Misamis

Oriental and its neighboring municipalities was collected from the Go Negosyo

Centers and Business Permit Departments. Likewise, the list of the of TVL

offerings and number of enrollees was collected. Tapping specific government

agency such as the Department of Labor and Employment, Go Negosyo Centers

and TESDA will also be needed.


A letter to the Local Government Unit was to ask for these data. Available

data from the concerned agencies was also retrieved from their websites.

Discussion Results and Recommendations

This section dealt with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

on examining the work force in Alubijid Misamis Oriental and its Neighboring

Municipalities which will serve as a basis for TVL track/specialization re alignment.

Table 1

Frequency Distribution of the sectors with the highest


skills demand and employment in: Region X

Source: Bayan Academy

Table 1 revealed that the Services sector has the highest skills demand in

2016 with 21, 765 demands or fifty-five (55 %) of the numbers of skills demand.

Services sectors includes the Tourism (Hotel and Restaurant) Industry which

covers the qualifications of Cookery NC II, Commercial Cooking NC II,


Housekeeping, Food and Beverages Services NC II, Bread and Pastry Production

NC II, Tourism Promotion, etc. The table also shows that the Services sector would

increase by 4, 804 or (18 %) in demand by the year 2022.

Table 2

Top 10 Industry/Sector in Alubijid, Laguindingan and El Salvador City


Number of
Sector Establishments Percentage
Tourism (Hotel and Restaurant) 93 32
Agriculture and Fishery 73 25
Information and Communication
Technology 35 12
Construction 19 6
Utilities 17 6
Processed Food & Beverages 15 5
Automotive and Land Transportation 12 4
Logistics 11 4
Metals and Engineering 11 4
Chemicals / Plastics / Petrochemical 9 3
TOTAL 295 100

Table 2 shows that Ninety-Three or (32%) of the job generating industry

around Alubijid, Laguindingan and El Salvador City is the Tourism Sector. This is

followed by the Agriculture Sector with Seventy-Three or (25 %) of the job

generating Industry. The Information and Communication Technology Sector

come in third with Thirty-Five or (12 %) of the job generating Industry.


Table 3

Frequency Distribution of Number of Enrollees in Alubijid National


Comprehensive High School (TVL)
Number of
Sector Track Grade Level Percentage
Students
TOURISM COOKERY
GRADE 11 40 16%
GRADE 12 58 24%
METALS & ENGINEERING SMAW
GRADE 11 79 32%
GRADE 12 69 28%
TOTAL 246 100%

It can be gleamed from table 3 that the highest number of enrollees in terms

of specialization and grade level is Grade 11and Grade 12 SMAW with 79 or thirty-

two (32%) and 69 or (28%) respectively of the total enrollees in the TVL track. Of

the total 249 learners enrolled in the TVL track 58 students or twenty-four (24 %)

are Grade 12 cookery and 40 students or (16%) are Grade 11 Cookery students.

Table 4a

No. of Establishments vs. Students Enrollment

No. of Establishments vs. Students Enrollment


Chemicals / Plastics / Petrochemical
Metals and Engineering
Logistics
Automotive and Land Transportation
Processed Food & Beverages
Utilities
Construction
Information and Communication Technology
Agriculture and Fishery
Tourism (Hotel and Restaurant

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS


Table 4b

Correlation vs the number of Sectors and Enrollment

X Values
∑ = 295
Mean = 29.5 SECTOR ENROLLMENT
∑(X - Mx)2 = SSx = 7842.5 SECTORS 1
ENROLLMENT 0.404805883 1
Y Values
∑ = 237
Mean = 23.7
∑(Y - My)2 = SSy = 22468.1

X and Y Combined
N = 10
∑(X - Mx)(Y - My) = 5373.5

R Calculation
r = ∑((X - My)(Y - Mx)) / √((SSx)(SSy))

r = 5373.5 / √((7842.5)(22468.1)) = 0.4048

Meta Numerics (cross-check)


r = 0.4048

The P-Value is 0.245891. The result is not significant at p < 0.05.

The value of R is 0.4048 as reflected in table 4b. Although technically a positive

correlation, the relationship between the variables is weak. This is because there

are only two specialization offered in ANCHS senior high school, making all values

of enrollment zero. The value of R2, the coefficient of determination, is 0.1639.

Table 4a clearly shows the discrepancy in the number of establishment /

sectors generating jobs versus the number of enrollees. This suggests that there

is a big gap between potential jobs and number of enrollees in a specified

specialization..

The P-Value is 0.245891. The result is not significant at p < 0.05.


Recommendations
The results showed that there is big gap between the number of sectors

generating jobs versus the number of enrollees and specialization in Alubijid

national Comprehensive High School SHS. There is a clear mismatch in between

education and the market labor needs.

According to Thisse & Zenou ( 2000)it is important to focus on the growing

youth population and the imbalance between the supply of education and the

demand of the labor market.

A point on the 10 Point Education Agenda calls for a re-introduction of

vocational and technical education in high schools, which has been designed to

give Filipino students practical skills to gain employment after graduation – a key

component in tackling the high youth unemployment rate in the Philippines. Thus,

it is essential that stakeholders shall see to it that these potential graduates in the

TVL have jobs to land on after graduation by ensuring that there is an alignment

of track and specialization offered to the industries and establishments around their

Local Government Unit.

Dissemination and Advocacy

There are five key audiences in this research, these are:

1. Department of Education-Division of Misamis Oriental.

2. Local Government Unit of Alubijid, the Municipality of Alubijid,

Laguindingan and El Salvador City.

3. Alubijid National Comprehensive High School

4. Companies and Establishments in the Municipality of Alubijid,

Laguindingan and El Salvador City.


Research outcomes will be disseminated through publication, by presenting at

a conference and by presenting the results to the key stakeholders of the research

study.

A copy of the summary of the research will be given to the four key participants

and having a meeting with them to discuss and disseminate results and

recommendations. The school head and the research unit will also help inform

result wording to the stakeholders of this research. Likewise, the result be made

available online to encourage people to do more research about the topic.

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