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DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Absolute

Acetal

Acid

Acyclic

Alcohol

Aldehyde

Alkaloid

Alkane

Alkene

Alkyl Group
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Alkyne

Alloy

Amide

Amino Acid

Amphoteric Compounds

Anhydride

Anionic Compounds

Antibiotic

Anti-caking Agent

Anti-dusting Agent
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Antiserum

Aqueous

Aromatic Compound

Base

Carbohydrate

Carbonyl Group
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Carboxylic Acid

Catalyst

Cationic Compounds

Chemical

Chemical Abstracts Service


Registry Number (CAS RN)

Colloid

Color Lake

Compound

Cyclic Compounds
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Derivative

Diagnostic

Diazo

Dispersing Agent

Distemper

Distillate

Drug

Dye

Emulsifier

Enamel
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Engobe

Enzyme

Epoxide

Essential Oil

Ester

Ether

Fat

Fatty Acid
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Fluorescent Brightening Agent

Functional Group

Fused Ring System

Glaze

Glycoside

Halide

Hemiacetal

Heparin

Heteroatom
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Heterocyclic

Hormone

Hydrocarbon

Imide

Imine

Immunological

Impurity

Inorganic Chemical
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Isotope

Ketone

Lacquer

Lecithin

Leukotriene

Lipid

Luminophore
Mastic
Medicament
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Metal

Modified Aromatic

Mono-

Monomer

Natural

Nitrile

Non-aqueous

Non-ionic Compounds
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Non-metal

Nucleic Acid

Oleoresin

Oleum

Opacifier

Organic Chemical
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Organo-inorganic

Organo-sulfur

Oxide

Paint

Peptide

Peroxide

Peroxyacid

Pharmaceutical Drugs
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Phenol

Phenol-alcohol

Pigment

Plastics

Poly-

Polymer
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Precious Metal

Preparation

Prophylactic

Prostaglandin

Protein

Provitamin

Putty

Quinone
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Radioactive Material

Rare-earth Metal

Resin
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Resinoid

Rubber

Salt

Saturated
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Soap

Solute

Solution

Solvent

Stabilizer

Sugar
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Sulfide

Sulfonamide

Surfactant

Suspension
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Synthetic

Tannin

Terpene

Therapeutic

Thromboxane

Toxin

Unsaturated
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Term

Vaccine

Varnish

Vitamin

Wax

Wetting Agent
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

A concentrated, highly aromatic, oily mixture extracted from fresh materials of


vegetable or plant origin by means of solvent extraction. It is the product obtained by
the removal of plant waxes from concretes.

Also called ketal, is a functional group with the connectivity R2C(OR')2. It is is an organic
molecule where two separate oxygen atoms are single bonded to a central carbon
atom. It is also regarded as di-ethers of hydrates of aldehydes and ketones.

A chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or accepts electrons.
Most acids contain a hydrogen atom bonded that can release to yield a cation and
anion in water. It neutralizes alkali or bases to form salts.

A molecule or a compound whose atoms do not form a ring.

A compound obtained by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms attached to a carbon


of an alkyl group (hydrocarbon) with a hydroxyl group (-OH).

A compound containing the functional group with a structure −CHO, in which a carbon
atom shares a double bond with an oxygen atom, a single bond with a hydrogen atom,
and a single bond with another atom or group of atoms (designated R in general
chemical formulas and structure diagrams). The double bond between carbon and
oxygen is known as the carbonyl group.

These complex compounds are naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases


that are often derived from plants or may be synthetically derived. Though they are
generally poisonous, they have strong physiological actions on humans and other
animals that make them valuable as medicines.

Also known as paraffins or saturated hydrocarbons, these are organic compounds


containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms linked together by single bonds. The
general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2.

Also known as olefins, these are unsaturated hydrocarbons (made up of only carbon
and hydrogen atoms) that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. The general
formula for alkenes is CnH2n.

A group derived from an alkane by removing one of its hydrogen atom, thereby leaving
a potential point of attachment. The symbol R is used to designate a generic or
unspecified alkyl group.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Also known as acetylenes, these are unsaturated hydrocarbons (made up of only


carbon and hydrogen atoms) that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. The
general formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2.

A homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or of metals and nonmetal or metalloid


elements, usually for the purpose of imparting or increasing specific characteristics or
properties.
These are derivatives of carboxylic acid where the -OH part of the carboxylic acid group
is replaced by an -NH2 group (or –CONHR and –CONR2 groups for secondary and
tertiary amides respectively where R is an alkyl or aryl group).
These are the building blocks of proteins. They are organic compounds that consist of a
basic amino group (−NH2), a carboxylic acid group (−COOH), and an organic R group (or
side chain) that is unique to each amino acid.

These are substances which can act as an acid or a base. In surfactants, depending on
the conditions of the medium, they can be ionized in an aqueous solution and give the
compound an anionic or a cationic characteristic.

These are compounds that have two acyl groups bonded to the same oxygen atom.
They are obtained from the elimination of a molecule of water, either from two
molecules of a monobasic acid, or from one molecule of dibasic acid. They are
characterised by the group (–C(O)OC(O)–).

Compounds which ionize in aqueous solution to produce negatively charged ions. In


surfactants, these ions are responsible for the surface activity.

Antibiotics are substances secreted by living microorganisms which have the effect of
killing other microorganisms or inhibiting their growth. They are used principally for
their powerful inhibitory effect on pathogenic microorganisms, particularly bacteria or
fungi. They may consist of a single substance or a group of related substances, their
chemical structure may or may not be known or be chemically defined.

These are anhydrous compounds that are added in small amounts to dry or powdered
products to prevent the particles from lumping together and ensure the product
remains dry and free-flowing. Anti-caking agents either act to absorb moisture or act as
a sealant and repel water and oil.

These refer to materials used in industry to prevent or reduce the ability of finely
ground materials from aeresolizing or from being easily suspended in the air.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

These are obtained from the blood of humans or of animals which are immune or have
been immunised against diseases or ailments, whether these are caused by pathogenic
bacteria and viruses, toxins or allergic phenomena, etc. They are also used for
diagnostic purposes, including in vitro tests. Specific immunoglobulins are purified
preparations of antisera.

A term used to describe a system which involves water. The word aqueous is also
applied to a solution or mixture in which water is the solvent. When a chemical species
has been dissolved in water, this is denoted by writing (aq) after the chemical name.

