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CONTENTS 4.5 Psychrometrics 123 – 134


4.6 Power Engineering 135 – 144
4.7 Refrigeration 145 – 149
Part Page No. 4.8 I.C. Engines 150 - 159
#1. Mathemathics 1 – 45
1.1 Linear Algebra 1–8
#5. Theory of Machiness 160
0 – 184
1.2 Probability & distribution 9 – 14
5.1 Mechanisms 160 – 169
1.3. Numerical Method 15 – 19
5.2 Gear Trains 170 – 175
1.4. Calculus 20 – 30
5.3 Flywheel 176 - 179
1.5. Differential Equations 31 – 37
5.4 Vibrations 180 – 184
1.6. Complex Variables 38 – 42
1.7 Laplace Transform 43 – 45
#6. Machine Design 185
5 – 219
6.1 Theory of Failures 185 – 189
#2. Engineering Mechanics 46 – 61
1
6.2 Fatigue 190 - 198
2.1 Statics 46 – 54
6.3 Design of Machine Elements 199 – 219
2.2 Dynamics 55 – 61

#7. Fluid Mechanics 220


0 – 273
#3. Strength of Materialss 62
2 – 98
7.1 Fluid Properties 220 – 224
3.1 Simple Stress And Strain 62 – 67
7.2 Fluid Statics 225 – 231
3.2 Shear Force And Bending Moment 68 – 70
7.3 Fluid Kinematics 232 – 236
3.3 Stresses In Beams 71 - 74
7.4 Fluid Dynamics 237 – 242
3.4 Deflection Of Beams 75 – 83
7.5 Boundary Layer 243 – 249
3.5 Torsion 84 – 88
7.6 Flow through pipes 250 – 256
3.6 Mohr’s Circle 89 – 91
7.7 Hydraulic Machines 257 – 273
3.7 Strain Energy Methods 92 - 93
3.8 Columns & Struts 94 – 98
#8. Heat Transfer 274
4 – 298
8.1 Conduction 274 – 286
#4. Thermodynamics 99
9 – 159
9
8.2 Convection 287 – 289
4.1 Basic Thermodynamics 99 – 110
8.3 Radiation 290 – 294
4.2 Properties of pure substances 111 – 113
8.4 Heat Exchanger 295 – 298
4.3 Irreversibility & Availability 114 - 117
4.4 Work, Heat & Entropy 118 – 122

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#9. Manufacturing Engineering 29


99 - 38
81
Part - 1: Mathematics
9.1 Engineering Materials 299 – 304
9.2 Casting 305 – 321 1.1 Linear Algebra
9.3 Forming Process 322 – 338 1.1.1 Matrix
9.4 Joining Process 339 – 344
Definition: A system of “m n” numbers arranged along m rows and n columns.
9.5 Theory of Metal Cutting 345 – 361
Conventionally, single capital letter is used to denote a matrix.
9.6 Metrology and Inspection 362 – 379 Thus,
9.7 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 380 – 381
a a − − a − − a
a a − − a − − a
A= − − − − a − − a
#10. Industrial Engineering 38
82 - 403 a a − − − − − a
10.1 Production, Planning and Control 382 – 387
a → ith row, jth column
10.2 Inventory Control 388 – 392
10.3 Operations Research 393 – 403
1.1.1.1 Types of Matrices

1.1.1.2 Row and Column Matrices


# Reference Books 404 – 405 x Row Matrix → [ 2, 7, 8, 9] → single row ( or row vector)
5
x Column Matrix → 10 → single column (or column vector)
13
1

1.1.1.3 Square Matrix

x Same number of rows and columns.


x Order of Square matrix → no. of rows or columns
x Principle Diagonal (or Main diagonal or Leading diagonal): The diagonal of a square
matrix (from the top left to the bottom right) is called as principal diagonal.
x Trace of the Matrix: The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix.
- tr (λ A) = λ tr(A) [ λ is scalar]
- tr ( A+B) = tr (A) + tr (B)
- tr (AB) = tr (BA)

1.1.1.4 Rectangular Matrix

Number of rows ≠ Number of columns

1.1.1.5 Diagonal Matrix


A Square matrix in which all the elements except those in leading diagonal are zero..
−4 0 0
e.g. 0 6 0
0 0 8

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1.1.1.6 Unit Matrix (or Identity Matrix) 1.1.1.13 Hermitian Matrix: It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to its own
conjugate transpose.
A Diagonal matrix in which all the leading diagonal elements are ‘1’.
1 0 0 A = A or a = a
e.g. I = 0 1 0
0 0 1 1.1.1.14 Note: In Hermitian matrix, diagonal elements → always real
1.1.1.7 Null Matrix (or Zero Matrix)
1.1.1.15 Skew Hermitian matrix:
It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to the negative of conjugate
A matrix is said to be Null Matrix if all the elements are zero. transpose.
0 0 0
e.g.
0 0 0
A = −A or a = − a

1.1.1.8 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices: Note: In Skew-Hermitian matrix , diagonal elements → either zero or Pure Imaginary
Symmetric, when a = +a for all i and j. In other words =A
1.1.1.16 Idempotent Matrix
Skew symmetric, when a = - a In other words = -A

Note: All the diagonal elements of skew symmetric matrix must be zero.
If A = A, then the matrix A is called idempotent matrix.
Symmetric Skew symmetric
a h g 0 −h g
1.1.1.17 Multiplication of Matrix by a Scalar:
h b f h 0 −f
g f c −g f 0 Every element of the matrix gets multiplied by that scalar.
Symmetric Matrix ‫ = ܂ۯ‬A Skew Symmetric Matrix ‫ = ܂ۯ‬- A
Multiplication of Matrices:
1.1.1.9 Triangular Matrix Two matrices can be multiplied only when number of columns of the first matrix is equal to the
x A matrix is said to be “upper triangular” if all the elements below its principal diagonal number of rows of the second matrix. Multiplication of (m × n)
are zeros. and (n × p) matrices results in matrix of (m × p)dimension [ ] × × [ ] × = [ ] × .
x A matrix is said to be “lower triangular” if all the elements above its principal diagonal
are zeros. 1.1.1.18 Determinant:
a h g a 0 0
0 b f g b 0 An n order determinant is an expression associated with n × n square matrix.
0 0 c f h c
Upper Triangular Matrix Lower Triangular Matrix If A = [a ] , Element a with ith row, jth column.

a a
1.1.1.10 Orthogonal Matrix: If A. A = I, then matrix A is said to be Orthogonal matrix.. For n = 2 , D = det A = a a =a a -a a

1.1.1.11 Singular Matrix: If |A| = 0, then A is called a singular matrix.. Determinant of “order n”
a a a − − a
1.1.1.12 Unitary Matrix: If we define, A = (A) = transpose of a conjugate of matrix A a − − − − a
Then the matrix is unitary if A . A = I D = |A| = det A = − − − − − −
− − − − − −
a a − − − a

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1.1.1.19 Minors & Co-Factors: 9. AC = AD , doesn’t imply C = D [even when A ≠ 0].


10. If A, C, D be × matrix, and if rank (A)= n & AC=AD, then C=D.
x The minor of an element in a determinant is the determinant obtained by deleting the 11. (A+B)T = A + B
row and the column which intersect that element. 12. (AB)T = B . A
x Cofactor is the minor with “proper sign”. The sign is given by (-1) (where the element 13. (AB)-1 = B . A
belongs to ith row, jth column). 14. AA =A A=I
15. (kA)T = k.A (k is scalar, A is vector)
1.1.1.20 Properties of Determinants: 16. (kA)-1 = k . A (k is scalar , A is vector)
1. A determinant remains unaltered by changing its rows into columns and columns into 17. (A ) = (A )
rows. 18. ( A ) = (A) (Conjugate of a transpose of matrix= Transpose of conjugate of matrix)
2. If two parallel lines of a determinant are inter-changed, the determinant retains its 19. If a non-singular matrix A is symmetric, then A is also symmetric.
numerical values but changes its sign. (In a general manner, a row or a column is 20. If A is a orthogonal matrix , then A and A are also orthogonal.
referred as line).
3. Determinant vanishes if two parallel lines are identical. 21. If A is a square matrix of order n then (i) |adj A|=|A|
4. If each element of a line be multiplied by the same factor, the whole determinant is
(ii) |adj (adj A)|=|A|( )
multiplied by that factor. [Note the difference with matrix].
(iii) adj (adj A) =|A| A
5. If each element of a line consists of the m terms, then determinant can be expressed as
sum of the m determinants.
1.1.1.22 Elementary Transformation of a Matrix:
6. If each element of a line be added equi-multiple of the corresponding elements of one or
1. Interchange of any 2 lines
more parallel lines, determinant is unaffected.
2. Multiplication of a line by a constant (e.g. k R )
e.g. by the operation, R → R + pR +qR , determinant is unaffected.
3. Addition of constant multiplication of any line to the another line (e. g. R + p R )
7. Determinant of an upper triangular/ lower triangular/diagonal/scalar matrix is equal to
the product of the leading diagonal elements of the matrix.
Note:
8. If A & B are square matrix of the same order, then |AB|=|BA|=|A||B|.
9 Elementary transformations don’t change the rank of the matrix.
9. If A is non singular matrix, then |A |=| | (as a result of previous). 9 However it changes the Eigen value of the matrix.
10. Determinant of a skew symmetric matrix (i.e. A =-A) of odd order is zero.
11. If A is a unitary matrix or orthogonal matrix (i.e. A = A ) then |A|= ±1. 1.1.1.23 Rank of Matrix
12. If A is a square matrix of order n, then |k A| = k |A|.
13. |I | = 1 ( I is the identity matrix of order n). If we select any r rows and r columns from any matrix A,deleting all other rows and columns,
then the determinant formed by these r×r elements is called minor of A of order r.
1.1.1.21 Inverse of a Matrix
Definition: A matrix is said to be of rank r when,
i) It has at least one non-zero minor of order r.
ii) Every minor of order higher than r vanishes.
x A =
| |
x |A| must be non-zero (i.e. A must be non-singular). Other definition: The rank is also defined as maximum number of linearly independent row
x Inverse of a matrix, if exists, is always unique. vectors.
a b d −b
x If it is a 2x2 matrix , its inverse will be
c d −c a Special case: Rank of Square matrix

Important Points: Rank = Number of non-zero row in upper triangular matrix using elementary transformation.
1. IA = AI = A, (Here A is square matrix of the same order as that of I )
2. 0 A = A 0 = 0, (Here 0 is null matrix) Note:
3. If AB = 0, then it is not necessarily that A or B is null matrix. Also it doesn’t mean BA = 0. 1. r(A.B) ≤ min { r(A), r (B)}
4. If the product of two non-zero square matrices A & B is a zero matrix, then A & B are 2. r(A+B) ≤ r(A) + r (B)
singular matrices. 3. r(A-B) ≥ r(A) - r (B)
5. If A is non-singular matrix and A.B=0, then B is null matrix. 4. The rank of a diagonal matrix is simply the number of non-zero elements in principal
6. AB ≠ BA (in general) → Commutative property does not hold diagonal.
7. A(BC) = (AB)C → Associative property holds 5. A system of homogeneous equations such that the number of unknown variable exceeds
8. A(B+C) = AB + AC → Distributive property holds the number of equations, necessarily has non-zero solutions.
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6. If A is a non-singular matrix, then all the row/column vectors are independent. b a


D =
7. If A is a singular matrix, then vectors of A are linearly dependent. b a
8. r(A)=0 iff (if and only if) A is a null matrix.
9. If two matrices A and B have the same size and the same rank then A, B are equivalent a b
D =
matrices. a b
10. Every non-singular matrix is row matrix and it is equivalent to identity matrix.
Solution using Cramer’s rule:

