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Journal of Physics and Astronomy Research

JPAR
Vol. 4(1), pp. 079-086, September, 2018. © www.premierpublishers.org, ISSN: 9098-7709

Research Article

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory


and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles
(“Cuantex” Model)
Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena
Department of Mathematics, Universidad Cristiana Evangélica Nuevo Milenio
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Jesús de Nazareth.
Department of Mathematics, Universidad de San Pedro Sula.
Email: jc.alcerro@ujn.edu.hn, juancalcerro@hotmail.com

This document communicates some of the main results obtained from a theoretical work which
performs a type of Wick’s rotation, where Lorentz’s group is connected in the resulting Euclidean
metric, and as a consequence models the particles with rest mass as photons in a compacted
additional dimension (for a photon of the ordinary 3-dimensional space, they do not go through
the 4-dimension due to null angle in this dimension). Among its reported results are new
explanations, much more elegant than the current ones, of the material waves of De Broglie, the
uncertainty principle, the dilation of the proper time, the Higgs field, the existence of the
antiparticles and specifically of the electron-positron annihilation, among others. It also leaves
open the possibility of unifying at least three of the fundamental forces and the different types of
particles under a single model of photon and compact dimension. Additionally, two experimental
results are proposed that can only currently be explained by this theory.

Key words: Wick’s rotation, Lorentz’s group, Special relativity, Photons, Elementary Particles, Four-vectors, Space-time,
Higgs’ boson, Compact dimension.

INTRODUCTION

Minkowski’s space-time theory is a mathematical theory of relativity and the wave-particle duality of quantum
mechanism that provides a metric to special theory of mechanics are theoretical constructs that although
relativity. However, this abstract reality is based in a metric compatible, are independent of each other, leaving open
of complex values, causing that in various theoretical the problem of finding a more general theoretical
topics in physics, you need to perform Wick’s rotation. framework that deduces both. The above are just some of
Although Minkowski’s metric works mathematically, this the needs that the present work tries to solve, but it also
does not provide a complete physical comprehension introduces the discovery that all elementary particles with
concerning its meaning. For example, the spatial rest mass can be modeled like a photon traveling in a
components of the four-vector velocity in an ordinary three fourth compact spatial dimension, in such a way that the
dimensions space, presents an unavoidable incoherence corpuscular existence in ordinary space of these particles
with the ordinary ones used in physics1, it also happens (with mass) happens instantaneously and intermittently2
with the components in an ordinary three dimensions and with a defined frequency.
space of the four-vector force. On the other hand, the

1
Einstein wrote “it is the only four-vector that can be formed with the 2
Hence the name of the cuantex model, which is the abbreviation of the
velocity components of the matter particle…” in his book “The meaning phrase "quanta of existence".
of relativity”.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
Alcerro-Mena 080

With the purpose of clearly developing the communication ds2 = c2dt2 + dx12 + dx22 + dx32 + dx42 (2)
of this theoretical work, this document is composed of Which in tensor form:
three sections. The current section 1 gives a brief ds2 =dxU UV dxV
introduction of the two concepts involved (Wick’s rotation Where:
and Lorentz’s group), it also introduces the formalism of 10 0 0
the main proposed hypothesis and develops the metric
and the resulting elementary particle model3. Section 2 
communicates some of the consequences of adopting UV  0 0 1 0 0
particles model implicit in the proposed hypothesis and, 0 0 0 1 0
finally, section 3 shows some of the final conclusions of 0 0 0 0 1
this work and experimental predictions. It is also important
to mention that this analysis is made under the special
relativity theory (Lorentz group), pending the development Lorentz’s group connection in this Euclidean metric
of the corresponding general relativity theory. and its four-vectors in x1-x2-x3-x4.
CONCEPTS This development was made apart from the ct dimension
in the metric of the expression (2).
Wick Rotation
The following figure 1 shows the connection of
(A) It is a method to find a solution on a mathematical Minkowski’s coordenate axes rotation5 with the metric (2):
problem on Minkowski´s space-time, starting from the
solution of an analog problem on a Euclidean space,
through the transformation that substitutes an imaginary
variable a real one. Specifically talking, in this work, the
replacement of “t” for “it”, is studied. This is the variable of
time.

(B) In quantum theory of fields, it is the rotation from a real


time axis to an imaginary time axis on a complex time level
(Liu, 1997).

Lorentz group. It refers to the group of all the


transformations in Minkowski’s space-time.