Technical Definition: A compound that has special stability and properties due to a
closed loop of electrons. Aromatic compounds have a planar ring with 4n + 2 pi-
electrons where n is a non-negative integer, following Hückel's Rule. They exhibit a ring
of resonance bonds which makes them stable compounds.

Tariff Definition: The term aromatic as applied to any chemical compound refers to
such compound containing one or more fused or unfused benzeng, a ring composed of
six carbons bonded with alternating single and double bonds in its chemical structure.
The term modified aromatic describes a molecular structure having at least one six-
membered heterocyclic ring which contains at least four carbon atoms and having an
arrangement of molecular bonds as in the benzene ring or in the quinone ring, but
does not include any such molecular structure in which one or more pyrimidine rings
are the only modified aromatic rings present.

A chemical species that donates electrons or hydroxide ions, or a species that accepts
protons. It neutralizes acids to form salts.

Also known as saccharides, are composed of the three elements, carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen. These are the most abundant class of biomolecules. Carbohydrates are
used as a source of energy for both plants and animals, serve as building blocks for poly
saccharides, and they are components of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA,
glycolipids, glycoproteins, ATP.

An organic functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen


atom (-C=O). Examples of compounds with carbonyl groups include aldehydes and
ketones.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

These are compounds in which a carbon atom is bonded to an oxygen atom by a


double bond and to a hydroxyl group (−OH) by a single bond. A fourth bond links the
carbon atom to a hydrogen atom or to some other univalent combining group. These
compounds contain the characteristic function (–COOH) called the carboxyl group.

A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but is not consumed during
the course of the reaction.

These compounds ionize in aqueous solution to produce positively charged organic


ions. In surface active agents, these compounds are responsible for the surface activity.

A substance that is produced or used in a process (reaction) involving changes to atoms


or molecules. According to OSHA, chemical refers to an element, chemical compound
or mixture of elements and/or compounds. Everything that has mass, consists of
matter, or liquid, solid, or gas substance, whether mixed or pure, is a chemical.

Each CAS RN is a unique numeric identifier which is designated to only one unique
substance.
A solution that has particles ranging between 1 and 1000 nanometers in diameter, yet
are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution. These are also
known as colloidal dispersions because the substances remain dispersed and do not
settle to the bottom of the container.

Colour lakes are preparations insoluble in water, obtained by fixation of natural


colouring matter (animal or vegetable) or synthetic organic colouring matter (whether
or not soluble in water), on a base, generally mineral (barium sulphate, calcium
sulphate, aluminium oxide, China clay, talc, silica, siliceous fossil earth, calcium
carbonate, etc.). Colour lakes should not be confused with certain other products such
as synthetic organic colouring matter, insoluble in water, in which the mineral elements
are a constituent part of the molecule, for instance synthetic organic colouring matter
rendered insoluble in the form of their metal salts.

Any substance composed of identical molecules consisting of atoms of two or more


chemical elements.

Compounds in which the two ends of the chain are attached at the ends to form a
closed ring.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

This refers to chemical compounds which could be obtained from a starting compound
and which retain the essential characteristics of the parent compound including its
basic chemical structure. This can also refer to a compound that can be imagined to
arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or
group of atoms.

A device or substance used for the analysis or detection of diseases or other medical
conditions. These are used in the evaluation of physical, biophysical or biochemical
processes and states in animals and humans; their function is based upon a
measurable or observable change in the biological or chemical substances constituting
the reagent.

A type of organic compound that has two linked nitrogen atoms (azo) as a terminal
functional group. Any molecule with the general formula R-N=N-R.

Dispersants/Dispersing agents are surfactants that are sprayed on a surface oil slick to
break down the oil into smaller droplets that more readily mix with the water.

A traditional breathable paint, commonly used in older buildings and loved because of
its soft, powdery finish.

The vapor collected and condensed from a distillation.

A chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease


or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being.

Also known as colorants in which the coloring matter is dissolved in liquid, are
absorbed into the material to which they are applied. Dyes can be said to be coloured,
ionising and aromatic organic compounds which shows an affinity towards the
substrate to which it is being applied. It is generally applied in a solution that is
aqueous. Dyes may also require a mordant to better the fastness of the dye on the
material on which it is applied.

Any of numerous chemical additives such as surfactants that encourage the suspension
of one liquid in another to form an emulsion. Emulsifiers also have the ability to
interact with other food ingredients, such as providing means for the interaction with
proteins or carbohydrates.

A term that is used to reference a paint with a hard, glossy and opaque finish. It is also
used to refer to any type of enamel paint that is oil based and with a considerably
glossy finish.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

A white or colored slip applied to clay as a coating. An engobe and a slip are similar,
and sometimes people mix them up. A slip is colored clay, while an engobe also has a
small amount of flux added which makes it melt slightly, like a glaze. It is part way
between a slip and a glaze.

A substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms, regulating the rate at which
chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. Enzymes speed
up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy.

Also known as oxiranes, these are three-membered ring structures in which one of the
atoms is an oxygen and the other two are carbons.

A concentrated, volatile, aromatic liquid that is obtained from the fruits, seeds, flowers,
bark, stems, roots, leaves or other parts of a plant. Essential oils serve as raw materials
in the perfumery, food and other industries, are of vegetable origin. They are generally
of complex composition and contain alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters,
ethers and terpenes in varying proportions. Most of these oils are volatile, and the
stain which they leave on paper usually disappears rapidly.

Esters of carboxylic acids are obtained by replacing the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl
group (–COOH) by an alkyl or aryl radical. They may be represented by the general
formula (RC(O)OR1) in which R and R1 are alkyl or aryl radicals (methyl, ethyl, phenyl,
etc.). They react with water to produce alcohols and organic or inorganic acids.

Ethers may be considered as alcohols or phenols in which the hydrogen atom of the
hydroxyl group is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical (alkyl or aryl). They have the
general formula: (R-O-R1), where R and R1 may be the same or different. These ethers
are very stable, neutral substances.
Fats and closely related oils are mixtures of compounds consisting of fatty acids
combined with glycerol (commonly known as glycerin) via ester linkages.