1.1.1.24 Solution of linear System of Equations: x = and x =

For the following system of equations A X = B In the above method, it is assumed that
1. No of equations = No of unknowns
a a − − − a x k
⎡ a ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 2. D≠ 0
− − − − a ⎡x ⎤ k
⎢ − − − − − − ⎥ ⎢−⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎥, − ⎥ In general, for Non-Homogenous Equations
Where, A = ⎢ − − − − − − X= ⎢−⎥ , B = ⎢
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− ⎥ D≠ 0 → single solution (non trivial)
⎢ − − − − − ⎥ ⎢−⎥ ⎢− ⎥ D = 0 → infinite solution
⎣a a − − − a ⎦ ⎣x ⎦ ⎣k ⎦
For Homogenous Equations
A= Coefficient Matrix, C = (A, B) = Augmented Matrix D≠ 0 → trivial solutions ( x = x =………………………x = 0)
D = 0 → non- trivial solution (or infinite solution)
r = rank (A), r = rank (C), n = Number of unknown variables (x , x , - - - x )
Eigen Values & Eigen Vectors
Consistency of a System of Equations:
1.1.1.25 Characteristic Equation and Eigen Values:
For Non-Homogenous Equations (A X = B)
i) If r ≠ r , the equations are inconsistent i.e. there is no solution. Characteristic equation: | A − λ I |= 0, The roots of this equation are called the characteristic
ii) If r = r = n, the equations are consistent and there is a unique solution. roots /latent roots / Eigen values of the matrix A.
iii) If r = r < n, the equations are consistent and there are infinite number of solutions.
Eigen vectors: [ − ]X=0
For Homogenous Equations (A X = 0)
i) If r = n, the equations have only a trivial zero solution ( i.e. x = x = - - - x = 0). For each Eigen value λ, solving for X gives the corresponding Eigen vector.
ii) If r < n, then (n-r) linearly independent solution (i.e. infinite non-trivial solutions).
Note: For a given Eigen value, there can be different Eigen vectors, but for same Eigen vector,
Note: there can’t be different Eigen values.
Consistent means:: → one or more solution (i.e. unique or infinite solution) Properties of Eigen values
1. The sum of the Eigen values of a matrix is equal to the sum of its principal diagonal.
Inconsistent means:: → No solution 2. The product of the Eigen values of a matrix is equal to its determinant.
3. The largest Eigen values of a matrix is always greater than or equal to any of the
Cramer’s Rule diagonal elements of the matrix.
4. If λ is an Eigen value of orthogonal matrix, then 1/ λ is also its Eigen value.
Let the following two equations be there
5. If A is real, then its Eigen value is real or complex conjugate pair.
a x +a x = b ---------------------------------------(i) 6. Matrix A and its transpose A has same characteristic root (Eigen values).
7. The Eigen values of triangular matrix are just the diagonal elements of the matrix.
a x +a x = b ---------------------------------------(ii) 8. Zero is the Eigen value of the matrix if and only if the matrix is singular.
9. Eigen values of a unitary matrix or orthogonal matrix has absolute value ‘1’.
a a 10. Eigen values of Hermitian or symmetric matrix are purely real.
D= b b 11. Eigen values of skew Hermitian or skew symmetric matrix is zero or pure imaginary.
| |
12. is an Eigen value of adj A (because adj A = |A|. A ).

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13. If λ is an Eigen value of the matrix then , 1.2 Probability and Distribution
i) Eigen value of A is 1/λ
ii) Eigen value of A is λ 1.2.1 Probability
iii) Eigen value of kA are kλ (k is scalar)
iv) Eigen value of A + k I are λ + k Event: Outcome of an experiment is called event.
v) Eigen value of (A − k I)2 are (O−k)
Mutually Exclusive Events (Disjoint Events): Two events are called mutually exclusive, if the
Properties of Eigen Vectors occurrence of one excludes the occurrence of others i.e. both can’t occur simultaneously.
1) Eigen vector X of matrix A is not unique.
Let X is Eigen vector, then CX is also Eigen vector (C = scalar constant). A ∩ B =φ, P(A ∩ B) =0
2) If λ , λ , λ . . . . . λ are distinct, then X , X . . . . . X are linearly independent .
3) If two or more Eigen values are equal, it may or may not be possible to get linearly Equally Likely Events: If one of the events cannot happen in preference to other, then such events
independent Eigen vectors corresponding to equal roots. are said to be equally likely.
4) Two Eigen vectors are called orthogonal vectors if X T∙ X = 0.
(X , X are column vector) Odds in Favour of an Event =
(Note: For a single vector to be orthogonal , A = A or, A. A = A. A = , )
5) Eigen vectors of a symmetric matrix corresponding to different Eigen values are Where m→ no. of ways favourable to A
orthogonal.
n→ no. of ways not favourable to A
Cayley Hamilton Theorem: Every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation.
Odds Against the Event =
1.1.1.26 Vector:
.
Probability: P(A)= = .
Any quantity having n components is called a vector of order n.

Linear Dependence of Vectors P(A)+ P(A’)=1


x If one vector can be written as linear combination of others, the vector is linearly
dependent. Important points:
x P(A∪B)→ Probability of happening of “at least one” event of A & B
Linearly Independent Vectors x P(A∩B) )→ Probability of happening of “both” events of A & B
x If no vectors can be written as a linear combination of others, then they are linearly x If the events are certain to happen, then the probability is unity.
independent. x If the events are impossible to happen, then the probability is zero.

Suppose the vectors are x x x x Addition Law of Probability:


a. For every events A, B and C not mutually exclusive
Its linear combination is λ x + λ x + λ x + λ x = 0 P(A∪B∪C)= P(A)+ P(B)+ P(C)- P(A∩B)- P(B∩C)- P(C∩A)+ P(A∩B∩C)
x If λ , λ , λ , λ are not “all zero” → they are linearly dependent. b. For the event A, B and C which are mutually exclusive
x If all "λ" are zero → they are linearly independent. P(A∪B∪C)= P(A)+ P(B)+ P(C)

Independent Events: Two events are said to be independent, if the occurrence of one does not
affect the occurrence of the other.

If P(A∩B)= P(A) P(B) ↔ Independent events A & B

Conditional Probability: If A and B are dependent events, then P denotes the probability of
occurrence of B when A has already occurred. This is known as conditional probability.
( ∩ )
P(B/A)=
( )

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For independent events A & B → P(B/A) = P(B) Discrete Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) or Distribution Function

Theorem of Combined Probability: If the probability of an event A happening as a result of trial is The Cumulative Distribution Function F(x) of the discrete variable x is defined by,
P(A). Probability of an event B happening as a result of trial after A has happened is P(B/A) then
the probability of both the events A and B happening is F (x) = F(x) = P(X≤x) = ∑ P(x ) = ∑ f(x )

P(A∩B)= P(A). P(B/A), [ P(A)≠0]


Continuous Cumulative Distribution function (CDF) or Distribution Function:
= P(B). P(A/B), [ P(B)≠0]
If F (x) = P(X≤x) =∫ f(x)dx, then F(x) is defined as the cumulative distribution function or
This is also known as Multiplication Theorem. simply the distribution function of the continuous variable.
For independent events A&B → P(B/A) = P(B), P(A/B )= P(A)

Hence P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B) CDF has the following properties:


( )
Important Points: i) = F ′(x) =f(x)≥0
ii) 1≥ F (x) ≥0
If P & P are probabilities of two independent events then iii) If x > x then F (x ) > F (x ) , i.e. CDF is monotone (non-decreasing function)
1. P (1-P ) → probability of first event happens and second fails (i.e only first happens) iv) F (−∞) = 0
2. (1-P )(1-P ) → probability of both event fails v) F (∞) = 1
3. 1-(1-P )(1-P ) → probability of at least one event occur vi) P(a≤ x ≤b) =∫ f(x)dx = ∫ f(x)dx - ∫ f(x)dx = F (b) − F (a)
4. PP → probability of both event occurs
Expectation [E(x)]:
Baye’s theorem:
1. E(X) = ∑ x f(x ) (Discrete case)
An event A corresponds to a number of exhaustive events B , B ,.., B . 2. E(X) = ∫ x f(x )dx (Continuous case)

If P(B ) and P(A/B ) are given then, Properties of Expectation


1. E(constant) = constant
( ). ( ) 2. E(CX) = C . E(X) [C is constant]
P = 3. E(AX+BY) = A E(X)+B E(Y) [A& B are constants]
∑ ( ). ( )
4. E(XY)= E(X) E(Y/X)= E(Y) E(X/Y)
This is also known as theorem of Inverse Probability. E(XY)≠ E(X) E(Y) in general
Random variable: Real variable associated with the outcome of a random experiment is called a But E(XY) = E(X) E(Y) , if X & Y are independent
random variable.
Variance (Var(X))
1.2.2 Distribution
Var (X) =E[(x − μμ ) ]
Probability Density Function (PDF) or Probability Mass Function:
Var (X)=∑(x x − μμ) f(xx ) (Discrete case)
The set of values Xi with their probabilities P constitute a probability distribution or probability
density function of the variable X. If f(x) is the PDF, then f(x ) = P(X = x ) ,
Var (X)=∫ (xx − μμ) f(x)dx (Continuous case)
PDF has the following properties:
x Probability density function is always positive i.e. f(x) ≥ 0 Var (X) =E(XX )-[E(x)]
x ∫ f(x)dx = 1 (Continuous) Properties of Variance
x ∑ f(x ) = 1 (Discrete) 1. Var(constant) = 0
2. Var(Cx) = C Var(x) -Variance is non-linear [here C is constant]

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3. Var(Cx±D) = C Var(x) -Variance is translational invariant [C & D are constants] ∑


The arithmetic mean, X=
4. Var(x-k) = Var(x) [k is constant]
x For a grouped data if x , x , … . . , x are mid values of the class intervals having frequencies
5. Var(ax+by) = a Var(x) + b Var(y) ± 2ab cov(x,y) (if not independent) [A & B are ∑
constants] f , f ,….., f ,then, X= ∑
= a Var(x) + b Var(y) (if independent) x If X is mean for n data; X is mean for n data; then combined mean of n +n data is
X=
Covariance
x If X , σ be mean and SD of a sample size n and m , σ be those for a sample of size n then
Cov (x,y)=E(xy)-E(x) E(y) SD of combined sample of size n +n is given by,

If independent ⟹ covariance=0, E(xy) = E(x) . E(y) (n + n )σ = n σ +n σ +n D +n D

(if covariance = 0, then the events are not necessarily independent) D = m -m (m , σ = mean, SD of combined sample)

Properties of Covariance (∑n )σ =∑(n σ )+∑(n D )


1. Cov(x,y) = Cov(y,x) (i.e. symmetric)
2. Cov(x,x) = Var(x) Median: When the values in a data sample are arranged in descending order or ascending order
3. |Cov(x,y)| ≤ σ σ of magnitude the median is the middle term if the no. of sample is odd and is the mean of two
middle terms if the number is even.
Standard Distribution Function (Discrete r.v. case):
1. Binomial Distribution : P(r) = C p q Mode: It is defined as the value in the sampled data that occurs most frequently.
Mean = np, Variance = npq, S.D. = npq
Important Points:
2. Poisson Distribution: Probability of k success is P (k) = 9 Mean is best measurement ( ∵ all observations taken into consideration).
!
k→no. of success trials , n→no. of trials , P→success case probability 9 Mode is worst measurement (∵ only maximum frequency is taken).
→ mean of the distribution 9 In median, 50 % observation is taken.
For Poisson distribution: Mean = , variance = , and =np 9 Sum of the deviation about “mean” is zero.
9 Sum of the absolute deviations about “median” is minimum.
Standard Distribution Function (Continuous r.v. case): 9 Sum of the square of the deviations about “mean” is minimum.
( )
1. Normal Distribution (Gaussian Distribution): f(x) = e
√ Co-efficient of variation = × 100
Where μ and σ are the mean and standard deviation respectively
x P(μ − σ < x < μ + σ) = 68% ( , )
x P(μ − 2σ < x < μ + 2σ) = 95.5% Correlation coefficient = U(x,y) =
x P(μ − 3σ < x < μ + 3σ) = 99.7% x -1 ≤ U(x, y) ≤1
x Total area under the curve is is unity i.e. ∫ f(x)dx = 1 x U(x,y) = U(y,x)
( ) x |U(x,y)| = 1 when P(x=0)=1; or P(x=ay)=1 [ for some a]
x P(x1 < x < x2) = ∫ e dx = Area under the curve from x1 to x2 x If the correlation coefficient is -ve, then two events are negatively correlated.

2. Exponential distribution : f(x) = λ e , x ≥ 0 , here λ > 0 x If the correlation coefficient is zero, then two events are uncorrelated.
= 0, x < 0 x If the correlation coefficient is +ve, then two events are positively correlated.
3. Uniform distribution: f(x)= , b ≥ f(x) ≥ a
Line of Regression:
= 0, otherwise
4. Cauchy distribution : f(x)=
.( ) The equation of the line of regression of y on x is y − y = ρ (x − x)

5. Rayleigh distribution function : f(x) = e , x≥0


The equation of the line of Regression of x on y is (x − x) = ρ (y − y)
Mean:
x For a set of n values of a variant X=( x , x , … . . , x ) ρ is called the regression coefficient of y on x and is denoted by byx.

