This document communicates some of the main results obtained from a theoretical work which performs a type of Wick’s rotation, where Lorentz’s group is connected in the resulting Euclidean metric, as well as the consequence models where the particles with mass at rest become photons in a compacted additional dimension (for a photon of the ordinary 3-dimensional space, they do not go through the 4-dimension due to null angle in this dimension). Among its reported results are new explanations, much more elegant than the current ones, of the material waves of De Broglie, the uncertainty principle, the dilation of the proper time, the Higgs field, the existence of the antiparticles and specifically of the electron-positron annihilation, among others. It also leaves open the possibility of unifying at least three of the fundamental forces and the different types of particles under a single model of photon and compact dimension. Additionally, two experimental results are proposed that can only currently be explained by this theory.

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This document communicates some of the main results obtained from a theoretical work which performs a type of Wick’s rotation, where Lorentz’s group is connected in the resulting Euclidean metric, as well as the consequence models where the particles with mass at rest become photons in a compacted additional dimension (for a photon of the ordinary 3-dimensional space, they do not go through the 4-dimension due to null angle in this dimension). Among its reported results are new explanations, much more elegant than the current ones, of the material waves of De Broglie, the uncertainty principle, the dilation of the proper time, the Higgs field, the existence of the antiparticles and specifically of the electron-positron annihilation, among others. It also leaves open the possibility of unifying at least three of the fundamental forces and the different types of particles under a single model of photon and compact dimension. Additionally, two experimental results are proposed that can only currently be explained by this theory.

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JPAR

Vol. 4(1), pp. 079-086, September, 2018. © www.premierpublishers.org, ISSN: 9098-7709

Research Article

and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles

(“Cuantex” Model)

Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena

Department of Mathematics, Universidad Cristiana Evangélica Nuevo Milenio

Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Jesús de Nazareth.

Department of Mathematics, Universidad de San Pedro Sula.

Email: jc.alcerro@ujn.edu.hn, juancalcerro@hotmail.com

This document communicates some of the main results obtained from a theoretical work which

performs a type of Wick’s rotation, where Lorentz’s group is connected in the resulting Euclidean

metric, and as a consequence models the particles with rest mass as photons in a compacted

additional dimension (for a photon of the ordinary 3-dimensional space, they do not go through

the 4-dimension due to null angle in this dimension). Among its reported results are new

explanations, much more elegant than the current ones, of the material waves of De Broglie, the

uncertainty principle, the dilation of the proper time, the Higgs field, the existence of the

antiparticles and specifically of the electron-positron annihilation, among others. It also leaves

open the possibility of unifying at least three of the fundamental forces and the different types of

particles under a single model of photon and compact dimension. Additionally, two experimental

results are proposed that can only currently be explained by this theory.

Key words: Wick’s rotation, Lorentz’s group, Special relativity, Photons, Elementary Particles, Four-vectors, Space-time,

Higgs’ boson, Compact dimension.

INTRODUCTION

Minkowski’s space-time theory is a mathematical theory of relativity and the wave-particle duality of quantum

mechanism that provides a metric to special theory of mechanics are theoretical constructs that although

relativity. However, this abstract reality is based in a metric compatible, are independent of each other, leaving open

of complex values, causing that in various theoretical the problem of finding a more general theoretical

topics in physics, you need to perform Wick’s rotation. framework that deduces both. The above are just some of

Although Minkowski’s metric works mathematically, this the needs that the present work tries to solve, but it also

does not provide a complete physical comprehension introduces the discovery that all elementary particles with

concerning its meaning. For example, the spatial rest mass can be modeled like a photon traveling in a

components of the four-vector velocity in an ordinary three fourth compact spatial dimension, in such a way that the

dimensions space, presents an unavoidable incoherence corpuscular existence in ordinary space of these particles

with the ordinary ones used in physics1, it also happens (with mass) happens instantaneously and intermittently2

with the components in an ordinary three dimensions and with a defined frequency.

space of the four-vector force. On the other hand, the

1

Einstein wrote “it is the only four-vector that can be formed with the 2

Hence the name of the cuantex model, which is the abbreviation of the

velocity components of the matter particle…” in his book “The meaning phrase "quanta of existence".