HYPOTHESIS FORMALISM Figure 1. Connection of the rotating space-time axes of


Minkowski with the metric of the expression (2).
Being: Notice that, it is only feasible to represent the dimensions
ds2 = -c2dt2 + dx12 + dx22 + dx32 (1) x1, ict and x4.

The distance measurements of Minkowski’s space-time As you can see, the invariant in the rotating space-time
(Stephani, 2004), that in tensor form is: axes of Minkowski correspond themselves with the
absence of effective rotation of the axe x4, since this axe
ds2 =dx  dx rotates only around itself. Keeping in consideration only ict,
x1 and x4, it was found that the coordinate transforming
Where c is the speed of light in the vacuum and: matrix, for this system, is:

cos sin 0
-10 0
sincos (3)
 0 0 1
 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
Where: is the complex angle for a reference frame
If Wick’s rotation is applied (tw= i t), with the special rotates with respect of the other in Minkowski’s space-
condition that Lorentz’s group is compatible with the time, cos = 1 / (1-v2/c2)1/2, sin= i(v/c) / (1-v2/c2)1/2 and v
Euclidean metric4, then we have as result the following is the speed of the frame of reference in relative movement
metric structure: (along x1) in respect of the one in relative rest.

3
Cuantex model. 5
Do not confuse with Wick’s rotation.
4
The reasoning of this condition will be seen in section 1.3.
Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
J. Phys. Astron. Res. 081

Coordinates transformation in the system (ict, x1, x4)


and four-vector of displacement in x1-x2-x3-x4.

When applying the transformation coordinates of the


expressions (3) we found the following result6:

x1´ = (x1-vt)/(1-v2/c2)1/2
ict´= i(ct-x1v/c) /(1-v2/c2)1/2 (4)
x4´= x4

We can appreciate that the transformations for x1´ and ict´ Figure 2: Representation in the plane x1-x4 of the four-
are the same of the space-time of Minkowski. vector of velocity U, which can also be called C because it
is the same speed of light in a vacuum.  is the angle
On the other hand, the four-vector of a particle’s between said vector and the x1 axis.
displacement observed in the space x1-x4, it was
reasoned7 that the component for x4 needed to have the Based on the component for x4 of the expression (6-A) and
same magnitude of the invariant interval in the space-time the component on x4 of Figure 2, the following equation is
of Minkowski and we obtained: valid:
 c/csen
x = x1 i + ct/ 
From which it follows that:
The infinitesimal form for the space x1-x2-x3-x4 is: 1/sen
dx = dx1 i + dx2 j + dx3k +cdt/ And therefore (5-B) can be rewritten as:

Where i, j, k and  are unit vectors, = 1/(1-u2/c2)1/2 and u dx = dx1 i + dx2 j + dx3k +cdt sin
is the speed of the observed particle.
Where  is the angle formed between the vector x or dx
This and the following four-vectors are spatial and should and the axe x1 (the direction of 4D-motion). This symbol
not be confused with the common four-vectors of space- must not be confused with Lorentz velocity factor β=v/c, in
time. fact, in this document  means inverse cosine of v/c.
Four-vector of velocity in x1-x2-x3-x4 On the other hand, (6-A) can be rewritten as:
Of the expression (5-B) the following four-vector U was
U = u1 i + u2 j + u3 k +c sen  (6-B)
deducted for the velocity of a particle observed in the
space x1-x2-x3-x4:
Four-momentum in x1-x2-x3-x4
U = u1 i + u2 j + u3 k + c/  (6-A) When applying the transformation matrix (3) to the linear
momentum measured by the two frames of reference for
When squaring the magnitude of this four-vector, it x1-ict and x1´-ict´ in the system of the figure 1 and
results: reasoning that the component of the lineal moment in x4
|U |2 = c2 should have the same magnitude of the invariant space-
time of Minkowski, the following four-vector was obtained
This states that the magnitude of the four-vector of velocity for the linear moment in x1-x2-x3-x4:
U is the speed of light, in other words, the particle with rest
mass is a photon transiting in the fourth spatial dimension.
P = m0u1i + m0u2j + m0u3k +m0c
This conclusion will be taken up later.
Where mo is mass in rest of the observed particle.