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ρ is called the regression coefficient of x on y and is denoted by bxy. 1.3 Numerical Methods

1.3.1 Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation / Root Finding :


Joint Probability Distribution: If X & Y are two random variables then Joint distribution is defined
as, Fxy(x,y) = P(X ≤ x ; Y ≤ y)
Consider an equation f(x) = 0
Properties of Joint Distribution Function/ Cumulative Distribution Function:
1. F (−∞, −∞) = 0
1. Bisection method
2. F (∞, ∞) = 1
3. F (−∞, ∞) = 0 { F (−∞, ∞) = P(X ≤ −∞ ; Y ≤ y) = 0 x 1 = 0 } This method finds the root between points “a” and “b”.
4. F (x, ∞) = P(X ≤ x ; Y ≤ ∞) = F (x) . 1 = F (x)
5. F (∞, y) = F (y) If f(x) is continuous between a and b and f (a) and f (b) are of opposite sign then there is a
root between a & b (IIntermediate Value Theorem).
Joint Probability Density Function:
First approximation to the root is x1 = .
Defined as f(x, y) = F(x, y)
If f(x1) = 0, then x1 is the root of f(x) = 0, otherwise root lies between a and x1 or x1 and
Property: ∫ ∫ f(x, y) dx dy = 1 b.

Note: X and Y are said to be independent random variable Similarly x2 and x3 . . . . . are determined.
9 Simplest iterative method
If fxy(x,y) = fx(x) . fy(y) 9 Bisection method always converge, but often slowly.
9 This method can’t be used for finding the complex roots.
9 Rate of convergence is linear

2. Newton Raphson Method (or Successive Substitution Method or Tangent Method)


( )
xn+1 = xn –
( )
9 This method is commonly used for its simplicity and greater speed.
9 Here f(x) is assumed to have continuous derivative f’(x).
9 This method fails if f’(x) = 0.
9 It has second order of convergence or quadratic convergence, i.e. the subsequent error at
each step is proportional to the square of the error at previous step.
9 Sensitive to starting value, i.e. The Newton’s method converges provided the initial
approximation is chosen sufficiently close to the root.
9 Rate of convergence is quadratic.

3. Secant Method
x =x − ( )– (
f(x )
)

9 Convergence is not guaranteed.


9 If converges, convergence super linear (more rapid than linear, almost quadratic like
Newton Raphson, around 1.62).

4. Regula Falsi Method or (Method of False Position)

9 Regula falsi method always converges.


9 However, it converges slowly.
9 If converges, order of convergence is between 1 & 2 (closer to 1).

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9 It is superior to Bisection method. Step 2: Eliminate y from 1st and 3rd


Step 3: Eliminate z from 1st and 2nd
Given f(x) = 0
3. L U Decomposition
Select x0 and x1 such that f(x0) f(x1) < 0 (i.e. opposite sign) 9It is modification of the Gauss eliminiation method.
9Also Used for finding the inverse of the matrix.
– ( )– ( )
x =x - ( ) ( )
, f(x ) =
( ) ( )
[A]n x n = [ L ] n x n [U] n x n
a11 a12 a13 1 0 0 U11 U12 U13
Check if f(x0) f(x2) < 0 or f(x1) f(x2) < 0
a21 b22 c23 = L21 1 0 0 U22 U23
a31 b32 c33 L31 L32 1 0 0 U31
Compute x ………
Ax = LUX = b can be written as
which is an approximation to the root.
a)LY=b and b) UX=Y

Solve for Y from a) then solve for X from b). This method is known as Doolittle’s method.
1.3.2 Solution of Linear System of Equations
9 Similar methods are Crout’s method and Cholesky methods.
1. Gauss Elimination Method
4. Iterative Method
Here equations are converted into “upper triangular matrix” form, then solved by “back
(i) Jacobi Iteration Method
substitution” method.
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1
Consider a1x + b1x + c1z = d1
a2x + b2x + c2z = d2 a2x + b2y + c2z = d2
a3x + b3y + c3z = d3
a3x + b3x + c3z = d3
If a1, b2 , c3 are large compared to other coefficients, then solving these for x, y, z
Step 1: To eliminate x from second and third equation (we do this by subtracting suitable
respectively
multiple of first equation from second and third equation)
x = k1 – l1y – m1z
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1’ (pivotal equation, a1 pivot point.)
y = k2 – l2x – m2z
b2’y + c2’ z = d2’
z = k3 – l3x – m3y
b3’y + c3’ z = d3’
Let us start with initial approximation x0 , y0 , z0
Step 2: Eliminate y from third equation x1= k1 – l1y0 – m1z0
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1’ y1= k2 – l2y0 – m2z0
b2’y + c2z = d2’ (pivotal equation, b2’ is pivot point.) z1= k3 – l3y0 – m3z0
c3’’z = d3”
Note: No component of x(k) is used in computation unless y(k) and z(k) are computed.
Step 3: The value of x , y and z can be found by back substitution.
The process is repeated till the difference between two consecutive approximations is
negligible.
Note: Number of operations: N = +n -
In generalized form:
x(k+1) = k1 – l1 y(k) – m1z(k)
y(k+1) = k2 – l2 x(k) – m2z(k)
2. Gauss Jordon Method z(k+1) = k3 – l3 x(k) – m3y(k)
9 Used to find inverse of the matrix and solving linear equations.
9 Here back substitution is avoided by additional computations that reduce the matrix to (ii) Gauss-Siedel Iteration Method
“diagonal from”, instead to triangular form in Gauss elimination method.
9 Number of operations is more than Gauss elimination as the effort of back substitution Modification of the Jacobi’s Iteration Method
is saved at the cost of additional computation.
Step 1: Eliminate x from 2nd and 3rd Start with (x0, y0, z0) = (0, 0, 0) or anything [No specific condition]

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In first equation, put y = y0 z = z0 which will give x1 Solution is given by, Yn+1 = yn + h f(xn,yn)
In second equation, put x = x1 and z = z0 which will give y1
In third equation, put x = x1 and y = y1 which will give z1 (ii) Runge Kutta Method

Note: To compute any variable, use the latest available value. Used for finding the y at a particular x without solving the 1st order differential equation
In generalized form: = f(x, y)
x(k+1) = k1 – l1y(k) – m1z(k)
K1 = h f(x0, y0)
y(k+1) = k2 – l2x(k+1) – m2z(k)
z(k+1) = k3 – l3x(k+1) – m3y(k+1) K2 = h f(x0 + , y0 + )
K3 = h f(x0 + , y0 + )
1.3.3 Numerical Integration
K4 = h f(x0 +h, y0 + k3)
K = (k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4)
Trapezoidal Formula: Step size h =
Y(x0+h) = y0 + k
h
f(x)dx = {( first term + last term) + 2 (remaining terms)}
2

Error = Exact - approximate

The error in approximating an integral using Trapezoidal rule is bounded by

h
− (b − a) max |f (ξ)|
12 ∈[ , ]

Simpson’s One Third Rule (Simpson’s Rule):

h
f(x)dx = {( first term + last term) + 4 (all odd terms) + 2 (all even terms)}
3

The error in approximating an integral using Simpson’s one third rule is

h
− (b − a) max |f ( ) (ξ)|
180 ∈[ , ]

Simpson’s Three Eighth Rule:

3h ( first term + last term) + 2 (all multiple of 3 terms)


f(x)dx =
8 +3 (all remaining terms)

The error in approximating an integral using Simpson’s 3/8 rule is

(b − a)
− max |f ( ) (ξ)|
6480 ∈[ , ]

1.3.4 Solving Differential Equations


(i) Euler method (for first order differential equation )
Given equation is y = f(x, y); y(x0) = y0

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1.4 Calculus
log(1 + x)
lim =1
1.4.1 Limit of a Function → x

Let y = f(x) x −a
lim = a
→ x−a
Then lim → f(x)= ℓ i.e, “ f(x)→ℓ as x→a” implies for any ∈(>0), δ(>0) such that whenever
0< |x − a|<δ, |f(x) − ℓ|<∈ lim log|x| = − ∞

Some Standard Expansions L – Hospital’s Rule


x When function is of or form, differentiate numerator & denominator and then apply
( ) n(n − 1)(n − 2)
(1 + x) = 1 + nx + !
+ x +. . . . . . . . . x limit.
3!
x −a Existence of Limits and Continuity:
=x +x a+x a +. . . . . . . . . a 1. f(x) is defined at a, i.e, f(a) exists.
x−a
2. If lim f(x) = lim f(x) = L ,then the lim f(x) exists and equal to L.
→ → →
e =1+x+ + ......... 3. If lim → f(x) = lim → f(x)= f(a) then the function f(x) is said to be continuous.
! !

Properties of Continuity
log(1 + x) = x − + .........
If f and g are two continuous functions at a; then
log(1 − x) = − x − − ......... a. (f+g), (f.g), (f-g) are continuous at a
b. is continuous at a, provided g(a) ≠ 0
Sin x = x − + − ......... c. |f| or |g| is continuous at a
! ! !

Rolle’s theorem
Cos x = 1− !
+ !
− !
.........
If (i) f(x) is continuous in closed interval [a,b]
Sinh x = x + !
+ !
+ !
.........
(ii) f’(x) exists for every value of x in open interval (a,b)

Cosh x = 1+ + + ......... (iii) f(a) = f(b)


! ! !

Some Important Limits Then there exists at least one point c between (a, b) such that ′( ) = 0

sinx Geometrically: There exists at least one point c between (a, b) such that tangent at c is parallel to
lim =0 x axis
→ x

1
lim 1 + =
→ x C
C
lim(1 + x) =

a −1
lim = log a C1
→ x
e −1
lim =1
→ x

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Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem Homogenous Function

If (i) f(x) is continuous in the closed interval [a,b] and Any function f(x, y) which can be expressed in from xnϕ is called homogenous function of
(ii) f’(x) exists in the open interval (a,b), then atleast one value c of x exist in (a,b) such that order n in x and y. (Every term is of nth degree.)

( ) ( ) f(x,y) = a0xn + a1xn-1y + a2xn-2y2 + …………+ an yn


= f (c).
f(x,y) = xn ϕ
Geometrically, it means that at point c, tangent is parallel to the chord line.
Euler’s Theorem on Homogenous Function

If u be a homogenous function of order n in x and y then,


x x +y = nu

x x + 2xy +y = n(n − 1)u

1.4.3 Total Derivative


Cauchy’s Mean Value Theorem
If u=f(x,y) ,x=φ(t), y=Ψ(t)
If (i) f(x) is continuous in the closed interval [a,a+h] and
= . + .
(ii) f (x) exists in the open interval (a,a+h), then there is at least one number θ (0<θ<1)
such that
∆u = ∆x + ∆y
f(a+h) = f(a) + h f(a+θh)

Let f1 and f2 be two functions: Monotonicity of a Function f(x)


i) f1,f2 both are continuous in [a,b] 1. f(x) is increasing function if for α > β , f(α) > f(β)
ii) f1, f2 both are differentiable in (a,b) Necessary and sufficient condition, f’ (x) > 0
iii) f2’ ≠ 0 in (a,b) 2. f(x) is decreasing function if for α > β, , f(α) < f(β)
Necessary and sufficient condition, f (x) < 0
then, for a < β < b
Note: If f is a monotonic function on a domain ‘D’ then f is one-one on D.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
= ( )
Maxima-Minima
1.4.2 Derivative:
a) Global b) Local
( ) ( )
’( ) = lim →
Rule for finding maxima & minima:
Provided the limit exists ’( ) is called the rate of change of f at x. x If maximum or minimum value of f(x) is to be found, let y = f(x)
x Find dy/dx and equate it to zero and from this find the values of x, say x is α, β, …(called the
Algebra of derivative:- critical points).
i. (f + g)′ = f′ + g ′ x Find at x = α,
ii. (f − g)′ = f ′ – g ′
iii. (f. g)′ = f ′. g + f . g′ If > 0, y has a minimum value
. .
iv. (f/g)′ = If < 0,y has a maximum value

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If = 0, proceed further and find at x = α. 1.4.4 Standard Integral Results


1. ∫ x dx = , n ≠ −1
If ≠ 0, y has neither maximum nor minimum value at x = α
2. ∫ dx = log x
But If = 0, proceed further and find at x = α.
3. ∫ e dx = e
If > 0, y has minimum value 4. ∫ a dx = (prove it )
If < 0, y has maximum value 5. ∫ cos x dx = sin x
6. ∫ sin x dx = −cos x
If = 0, proceed further
7. ∫ sec x dx = tan x
8. ∫ cosec x dx = −cot x
Note: Greatest / least value exists either at critical point or at the end point of interval. 9. ∫ sec x tan x dx = sec x
10. ∫ cosec x cot x dx = −cosec x
Point of Inflexion
11. ∫ dx = sin
If at a point, the following conditions are met, then such point is called point of inflexion √
12. ∫ dx = sec

13. ∫ dx = sec x

14. ∫ cosh x dx = sinh x
15. ∫ sinh x dx = cosh x
16. ∫ sech x dx = tanh x
17. ∫ cosech x dx = −coth x
Point of 18. ∫ sech x tanh x dx = −sech x
inflexion 19. ∫ cosec h x cot h x dx = −cosech x
20. ∫ tan x dx = log sec x
21. ∫ cot x dx = log sin x
i) =0, 22. ∫ sec x dx = log( sec x + tan x) = log tan(π 4 + x 2)
ii) =0, 23. ∫ cosec x dx = log(cosec x − cot x) = log tan
iii) ≠ 0Æ Neither minima nor maxima exists 24. ∫ dx = log(x + √x − a ) = cosh ( )

25. ∫ dx = log(x + √x + a ) = sinh ( )

Taylor Series: √
26. ∫ √a − x dx = sin +
f(a + h)= f(a) + h f’(a) + f”(a) + . . . . . . . . . 27. ∫ √a + x dx = √x + a + log(x + √x + a )
!