of relativity”.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

Alcerro-Mena 080

With the purpose of clearly developing the communication ds2 = c2dt2 + dx12 + dx22 + dx32 + dx42 (2)

of this theoretical work, this document is composed of Which in tensor form:

three sections. The current section 1 gives a brief ds2 =dxU UV dxV

introduction of the two concepts involved (Wick’s rotation Where:

and Lorentz’s group), it also introduces the formalism of 10 0 0

the main proposed hypothesis and develops the metric

and the resulting elementary particle model3. Section 2

communicates some of the consequences of adopting UV 0 0 1 0 0

particles model implicit in the proposed hypothesis and, 0 0 0 1 0

finally, section 3 shows some of the final conclusions of 0 0 0 0 1

this work and experimental predictions. It is also important

to mention that this analysis is made under the special

relativity theory (Lorentz group), pending the development Lorentz’s group connection in this Euclidean metric

of the corresponding general relativity theory. and its four-vectors in x1-x2-x3-x4.

CONCEPTS This development was made apart from the ct dimension

in the metric of the expression (2).

Wick Rotation

The following figure 1 shows the connection of

(A) It is a method to find a solution on a mathematical Minkowski’s coordenate axes rotation5 with the metric (2):

problem on Minkowski´s space-time, starting from the

solution of an analog problem on a Euclidean space,

through the transformation that substitutes an imaginary

variable a real one. Specifically talking, in this work, the

replacement of “t” for “it”, is studied. This is the variable of

time.

time axis to an imaginary time axis on a complex time level

(Liu, 1997).

transformations in Minkowski’s space-time.

Minkowski with the metric of the expression (2).

Being: Notice that, it is only feasible to represent the dimensions

ds2 = -c2dt2 + dx12 + dx22 + dx32 (1) x1, ict and x4.

The distance measurements of Minkowski’s space-time As you can see, the invariant in the rotating space-time

(Stephani, 2004), that in tensor form is: axes of Minkowski correspond themselves with the

absence of effective rotation of the axe x4, since this axe

ds2 =dx dx rotates only around itself. Keeping in consideration only ict,

x1 and x4, it was found that the coordinate transforming

Where c is the speed of light in the vacuum and: matrix, for this system, is:

cos sin 0

-10 0

sincos (3)

0 0 1

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

Where: is the complex angle for a reference frame

If Wick’s rotation is applied (tw= i t), with the special rotates with respect of the other in Minkowski’s space-

condition that Lorentz’s group is compatible with the time, cos = 1 / (1-v2/c2)1/2, sin= i(v/c) / (1-v2/c2)1/2 and v

Euclidean metric4, then we have as result the following is the speed of the frame of reference in relative movement

metric structure: (along x1) in respect of the one in relative rest.

3

Cuantex model. 5

Do not confuse with Wick’s rotation.

4

The reasoning of this condition will be seen in section 1.3.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

J. Phys. Astron. Res. 081

and four-vector of displacement in x1-x2-x3-x4.

expressions (3) we found the following result6:

x1´ = (x1-vt)/(1-v2/c2)1/2

ict´= i(ct-x1v/c) /(1-v2/c2)1/2 (4)

x4´= x4

We can appreciate that the transformations for x1´ and ict´ Figure 2: Representation in the plane x1-x4 of the four-

are the same of the space-time of Minkowski. vector of velocity U, which can also be called C because it

is the same speed of light in a vacuum. is the angle

On the other hand, the four-vector of a particle’s between said vector and the x1 axis.

displacement observed in the space x1-x4, it was

reasoned7 that the component for x4 needed to have the Based on the component for x4 of the expression (6-A) and

same magnitude of the invariant interval in the space-time the component on x4 of Figure 2, the following equation is

of Minkowski and we obtained: valid:

c/csen

x = x1 i + ct/

From which it follows that:

The infinitesimal form for the space x1-x2-x3-x4 is: 1/sen

dx = dx1 i + dx2 j + dx3k +cdt/ And therefore (5-B) can be rewritten as:

Where i, j, k and are unit vectors, = 1/(1-u2/c2)1/2 and u dx = dx1 i + dx2 j + dx3k +cdt sin

is the speed of the observed particle.