6 7
An alternate way to get to the same result, it is through the reference Reasoning based on the existing correspondence between the
frame translation x1´-x4´ respect of x1-x4, when the ict dimension is invariance of the rotation of axes of the space time of Minkowski and
eliminated in the coordinate system of the figure 1. the absence of rotation of the axis x4.
Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
Alcerro-Mena 082

Four-vector of current density Notice that the photons of the ordinary tridimensional
space M3 (the commonly known) it has to be =0 and
When applying the transformation matrix (3) to the current therefore d= 0, thus they do not go through the
density measured by the frames of reference for x1-ict and dimension x4= R.
x1´-ict´ in system of figure 1 and reasoning that the
component in x4 of the current density should have the (C) With the intension to define the value of R, the path
same magnitude of the invariant in the space-time of (world line) of the equivalent photons were visualized
Minkowski, the following four-vector of current density was over the cylindrical space M3xS1 (by simplicity the
obtained for x1-x2-x3-x4: temporal dimension was omitted), as if they were on
an extended equivalent plane (see figure 3). When
cj1 i + j2 j + j3k c you assume this, then the periodicity over S1 of the
photon’s path, was replaced by a continuous
Where and  are the volumetric density of electric
charge in motion and resting respectively and j1, j2 and j3 emission of equivalent photons of a same elementary
are the current densities in x1, x2, and x3 respectively. particle.
On this basis, it was easy to calculate the wavelength
Space time topology and cuantex model of the  (distance between two flat waves) of these photons,
elementary particle giving as result:
 = h (1-u2/c2)1/2 /m0c = h / (γm0c) (11)
All of the above proposed the following physical- Where h is the Planck constant.
mathematical properties:
Here it is supposed10 that = h/p, where p is the
(A) It was found that when u=0 and therefore  is /2 in lineal moment of the photon. The perimeter of S1
the expressions (6-A) and (6-B), then U = c(and must match the wavelength of the equivalent photon
generally when squared the magnitude of the four- of the particle observed when in rest, by which if it is
vector 6-A result |U|2 = c2 ), which takes us to the supposed u = 0 then:
conclusion that all elementary8 particle with mass at R = u=0 
rest is a photon in the space defined by the metric (2). Therefore: R= (1/2) (h/m0c) (12)
And where u = c cos. The implicit reasoning9 in the
conclusion above deducted that the topology in space This means that the radius R of the cylinder
–time results to be M4 x S1, this is a Cartesian product circumference must depend of the mass at rest of the
between an Euclidean space-time M4 (the first four elementary particle observed. This is so that each type
dimensions, ct-x1-x2-x3, of the metric 2) and a circle of elementary particle, according to its mass at rest,
S1 (the fifth dimension, x4, of the metric 2) of radius R. must exist a proper cylindrical Surface, but keeping the
This is to have a cylindrical space-time, where for the space-time M4 in common.
metric (2) dx4 = RdBeing dthe angular
infinitesimal displacement around the cylinder and
where -2< < 2In other words, the dimension x4
is compact (see figure 4).
(B) Since all particle with mass at rest m0 must be treated
as a photon that moves through the cylindrical surface
defined by M4 x S1, then it was found that the length
of the trajectory of any elementary particle, in M3x S1
(x1-x2-x3-R), is defined by :
1
( )
∫(𝑑𝑥12 + 𝑑𝑥22 + 𝑑𝑥32 + 𝑅2 𝑑𝜃 2 ) 2 = 𝑐 ∫ 𝒅𝒕 (9)

Where – Infinite < < + Infinite. (S1 it is rolled up, but


the orthogonal nature is the same as if it were an
extended dimension). Figure 3: Equivalent extended space to M3xS1 (x1-x2-x3-R), that
shows two fronts of flat waves of the equivalent photon of an
elementary particle with mass at rest, which has a lineal moment
And therefore in M4 x S1 by:
P, and a wavelength . This also shows a geometrical
21/2 c ∫ dt = ∫ dL (10) interpretation of the wavelength of De Broglie DB of the
elementary particle with mass at rest.

8
One of the reasons why the reference is to elementary particles, is that (although instantaneously and intermittently) in the ordinary space x1-x2-
photons are elementary particles. x3.
9 10
If all elementary particle with mass at rest in the ordinary space, is Although it is not shown here, this relation and the constant of Planck
equivalent to a photon going through the dimension x4, then this may be rigorously deducted in this proposed model.
dimension should be compact, so that this particle keeps its existence
Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
J. Phys. Astron. Res. 083

(E) Graphic interpretation of the cylindrical space Where u is the speed of the particle.
proposed. Notice that this expression is the same for the wave length
of De Broglie, however, it only applies to elementary
The following figure 4 illustrates a segment of the path particles, unlike what the current theory assumes since
of the equivalent photon of any elementary particle: Louis V. de Broglie (De Broglie, 1924). This is because
replacing mo, in that expression, by the total mass of a
composite particle would imply the existence of its own
compact dimension, calculated by the expression (12). All
this implies the observable fact that, if the wavelength of a
composite particle was accurately measured, then it would
be observed that it does not exactly match the de Broglie
wavelength.