28. ∫ √x − a dx = √x − a − log(x + √x − a )
Maclaurian Series:
29. ∫ dx = tan
h3
f(x) = f(0) + x f’(0) + f′′(0)+ f'''(0) 30. ∫ dx = log ( ) where x <a
! 3!
31. ∫ dx = log ( ) where x > a
Maxima & Minima (Two variables)
32. ∫ sin x dx = − sin 2x
r= ,s= , t= 33. ∫ cos x dx = + sin 2x
34. ∫ tan x dx = tan x − x
1. = 0, = 0 → solve these equations. Let the solution be (a, b), (c, d)…
35. ∫ cot x dx = − cot x − x
2. (i) if rt− s > 0 and r < 0 → maximum at (a, b) 36. ∫ ln x dx = x ln x − x
(ii) if rt− s > 0 and r > 0 → minimum at (a, b)
37. ∫ e sin bx dx = (a sin bx − b cos bx )
(iii) if rt− s < 0 at (a, b), f(a,b) is not an extreme value i.e, f(a, b) is saddle point.
(iv) if rt− s > 0 at (a, b), It is doubtful, need further investigation. 38. ∫ e cos bx dx = (a cos bx + b sin bx )

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39. ∫ e [f(x) + f (x)]dx = e f(x) 1.4.7 Vector Calculus:


Integration by parts: ∫ u v dx = u. ∫ v dx − ∫( ∫ v dx)dx
Scalar Point Function:

I L A T E If corresponding to each point P of region R there is a corresponding scalar then ∅(P) is said to
Selection of U & V be a scalar point function for the region R.

Inverse circular ∅(P)= ∅(x,y,z)


(e.g. tan−1 x) Exponential Vector Point Function:
Logarithmic Algebraic Trigonometric
If corresponding to each point P of region R, there corresponds a vector defined by F(P) then F is
Note: Take that function as “u” which comes first in “ILATE” called a vector point function for region R.

1.4.5 Rules for Definite Integral F(P) = F(x,y,z) = f1(x,y,z) ̂ +f2(x,y,z)ĵ +f3(x,y,z)k
1. ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(x)dx+∫ f(x)dx a<c<b
Vector Differential Operator or Del Operator: ∇ = î + ĵ + k
2. ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(a + b − x)dx → ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(a − x)dx
/ / /
3. ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(x)dx+∫ f(a − x)dx → ∫ f(x)dx = 2 ∫ f(x)dx Directional Derivative:
if f(a-x)=f(x)
=0 if f(a-x)=-f(x) The directional derivative of f in a direction N⃗ is the resolved part of ∇f in direction N⃗.
4. ∫ f(x)dx =2 ∫ f(x)dx if f(-x) = f(x), even function
=0 if f(x) = -f(x), odd function ∇f. N⃗ = |∇f|cosα

Improper Integral Where N⃗ is a unit vector in a particular direction.

Those integrals for which limit is infinite or integrand is infinite in a ≤ x ≤ b in case of ∫ f(x)dx, Direction cosine: l + m + n = 1
then it is called as improper integral.
Where, l =cos α , m=cos β , n=cos γ ,
1.4.6 Convergence:
1.4.8 Gradient:
x ∫ f(x)dx is said to be convergent if the value of the integral is finite.
x If (i) 0 ≤ f(x) ≤ g(x) for all x and (ii) ∫ g(x)dx converges , then ∫ f(x)dx also converges The vector function ∇f is defined as the gradient of the scalar point function f(x,y,z) and written
x If (i) f(x) ≥ g(x) ≥ 0 for all x and (ii) ∫ g(x)dx diverges, then ∫ f(x)dx also diverges as grad f.
( )
x If lim → = c where c≠0, then both integrals ∫ f(x)dx and ∫ g(x)dx converge or both grad f = ∇f = î +ĵ +k
( )
diverge.
x ∫ is converges when p> 1 and diverges when p≤ 1 ∇f is vector function
x ∫ e dx and ∫ e dx is converges for any constant p> 0 and diverges for p≤ 0 If f(x,y,z) = 0 is any surface, then ∇f is a vector normal to the surface f and has a
magnitude equal to rate of change of f along this normal.
x The integral ∫ ( )
is convergent if and only if p< 1 Directional derivative of f(x,y,z) is maximum along ∇f and magnitude of this maximum
x The integral ∫ is convergent if and only if p< 1 is |∇f|.
( )
1.4.9 Divergence:

The divergence of a continuously differentiable vector point function F is denoted by div. F and
is defined by the equation.

div. F = ∇. F

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F = f î + ∅ĵ + Ψk 9. ∇ × (F × G) = F(∇ × G) − G(∇ × F)

div.F= ∇. f = î + ĵ + k .( f î + ∅ĵ + Ψk) Also note:

1. ∇(f/g)= (g ∇f – f ∇g)/g

= + + 2. (F.G)’ = F’.G + F . G’
3. (F × G)’ = F’× G + F × G’
x ∇. f is scalar 4. ∇ (fg) = g ∇ f + 2 ∇f. ∇g + f ∇ g
x ∇. ∇= ∇ is Laplacian operator

1.4.10 Curl: 1.4.15 Vector product

The curl of a continuously differentiable vector point function F is denoted by curl F and is 1. Dot product of A × B with C is called scalar triplet product and denoted as [ABC]
defined by the equation. Rule: For evaluating the scalar triplet product
(i) Independent of position of dot and cross
î ĵ k (ii) Dependent on the cyclic order of the vector
[ABC] = A × B. C = A. B × C
Curl F = ∇ × f = = B × C. A= B.C × A
f φ Ψ = C × A. B = C.A × B
A × B. C = -(B × A. C)
∇ × F is vector function 2. (A⃗ × B⃗) × C⃗ = (extreme × adjacent) × Outer
= (Outer. extreme) adjacent−(Outer. adjacent) extreme
1.4.11 Solenoidal Vector Function
x (A⃗ × B)⃗ × C⃗ = (C⃗ . A⃗ ) B⃗ - (C⃗ . B⃗ ) A⃗
If ∇.A = 0 , then A is called as solenoidal vector function. x A⃗ × (B⃗ × C⃗ ) = (A⃗ . C⃗ ) B⃗ - (A⃗ . B⃗ ) C⃗
x (A⃗ × B⃗ ) × C⃗ ≠ A⃗ × (B⃗ × C⃗ )
1.4.12 Irrotational Vector Function
1.4.16 Line Integral, Surface Integral & Volume Integral
If ∇ × A =0, then A is said to be irrotational otherwise rotational.
x Line integral = ∫ F(R)dR
1.4.13 DEL Applied Twice to Point Functions: If F(R )=î f(x,y,z) + ĵ ∅(x,y,z) + k Ψ(x,y,z)
dR = î dx + ĵ dy + k dz
1. div grad f = ∇ f= + + ---------- this is Laplace equation ∫ F(R )dR = ∫ ( f dx + ∅ dy + Ψ dz )
2. curl grad f = ∇ × ∇f = 0 x Surface integral: ∫ F⃗ . ds⃗ or ∫ F⃗ . N⃗ ds, Where N is unit outward normal to Surface.
3. div curl F = ∇. ∇ × F =0 x Volume integral : ∫ F dv
4. curl curl F = ∇ × (∇ × f) = ∇(∇. f) - ∇ F
5. grad div F = ∇(∇. f)= ∇ × (∇ × F) + ∇ F If F(R ) = f(x,y,z)î + ∅ (x,y,z)ĵ + Ψ (x,y,z) k and δv = δxδyδz , then

∫ F dv = î∫ ∫ ∫ fdxdydz + ĵ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∅dxdydz +k ∫ ∫ ∫ Ψdxdydz


1.4.14 Vector Identities:
1.4.17 Green’s Theorem
f, g are scalar functions & F, G are vector functions
1. ∇(f + g) = ∇f + ∇g
If R be a closed region in the xy plane bounded by a simple closed curve c and if P and Q are
2. ∇. (F + G) = ∇. F + ∇. G
continuous functions of x and y having continuous derivative in R, then according to Green’s
3. ∇ × (F + G) = ∇ × F + ∇ × G
theorem.
4. ∇(fg) = f ∇g + g∇f
5. ∇. (fG)= ∇f. G + f. ∇G
6. ∇ × (fG) = ∇f × G + f × ∇G ∮ (P dx + Q dy) = ∫ ∫ − dxdy
7. ∇(F. G) = F × (∇ × G) + G × (∇ × F)
8. ∇. (F × G) = G.( ∇ × F) − F. (∇ × G)

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1.4.18 Stoke’s theorem 1.5: Differential Equations

If F be continuously differentiable vector function in R, then ∮ F. dr = ∫ ∇ × F .N ds


1.5.1 Order of Differential Equation: It is the order of the highest derivative appearing in it.
1.4.19 Gauss divergence theorem
1.5.2 Degree of Differential Equation: It is the degree of the highest derivative occurring in it,
The normal surface integral of a vector point function F which is continuously differentiable over after expressing the equation free from radicals and fractions as far as derivatives are
the boundary of a closed region is equal to the concerned.

∫ F .N.ds =∫ div F dv 1.5.3 Differential Equations of First Order First Degree:

Equations of first order and first degree can be expressed in the form f (x, y, y ) = 0 or
y = f(x, y). Following are the different ways of solving equations of first order and first degree:

1. Variable separable : f(x)dx + g(y)dy = 0

∫ f(x)dx + ∫ g(y)dy = c is the solution


( , )
2. Homogenous Equation: =
( , )
x To solve a homogeneous equation, substitute y = Vx

=V+x

x Separate the variable V and x and integrate.

Equations Reducible to Homogenous Equation:

The differential equation: =

→ This is a non - homogeneous but can be converted to homogeneous equation

Case I: If ≠

Substitute x = X + h y=Y+k (h and K are constants)

Solve for h and k


ah + bk + c = 0
a h+b k+c =0

Case II: If =

= = (say)

( )
= ( )

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Substitute ax +by = t, so that, The necessary and sufficient condition for the differential equations M dx +N dy = 0 to be
( )
exact is =
= +a
Solution of exact differential equation: ∫ M dx + ∫(terms of N not contaning x ) dy = C
Solve by variable separable method.