Where is the angle formed between the vector x or dx

This and the following four-vectors are spatial and should and the axe x1 (the direction of 4D-motion). This symbol

not be confused with the common four-vectors of space- must not be confused with Lorentz velocity factor β=v/c, in

time. fact, in this document means inverse cosine of v/c.

Four-vector of velocity in x1-x2-x3-x4 On the other hand, (6-A) can be rewritten as:

Of the expression (5-B) the following four-vector U was

U = u1 i + u2 j + u3 k +c sen (6-B)

deducted for the velocity of a particle observed in the

space x1-x2-x3-x4:

Four-momentum in x1-x2-x3-x4

U = u1 i + u2 j + u3 k + c/ (6-A) When applying the transformation matrix (3) to the linear

momentum measured by the two frames of reference for

When squaring the magnitude of this four-vector, it x1-ict and x1´-ict´ in the system of the figure 1 and

results: reasoning that the component of the lineal moment in x4

|U |2 = c2 should have the same magnitude of the invariant space-

time of Minkowski, the following four-vector was obtained

This states that the magnitude of the four-vector of velocity for the linear moment in x1-x2-x3-x4:

U is the speed of light, in other words, the particle with rest

mass is a photon transiting in the fourth spatial dimension.

P = m0u1i + m0u2j + m0u3k +m0c

This conclusion will be taken up later.

Where mo is mass in rest of the observed particle.

6 7

An alternate way to get to the same result, it is through the reference Reasoning based on the existing correspondence between the

frame translation x1´-x4´ respect of x1-x4, when the ict dimension is invariance of the rotation of axes of the space time of Minkowski and

eliminated in the coordinate system of the figure 1. the absence of rotation of the axis x4.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

Alcerro-Mena 082

Four-vector of current density Notice that the photons of the ordinary tridimensional

space M3 (the commonly known) it has to be =0 and

When applying the transformation matrix (3) to the current therefore d= 0, thus they do not go through the

density measured by the frames of reference for x1-ict and dimension x4= R.

x1´-ict´ in system of figure 1 and reasoning that the

component in x4 of the current density should have the (C) With the intension to define the value of R, the path

same magnitude of the invariant in the space-time of (world line) of the equivalent photons were visualized

Minkowski, the following four-vector of current density was over the cylindrical space M3xS1 (by simplicity the

obtained for x1-x2-x3-x4: temporal dimension was omitted), as if they were on

an extended equivalent plane (see figure 3). When

cj1 i + j2 j + j3k c you assume this, then the periodicity over S1 of the

photon’s path, was replaced by a continuous

Where and are the volumetric density of electric

charge in motion and resting respectively and j1, j2 and j3 emission of equivalent photons of a same elementary

are the current densities in x1, x2, and x3 respectively. particle.

On this basis, it was easy to calculate the wavelength

Space time topology and cuantex model of the (distance between two flat waves) of these photons,

elementary particle giving as result:

= h (1-u2/c2)1/2 /m0c = h / (γm0c) (11)

All of the above proposed the following physical- Where h is the Planck constant.

mathematical properties:

Here it is supposed10 that = h/p, where p is the

(A) It was found that when u=0 and therefore is /2 in lineal moment of the photon. The perimeter of S1

the expressions (6-A) and (6-B), then U = c(and must match the wavelength of the equivalent photon

generally when squared the magnitude of the four- of the particle observed when in rest, by which if it is

vector 6-A result |U|2 = c2 ), which takes us to the supposed u = 0 then:

conclusion that all elementary8 particle with mass at R = u=0

rest is a photon in the space defined by the metric (2). Therefore: R= (1/2) (h/m0c) (12)

And where u = c cos. The implicit reasoning9 in the

conclusion above deducted that the topology in space This means that the radius R of the cylinder

–time results to be M4 x S1, this is a Cartesian product circumference must depend of the mass at rest of the

between an Euclidean space-time M4 (the first four elementary particle observed. This is so that each type

dimensions, ct-x1-x2-x3, of the metric 2) and a circle of elementary particle, according to its mass at rest,

S1 (the fifth dimension, x4, of the metric 2) of radius R. must exist a proper cylindrical Surface, but keeping the

This is to have a cylindrical space-time, where for the space-time M4 in common.

metric (2) dx4 = RdBeing dthe angular

infinitesimal displacement around the cylinder and

where -2< < 2In other words, the dimension x4

is compact (see figure 4).