A fatty acid is a long hydrocarbon chain (may be saturated or unsaturated) capped by a


carboxyl group (-COOH). They are important component of fats and lipids.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

These are sometimes called optical brightening agent (OBA) or fluorescent whitening
agents are fluorescent white dyes that absorb ultraviolet region (340-370 nm), light of
electromagnetic region emit back visible blue light region (420-470 nm). The
fluorescent light is then superimposed on the reflected light thereby restoring the
balance of different colours and hence producing brilliant white effect.

A functional group is a portion of a molecule that is a recognizable/classified group of


bound atoms, which are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those
molecules.

When there are at least two rings which have one, and only one, common bond and
have two, and only two, atoms in common. These appear in the molecules of polycyclic
compounds in which two cyclic rings are joined by a common side involving two
adjacent atoms.
A substance used for producing smooth, glossy surface or coating.
A molecule in which a carbohydrate anomeric carbon is bonded to something other
than an OH group or another saccharide. They occur mainly in the vegetable kingdom.
Usually, under the action of acids, bases or enzymes, they are split into a sugar part and
a non-sugar part (aglycone). These parts are bonded to each other via the anomeric
carbon atom of the sugar.

A binary compound containing a halogen atom or ion in combination with a more


electropositive element or compound. The halogens are five non-metallic elements
found in group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine).

Hemiacetals are organic compounds having the general formula R2C(OH)OR’ (R’ ≠ H),
derived from aldehydes or ketones by formal addition of an alcohol to the carbonyl
group.

An injectable drug used as blood anti-coagulant, which prevents and treats blood clots
in the veins, arteries, or lungs. This consists of a mixture of complex organic acids
(muco-polysaccharides) obtained from mammalian tissues. Its composition varies
according to the origin of the tissues.

An atom other than carbon in the ring of a heterocyclic compound.


DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Refers to organic compounds composed of one or more rings, and which contain in the
ring(s), in addition to the carbon atoms, atoms of other elements such as oxygen,
nitrogen or sulphur. Since the heterocyclic atom must form more than one bond in
order to be incorporated into a ring structure, halogens do not form heterocyclic
compounds although they may be substituents on a heterocyclic ring structure.

Active substances produced in the living tissues of man or animals, extremely small
amounts of which are capable of inhibiting or stimulating the functioning of particular
organs by acting directly on them or controlling the synthesis or secretion of secondary
or tertiary hormone systems. They are also known as special chemical messengers in
the body that are created in the endocrine glands. These messengers control most
major bodily functions, from simple basic needs like hunger to complex systems like
reproduction, and even the emotions and mood.

Organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. It is possible for double or
triple bonds to form between carbon atoms and even for structures, such as rings, to
form.
Organic compounds having the general formula (RCO)2NH, where R is any organic
radical.

Organic compounds characterised by the group =NH, but it is linked to a non-acidic


organic radical: (R2C=NH). These are formed from the nucleophilic attack on the carbon
atoms of aldehydes and ketones by amines.

Any drug used to treat the immune system.


These are substances whose presence in the single chemical compound results solely
and directly from the manufacturing process (including purification). These are also
known as undesirable element or substance commonly or naturally contained in
something that lowers the thing's quality or value, but (depending on its amount) may
or may not make it unfit for its intended use.

A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its
derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides,
cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class. These are also known as
chemicals that does not contain a carbon to hydrogen bond, also called a C-H bond.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Atoms with the same number of protons but that have a different number of neutrons,
giving same atomic number but different atomic mass.

These are compounds containing the group (>C=O), called the “carbonyl” group, and
can be represented by the general formula (R-CO-R1), in which R and R1 stand for alkyl
or aryl radicals (methyl, ethyl, propyl, phenyl, etc.). Ketones may have two tautomeric
forms, the true ketonic form (-CO-) and the enolic form (=C(OH)-).

A type of solvent-based product that is made by dissolving nitrocellulose together with


plasticizers and pigments in a mixture of volatile solvents. Lacquer also contains a
solution of shellac in alcohol that creates a synthetic coating, causing it to form a high
gloss surface.

Also known for its common name for a series of related compounds called
phosphatidyl choline, these are esters (phosphatides) resulting from the combination
of oleic, palmitic and other fatty acids with glycerophosphoric acid and an organic
nitrogen base such as choline. They are usually yellowish-brown, waxy masses, soluble
in ethanol. Lecithins are contained in egg-yolk (ovolecithin), soybeans, and in animal
and vegetable tissue.

A lipid, C20H30O3 , produced by white blood cells in an immune response to antigens,


that contributes to allergic asthma and inflammatory reactions.

Any of a diverse group of organic compounds including fats, oils, hormones, and certain
components of membranes that are grouped together because they do not interact
appreciably with water but they are generally soluble in nonpolar organic solvents (e.g.
ether, chloroform, acetone & benzene). Some common types of lipids are natural fats
(triglyceride), waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (like vitamins A, D, E and K),
monoglycerides, diglycerides, and phospholipids.

A molecule or group of molecules that emits light when illuminated.


Any of various pasty materials used as protective coatings or cements.
A medicine, medicinal application, or remedy.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Any of a class of substances characterized by high electrical and thermal conductivity as


well as by malleability, ductility, and high chemical reactivity and reflectivity of light.
These are elements that form cations when compounds of it are in solution and oxides
of the elements form hydroxides rather than acids in water. Many of these elements
are hard and have high physical strength. The metal series includes all elements of the
alkali, alkali-earth, inner-transition (lanthanides and actinides series), transactinides
and transition series as well as some elements of the metalloid series (elements: Ge,
Sb and Po). A metal is also good at forming bonds and cations with non-metals. Atoms
inside of a metal quickly lose electrons in order to make positive ions or cations. The
ions in turn are surrounded by the electrons that are delocalized, which give the metal
its electric conductivity.

A molecular structure having at least one six-membered heterocyclic ring which


contains at least four carbon atoms and having an arrangement of molecular bonds as
in the benzene ring or in the quinone ring, but does not include any such molecular
structure in which one or more pyrimidine rings are the only modified aromatic rings
present.

A combining form meaning “alone,” “single,” “one”. It is adapted in chemistry to apply


to compounds containing one atom of a particular element (e.g. monohydrate).

A molecule of any of a class of compounds, mostly organic, that can react with other
molecules to form very large molecules, or polymers.
Something existing in nature and not made or caused by people, not having any extra
or artificial substances, or chemicals added.
Organic compounds containing the cyano functional group, -CN, in which the carbon
and nitrogen atoms have a triple bond. The general chemical formula of a nitrile is RCN,
where R is the organic group.