3. Linear Equations:
4.1 Equation Reducible the Exact Equation:
The standard form of a linear equation of first order:
Integrating Factor:
+ P(x) y = Q(x) , where P and Q are functions of x Sometimes an equation which is not exact may become so on multiplication by some
function known as Integrating factor (I.F.).
d y dy
Second order linear equation: + P(x) + Q(x)y = R(x) Rule 0: Finding by inspection
dx dx

1. x dy + y dx = d (x y)
Commonly known as “Leibnitz’s linear equations”
2. =d( )
Integrating factor, I.F. = e∫ 3. = d [log ( )]

ye∫ = ∫ Q. (I. F)dx + C ⇒ y(I. F. ) = ∫ Q. (I. F)dx + C 4. =-d( )


5. = d [tan ( )]
6. =d[ log( )]
Note: The degree of every linear differential equation is always one but if the degree of the
differential equation is one then it need not be linear.
Rule 1: when M dx + N dy = 0 is homogenous in x and y and M x + N y ≠ 0 then I.F. =

Ex: + 3x + y = 0.
Rule 2: If the equation f (x, y) y dx + f (x, y) x dy = 0 and M x – N y ≠ 0 then I.F. =
3.1 Bernoulli’s Equation:
( )
Rule 3: If the M dx + N dy = 0 and − = f(x), then I.F. = e∫
+Py=Qy where, P & Q are functions of x only.
( )
Rule 4: If the equation M dx + N dy = 0 and − = f(y) , then I.F. = e∫
Divide by y

y + Py =Q
1.5.4 Linear Differential Equation with Constant Coefficients:

Substitute, y =z
+ + ------- +k y=X
+ (1 − n)Pz = Q (1-n) → This is a linear equation and can be solved easily
The equation can be written as (D + k D + - - - - - + k )y = X {Where, D = }

4. Exact Differential Equations: f(D) y = X ; f(D) = 0 is called Auxiliary Equation.

M (x, y) dx + N (x, y) dy = 0 Rules for Finding Complimentary Function:

Case I : If all the roots of A.E. are real and different

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(D − m ) (D − m ) - - - - - - (D − m ) y = 0 = 0, ф(- ) = 0]
Case III:
So, the solution is: y = C e + C e + -- - - - -+ C e
When X = , m being positive integer
Case II: If two roots are equal i.e. m = m
P.I. = ( )
= [ ( )]
y = (C + C x ) e
= (D) [1 + ]
( )
Similarly, if m = m = m
= (D) [1− ( ) + ( )− ( ) +⋯]
y = (C + C x +C x ) e Case IV:
Case III: If one pair of roots are imaginary When X = V where V is function of x
P. I. = V
i.e. m = ∝ +iβ , m = ∝ −iβ ( )

y = e∝ (C cos βx + C sin βx) = V then evaluate V as in Case I, II & III


( ) ( )

Case IV: If two pairs of root are imaginary


Case V:
i.e. repeated imaginary root ∝ ±iβ, ∝ ±iβ
When X = x V(x)
y = e∝ [(C x + C ) cos βx + (C x + C ) sin βx ] ( )
P.I. = ( )
x V(x) = −
( ) ( )
V(x)

1.5.5 Rules for finding Particular Integral Case VI:

P.,. = X= .X When X is any other function of x


⋯ ( )

Case I: P.I. = ( )
X

When X =
Factorize f(D) = (D − ) (D − ) - - - - - - - (D − ) and resolve ( )
into partial fractions
P.I. = put D = a [ ( ) ≠ 0] and then apply, X= ∫ on each terms.
( )

P.I. = x put D = a [ ’( ) ≠ 0, ( ) = 0] Complete Solution: y = C.F. + P.,.


( )
1.5.6 Cauchy-Euler Equation: (Homogenous Linear Equation)
P.I. = put D = a [ ( ) = 0, ’( ) = 0, ’’( ) ≠ 0]
"( )
+ . +------ - + =X
Case II:
Substitute x=e
When X = sin (ax + b) or cos (ax +b)
x = Dy
P.I. = ф( ( + ) put =- [ф (- )≠0]
)

= D (D-1) y
=xф( )
( + ) put =- [ф’(- ) ≠ 0, ф(- ) = 0]

= ( + ) put =- [ф’’(- ) ≠ 0, ф’(- ) = D (D-1)(D-2) y


ф"( )

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After substituting these differentials, the Cauchy – Euler equation results in a linear equation Step II: Finding P.I.
with constant coefficients.
P.,. = ( ,
f (x, y)
)

1.5.7 Legendre’s Linear Equation: 1. when F( ax +by ) = , put [ D = a, ′ = b]


2. when F( x, y) = sin (mx +ny), put ( = − , =− , ′ = − )
( + ) + ( + ) + - - - - -- - =X 3. when F(x, y) = , P., = ( , ) =[ ( , )]
4. when F(x, y) is any function of x and y. P., = f (x, y) , resolve into partial
( , ) ( , )
ax + b = ⇒ t = ln (ax + b) fractions considering ( , ) as a function of D alone and operate each partial fraction
on f(x, y) remembering that f(x, y) = ∫ ( , − ) where c, is replaced by
(ax + b) =aDy ( )
y + mx after integration.

( + ) = D(D-1)y

( + ) = D(D-1)(D-2)y

After substituting these differentials, the Legendre’s equation results in a linear equation with
constant coefficients.

1.5.8 Partial Differential Equation:

z = f(x, y)

=p, =q, = r, = s, =

1.5.9 Homogenous Linear Equation with Constant Coefficients:

+ +------ - = f( x, y) → this is called homogenous because all


terms containing derivative is of same order.

( + +------- ) = f(x, y) { where D = and D’ = }

f (D, D’) = f(x,y)

Step I: Finding the C.F.

1. Write A.E.
+ + - - - - - + = 0,
Where m = and the roots are , ---- -
2. CF = (y + x) + (y + x) + - - - - - - , are distinct
CF = (y + x) + x (y + x) + (y + x) + - - - - - - , , two equal roots.

CF = (y + x) + x (y + x) + (y + x) + - - - - , , three equal roots.

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1.6: Complex Variables 1.6.5 Harmonic Functions:

= + is a complex no., where x & y are real numbers called as real and imaginary part of z. If f(z) = u + iv be an analytic function in some region of the z – plane then the C –R equations are
satisfied.
Modulus or absolute value = | | = + , Argument of = = ( )=
= , =−
1.6.1 Function of a Complex Variable: It is a rule by means of which it is possible to find one or
more complex numbers ‘w’ for every value of ‘z’ in a certain domain D, then w = f (z) Differentiating with respect to x and y respectively,

Where z = x + iy, = , =−
w = f (z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y)
+ =0 → (Laplace Equation)
1.6.2 Continuity of f (z):
Note:
x A function = f (z) is said to be continuous at = if → ( ) = ( ).
x Further f (z) is said to be continuous in any region R of the z-plane, if it is continuous at (1) For a function to be regular, the first order partial derivations of u and v must be
every point of that region. continuous in addition to CR equations.
x Also if w = f (z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y) is continuous at = , then u(x, y) and v(x, y) are also (2) Mean value of any harmonic function over a circle is equal to the value of the function at
continuous at x= & y = . the centre.

1.6.6 Methods of Constructing Analytic Functions:


1.6.3 Theorem on Differentiability:
1. If the real part of a function is given then,
The necessary and sufficient conditions for the derivative of the function f( ) to exist for all ’( ) = -i
values of in a region R.
Integrate with points at (z, 0)
i) , , , , are continuous functions of x and y in R. f(z) = ∫ dz - i ∫ dz + c
( , ) ( , )
Similarly in case v(x, y) is known, then
ii) = , =− , → Cauchy-Riemann equations (CR equations) f’ (z) = +i
f (z) = ∫ dz + i ∫ dz + c
1.6.4 Analytic Functions (or Regular Function) or Holomorphic Functions ( , ) ( , )

o A single valued function which is defined and differentiable at each point of a domain D is 2. If u (x, y) is known, then to find v(x, y) we have
said to be analytic in that domain. dv = dx + dy
o A point at which an analytic function ceases to possess a derivative is called Singular point.
o Thus if u and v are real Single – valued functions of x and y such that , , , are dv = − dx + dy
continuous throughout a region R , then CR equations Integrate this equation to find v.
f (z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y)
3. If a real part of the analytic function f(z) is given which is harmonic function u (x, y), then
= , =-
f(z) = 2u , - u(0, 0)
are both “necessary and sufficient” condition for the function f(z) = u + iv to be analytic in R.
1.6.7 Complex Integration
o Real and imaginary part i.e. u, v of the function is called conjugate function. o Line integral = ∫ ( ) , C need not be closed path
o An analytic function posses derivatives of all order and these are themselves analytic. Here, f(z) = integrand , curve C = path of integration
o Contour integral = ∮ ( ) , if C is closed path

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If f(z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y) and dz = dx + i dy 1.6.9 Morera’s Theorem: If f(z) is continuous in a region and ∫ ( ) = 0 around every
simple closed C then f(z) is analytic in that region.
∴∫ ( ) =∫( − )+ ∫( + )
1.6.10 Taylor’s Series: If f(z) is analytic inside a circle C with centre at a then for z inside C
Theorem: f(z) is analytic in a simple connected domain then ∫ ( ) = f( ) − ( ), i.e.
"( )
f(z) = f(a) + f’(a) (z-a) + (z-a) + - - - - - - -
!
integration is independent of the path
f(z) = ∑ ( − )
Dependence on Path: In general “Complex line integration” depends not only on the end points
but also on the path (however analytic function in simple connected domain is independent of ( )
where = ∫ ( )
path.)

1.6.8 Cauchy’s Integral Theorem: Other form, put z = a + h

If f(z) is analytic in a simple connected domain D, then for every simple closed path C in D, f(a+h) = f(a) + h ’( ) + ”( ) + - - - - - - -
!
∮஼ ݂(‫ = ݖ݀)ݖ‬0

1.6.11 Laurent’s Series: If f(z) is analytic in the ring shaped region R bounded by two concentric
circles and of radii and ( > ) and with centre at a then for all z in R
Note: In other words, by Cauchy’s theorem if f(z) is analytic on a simple closed path C and
everywhere inside C (with no exception, not even a single point) then ∮ ( ) = 0 f(z) = + ( − )+ ( − ) + − − − + ( − ) + ( − )

D ( )
where, = ∫ ( )

C If f(z) is analytic inside the curve then = 0 and Laurent series reduces to Taylor’s series.

1.6.12 Zeroes of Analytic Function:

The value of z for which f(z) = 0

If f(z) is analytic in the neighbourhood of a point z = a then by Taylor’s theorem.


1.6.8.1 Cauchy’s Integral Formula:
f(z) = + ( − )+ ( − ) + − − − + ( − ) + − − −
If f(z) is analytic within and on a closed curve and if a is any point within C, then
=∑ ( − )
( )
( )= ∫
( )
where =
!
! ( )
’( ) = ∫ ( )
if = = =------ = 0, then f(z) is said to have a zero of order n at z =a.
! ( )
”( ) = ∫ 1.6.13 Singularities of an Analytic Function:
( )

. . . A “singular point” of a function as the point at which the function ceases to be analytic.

! ( ) 1. Isolated Singularity: If z =a is a singularity of f(z) such that f(z) is analytic at each point in its
( )= ∫ ( ) neighbourhood (i.e. there exists a circle with centre a which has no other singularity 1, then
z =a is called an isolated singularity).

2. Removable Singularity: If all the negative powers of (z-a) in Laurent series are zero then
th th th
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f(z) = ∑ ( − ) 1.7: Laplace Transform


singularity can be removed by defining f(z) at z = a is such a way that it becomes analytic at
z =a 1.7.1 Introduction
→ ( ) exists finitely, then z = a is a removable singularity.
Laplace Transform (LT) is a method to get generalized frequency domain representation of a
Example: f(z) = , then z = 0 is a removable singularity. continuous time signal and is generalization of CTFT (Continuous Time Fourier Transform).

3. Essential singularity: If the numbers of negative power of (z-a) in Laurent’s series is infinite,
then z =a is called an essential singularity. Definition of Laplace Transform
→ ( ) does not exist in this case
ℒ[ ( )] = ( ) = ∫ . ( ) : One sided/ unilateral LT, where S = (σ + J ω)
4. Poles: If all the negative power of (z-a) in Laurent’s series after are missing then. The
singularity at z = a is called a pole of order n. ℒ[ ( )] = ( )= ∫ . ( ) : Two sided/ bilateral LT.
A pole of first order is called a “simple pole”.
1.7.2 Properties of Laplace transform
1.6.14 Residue Theorem
Frequency shift
If f(z) is analytic in and on a closed curve C except at a finite number of singular point within C
then
ℒ [e-at f(t) ] = F(s + a) and ℒ [eat f(t) ] = F(s - a)
∫ f(z)dz = 2 i (sum of the residue at the singular point within C)
Time shift
Calculation of Residues
ℒ [f(t – to)] = . F(s)
1. If f(x) has a simple pole at z=a , then
Res f(a) = → [( − ) ( )] Differentiation in Time domain
∅( )
2. If ( ) = where ø( ) = ( − ) ( ), ( ) ≠ 0 ܽ
ø( ) C
∅( ) ‫ܥ‬ ‫ܥ‬ ℒ[ ( ) ] = s F(s) – f(0) where f(0) is initial value of f(t).
Res ( ) = ܽ
ø( )
3. If ( ) has a pole of order n at z=a , then ‫ܥ‬ If initial conditions are zero (i.e. f(0) = 0),differentiating in time domain is equivalent to
‫ܥ‬
( )=( )!
[( − ) ( )] multiplying by s in frequency domain.
Here n =order of singularity
Similarly, ℒ [ ( )]= F(s) –s f(0) - ′(0) where ′(0) is the value of [ ( ) ] at t = 0
Note: If an analytic function has singularities at a finite number of points, then the sum of
residues at these points along with infinity is zero. Integration in Time domain
( )
ℒ ∫ ( ) = and ℒ ∫ ( ) = ( )+ ∫ ( )

Integration in time domain is equivalent to division by s in frequency domain, if f(t) = 0 for t < 0.

Differentiation in Frequency Domain

( )
ℒ [ t f(t) ] = and ℒ { ( )} = (−1) (F(s))

Differentiation in frequency domain is equal to multiplication by t in time domain.