(B) Since all particle with mass at rest m0 must be treated

as a photon that moves through the cylindrical surface

defined by M4 x S1, then it was found that the length

of the trajectory of any elementary particle, in M3x S1

(x1-x2-x3-R), is defined by :

1

( )

∫(𝑑𝑥12 + 𝑑𝑥22 + 𝑑𝑥32 + 𝑅2 𝑑𝜃 2 ) 2 = 𝑐 ∫ 𝒅𝒕 (9)

the orthogonal nature is the same as if it were an

extended dimension). Figure 3: Equivalent extended space to M3xS1 (x1-x2-x3-R), that

shows two fronts of flat waves of the equivalent photon of an

elementary particle with mass at rest, which has a lineal moment

And therefore in M4 x S1 by:

P, and a wavelength . This also shows a geometrical

21/2 c ∫ dt = ∫ dL (10) interpretation of the wavelength of De Broglie DB of the

elementary particle with mass at rest.

8

One of the reasons why the reference is to elementary particles, is that (although instantaneously and intermittently) in the ordinary space x1-x2-

photons are elementary particles. x3.

9 10

If all elementary particle with mass at rest in the ordinary space, is Although it is not shown here, this relation and the constant of Planck

equivalent to a photon going through the dimension x4, then this may be rigorously deducted in this proposed model.

dimension should be compact, so that this particle keeps its existence

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

J. Phys. Astron. Res. 083

(E) Graphic interpretation of the cylindrical space Where u is the speed of the particle.

proposed. Notice that this expression is the same for the wave length

of De Broglie, however, it only applies to elementary

The following figure 4 illustrates a segment of the path particles, unlike what the current theory assumes since

of the equivalent photon of any elementary particle: Louis V. de Broglie (De Broglie, 1924). This is because

replacing mo, in that expression, by the total mass of a

composite particle would imply the existence of its own

compact dimension, calculated by the expression (12). All

this implies the observable fact that, if the wavelength of a

composite particle was accurately measured, then it would

be observed that it does not exactly match the de Broglie

wavelength.

model

A B

3 1

Figure 4: Representation of M xS where only x1-R Consider the following ratios

(that is x1-x4) is shown. (A) Angular view. dx4/dx = dp4/dp = cc= -sin

(B) Transverse view, here the vertical and horizontal

axes refer to the geometry of the circle This is now combined to expressions (7), (8) and

(5-B) respectively:

Observations:

-m0c / P = (-cdt sin) / dx = -cc= -sin

(1) For this illustration it is supposed that the spatial

displacement, of the elementary particle, is only in the Where P, dx and care the magnitudes of the

axe x1. However, its equivalent photon should also corresponding four-vectors.

have a trip in S1, it means the compact axe x4.

(2) Notice in figure 4-A that commonly a fourth spatial axe This suggests that the change of signal in the charge,

would be noticed as extended (pointed lines), but this implies to change the sense to the component of the fourth

model refers to a rolled up or compact as it is seen in axis in the four-momentum (7) it also involves a change in

the figure. the sense for the displacement of the photon along S1.

(3) The trip of the equivalent photon (drawn as an arrow) Considering this, and if we proceed to verify what happens

is made on a cylindrical surface. when an electron (e-) collides against its antiparticle, the

positron (e+), being these the negative and positive charge

and if we suppose the movement of the equivalent

RESULTS AND PREDICTIONS OF THE CUANTEX photons only on the axis x1 and x4=Rand on opposite

MODEL OF AN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE senses (in the axis x4 due to opposite charges) therefore

the following system of equation of momentum and

Wavelength of De Broglie explained by this cuantex energy is deduced (before and after the collision):

model

x1 axis Pe-i1 - Pe+i1 = Pe-f1 - Pe+f1 = 0

At applying a simple geometrical analysis on an extended x4 axis Pe-i4 - Pe+i4 = Pe-f 4 - Pe+f 4 = 0

equivalent plane to M3xS1 (x1-x2-x3-R in figure 3 and Energy ((Pe-i1)2+(Pe-i4)2)1/2c + ((Pe+i1)2+(Pe+i4)2)1/2c =