A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute in the formation of a solution, and any
solvent other than water is considered a non-aqueous solvent. Some common
examples include ether, alcohol, benzene, disulphide, carbon tetrachloride and
acetone.

A substance composed of atoms held together by chemical bonding forces, called


covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing a pair of electrons between two
atoms. They are composed of molecules that do not dissociate into ions. Their
solubility in water is due to the presence in the molecules of functional groups which
have a strong affinity for water. Examples are : products of the condensation of fatty
alcohols, fatty acids or alkylphenols with ethylene oxide; ethoxylates of fatty acid
amides.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

A substance that does not exhibit such characteristic properties of metals as hardness,
mechanical adaptability, or the ability to conduct electricity or heat. This classification
is generally applied to the chemical elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table such
as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur, selenium, fluorine, chlorine, bromine,
iodine, and the noble-gas elements. The non-metals have no metallic luster, and do not
reflect light.

These are molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one
generation to the next. These are complex compounds which, when combined with
proteins, form the nucleo-proteins found in the nucleii of animal and vegetable cells.
They are combinations of phosphoric acids with sugar and pyrimidine or purine
compounds. Nucleic acids are composed of nucleotide monomers linked together.
Nucleotides contain three parts: a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a
phosphate group.

These substances are also known in trade as “prepared oleoresins” or “spice


oleoresins”. These are a naturally occurring combination of oil and resin that can be
extracted from plants and spices. They are obtained from natural cellular raw plant
materials (usually spices or aromatic plants), either by organic solvent extraction or by
super-critical fluid extraction. These extracts contain volatile odoriferous principles
(e.g., essential oils) and non-volatile flavouring principles (e.g., resins, fatty oils,
pungency constituents), which define the characteristic odour or flavour of the spice or
aromatic plant. The essential oil content of these extracted oleoresins varies
considerably depending on the spice or aromatic plant. These products are used
principally as flavouring agents in the food industry.

Also known as fuming sulfuric acid, this is a sulfuric acid charged with an excess (up to
80 %) of sulphur trioxide. This results in a mixture of compounds including sulfuric acid,
disulfuric acid (H2S2O7) and free sulfur trioxide. Oleums can be liquid or solid, very
brown in colour; they react violently with water, attack the skin and clothing, give off
dangerous fumes (in particular, free sulphur trioxide).

These are substances which are added to transparent or translucent cosmetic


formulations to render them more impervious to visible light.

A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives, and these
compounds are commonly associated with organisms and petrochemicals. Many of
these chemicals are covalently linked to atoms of other elements such as hydrogen,
with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in
either carbon chain or carbon ring form. The few carbon-containing compounds not
classified as organic include carbides, carbonates, and cyanides.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Organic compounds whose molecules contain, in addition to atoms of hydrogen,


oxygen or nitrogen, those of metals or other non-metals (such as sulphur, arsenic, lead,
iron, etc.) directly linked to carbon.

Organic compounds whose molecules have sulfur atom(s) directly linked to carbon
atom(s).

Any of a large and important class of chemical compounds in which oxygen is


combined with another element (e.g., CO2, SO2, CaO, CO, ZnO, BaO2, H2O, etc.).

These are dispersions of insoluble colouring matter (chiefly mineral or organic


pigments, or colour lakes), or metallic flakes or powders, in a vehicle consisting of a
binder dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous medium. The binder, which is the film-
producing agent, consists of synthetic polymers (such as phenolic resins, amino-resins,
thermosetting or other acrylic polymers, alkyds and other polyesters, vinyl polymers,
silicones, epoxide resins and synthetic rubber) or of chemically modified natural
polymers (such as chemical derivatives of cellulose or natural rubber).

Varying quantities of other products, such as driers (mainly based on cobalt,


manganese, lead or zinc compounds), thickening agents (aluminium soaps and zinc
soaps), surface-active agents, diluents or fillers (barium sulphate, calcium carbonate,
talc, etc.) and anti-skinning agents (e.g., butanone oxime) may be added to the vehicle
for specific purposes.

Any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins,
but smaller. The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other
compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of living organisms. Peptide
molecules are composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide/amide bonds.

Any of a class of chemical compounds in which two oxygen atoms are linked together
by a single covalent bond. Peroxides are unstable, releasing oxygen when heated, and
are powerful oxidizing agents. Peroxides may be formed directly by the reaction of an
element or compound with oxygen.

Also called peracid, any of a class of chemical compounds in which the atomic group
−O−O−H replaces the −O−H group of an oxy acid. Peroxy acids usually are prepared by
reaction of the oxy acid with hydrogen peroxide. Peroxy acids are used primarily as
oxidizing agents.
Known as medicines, these are chemicals that are designed to prevent, diagnose, treat,
or cure a disorder.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

A type of carbolic acid and an aromatic compound obtained by replacing one or more
hydrogen atoms of the benzene ring by the hydroxyl radical (-OH).

These are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons by replacing one hydrogen atom on the
benzene ring with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and another hydrogen atom not on the
ring with an alcoholic hydroxyl group; thus they have the characteristics of both
phenols and alcohols.

These are synthetic organic colours which retain their crystalline or particulate form
throughout the application process. Pigments consist of extremely fine particles of
ground coloring matter suspended in liquid which forms a paint film that actually
bonds to the surface it is applied to.

A polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped, usually by the
application of heat and pressure. This property of plasticity, often found in combination
with other special properties such as low density, low electrical conductivity,
transparency, and toughness, allows plastics to be made into a great variety of
products. This material is composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Plastics typically have high molecular weight,
meaning each molecule can have thousands of atoms bound together. Most plastics
are based on the carbon atom. Silicones, which are based on the silicon atom, are an
exception.

For tariff purposes, Chapter 39, Note 1 defines plastics as those materials of headings
39.01 to 39.14 which are or have been capable, either at the moment of
polymerisation or at some subsequent stage, of being formed under external influence
(usually heat and pressure, if necessary with a solvent or plasticiser) by moulding,
casting, extruding, rolling or other process into shapes which are retained on the
removal of the external influence. The "term plastics" also includes vulcanised fibre.
The expression, however, does not apply to materials regarded as textile materials of
Section XI.