Integration in Frequency Domain


( )
ℒ = ∫ ( )

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Integration in frequency domain is equal to division by t in time domain. 10. cos at. u(t) ( + )
11. sin hat. u(t) ( − )
12. cos hat. u(t) s
(s − a )
1.7.3 Initial Value Theorem 13. f (t) s.F(s)-f(o )
14. f (t) s . F(s) − s. f(o ) –f (o )
If f(t) and its derivative ( ) are Laplace transformable, then 15. ∫ f(u) du 1 F(s)
s
16. ∫ f(u)du F(s) + f (o ). where f (o ) = ∫ f(u)du
→ ( )= → ( )
17. f(t-a).u(t-a) e . F(s)
18. t . F(t) d
This theorem does not apply to the rational function F(s) in which the order of numerator (−1) . F(s)
polynomial is equal to or greater than the order of denominator polynomial. ds
19. f ta |a|. F(as)
1.7.4 Final Value Theorem 20. f(at) 1 s
F( ⁄a)
|a|
If f(t) and its derivative ′(t) are Laplace transformable, then 21. f (t) ∗ f (t)=∫ f (u). f (t − u)du F (s). F (s) where * is convolution operator
e ∝ . cos ω t (s+∝)
( )= ( ) ((s+∝) + ω )
→ →
For applying final value theorem, it is required that all the poles of ( ) be in the left half of ∝ ω
s- plane (strictly) i.e. poles on axis also not allowed. 22 e sin ωt ((s+∝) + ω )
23 . f(t) ∫ F(s)ds
24 √
1.7.5 Convolution theorem t
ℒ[ ( ). ( )] = ( ) ∗ ( ) 25 √
t
ℒ[ ( ) ∗ ( )] = ( ). ( )

1.7.6 Laplace Transform of the Periodic Function

If f(t) is periodic function with period T, then

ℒ( ( )) = ( . (s) where (s) = ∫ ( )


)

1.7.7 Laplace Transform of Standard Functions

Table. Laplace Transform of Standard Functions


S. No Function, f(t) Laplace transform of f(t), L{f(t) = F(s)
1. ( ) 1
2. u(t)
3. 1

4. u(t) 1
5. . ( ) 1
( − )
6. t.u(t) 1
7. . ( ) √
8. f(t). ( ) F(s-a)
9. sin at. u(t) ( + )

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Newton’s law of motion:


Part – 2: Engineering Mechanics
First Law: Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless
it is compelled to change that state by force acting on it.
Part 2.1: Statics
Second law: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the applied
2.1 Statics
force & it takes place in the direction in which the force acts.
Statics deals with system of forces that keeps a body in equilibrium. In other words the dv
resultants of force systems on the body are zero. F α m.
dt
Force: A force is completely defined only when the following four characters are specified.
Third law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
x Magnitude
Principle of transmissibility of force: The state of rest of motion of rigid body is unaltered if a
x Point of application force acting on a body is replaced by another force of the same magnitude and direction but
x Line of action acting anywhere on the body along
x Direction
the line of action of the replaced force.
Scalar and Vector: A quantity is said to be scalar if it is completely defined by its magnitude
alone. e.g. length, energy, work etc. A quantity is said to be vector if it is completely defined only
when its magnitude and direction is specified. e.g. force, acceleration. P

2.1.1 Equivalent force system A

Coplanar force system: If all the forces in the system lie in a single plane, it is called coplanar
force system. B

P
Concurrent force system: If line of action of all the forces in a system passes through a single
point it is called concurrent force system.
Parallelogram law of forces: If two forces acting simultaneously on a body at a point are
Collinear force system: In a system, all the forces parallel to each other, if line of action of all
represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram their
forces lie along a single line then it is called a collinear force system.
resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram which
passes through the point of intersection of the two sides representing the forces.
Force system Example
2.1.2 Equilibrium and Free body diagrams
Coplanar like parallel force Weight of stationary train on rail when the trackis
straight.
2.1.2.1 Coplanar Concurrent Forces
Coplanar concurrent Forces on a rod resting against wall.
Triangle law of forces: If two forces acting simultaneously on a body are represented by the sides
of triangle taken in order, then their resultant is represented by the closing side of the triangle
Coplanar non- concurrent force Forces on a ladder resting against a wall when a
taken in the opposite order.
person stands on a rung which is not at its center
of gravity.
Polygon law of forces:
P3 P2
Non- coplanar parallel The weight of benches in class room
P4 D
E
Non- coplanar concurrent force A tripod carrying camera P3
R2
Non- coplanar Non-concurrent force Forces acting on moving bus R R1 C
P1
P2
P4 A P B

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If a number of forces acting at a point be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of A ladder resting on smooth wall
a polygon in order, then the resultant of all these forces may be represented in magnitude and
direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in opposite order

P2 E D

ߠ
P1 ߠ
∝ ߠ A cantilever beam
A C
B

Resultant (R) = + +2
tan =
= angle between two forces, = inclination of resultant with force P1
When forces acting on a body are collinear, their resultant is equal to the algebraic sum of
the forces.
Lami’s theorem: (only three coplanar concurrent forces) If a body is in equilibrium under the
action of three forces, then each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other
two forces.
c

P2
P2 P1 J
ߛ
b
ߚ P3

P1
P3
a
ߚ A block on a ramp
P P P In a free body diagram all the contacts/supports are replaced by reaction forces which it will
= =
sinα sinβ sinγ exert on the structure. A mechanical system comprises of different types of contacts/supports.
Free body diagram: A free body diagram is a pictorial representation used to analyze the forces
Types of contacts/supports:
acting on a free body.
A free body diagram shows all contact and non-contact forces acting on the body. Following types of mechanical contacts can be found in various structures:
Sample Free body diagrams
x Flexible cable, belt, chain or rope
600N 600N
W R1 We Weight of cable negligible

Weight of cable not negligible


G

SMOOTH
Force exerted by the cable is always a tension away from the body in the direction of the
P cable.
P

SMOOTH
R2

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x Smooth surfaces A built-in or fixed end supports an axial force F, a transverse force V, and a bending moment M.

2.1.2.2 Coplanar Non-Concurrent Forces

Varignon’s theorem: The algebraic sum of the moments of a system of coplanar forces about a
Contact force is compressive and is normal to the surface. momentum center in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant forces about the same
moment center.
x Rough surfaces
B ‫܌‬૛

R
‫܌‬૚

‫۾‬૛

Rough surfaces are capable of supporting a tangential component F (frictional force as well
as a normal component N of the resultant R.
‫۾‬૚
A
x Roller support
R.d = P1.d1 + P2.d2

Effect of couple is unchanged if

x Couple is rotated through any angle.


x Couple is shifted to any position.
x The couple is replaced by another pair of forces whose rotated effect is the same.
Roller, rocker, or ball support transmits a compressive force normal to supporting surface.
Condition for body in Equilibrium:
x Freely sliding guide
x The algebraic sum of the components of the forces along each of the three mutually ⊥
direction is zero.
x The algebraic sum of the components of the moments acting on the body about each of
the three mutually perpendicular axes is zero.
Collar or slider support force is normal to guide only. There is no tangential force as surfaces
are considered to be smooth. When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant of all forces acting on it is zero. Thus, the resultant
force R and the resultant couple M are both zero, and we have the equilibrium equations
x Pin connection
R ¦F 0 & M= ¦ M=0

For collinear force system

∑ F = 0, ∑ F = 0 & ∑ F = 0
A freely hinged pin supports a force in any direction in the plane normal to the axis; usually
shown as two components Rx and Ry. A pin not free to turn also supports a couple M. For non-collinear force system

x Built in or fixed end ∑M = 0 ,∑M = 0 & ∑M = 0

These requirements are both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.

Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and
collinear in action. If a system is in equilibrium under the action of three forces, those three
forces must be concurrent.

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Types of Equilibrium: 2.1.4 Trusses and Frames


There are three types of equilibrium as defined below:
Trusses are commonly used for construction of roofs of workshop factories and bridges. The
Stable Equilibrium: A body is in stable equilibrium if it returns to its equilibrium position after it trusses are subjected to mainly three types of loads, viz, dead load, live load and wind load. The
has been displaced slightly. dead load is self weight of truss; live load is the load which is applied to the truss; e.g. the load
acting on a bridge truss due to the passing of a train, load acting on a workshop truss due to an
Unstable Equilibrium: A body is in unstable equilibrium if it does not return to its equilibrium
electric overhead, travelling crane, the wind load due to the high velocities of wind blowing in a
position and does not remain in the displaced position after it has been displaced slightly.
particular region.
Neutral Equilibrium: A body is in neutral equilibrium if it stays in the displaced position after if
has been displaced slightly. When the number of members m in a truss satisfies the condition,

m = 2j – 3

where j is the number of joints, then the truss is known as a perfect truss, otherwise imperfect.
The truss is called deficient or redundant, if m < (2j-3) or m > (2j – 3), respectively.

A pin jointed frame which has just sufficient number of members to resist the loads without
undergoing deformation in space is called perfect frame. If number of members in frame is less
than that that required for a perfect frame then it is called deficient frame. If number of
Stable Equilibrium Unstable Equilibrium Neutral Equilibrium members in frame is more than that required for perfect frame then it is called redundant frame.
A redundant frame is indeterminate.
2.1.3 Virtual Work
The following assumptions are made in solving trusses:
Work: When a force acts on a body and moves it through some distance in its own direction, then
work is said to be done. Thus, work may be defined as the product of the force and the distance 1. The members of truss are connected at the joints by friction less joints.
moved in the direction of the force. Mathematically, we can write that 2. The members of truss lie in a common plane (plane truss).
3. The loads are applied only on the pins connecting the members and that the lines of
Work = Force × distance
action of the loads lie in the plane of the truss.
4. The weight of members is negligible as compared to the applied loads.
U=F×S
5. The truss is rigid and that it does not deform or change its shape upon the application of
When the distance moved by the body is not in the direction of the force then to determine the the loads.
work done, the component of the force in the direction of the distance moved may be multiplied
with the distance moved. For example, if the force F is acting at an angle θ with the direction of The member of a truss may be in tension or compression. A member in tension is called a tie and
a member in compression a strut.
the distance S moved, then work done is given by
U = F cos θ × S Methods of Solution: Two methods are generally used for determining the forces in various
members of a truss. These methods are
Virtual Displacement: It may be defined as the infinitesimally small imaginary (or hypothetical or
virtual) displacement given to a body or to a system of bodies in equilibrium, consistent with the 1. Analytical methods
constraints. The virtual displacement may be either rectilinear or angular.
(a) Method of joints (concurrent force system).
Virtual Work: The product of the force F and the virtual displacement δs in the direction of the
force is called virtual work. (b) Method of sections (non-concurrent force system).
δU = F.δs 2. Graphical method

Principle of virtual Work Method of section is used when

It states that if a system of forces acting on a body or a system of bodies are in equilibrium and if x Large truss in which only few forces are required
the system is supposed to undergo a small virtual displacement consistent with its geometrical x Situation where method of joints fail.
constraints, the algebraic sum of the virtual work done by the system of forces is zero.
While determining the reactions at the supports, the following points should be remembered

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(a) At simply supported (i.e., pinned or roller support) support there can be only a vertical Part 2.2: Dynamics
reaction.
2.2 Dynamics
(b) At fixed support, the reaction can take an arbitrary direction.
A frame in which all the member lies in a single plane is called plane frame. While a frame in Dynamics can be divided into two main branches:
which all the member do not lie in a single plane is called space frame.
(a) Kinematics
2 4 4 (b) Kinetics

In kinematics, motion of particles or rigid bodies is studied without considering the forces that
3 produce or change this motion.
1
5
In kinetics, motion of particles or rigid bodies is studied with the unbalanced force system that
1 produces or changes this motion.
3
For perfect frame, m = (2j -3) 2
2.2.1 Kinematics of Rectilinear Motion

Motion with constant acceleration:

= +

= +2
For deficient frame, m < (2j -3)
= +

Where u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, s = distance of travel, t = time and a = acceleration

Motion of Bodies Projected vertically upwards


When a body is projected vertically upwards, it is under the effect of the downward acceleration
due to gravity, i.e., it moves with retardation. Its velocity, therefore, gradually decreases until it
becomes zero; the body is then for an instant at rest and immediately begins to fall with a
velocity which increases numerically but is negative. Thus, we get
= −
1
= −
2
v = u − 2gs
If there is only one force acting at joint, then for the equilibrium, this force should be equal zero.
The following important results can be deduced from these equations:
If there are two forces acting at a joint then, for the equilibrium, forces should act along the same Time to reach the highest point, =
straight line. The two forces should be equal and opposite. If the (only) two forces acting at a
joint are not along the same straight line, then for the equilibrium of the joint each force should Maximum height reached, =
be equal to zero.
Time for returning to the starting point time of flight =
If three forces act at a joint and two of them are along the some straight line then, for the
equilibrium of the joint, the third force should be equal to zero.
2.2.2 Kinematics of Curvilinear motion

Motion of projectile:


Maximum height (h) =

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∝ v = linear speed
Time required to reach maximum height (t) =


g = acceleration due to gravity
∴ time of flight =
Moment of momentum (angular momentum)of the whole body = Iω

Range (R) = Where I = mk , k being the radius of gyration.