assuming an angle between the equivalent photons ((Pe-f1)2+(Pe-f 4)2 )1/2c + ((Pe+f1)2+(Pe+f 4)2 )1/2c

direction and M3 (this is that the elementary particle

equivalent to these photons, is in movement), then the Where Pe-i1, Pe+i1,Pe-f1 y Pe+f1 are the components on the

formation of a composed triangle rectangle by three sides axis x1 of the four-momentum initial and final for the

equivalent photons from the positron and the electron

can be verified (see the zoom): the wavelength of the

equivalent photons, a flat wave front of the equivalent respectively; Pe-i4, Pe+i4,Pe-f4 and Pe+f4 are the four-

momentum first and final in the axis x4 of the equivalent

photons and, forming an angle with the first one, the

photons from the electron and positron respectively.

wavelength of De Broglie DB. This last one results to be

the length between the flat waves fronts of the equivalent

It is observed that the system permits the solution where:

photons, but measured in M3. It can be verified that from

the analysis of this triangle it is obtained that: Pe-f 4 = Pe+f 4 = 0

And therefore e- + e+ +

DB = h (1-u2/c2)1/2 /(m0 u) = h /(γm0 u) Here symbolizes the ordinary space photon M3.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

Alcerro-Mena 084

This expresses that the result of the collision is the two Where “n” is the number of crosses the equivalent photon

contained photons (gamma rays) in the tridimensional of the elementary particle has in the ordinary space x1-x2-

ordinary space, storing all the initial energy, something x3.

that is experimentally observed (and it is also predicted by

the current physics). The above expression can be rewritten as follows:

= t / = R /c= n(2R)/c (13)

Intrinsic magnetic moment from the electron

explained by cuantex model Where is the proper time of the observed elementary

particle.

Something interesting from the structure of this particle

model, is that the path from the equivalent photon of a This means that = n(2R)/c is the proper time of the

particle with reposed mass, through de S1, implies a fixed elementary particle with mass at rest and corresponds to

and determined angular moment that does not disappear the frequency of crosses with the ordinary space x1-x2-x3,

although this particle is in repose on the ordinary space of the equivalent photon of the particle mentioned,

x1-x2-x3. On the electron case, the value of the magnetic composes its temporal flow. It was deducted from here

moment can be obtained, if the following aspects are that the time dilatation from a particle moving at vi,

considered: velocity, it is the fact that this crossing frequency with the

ordinary space x1-x2-x3 is reduced, due to the angle

(a) The magnetic momentum for an “I” current around takes different values of /2, since 1/= sen.

the A area, is given by: In figure 4, the crossing with x1-x2-x3 will be given when

= I A the path of the photon intercept the x1 axis

(b) The identity generally used for the total charge Uncertainty principle explained by the cuantex model

density is:

=ne Consider the following aspects:

Where “n” is the number of electrons per volume unit

and “e” is the electric charge of an electron. (A) If in the expression (13) it is assumed that n = 1, then

it follows that any elementary particle representative of

(c ) When the electron is reposed, the expression (8) has any clock is associated with a period of time T 0:

the following form:

T0 = h/(m0c2)

c= c0

This is the current density of the equivalent photon, It is the sensitivity or the minimum uncertainty in the

when the electron is in repose. measurement of time, because on that period the matter

of the clock is not registering events in the tridimensional

(d) The rotation radius of the equivalent photon is the same ordinary space, because its equivalent photons is not

R radius, which validity is given by the expression (12). having contact with the ordinary space x1-x2-x3. In the

case represented by figure 4 this last is illustrated, but for

Therefore, at mixing these four expressions, the following the equivalent photon of a moving particle on x1.

intrinsic magnetic momentum from the electron is obtained:

= e h_ (B) According to quantum physics, any energy

m0 measurement of a system can finally be reduced to the

frequency measurement of the waves associated to that

This is the same expression for the magnetic moment of quantum system (Serway, 2002).

the electron intrinsic spin, foretold by the relativist quantum

physics. Notice that the signal is positive or negative Considering that and proceeding to calculate the energy

depending the value of the charge and, therefore, the path that is measured, from a reference frame added to a clock,

sense of the equivalent photon on S1. If the case of moving to a wave that intercepts the location of that clock, then

electron is analyzed, then we get to the conclusion that this the following results are obtained:

magnetic moment stays fixed.