A prefix meaning "many". In chemistry, it is used to form the names of polymers by


being attached to the name of the base unit of which the polymer is made, as in
polysaccharide, a polymer made of repeating simple sugars (monosaccharides).

These consist of molecules which are characterised by the repetition of one or more
types of monomer units. Polymers may be formed by reaction between several
molecules of the same or of different chemical constitution. The process by which
polymers are formed is termed polymerisation. These usually have high melting and
boiling points.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

These refer to the classification of metals that are considered to be rare and/or have a
high economic value.

When tariff refers to precious metals, it means silver, gold, and platinum. Furthermore,
the expression "platinum" means platinum, iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium and
ruthenium.

A substance that is specially made up, especially a medicine or food. It can also refer to
a specimen that has been prepared for scientific or medical examination.

An agent that acts to prevent a disease.

A class of hormones or hormone-like substances which are synthesised by the tissue in


which they act (or act in the local cellular environment) by binding to specific cellular
receptors and act as important modulators of cell activity in many tissues.
Prostaglandins are a group of lipids made at sites of tissue damage or infection that are
involved in dealing with injury and illness. They control processes such as
inflammation, blood flow, the formation of blood clots and the induction of labour.

This is a macronutrient that is essential to building muscle mass or tissues, acting as


enzymes, aiding the immune system, and serving as hormones.. It is commonly found
in animal products, though is also present in other sources, such as nuts and legumes.
Protein is composed of amino acids, which are organic compounds made of carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins,
and proteins are the building blocks of muscle mass

These are precursors to vitamins. They are dietary substances that can be converted via
normal metabolic processes into active vitamins. Depending on the provitamin and
vitamin involved, the conversion process takes place in various parts of the body with
differing levels of efficiency.
A doughlike material typically made of whiting and linseed oil that is used especially to
fasten glass in window frames and to fill crevices in woodwork.

These are diketones derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of two CH groups
into carbonyl >C=O groups with any necessary rearrangement of double bonds.The
carbonyl groups may be either adjacent or separated by a vinylene group, −CH = CH−,
in a six-membered unsaturated ring. In a few quinones, the carbonyl groups are located
in different rings. The term quinone also denotes the specific compound para-
benzoquinone (C6H4O2). This structure plays an important role in theories concerning
the relationship of chemical constitution to color.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Material that emits radiation energy in the form of alpha, beta, or gamma particles or
rays which can damage living tissue. Certain nuclides, whose nuclei are unstable,
whether in the pure state or in the form of compounds, emit complex radiations
producing physical or chemical effects such as ionization of gases, fluorescence, and
fogging of photographic plates. This is the phenomenon of radioactivity; chemical
elements, isotopes, compounds and, in general, substances that display it are called
radioactive.

Also called lanthanons, these are the elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71 in the
periodic system. These include the cerium group (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium,
neodymium, samarium), terbium group (europium, gadolinium terbium), and erbium
group (dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium). Tariff includes
scandium and yttrium as they resemble rare-earth metals closely and excludes
promethium (element 61) as it is radioactive. Rare earths are a series of chemical
elements found in the Earth’s crust that are vital to many modern technologies.
Because of their unique magnetic, luminescent, and electrochemical properties, these
elements help make many technologies perform with reduced weight, reduced
emissions, and energy consumption; or give them greater efficiency, performance,
miniaturization, speed, durability, and thermal stability.

A natural or synthetic compound that begins in a highly viscous state and hardens with
treatment. Typically, it is soluble in alcohol, but not in water. The compound is classified
in a number of different ways, depending on its exact chemical composition and
potential uses. It also has many applications, ranging from art to polymer production,
and many consumers interact with products that contain it on a daily basis. Natural
resin comes from plants and are typically fusible and flammable organic substances
that are transparent or translucent and are yellowish to brown in colour. They are
formed in plant secretions and are soluble in various organic liquids but not in water.
Synthetic varieties are much more stable, predictable, and uniform than natural ones
as well, since they are made under controlled conditions without the possibility of the
introduction of impurities. They are made by combining chemicals in a laboratory to
stimulate a reaction which results in the formulation of a resinous compound. Once
formed, the substance can be used in the production of plastics, paints, and many of
the same substances that natural resin is used in.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Substances derived from naturally resinous plant matter (such as balsams, gum resins,
and natural oleoresins) or dried natural animal resinous materials (e.g., castoreum,
civet or musk) that have been subjected to extraction with hydrocarbon solvents or
super-critical fluid extraction. The resulting product typically contains predominantly
non-volatile, resinous compounds. Resinoids are often used in fragrances, cosmetics,
soap or surfactant industries as a fixative

An elastic substance obtained from the exudations of certain tropical plants (natural
rubber) or derived from petroleum and natural gas (synthetic rubber). Because of its
elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in
automotive vehicles, aircraft, and bicycles.

Chapter 40, Note 1 defines the expression "rubber" as products, whether or not
vulcanised or hard : natural rubber, balata, gutta‑percha, guayule, chicle and similar
natural gums, synthetic rubber, factice derived from oils, and such substances
reclaimed.

An ionic compound which is made up of two groups of oppositely charged ions, cation
(positive, from a metal) and anion (negative, from a non-metal). This substance is
produced by the neutralization reaction of an acid with a base.

This could also refer to table salt or common (NaCl or sodium chloride).

In a solution, this is the condition where the solution contains the maximum amount of
solute capable of being dissolved under given conditions.

In organic chemistry, this means that a compound contains no double or triple bonds;
having each single bond attached to an atom or group.

In organic compounds, this means that the compound has no free valence electrons.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

An alkaline salt (inorganic or organic) formed from a fatty acid or a mixture of fatty
acids containing at least eight carbon atoms. Soaps form a class of anionic surface-
active agents, with an alkaline reaction, which lather abundantly in aqueous solutions.
Soaps possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin, textiles,
and other solids. The chemical structure of soap contains a hydrophobic part (water-
insoluble) which attaches to solids and fibers, and hydrophilic part (water-soluble)
which makes the molecule attach itself to water.

For tariff purposes, EN 3401 only provides for "true soap", soap that is soluble in water.

The substance that dissolves in a solvent to produce a homogeneous mixture. This is


the substance that makes up the minority of the solution.