∴ for maximum range, ∝ = 450 2.2.5 Impulse and Momentum

2.2.3 Kinetics of rectilinear motion From Newton’s second law of motion

D’ Alembert’s Principle Σ = =

It was pointed out first of all by D’Alembert that on the line of equation of static equilibrium, Or Σ =
equation of dynamic equilibrium can also be established by introducing inertia force in the
direction opposite to acceleration in addition to the real forces acting on the system. For a finite period of time, integrating, we get

According to Newton’s second law of motion, ∫ Σ =∫

F = ma where =
If Σ is constant, above equation may be integrated, giving

or + − =0 Σ = ⟶

Where ⟶ indicates vector difference of two momentum terms.


Now is the inertia force. Example represents the D’ Alembert’s principle, which may be
stated as follows: If the forces Σ are variable, they must be given as a function of time and should be similarly
integrated. Forces that cannot be expressed mathematically as a function of time may be plotted
When different forces act on a system such that it is in motion in a particular direction, the on a force-time curve, in which the area under the curve is equal to the left side of the equation.
algebraic sum of all the forces acting on the system in the direction of the motion, including the
inertia force taken in opposite direction to motion is zero. Thus in general Linear impulse of a force is defined as Ft and linear momentum is defined as mv. Thus, it may be
expressed as follows:
F − ma = 0
Ft = mv – mvo
Where = , , or
The resultant impulse of the external forces acting upon a body is equal to the change of
momentum of the body. Both impulse and momentum are vector quantities. The units of impulse
F − ma = 0
and momentum are Ns.

where ∑ indicates the sum of all forces acting on the body in the direction of motion. Conservation of Linear Momentum

2.2.4 Kinetics of Curvilinear Motion If the sum of the external forces acting on any system of mutually attracting and impinging
bodies resolved in any direction is always zero, the total momentum of the system in that
Central force motion direction remains constant during the motion.

Centrifugal force = = Let the two bodies have masses and with velocities and respectively, before coming
into contact with each other, and velocities ′ and ′ at the end of the period of contact. Then
Where r = radius of the path according to the conservation of linear momentum, we have

+ = + ′
= angular velocity

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Collision of Elastic Bodies 2.2.6 Work and Energy

If two bodies suddenly collide, an impulsive force, or impact, is set up between them. When the Work: If a force acts on a body and causes it to move some distance, work is said to be done by
direction of each body is along the common normal at the point where they touch, the impact is the force. Thus, work is a measure of accomplishment. Therefore, work done by a constant force
said to be direct. When the direction of motion of either or both, is not along the common normal is equal to the product of the force and the displacement of its point of application in the
at the point of contact, the impact is said to be oblique. If the pressure exerted on the surfaces of direction of the force. It is measured in Nm.
contact coincides with the line joining the mass centres of the bodies, the impact is central. If
such is not the case, it is eccentric. Energy: The capacity to do work is called energy. It is measured in N.m.

For a very short period of time after the two bodies come in contact, the mass centres continue Potential Energy: This is the energy which a body possesses because of its position.
to approach each other. This is known as the period of deformation. During this period the
intensity of the force between the surfaces increases. For an instant at the end of the period of Kinetic Energy: This is the energy which a body possesses because of its velocity.
deformation, the mass centres are moving with the same velocity. If the bodies are elastic, the
impulsive forces causes centres to begin separating and, after a second short interval, the Power: The rate of doing work is called power.
surfaces of the bodies are no longer in contact. This second short period is known as the period
is known as the period of restitution. Time of impact is the sum of the period of deformation and Work Done by a Force
period of restitution. The time of impact is very small. For this reason, the resultant impulse of
the external forces acting on the system during this time must be small and can be neglected. On The work done by a force is equal to the product of the force, F, and its displacement, s, provided
the bosis of this assumption, the sum of the momentum before impact is equal to the sum of the the force is constant and the displacement, of the body is in the same direction as the force.
momentum after impact, i.e, the conservation of momentum holds, thus for direct central impact,
we have Denoting work by , we have

+ + + ′ , = F.s

Coefficient of Restitution Relation between work and change of kinetic energy:

For direct central impact Newton verified experimentally that the relative velocity after impact Net work = change in kinetic energy
is in a constant ratio to the relative velocity before impact. If the bodies collide obliquely, the
same fact holds for their compound velocities along the common normal at the point of contact. , =∆
This ratio is known as the coefficient of restitution, and is denoted by e. Thus
Where represents kinetic energy. This equation represents the principle of work and energy..

= Power = (F cos ∝) v.
v is the velocity of the point where the force F is acting.
in which the proper sign of the four velocities must be included. ∝ is the angle between the directions of the force and the velocity.
If both are in the same direction then = . .
The value of e lies between zero and one. It is zero for perfectly inelastic bodies and one for
perfectly elastic bodies. One metric horse power = 735.5 watts

Conservation of Angular Momentum Work of the Elastic force: If a prismatic bar of area of cross section A, length and elastic constant
E is stretched then the work of elastic force can be calculated by treating it as a spring of
According to this principle, if a system of two rotating bodies are brought into contact for a short stiffness k.
time period, and no external torque is applied to the system during this time, the resultant
angular impulse on the system is zero. =

Suppose the two bodies have moments of inertia and and angular velocities Z and Z Principle of work and Energy:
repectively, before coming, into contact, and angular velocities Z ′ and Z ′ and the end of the
period of contact. Then the principle of conservation of angular momentum may be stated as Work energy principle: The work done by a force acting on a particle during its displacement is
equal to the change in kinetic energy of the particle during that displacement.
Z + Z = Z + Z ′
U =( − ) & are . . =

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= Net W.D. by the force for displacing a body from (1) to (2) W.D. by the springs ⟹ +ve ⟸ W.D. by the system (springs)
W.D. on the system ⟹ −ve. ⟸ W.D. on the system (springs)
=( − ) When spring is stretched W. D. by force is "–ve" ie work is done on the spring.
When the spring returns returns towards undeformed position W. D. is +ve(or)work is done by the spring.
W.D. by a force for displacing a body from (1) ⟶ (2) is positive (+ve) and from (1) ⟵ (2) is
negative (−ve). Work Done by a Couple or Torque

Principle of conservation of energy: states that the sum of the potential energy and the kinetic Let a couple Fr act on a body so that the body starts rotating. As the body rotates through a small
energy of a particle (or of a system of particles) remains constant during the motion under the angle d , the work done by the force is
action of conservative forces.
= Fds = Fr d
K. E. + P. E. = K. E. + P. E.
When the body rotates through the angle , the total work done is,
This principle cannot be applied where frictional force is involved.
=∫ d = =
Work of the gravity force:
Relation between Work and Kinetic Energy for Rotation
. .= =− ( ) is positive upwards
Consider a rigid body rotating about an axis 0 with an angular velocity w as shown in a Fig. The
is negative upwards. particle of mass dm in this body has a velocity v = rw normal to the radial line r.
=− ( − )
The kinetic energy of the particle is, as
=−

Force exerted by the spring is not a constant force but it varies linearly with the displacement
from the undeformed position.
W
U =− ( − ) U = ∫ du = − ∫ F. dx ࢊ࢓
′ − ′ sign indicates that Force and displacement are in opposite directions.

=− .
O

=−
2 Rigid body

If a particle of mass m is moving with velocity , it’s kinetic energy k.E is given by.
Therefore,
1
. .= = ( )
2

Let v and be the velocities of the particle at points 1 and 2 and the corresponding distance be ∴ =∫ ( ) = ∫
and .

mV = rotating about a fixed axis.


U = −
2 2
1 Where =∫ is the mass moment of inertia with respect to the axis of rotation.
= ( − )
2

(K. E. ) + (P. E. ) = (K. E. ) + (P. E. )

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When an axial member has distinct sections differing in cross-sectional area or composition,
Part – 3: Strength of Material superposition is used to calculate the total deformation as the sum of individual deformations.

Part 3.1: Simple Stress and Strain PL L


G ¦ AE P¦
AE

3.1.1 Simple Stress & Strain When one of the variables (e.g., A), varies continuously along the length,

Stress is the internal resistance offered by the body per unit area. Stress is represented as force PdL dL
G ³ P³
per unit area. Typical units of stress are N/m2, ksi and MPa. There are two primary types of AE AE
stresses: normal stress and shear stress. Normal stress,V, is calculated when the force is normal
to the surface area; whereas the shear stress, W is calculated when the force is parallel to the The new length of the member including the deformation is given by
surface area.
Lf L G
Pnormal _to _area
V
A The algebraic deformation must be observed.

Pparallel _ to _ area Hooke’s law may also be applied to a plane element in pure shear. For such an element, the shear
W stress is linearly related to the shear strain, by the shear modulus (also known as the modulus of
A rigidity), G.
Linear strain (normal strain, longitudinal strain, axial strain), H, is a change in length per unit
W GJ
length. Linear strain has no units. Shear strain, J is an angular deformation resulting from shear
stress. Shear strain may be presented in units of radians, percent, or no units at all.
The relationship between shearing deformation, Gs and applied shearing force, V is then
G expressed by
H
L VL
Gs
AG
G parallel _ to _ area
J tan T | T [T in radians]
Height 3.1.3 Stress-Strain Diagram

3.1.2 Hooke’s Law: Axial and Shearing Deformations Actual rupture


strength
Hooke‘s law is a simple mathematical relationship between elastic stress and strain: stress is Stress Ultimate strength
proportional to strain. For normal stress, the constant of proportionality is the modulus of
=
elasticity (Young’s Modulus), E.
Rupture
strength
V EH
Yield point
The deformation, G, of an axially loaded member of original length L can be derived from Hooke’s
law. Tension loading is considered to be positive, compressive loading is negative. The sign of
the deformation will be the same as the sign of the loading. Elastic limit
Proportional limit
§V· PL
G LH L¨ ¸
©E¹ AE

This expression for axial deformation assumes that the linear strain is proportional to the
normal stress H V 0
E and that the cross-sectional area is constant. =

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Proportional Limit: It is the point on the stress strain curve up to which stress is proportional to 1
strain. Hz
E
>
Vz  Q Vx  Vy @
Elastic Limit: It is the point on the stress strain curve up to which material will return to its W xy
original shape when unloaded. J xy
G
Yield Point: It is the point on the stress strain curve at which there is an appreciable elongation
or yielding of the material without any corresponding increase of load; indeed the load actually W yz
may decrease while the yielding occurs. J yz
G
Ultimate Strength: It is the highest ordinate on the stress strain curve.
W zx
J zx
Rupture Strength: It is the stress at failure G
For an elastic isotropic material, the modulus of elasticity E, shear modulus G, and Poisson’s
3.1.4 Poisson’s Ratio: Biaxial and Triaxial Deformations ratio Q are related by

Poisson’s ratio, Q, is a constant that relates the lateral strain to the axial strain for axially loaded E
members. G
2 1 Q
H lateral
Q  E 2G 1 Q
H axial
The bulk modulus (K) describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object's volume to
Theoretically, Poisson’s ratio could vary from 0 to 0.5, but typical values are 0.33 for aluminum deform when under pressure; it is defined as volumetric stress over volumetric strain, and is the
and 0.3 for steel and maximum value of 0.5 for rubber. inverse of compressibility. The bulk modulus is an extension of Young's modulus to three
dimensions.
Poisson’s ratio permits us to extend Hooke’s law of uniaxial stress to the case of biaxial stress.
Thus if an element is subjected simultaneously to tensile stresses in x and y direction, the strain For an elastic, isotropic material, the modulus of elasticity E, bulk modulus K, and Poisson’s ratio
in the x direction due to tensile stress Vx is Vx/E. Simultaneously the tensile stress Vy will Q are related by
produce lateral contraction in the x direction of the amount QVy/E, so the resultant unit
deformation or strain in the x direction will be E 3K 1  2Q

Vx Vy 3.1.5 Thermal stresses


Hx Q
E E
Temperature causes bodies to expand or contract. Change in length due to increase in
Similarly, the total strain in the y direction is temperature can be expressed as

Vy Vx ΔL = L.α.'t
Hy Q
E E
Where, L is the length, α (/oC) is the coefficient of linear expansion, and 't (oC) is the
Hooke’s law can be further extended for three-dimensional stress-strain relationships and temperature change.
written in terms of the three elastic constants, E, G, and Q. The following equations can be used to
find the strains caused due to simultaneous action of triaxial tensile stresses: From the above equation thermal strain can be expressed as:

1 ϵ= = α't
Hx
E
>
Vx  Q Vy  Vz @
If a temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely no load or the stress will be induced in
1 the structure. But in some cases it is not possible to permit these temperature deformations,
Hy
E
>
V y  Q V z  V x @ which results in creation of internal forces that resist them. The stresses caused by these
internal forces are known as thermal stresses.