(1) The time interval t taken to measure the wave

Dilatation of proper time explained by the cuantex frequency, is given by: t = nT0. Where n is a whole

model number.

By making the expression (5-B) correspond with (9) and (2) The frequency (fwave) of the wave in study is:

figure 4, it is obtained:

fwave = (s/n) m0 c2 /h

∫ 𝑑𝑥4 = 𝑐/𝛾 ∫ 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑅 ∫ 𝑑𝜃 = 𝑛(2𝜋𝑅)

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

J. Phys. Astron. Res. 085

elementary particle of the clock and s is the number of

cycles or waves that are registered during the t time. Or also:

FH = 2 mo2c3 / (h)

(3) From that it derives that the energy of the wave is

given by: This field force corresponds to the called Higgs field from

the particles standard model. This is that if a photon does

Ewave = (s/n) E0 not enter in S1 then it is perceived as an ordinary space

Which can be rewritten as: photon, it means that Higgs field does not interact with it.

But if a photon travels to S1 then it is perceived as a

Ewave = E0/n + E0/n + E0/n +…+ E0/n particle with reposed mass from the ordinary space which

reposed mass is obtained from the expression (12), this is

It means, the sum of s times E0/n. a particle that interacts with Higgs field.

On the other hand, FH does not manifest itself as force on

(4) The previous series means that E0/n is the sensibility the ordinary space but as something underlying the mass

or the uncertainty in the measurement of energy from from the elementary particles.

any wave, or along a time interval t = nT0.

Four-force of the cuantex model

(5) If this uncertainty in the energy measurement is called

Em= E0/n and the identities are conveniently The four-vector of force F4R of the space-time of

replaced, then we have that: Minkowski is given by:

Em t = h

F4R = F1 i + F2 j + F3 k + iF1 (u/c)

It is the minimum uncertainty in the energy measurement

of a wave and therefore any E energetic uncertainty will Where F1, F2 and F3 are the components in x1, x2 and x3

be: respectively, is the corresponding unit vector to the

E t > h axis ict and x1 is the axis of motion.

Which is the same uncertainty principle for the energy When applying the transformation matrix (3) to this

measurement used by the quantum physics. relativistic four-vector of force and reasoning that the

Notice that if T0=0, then we have not discrete, but component of the four-vector of force of the cuantex model

continuous, registration of the elapsed time, in that case, in x4 should have the same magnitude of the invariant in

there would not exist an unavoidable minimum uncertainty the space-time of Minkowski, the following four-vector F

in the energy measurement from any system. was obtained for x1-x2-x3-x4:

Higgs field explained by the cuantex model F = F1i + F2j + F3k + (F12/2+F22+F32)1/2

function of R and where the force of its magnitude FH can

be obtained if the following aspects are considered: CONCLUSIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL PREDICTIONS

(a) A definition of force is: F = dpx/dt i + dpy/dt j

(1) The present work is the only one in all the literature of

theoretical physics that models the elementary particle

Where i and j are unitary vectors of the x and y axis

with mass at rest, as a photon traveling a compact fifth

respectively, px and py are the components in x and y

dimension. There have only been a few approaches to the

respectively, from the P momentum of the equivalent

idea, for example, according to J.G. Williamson and M.B.

photon

Van der Mark (1997), the electron can be modeled as a

photon confined in a space with toroidal topology, and

(b) The component of the momentum in the equivalent

however, that space would always be within the three

photon that interferes in this calculation is the one of

dimensions of ordinary space. On the other hand, F. G.

the projection from the total moment of the photon, on

Arregui (1989) proposed that any elementary particle with

the transversal section of the cylinder in figure 4-B, this

mass at rest can be modeled as a packet of energy

is P4 (see figure 4-B).

rotating in a compact axis, however, this particle was not

treated as a photon but as an entity called "energion",

(c) The angle that forms p4 with the axis x is where

besides that said compact axis was temporary and non-

is the angle of rotation on S1. See figure 4-B. spatial. This means that the Cuantex model is a whole

land to be explored.

(d) From the expression (11), it is p4= h/λ.