A type of homogeneous mixture that is made up of two or more substances. A


homogeneous mixture is a type of mixture with a uniform composition. This means
that the substances cannot be distinguished easily from one another. A solution is
composed of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent. A solution may exist in any
phase.

The substance in which a solute dissolves to produce a homogeneous mixture. This is


the substance that makes up the majority of the solution.

Any substance that tends to maintain the physical and chemical properties of a
material. Stabilizers are used to extend the useful life of materials as well as to
maintain their critical properties above the design specifications.

Any of numerous sweet, colourless, water-soluble compounds present in the sap of


seed plants and the milk of mammals and making up the simplest group of
carbohydrates. Sugars are members of the saccharide family of carbohydrates. As a
chemical term, “sugar” usually refers to all carbohydrates of the general formula
Cn(H2O)n.

This could also refer to the most common sugar, sucrose, a crystalline tabletop and
industrial sweetener used in foods and beverages.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Any of three classes of chemical compounds containing the element sulfur. The three
classes of sulfides include inorganic sulfides, organic sulfides (sometimes called
thioethers), and phosphine sulfides. Inorganic sulfides are ionic compounds containing
the negatively charged sulfide ion, S2−; these compounds may be regarded as salts of
the very weak acidhydrogen sulfide. Organic sulfides are compounds in which a sulfur
atom is covalently bonded to two organic groups. Phosphine sulfides are formed from
the reaction of organic phosphines with sulfur, in which the sulfur atom is linked to the
phosphorus by a bond that has both covalent and ionic properties.

Also called sulfa drugs, these are organic compounds having the general formula
(R1SO2NR2R3) where R1 is an organic radical of varying complexity having a carbon atom
directly attached to the SO2 group and R2 and R3 are either a hydrogen, another atom or
an inorganic or organic radical of varying complexity (including double bonds or rings).
Many are used in medicine as powerful bactericides. These are synthetic medicines
that work by interfering with the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria, which is essential
for nucleic acid formation and ultimately DNA and RNA.

Also called as surface-active agent, this is a substance that reduces the surface tension
of a liquid, thereby increasing its cleaning, spreading and wetting properties. They are
used to disperse aqueous suspensions of insoluble substances such as dyes and
perfumes. These compounds contain one or more hydrophilic or hydrophobic
functional groups which provides its chemical properties.

Chapter 34, Notes 3(a) and 3(b) provides for a criteria before the tariff considers a
product as a surfactant. When mixed with water at a concentration of 0.5 % at 20 °C
and left to stand for one hour at the same temperature, the resulting mixture should
give a transparent or translucent liquid or stable emulsion without separation of
insoluble matter and reduce the surface tension of water to 4.5 x 10-2 N/m (45
dyne/cm) or less.

A type of heterogeneous mixture where solid particles do not dissolve in a liquid


solution. Heterogeneous mixtures occur when there is non-uniformity with the
substances present in a given mixture, thus these mixtures contain different substances
that physically remain separated from one another. Particles in a suspension will settle
out if the suspension is allowed to stand undisturbed. Many particles of a suspension
can be separated through a filter.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

Something produced by combining different artificial substances, rather than being


naturally sourced. These pertain to compounds formed through a chemical process by
human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin.

Also called tannic acid, these are phenol compounds and the main active constituents
of vegetable tanning materials. Tannins appear as white substances, but upon exposure
to air, turns into pale-yellow to light-brown amorphous substances and may appear in
the form of powder, flakes, or a spongy mass. These are widely distributed in plants
and used chiefly in tanning leather, clarification of wines or beers, dyeing fabric,
making ink, and in various medical applications. Tannin solutions are acid and have an
astringent taste. Tannin is responsible for the astringency, colour, and some of the
flavour in tea. Tannins occur normally in the roots, wood, bark, leaves, and fruit of
many plants, particularly in the bark of oak species and in sumac and myrobalan.

Any of a class of hydrocarbons occurring widely in plants and animals and empirically
regarded as built up from isoprene, a hydrocarbon consisting of five carbon atoms
attached to eight hydrogen atoms (C5H8). They are derived biosynthetically from one or
more molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and/or dimethylallyl pyrophosphate.

A term relating to the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or


methods.
These are are powerful vasoconstrictors that cause a decrease in blood flow and an
increase in blood pressure. Thromboxanes play an important role in the formation of
blood clots. The process of clot formation begins with an aggregation of blood
platelets, a process strongly stimulated by this substance.

Something that is produced mostly by microorganisms that can cause harmful effects
when they are injected, inhaled, eaten, or absorbed through the skin. Toxins can also
be produced by some animals and plants. Toxins also include some medicines that are
helpful in small doses, but poisonous in large amounts.

In a solution, this is the condition where the solution can still dissolve more of a
substance.

In organic chemistry, these are compounds having a double or triple bond and capable
of taking on elements or groups by direct chemical combination without the liberation
of other elements or compounds.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definition

A biological preparation that produces immunity from a disease and can be


administered through needle injections, by mouth, or by aerosol. A vaccine typically
contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made
from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins.
The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign,
destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize
and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.

A clear, hard solution that is principally applied to wood to give it a glossy finish while
forming a protective film around it. Varnish consists of a resin, a drying oil, and a
thinner or solvent. Since varnishes have very little color, they can also be applied over a
wood stain to enhance the shine of the wood.

These are active agents, usually of complex chemical composition, which are obtained
from outside sources and are essential for the proper functioning of human or other
animal organisms. They cannot be synthesised by the human body and must therefore
be obtained in final or nearly final form or provitamins from outside sources. They are
effective in relatively minute amounts and may be regarded as exogenous biocatalysts,
their absence or deficiency giving rise to metabolic disturbances or “deficiency
diseases”.

A general term used to refer to the mixture of long-chain apolar lipids forming a
protective coating on plant leaves and fruits but also in animals, algae, fungi and
bacteria. More commonly, it is a simple lipid which is an ester of a long-chain alcohol
and a fatty acid.