Particle-antiparticle annihilation explained by cuantex


model
A B
3 1
Figure 4: Representation of M xS where only x1-R Consider the following ratios
(that is x1-x4) is shown. (A) Angular view. dx4/dx = dp4/dp = cc= -sin
(B) Transverse view, here the vertical and horizontal
axes refer to the geometry of the circle This is now combined to expressions (7), (8) and
(5-B) respectively:
Observations:
-m0c / P = (-cdt sin) / dx = -cc= -sin
(1) For this illustration it is supposed that the spatial
displacement, of the elementary particle, is only in the Where P, dx and care the magnitudes of the
axe x1. However, its equivalent photon should also corresponding four-vectors.
have a trip in S1, it means the compact axe x4.
(2) Notice in figure 4-A that commonly a fourth spatial axe This suggests that the change of signal in the charge,
would be noticed as extended (pointed lines), but this implies to change the sense to the component of the fourth
model refers to a rolled up or compact as it is seen in axis in the four-momentum (7) it also involves a change in
the figure. the sense for the displacement of the photon along S1.
(3) The trip of the equivalent photon (drawn as an arrow) Considering this, and if we proceed to verify what happens
is made on a cylindrical surface. when an electron (e-) collides against its antiparticle, the
positron (e+), being these the negative and positive charge
and if we suppose the movement of the equivalent
RESULTS AND PREDICTIONS OF THE CUANTEX photons only on the axis x1 and x4=Rand on opposite
MODEL OF AN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE senses (in the axis x4 due to opposite charges) therefore
the following system of equation of momentum and
Wavelength of De Broglie explained by this cuantex energy is deduced (before and after the collision):
model
x1 axis Pe-i1 - Pe+i1 = Pe-f1 - Pe+f1 = 0
At applying a simple geometrical analysis on an extended x4 axis Pe-i4 - Pe+i4 = Pe-f 4 - Pe+f 4 = 0
equivalent plane to M3xS1 (x1-x2-x3-R in figure 3 and Energy ((Pe-i1)2+(Pe-i4)2)1/2c + ((Pe+i1)2+(Pe+i4)2)1/2c =
assuming an angle between the equivalent photons ((Pe-f1)2+(Pe-f 4)2 )1/2c + ((Pe+f1)2+(Pe+f 4)2 )1/2c
direction and M3 (this is that the elementary particle
equivalent to these photons, is in movement), then the Where Pe-i1, Pe+i1,Pe-f1 y Pe+f1 are the components on the
formation of a composed triangle rectangle by three sides axis x1 of the four-momentum initial and final for the
equivalent photons from the positron and the electron
can be verified (see the zoom): the wavelength of the
equivalent photons, a flat wave front of the equivalent respectively; Pe-i4, Pe+i4,Pe-f4 and Pe+f4 are the four-
momentum first and final in the axis x4 of the equivalent
photons and, forming an angle with the first one, the
photons from the electron and positron respectively.
wavelength of De Broglie DB. This last one results to be
the length between the flat waves fronts of the equivalent
It is observed that the system permits the solution where:
photons, but measured in M3. It can be verified that from
the analysis of this triangle it is obtained that: Pe-f 4 = Pe+f 4 = 0

DB = / cos  Which implies the reaction:


And therefore e- + e+  +
DB = h (1-u2/c2)1/2 /(m0 u) = h /(γm0 u) Here symbolizes the ordinary space photon M3.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
Alcerro-Mena 084