From the previous it is deduced that the magnitude of F is:

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

Alcerro-Mena 086

(2) Considering that the quantum theory of fields assigns keeping an inverse relationship with m 0, however, it

a particle for each considered force field, therefore from permits mass values in the order of the ones observed in

the expression (14) it is deduced that there must exist an reality, due to factor h (Planck’s constant), which are very

particle associated to the field of this force, from the reduced.

exposed on the previous section, this particle must be

Higgs boson. (6) Although it is not shown in this document, it is possible

to get to the same equivalent photon model from a

(4) This elementary particle model proposed, predicts that different analysis made on the special relativity and the

the movement inside the tridimensional ordinary hypothesis of De Broglie.

space of an elementary particle, with reposed mass, is

given through “jumps” (as consequence from the

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

equivalent photon trip on S1), in such way that the

length between these jumps is given by:

To Arbab Ibrahim Arbab, Ph.D, for his endorsement.

d= ____h u_____

The reviewers of this work, who kindly suggested

m0 c2 (1-u2/c2)1/2

improvements.

This results from including the factors u and and also

assuming that n = 1 in expression (13). This is that with n

= 1, the corpuscular absence of the elementary particle REFERENCES

with mass at rest, is modeled in the ordinary three-

dimensional space. De Broglie L.V. (1924), “Recherches sur la théorie des

quanta”, Ann. de Phys., 10e serie.

Now, for an electron each one of these spatial intervals F. G. Arregui (1989), Los cuatro principios metaempíricos

will be of 1 (nm) when it keeps a velocity corresponding del ser material: en las fronteras de la física”,

99.99970611% from the one of the light and which is Newbook, 1997, ISBN: 8489648336, 9788489648333.

related to the injection of a kinetic energy of Lide D. R. ed. (2009),´´CRC Handbook of Chemistry and

3.36894484x10-11 joules. Up to date there is already Physics´´ 89th Edition (Internet Version). CRC

enough technology to access an experimental verification Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 6-8.

of this scale, however the means used that show the Liu Chien-Hao (1997), ´´Remarks on the Geometry of

“prints” of the electron must be refined so that the diameter Wick Rotation in QFT and its Localization on

of these, does not match or precisely overcome the length Manifolds´´, arXiv:hep-th/9707196v1.

of the space that corresponds the period of absence from Overduin J.M. and Wesson P.S. (1998), ´´Kaluza-Klein

that particle, which is exactly what would be in search for Gravity´´, arXiv:gr-qc/9805018v1.

verification. Serway R. (2002), “Physics for scientists and engineers”,

Pag. 1329, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 970-10-

(4) From the four-vector force of the cuantex model, 3580-1.

expression (16), it derives the four-vector impulse of the Stephani H. (2004), ´´An introduction to special and

cuantex model. This implies that the model predicts the general relativity´´, Third Edition, Cambridge University

experimental possibility to transmute the elementary Press. ISBN 10: 0521010691 / ISBN

particles through the component in x4 from some four- 13: 9780521010696

vector impulse resulting, due to the modification of the Williamson J.G. and Van der Mark M.B. (1997), “Is the

mass at rest of the particle affected as long as this electron a photon with toroidal topology?”, Annales de

connects to any radius R (expression 12) existing in the la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Volume 22, no.2, 133

Cosmos. At the moment this is written, the author of this (1997).

article is in patenting process of a system that would show

its conclusion and, therefore the validity of this whole Accepted 19 July 2018

theory.

Citation: Alcerro-Mena JC (2018). Euclidean equivalent of

(5) According to Overduin and Wesson (1998), the five Minkowski’s space-time theory and the corresponding

dimension theory from Kaluza-Klein was mainly model of elementary particles (“cuantex” model). Journal

abandoned because it assigns reposed mass values of Physics and Astronomy Research, 4(1): 079-086.

m0highly elevated to loaded particles as the electron. This

happens because in that theory, the mass is inversely

proportional to the radius values from the compact

dimension.

Copyright: © 2018 Alcerro-Mena. This is an open-access

article distributed under the terms of the creative commons

Related to this, it is very important to observe that in this

attribution license, which permits unrestricted use,

proposed model for an equivalent photon, the compact

distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the

dimension radius R, given by the expression (12), also

original author and the source are cited.

Euclidean Equivalent of Minkowski’s Space-Time Theory and the Corresponding Model of Elementary Particles (“Cuantex” Model)

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