These are substances that reduce the surface tension of water to allow it to spread
drops easily onto a surface, increasing the spreading abilities and penetrating
properties of a liquid. Lowering the surface tension lowers the energy required to
spread drops onto a film, thus weakening the cohesive properties of the liquid and
strengthening its adhesive properties.
Source/Definition Based On

EN 3301
https://naha.org/explore-aromatherapy/about-
aromatherapy/how-are-essential-oils-extracted/

EN 2911
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/g/
Acetal-Definition.htm

EN 2806
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/
aciddefinition.htm
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/acid
http://web.chem.ucla.edu/~harding/IGOC/A/acyclic.
html
EN 2905
http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2014/09/1
7/alcohols-1-nomenclature-and-properties/
https://www.britannica.com/science/alcohol

EN 2912
https://www.britannica.com/science/aldehyde
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/carbonyl
s/background.html

EN 2939
https://www.britannica.com/science/alkaloid
http://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-
technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/alkaloid

http://hyperphysics.phy-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Organic/alkane.html
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/alkanes/
background.html

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/alkenes/
background.html
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Organic_Chemistry
/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes

https://www.britannica.com/science/hydrocarbon#r
ef1002945
Source/Definition Based On

http://www.ucc.ie/acedemic/chem/dolchem/html/di
ct/alkynes.html
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-
chemistry/alkenes-alkynes

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/alloy
http://chemistry.about.com/od/dictionariesglossarie
s/g/defalloy.htm
EN 2924
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/amides/
background.html

https://www.britannica.com/science/amino-acid

EN 3402
https://www.britannica.com/science/amphoterism
http://web.chem.ucla.edu/~harding/IGOC/A/amphot
eric.html

EN 2915
https://www.britannica.com/science/anhydride
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/anhydrid
es/background.html

EN 3402
https://www.britannica.com/science/soap#ref62459
0

EN 2941
https://medlineplus.gov/antibiotics.html
https://www.drugs.com/article/antibiotics.html

http://www.organicspices.com/blog/2014/1/6/what-
are-anti-caking-agents
http://knowledge.ulprospector.com/3306/fbn-the-
basics-of-anti-caking-agents/

http://antidusting.com/
Source/Definition Based On

EN 3002
https://www.britannica.com/science/antiserum

http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/g/
aqueous-definition.htm

Section VI, Additional US Note 2(a)


http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/aromatic.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/aromatic-
compound
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-an-
aromatic-compound-definition-example.html

EN 2814
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/
basedefinition.htm

http://chemistry.about.com/od/biochemistry/a/carb
ohydrates.htm
http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/c
fb/carbohydrates.htm
https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/vir
ttxtjml/carbhyd.htm

EN 2914
https://chem.libretexts.org/?
title=Core/Organic_Chemistry/Aldehydes_and_Keton
es/Properties_of_Aldehydes_
%26_Ketones/The_Carbonyl_Group
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/basicorg/bonding/carb
onyl.html
Source/Definition Based On

EN 2915
https://www.britannica.com/science/carboxylic-acid

https://www.britannica.com/science/catalyst
http://ch302.cm.utexas.edu/kinetics/catalysts/catalys
ts-all.php

EN 3402
https://www.britannica.com/science/ion-physics

http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/chemical.html
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/
chemicaldef.htm

http://www.cas.org/content/chemical-
substances/faqs

https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theo
retical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Sol
utions_and_Mixtures/Colloid

EN 3205

https://www.britannica.com/science/chemical-
compound
EN 2902
http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/organic/orgona
ming7.htm
Source/Definition Based On

Sub-chapter XI, General Note, EN 2936


http://www.chemicool.com/definition/derivative.ht
ml
http://glossary.periodni.com/glossary.php?
en=derivative

EN 3822
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/diagnostic

EN 2927
http://web.chem.ucla.edu/~harding/IGOC/D/diazo_c
ompound.html

https://www.epa.gov/emergency-
response/dispersing-agents
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/public_
lands/energy/dirty_energy_development/oil_and_ga
s/gulf_oil_spill/dispersants.html

https://www.littlegreene.eu/paint/finish/distemper

http://www.superglossary.com/Glossary/Science/Ch
emistry/Distillate.html

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/drug

https://www.duraamen.com/blog/differences-
between-dyes-and-pigments/#.WMj9B2-GOM8
http://dyes-pigments.standardcon.com/what-is-
dye.html

https://www.britannica.com/science/emulsifier
http://www.emulsifiers.org/ViewDocument.asp?
ItemId=11&

http://www.housepaintingguide.org/what-is-enamel-
paint/
Source/Definition Based On

http://www.bigceramicstore.com/glazes/glazes-by-
type/engobes.html
https://digitalfire.com/4sight/glossary/glossary_engo
be.html

https://www.britannica.com/science/enzyme
http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/c
fb/enzymes.htm

https://www.britannica.com/science/epoxide
https://chem.libretexts.org/Textbook_Maps/Organic
_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Map
%3A_Organic_Chemistry_With_a_Biological_Emphas
is_(Soderberg)/Chapter_08%3A_Nucleophilic_substit
ution_reactions_I/8.6%3A_Epoxides_as_electrophile
s_in_nucleophilic_substitution_reactions

EN 3301
https://www.planttherapy.com/essential-oils

EN 2915
https://www.britannica.com/science/ester-chemical-
compound
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/esters/b
ackground.html

EN 2909
https://www.britannica.com/science/ether-chemical-
compound

http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Di-Fa/Fats-and-
Fatty-Acids.html

http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/edible
-innovations/fat1.htm
https://www.britannica.com/science/fatty-acid
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Di-Fa/Fats-and-
Fatty-Acids.html
Source/Definition Based On

http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-
article/7259/types-and-properties-of-fluorescent-
brightening-agents-and-their-application-on-textile-
industries
http://www.apex-
enterprise.com/fluorescent_brightening_chemical.ht
ml

http://web.chem.ucla.edu/~harding/notes/FG_01.pd
f
http://www.3rd1000.com/chem301/chem301a.htm

Chapter 29, General Note K


https://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/pdf/1998/p
df/7001x0143.pdf

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/glaze

EN 2938
http://web.chem.ucla.edu/~harding/IGOC/G/glycosi
de.html

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/halide
http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/halogens
.html

http://glossary.periodni.com/dictionary.php?
en=hemiacetal

EN 3001
http://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/heparin

https://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/heteroatom
Source/Definition Based On

EN 2930
http://www.3rd1000.com/chem301/chem302a.htm

EN 2937
http://www.hormone.org/hormones-and-
health/what-do-hormones-do

EN 2901
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-
hydrocarbon-definition-formula-compounds.html
EN 2925
https://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/react/6