This expresses that the result of the collision is the two Where “n” is the number of crosses the equivalent photon
contained photons (gamma rays) in the tridimensional of the elementary particle has in the ordinary space x1-x2-
ordinary space, storing all the initial energy, something x3.
that is experimentally observed (and it is also predicted by
the current physics). The above expression can be rewritten as follows:
 = t / = R /c= n(2R)/c (13)
Intrinsic magnetic moment from the electron
explained by cuantex model Where is the proper time of the observed elementary
particle.
Something interesting from the structure of this particle
model, is that the path from the equivalent photon of a This means that  = n(2R)/c is the proper time of the
particle with reposed mass, through de S1, implies a fixed elementary particle with mass at rest and corresponds to
and determined angular moment that does not disappear the frequency of crosses with the ordinary space x1-x2-x3,
although this particle is in repose on the ordinary space of the equivalent photon of the particle mentioned,
x1-x2-x3. On the electron case, the value of the magnetic composes its temporal flow. It was deducted from here
moment can be obtained, if the following aspects are that the time dilatation from a particle moving at vi,
considered: velocity, it is the fact that this crossing frequency with the
ordinary space x1-x2-x3 is reduced, due to the  angle
(a) The magnetic momentum for an “I” current around takes different values of /2, since 1/= sen.
the A area, is given by: In figure 4, the crossing with x1-x2-x3 will be given when
= I A the path of the photon intercept the x1 axis

(b) The identity generally used for the total charge Uncertainty principle explained by the cuantex model
density is:
=ne Consider the following aspects:
Where “n” is the number of electrons per volume unit
and “e” is the electric charge of an electron. (A) If in the expression (13) it is assumed that n = 1, then
it follows that any elementary particle representative of
(c ) When the electron is reposed, the expression (8) has any clock is associated with a period of time T 0:
the following form:
T0 = h/(m0c2)
c= c0
This is the current density of the equivalent photon, It is the sensitivity or the minimum uncertainty in the
when the electron is in repose. measurement of time, because on that period the matter
of the clock is not registering events in the tridimensional
(d) The rotation radius of the equivalent photon is the same ordinary space, because its equivalent photons is not
R radius, which validity is given by the expression (12). having contact with the ordinary space x1-x2-x3. In the
case represented by figure 4 this last is illustrated, but for
Therefore, at mixing these four expressions, the following the equivalent photon of a moving particle on x1.
intrinsic magnetic momentum from the electron is obtained:
= e h_ (B) According to quantum physics, any energy
  m0 measurement of a system can finally be reduced to the
frequency measurement of the waves associated to that
This is the same expression for the magnetic moment of quantum system (Serway, 2002).
the electron intrinsic spin, foretold by the relativist quantum
physics. Notice that the signal is positive or negative Considering that and proceeding to calculate the energy
depending the value of the charge and, therefore, the path that is measured, from a reference frame added to a clock,
sense of the equivalent photon on S1. If the case of moving to a wave that intercepts the location of that clock, then
electron is analyzed, then we get to the conclusion that this the following results are obtained:
magnetic moment stays fixed.
(1) The time interval t taken to measure the wave
Dilatation of proper time explained by the cuantex frequency, is given by: t = nT0. Where n is a whole
model number.

By making the expression (5-B) correspond with (9) and (2) The frequency (fwave) of the wave in study is:
figure 4, it is obtained:
fwave = (s/n) m0 c2 /h
∫ 𝑑𝑥4 = 𝑐/𝛾 ∫ 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑅 ∫ 𝑑𝜃 = 𝑛(2𝜋𝑅)

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
J. Phys. Astron. Res. 085

Where m0 is the reposed mass from the representative FH = c h / (2R2) (14)


elementary particle of the clock and s is the number of
cycles or waves that are registered during the t time. Or also:
FH = 2 mo2c3 / (h)
(3) From that it derives that the energy of the wave is
given by: This field force corresponds to the called Higgs field from
the particles standard model. This is that if a photon does
Ewave = (s/n) E0 not enter in S1 then it is perceived as an ordinary space
Which can be rewritten as: photon, it means that Higgs field does not interact with it.
But if a photon travels to S1 then it is perceived as a
Ewave = E0/n + E0/n + E0/n +…+ E0/n particle with reposed mass from the ordinary space which
reposed mass is obtained from the expression (12), this is
It means, the sum of s times E0/n. a particle that interacts with Higgs field.
On the other hand, FH does not manifest itself as force on
(4) The previous series means that E0/n is the sensibility the ordinary space but as something underlying the mass
or the uncertainty in the measurement of energy from from the elementary particles.
any wave, or along a time interval t = nT0.
Four-force of the cuantex model
(5) If this uncertainty in the energy measurement is called
Em= E0/n and the identities are conveniently The four-vector of force F4R of the space-time of
replaced, then we have that: Minkowski is given by:
Em t = h
F4R = F1 i + F2 j + F3 k + iF1 (u/c) 
It is the minimum uncertainty in the energy measurement
of a wave and therefore any E energetic uncertainty will Where F1, F2 and F3 are the components in x1, x2 and x3
be: respectively,  is the corresponding unit vector to the
E t > h axis ict and x1 is the axis of motion.

Which is the same uncertainty principle for the energy When applying the transformation matrix (3) to this
measurement used by the quantum physics. relativistic four-vector of force and reasoning that the
Notice that if T0=0, then we have not discrete, but component of the four-vector of force of the cuantex model
continuous, registration of the elapsed time, in that case, in x4 should have the same magnitude of the invariant in
there would not exist an unavoidable minimum uncertainty the space-time of Minkowski, the following four-vector F
in the energy measurement from any system. was obtained for x1-x2-x3-x4:

Higgs field explained by the cuantex model F = F1i + F2j + F3k + (F12/2+F22+F32)1/2

The topology of S1 implies a field of central force that is in


function of R and where the force of its magnitude FH can
be obtained if the following aspects are considered: CONCLUSIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL PREDICTIONS
(a) A definition of force is: F = dpx/dt i + dpy/dt j
(1) The present work is the only one in all the literature of
theoretical physics that models the elementary particle
Where i and j are unitary vectors of the x and y axis
with mass at rest, as a photon traveling a compact fifth
respectively, px and py are the components in x and y
dimension. There have only been a few approaches to the
respectively, from the P momentum of the equivalent
idea, for example, according to J.G. Williamson and M.B.
photon
Van der Mark (1997), the electron can be modeled as a
photon confined in a space with toroidal topology, and
(b) The component of the momentum in the equivalent
however, that space would always be within the three
photon that interferes in this calculation is the one of
dimensions of ordinary space. On the other hand, F. G.
the projection from the total moment of the photon, on
Arregui (1989) proposed that any elementary particle with
the transversal section of the cylinder in figure 4-B, this
mass at rest can be modeled as a packet of energy
is P4 (see figure 4-B).
rotating in a compact axis, however, this particle was not
treated as a photon but as an entity called "energion",
(c) The angle that forms p4 with the axis x is where
besides that said compact axis was temporary and non-
is the angle of rotation on S1. See figure 4-B. spatial. This means that the Cuantex model is a whole
land to be explored.
(d) From the expression (11), it is p4= h/λ.
From the previous it is deduced that the magnitude of F is:

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)
Alcerro-Mena 086

(2) Considering that the quantum theory of fields assigns keeping an inverse relationship with m 0, however, it
a particle for each considered force field, therefore from permits mass values in the order of the ones observed in
the expression (14) it is deduced that there must exist an reality, due to factor h (Planck’s constant), which are very
particle associated to the field of this force, from the reduced.
exposed on the previous section, this particle must be
Higgs boson. (6) Although it is not shown in this document, it is possible
to get to the same equivalent photon model from a
(4) This elementary particle model proposed, predicts that different analysis made on the special relativity and the
the movement inside the tridimensional ordinary hypothesis of De Broglie.
space of an elementary particle, with reposed mass, is
given through “jumps” (as consequence from the
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
equivalent photon trip on S1), in such way that the
length between these jumps is given by:
To Arbab Ibrahim Arbab, Ph.D, for his endorsement.
d= ____h u_____
The reviewers of this work, who kindly suggested
m0 c2 (1-u2/c2)1/2
improvements.
This results from including the factors u and and also
assuming that n = 1 in expression (13). This is that with n
= 1, the corpuscular absence of the elementary particle REFERENCES
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article is in patenting process of a system that would show
its conclusion and, therefore the validity of this whole Accepted 19 July 2018
theory.
Citation: Alcerro-Mena JC (2018). Euclidean equivalent of
(5) According to Overduin and Wesson (1998), the five Minkowski’s space-time theory and the corresponding
dimension theory from Kaluza-Klein was mainly model of elementary particles (“cuantex” model). Journal
abandoned because it assigns reposed mass values of Physics and Astronomy Research, 4(1): 079-086.
m0highly elevated to loaded particles as the electron. This
happens because in that theory, the mass is inversely
proportional to the radius values from the compact
dimension.
Copyright: © 2018 Alcerro-Mena. This is an open-access
article distributed under the terms of the creative commons
Related to this, it is very important to observe that in this
attribution license, which permits unrestricted use,
proposed model for an equivalent photon, the compact
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
dimension radius R, given by the expression (12), also
original author and the source are cited.
Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)