EN 2925
https://chem.libretexts.org/Textbook_Maps/Organic
_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Map
%3A_Organic_Chemistry_With_a_Biological_Emphas
is_(Soderberg)/11%3A_Nucleophilic_carbonyl_additi
on_reactions/11.6%3A_Imine_(Schiff_base)_formati
on

http://www.yourdictionary.com/immunological

Chapter 28 and 29 General Note


http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/impur
ity.html

http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/Selection/D01.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-are-
inorganic-compounds-definition-characteristics-
examples.html
Source/Definition Based On

EN 2844
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-are-
isotopes-definition-types-examples.html

EN 2914
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-ketone-
definition-structure-formation-formula.html

http://www.doityourself.com/stry/what-is-the-
difference-between-varnish-and-lacquer

EN 2923
http://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/lecithin-
phosphatidyl-choline
https://www.drugs.com/npc/lecithin.html

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/leukotriene

https://www.britannica.com/science/lipid
https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/vir
ttxtjml/lipids.htmhttp://chemistry.tutorvista.com/bio
chemistry/types-of-lipids.html

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/luminophore
https://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/mastic
https://www.drugs.com/dict/medicament.html
Source/Definition Based On

https://www.britannica.com/science/metal-
chemistry
http://www.chemicool.com/definition/metals.html
http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/metals-metal-
products/metal-chemistry-guide

Section VI, Additional US Note 2(b)

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/mono-

https://www.britannica.com/science/monomer

https://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/natural
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/nitriles/
background.html
http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/nitrile.html

https://www.reference.com/science/non-aqueous-
solvent-659b8a515398d26d

EN 3402
http://www.mtsu.edu/chemistry/chem1010/pdfs/Ch
apter%204Nonionic%20Compounds%20and
%20Their%20Nomenclature.pdf
https://www.britannica.com/science/liquid-state-of-
matter#ref506794
Source/Definition Based On

https://www.britannica.com/science/nonmetal
http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/nonmeta
ls.html

EN 2934
https://www.thoughtco.com/nucleic-acids-373552

EN 3301
http://www.organicspices.com/blog/2014/4/2/oleor
esins-whats-the-buzz

EN 2807
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-fuming-sulfuric-
acid.htm

http://www.berg-
schmidt.de/en/Cosmetic/c25_opacifier.php

http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/Selection/D02.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/organic-
compound
https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-
guides/biology/biology/the-chemical-basis-of-
life/organic-compounds
Source/Definition Based On

EN 2930

EN 2930
https://www.britannica.com/science/organosulfur-
compound

https://www.britannica.com/science/oxide
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Inorganic_Chemistr
y/Descriptive_Chemistry/Main_Group_Reactions/Co
mpounds/Oxides

EN 3208
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/paint.
html

https://www.britannica.com/science/peptide

https://www.britannica.com/science/peroxide
http://www.ozoneservices.com/glossary/p/peroxide.
htm

https://www.britannica.com/science/peroxy-acid

http://study.com/academy/lesson/pharmaceutical-
drugs-definition-types.html
Source/Definition Based On

EN 2907
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-phenol-
structure-uses.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/phenol

EN 2907
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Phenol+alcohol

EN 3204
https://www.duraamen.com/blog/differences-
between-dyes-and-pigments/#.WNoX7G-GOM8

Chapter 39, Note 1


https://www.britannica.com/science/plastic
https://plastics.americanchemistry.com/How-
Plastics-Are-Made/

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/poly-

Chapter 39, General Note


https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-polymer-
605912
Source/Definition Based On

Chapter 71, Notes 4(A) and 4(B)


http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/preciousmet
al.asp

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/prepara
tion

https://www.drugs.com/dict/prophylactic.html

EN 2937
http://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/prostagla
ndins.aspx

http://www.livescience.com/53044-protein.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-protein-
definition-function-benefits-sources.html

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-provitamin.htm

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/putty

EN 2914
https://www.britannica.com/science/quinone
Source/Definition Based On

EN 2844
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/radio
active.html

EN 2805
http://www.rareearthtechalliance.com/What-are-
Rare-Earths

http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-resin.htm
https://www.britannica.com/science/resin
Source/Definition Based On

EN 3301
https://globalessence.com/essential-oil-concrete-
resinoid-absolute/

Chapter 40, Note 1


https://www.britannica.com/science/rubber-
chemical-compound

http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-salt-in-
chemistry-definition-formula.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/salt-acid-base-
reactions
https://www.britannica.com/science/salt

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/saturated
Source/Definition Based On

EN 3401
https://www.britannica.com/science/soap

https://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/solutions/wh
atis.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-
solution-in-science-definition-examples.html

https://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/solutions/wh
atis.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-
solution-in-science-definition-examples.html

https://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/solutions/wh
atis.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-
solution-in-science-definition-examples.html

https://www.accessscience.com/content/stabilizer-
chemistry/650250

https://www.britannica.com/topic/sugar-chemical-
compound
http://study.com/academy/lesson/sugar-molecule-
structure-formula-quiz.html
Source/Definition Based On

https://www.britannica.com/science/sulfide-
inorganic

EN 2935
https://www.drugs.com/drug-
class/sulfonamides.html

EN 3402
https://www.britannica.com/science/surfactant
http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/materials-
and-applications/surfactants.html

http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-
suspension-in-science-definition-types-
examples.html
http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspe
nsions_colloids.htm
Source/Definition Based On

http://www.ldoceonline.com/Chemistry-
topic/synthetic
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/synthetic

EN 3201
https://www.britannica.com/topic/tannin

https://www.britannica.com/science/terpene
http://web.chem.ucla.edu/~harding/IGOC/T/terpene
.html

https://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/therapeutic

https://www.britannica.com/science/prostaglandin

http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-toxin-
definition-example.html
https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002331.htm

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/unsaturated
Source/Definition Based On

https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/
http://www.who.int/topics/vaccines/en/

http://www.doityourself.com/stry/what-is-the-
difference-between-varnish-and-lacquer

EN 2936
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/195878.
php

https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Biological_Chemistr
y/Lipids/Non-glyceride_Lipids/Wax
http://www.cyberlipid.org/wax/wax0001.htm

https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theo
retical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Sta
tes_of_Matter/Properties_of_Liquids/Wetting_Agent
s
http://www.innovateus.net/science/what-are-
wetting-agents