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When the temperature deformation is prevented, thermal stress developed due to temperature Spherical shells
change can be given as:

σ = E.α.'t

3.1.6 Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Cylindrical shells

2
¦F x 0 : V 2 (2S rt )  p(2S r ) 0

pr
V1 V 2
Hoop stress = longitudinal stress = 2t

¦F z 0 : V1 (2t 'x)  p(2r'x) 0

Hoop stress or circumferential stress = pr/t = pd/2t

2
¦F x 0 : V 2 (2S rt )  p(2S r ) 0

Longitudinal stress = pr/2t = pd/4t

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Part 3.2: Shear Force and Bending Moment 3.2.2 Shear Force and Bending Moment Relationships

The change in magnitude of the shear at any point is equal to the integral of the load function,
w(x), or the area under the load diagram up to that point.
3.2.1 Shear and Moment
x2

The shear force, V at a section of a beam is the sum of all vertical forces acting on the beam V2  V1 ³ w x dx
between that section and any one of its ends. It has units of Newtons, pounds, kips, etc. Shear x1
force is not the same as shear stress, since the area of the object is not considered.
dV x
The direction (i.e., to the left or right of the section) in which the summation proceeds is not w x
dx
important. Since the values of shear will differ only in sign for summation to the left and right
ends, the direction that results in the minimum no. of calculations should be selected. The change in magnitude of the moment at any point is equal to the integral of the shear
function, or the area under the shear diagram up to that point.
V ¦F i
ª sec tion _ to º x2
«¬ one _ end »¼
M 2  M1 ³V x dx
x1
Shear is positive when there is a net upward force to the left of a section, and it is negative when
there is a net downward force to the left of the section.
dM x
V x
dx

3.2.3 Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

Both shear force and bending moment can be described mathematically for simple loadings by
the preceding equations, but the formulas become discontinuous as the loadings become more
complex. It is more convenient to describe complex shear and moment functions graphically.
Graphs of shear and moment as functions of position along the beam are known as shear force
and bending moment diagrams.
Shear force sign conventions
The following guidelines and conventions should be observed when constructing a shear
The bending moment, M, at a section of a beam is the algebraic sum of all moments and couples diagram.
located between the section and any one of its ends.
x The shear at any section is equal to the sum of the loads and reactions from the section to
M ¦F d i i  ¦C i the left end.
ªsec tion _ to º ªsec tion _ to º
«¬ one _ end »¼ «¬ one _ end »¼ x The magnitude of the shear at any section is equal to the slope of the moment function at
that section.
Bending moments in a beam are positive when the upper surface of the beam is in compression x Loads and reactions to the left of the section acting upward are positive
and the lower surface is in tension. Positive moments cause lengthening of the lower surface and x The shear diagram is straight and sloping for uniformly distributed loads.
shortening of the upper surface. A useful image with which to remember this convention is to x The shear diagram is straight and horizontal between concentrated loads.
imagine the beam “smiling” when the moment is positive. x The shear is undefined at points of concentrated loads.

The following guidelines and conventions should be observed when constructing a bending
moment diagram. By convention, the moment diagram is drawn on the compression side of the
beam.

x The moment at any section is equal to the sum of the moments and couples from the
section to the left end.
x The change in magnitude of the moment at any section is the integral of the shear
diagram, or the area under the shear diagram. A concentrated moment will produce a
Bending moment sign conventions jump or discontinuity in the moment diagram.
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x The maximum or minimum moment occurs when the shear is either zero or changes its Part 3.3: Stresses in Beams
sign.
x The moment diagram is parabolic and is curved downward for downward uniformly 3.3.1 Bending Stress
distributed loads.
For positive bending moment, the lower surface of the beam experiences tensile stress while the
Note: upper surface of the beam experiences compressive stress. The bending stress distribution
passes through zero at the centroid, or neutral axis, of the cross section. The distance from the
¾ If the external load is not at right angles to the axis of the beam, the loading can be resolved neutral axis is y; and the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber (i.e., the top or
axially and transversely to the beam bottom surface most distant from the neutral axis) is c.

Bending stress varies with location (depth) within the beam. It is zero at the neutral axis, and
increases linearly with distance from the neutral axis, as predicted by Equation,
I
My
Vb 
I
Transverse: Components (sin ∅) produces B.M. and S.F.

Axial: Component (cos ∅) produces pull or push

¾ If there is any internal hinge in beam , bending moment will be zero at hinge point.
Variation of S.F. and B.M. for different loadings on spans of beams:

S.No. Type of loading Variation of S.F. Variation of B.M.


1 Point load Rectangle Inclined line for linear
2 U.D.L. Linear Square Parabola
3 U.V.L. or Triangular Parabolic Cubic Parabola
4 Parabolic Cubic Fourth degree polynomial Figure. Bending Stress Distribution at a Section in a Beam
5 Bending couple No shear variation A vertical step at the point of
application In the above equation, I is the centroidal area moment of inertia of the beam. The negative sign
in the equation, required by the convention that compression is negative, is commonly omitted.

Since the maximum stress will govern the design, y can be set equal to c to obtain the extreme
fiber stress.

Mc
V b,max 
I

This equation shows that the maximum bending stress will occur at the section where the
moment is maximum. For standard structural shapes, I and c are fixed. Therefore, for design, the
elastic section modulus S, is often used.

I
S 
c

M
Vb
S

For a rectangular b x h section, the centroidal moment of inertia and section modulus are

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bh3 bh 2 QV
I Srec tan gular W xy
12 6 Ib

Also, the strain in any fiber varies directly with its location y from the neutral axis and can be
found by the equation

y Vb y
Hb  Or, 
R E R

The above mentioned bending stress eqn. is based on following assumptions:

x The transverse sections which are plane and normal before bending remain plane and
normal to the longitudinal fibres after bending (Bernoulli’s Assumption).
Figure: Dimensions for Shear stress Calculations
x Material is homogeneous, isotropic and obeys Hook’s Law and limits of eccentricity are not
exceeded.
In the above equation, I is the area moment of inertia, and b is the width or thickness of the beam
x Every layer is free to expand or contract. at the depth y within the beam where the shear stress is to be found. The first (or statical)
x Modulus of elasticity has same value for tension and compression. moment of the area of the beam with respect to the neutral axis, Q, is defined by,
x The beam is subjected to pure bending and therefore bends in an arc of a circle.
c
x Radius of curvature is large compared to the dimensions of the cross section. Q ³ ydA
y1
Points to remember:
For rectangular beams, dA = bdy. Then, the moment of the area A’ above 1ayer y is equa1 to the
Pure Bending: Only B.M. but no S.F. product of the area and the distance from the centroidal axis to the centroid of the area.

Neutral Layer: The layer which does not undergo any change in length (N.A.)
Q y ' A'
Neutral axis: Line of intersection of Neutral Layer with plane of cross section. It passes through
C.G. of cross section. At this axis the strain changes its sign. For a rectangular beam, the equation for Wmax, can be simplified. The maximum shear stress is 50
percent higher than the average shear stress.
Equation of Pure Bending:
3V 3V
W max, rec tan gular 1.5W avg
M/I=V/y=E/R 2A 2bh
Curvature = (1/ R) = (M / EI), EI = Flexural rigidity For a beam with a circular cross section, the maximum shear stress is

Section Modulus ( S = I/c):: It represents the strength of the section. Greater the value of ‘S’, 4V 4V 4
stronger will be the section. Wmax,circular Wavg
3A 3Sr 2 3
3.3.2 Shear Stress
For a steel beam with web thickness tweb and depth d, the web shear stress is approximated by
The shear stresses in a vertical section of a beam consist of both horizontal and transverse
(vertical) shear stresses.
V V
W avg
Aweb dtweb
The exact value of shear stress is dependent on the location, y, within the depth of the beam. The
shear stress distribution is given by equation shown below. The shear stress is zero at the top
and bottom surfaces of the beam. For a regular shaped beam, the shear stress is maximum at the
neutral axis

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Part 3.4: Deflection of Beams

3.4.1 Double Integration Method

The curvature of a beam caused by a bending moment is given by Eq. (1), where U is the radius
of curvature, c is the largest distance from the neutral axis of the beam, and Hmax is the maximum
longitudinal normal strain in the beam.
Figure. Dimensions of a Steel Beam
1 H max M d2y dT
------- (1)
U c EI dx 2 dx
3.3.3 Composite Beams
c ------- (2)
H max
A composite structure is one in which two or more different materials are used. Each material U
carries part of the applied load. Examples of composite structure include steel-reinforced
concrete and timber beams with bolted-on steel plates. Using the preceding relationships, the deflection and slope of a loaded beam are related to the
moment M(x), shear V(x), and load w(x) by Eqs. (3) through (7).
Most simple composite structures can be analyzed using the method of consistent deformations,
also known as the transformation method. This method assumes that the strains are the same in y deflection ------- (3)
both materials at the interface between them. Although the strains are the same, the stresses in
the two adjacent materials are not equal, since stresses are proportional to the modulus of dy
elasticity. y' slope ------- (4)
dx
The transformation method starts by determining the modulus of elasticity for each (usually two
in number) of the materials in the composite beam and then calculating the modular ratio, n. d2 y M x
y'' ------- (5)
Eweaker is the smaller modulus of elasticity. dx2 EI

E d3 y V x
n y''' ------- (6)
E wea ker dx3 EI

The area of the stronger material is increased by a factor of n. The transformed area is used to d4 y w x
calculate the transformed composite area, Ac,t , or transformed moment of inertia, Ic,t. For y'''' ------- (7)
dx 4 EI
compression and tension members, the stresses in the weaker and stronger materials are
If the moment function, M(x), is known for a section of the beam, the deflection at any point on
F that section can be found from Eq. (8). The constants of integration are determined from the
V wea ker
Ac,t beam boundary conditions in the table shown below.

nF EIy ³³ M x dx ------- (8)


V stronger
Ac,t
Table. Beam Boundary Conditions
For beams in bending, the bending stresses in the weaker and stronger materials are
End condition y y’ y’’ V M
Mcwea ker
V wea ker Simple Support 0 0
I c ,t
Built-in Support 0 0
nMcstronger
V stronger Free end 0 0 0
I c,t
Hinge 0

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When multiple loads act simultaneously on a beam, all of the loads contribute to deflection. The A = B.M.D area between fixed end and point under consideration.
principle of superposition permits the deflections at a point to be calculated as the sum of the = distance of C.G. of M/EI
deflections from each individual load acting individually. Superposition can also be used to from point under consideration.
calculate the shear and moment at a point and to draw the shear and moment diagrams. This
principle is valid as long as the normal stress and strain are related by the modulus of elasticity,
E. Generally this is true when the deflections are not excessive and all stresses are kept below 3.4.3 Maxwell’s Law of Reciprocal Deflections:
the yield point of the beam material.
Consider cantilever beam AB. Let ‘C’ be an intermediate point. Then the deflection at ‘C’ due to a
Points to be remembered point load ‘P’ at B say , is equal to deflection at ‘B’ due to a point load ‘P’ at C i.e.,

x Curvature = = = - - - - - for -ve B.M B


A C
x EI / =−M - - - - - for + ve B.M ∴ =
x Slope θ = dy / dx radians EIθ = EI. dy / dx = ∫
x Deflection = y, EIy = ∫ ∫ 3.4.4 Slope and deflection of beams
x EI y / = − dM / dx = Shear force +F
x EI y / = dF / dx = Load + Z SL No. 1: Cantilever subjected to point load at free end

3.4.2 Area Moment Method W


B
Theorem 1: The angle between tangents drawn at any two points on the deflected curve is equal A
to the area of M / EI diagram between the two points.

i.e., θ = area of M / EI diagram.

=∫ / = / . A = area of B.M.D.

Theorem 2: The intercept on a vertical line made by two tangents drawn at the two points on the
deflected curve, is equal to the moment of M / EI diagram between the two points about the
vertical line.
= = distance of C.G. of B.M.D. Maximum Bending Moment =−
e.g,: (Suitable for cantilevers) – from objective point of view.
Slope = −
Step 1: To determine slope and deflection at any point say B.
Maximum Deflection = −
A L B
SL No. 2: Cantilever subjected to point load on its span

= x xL= , = x xLx = W
a b
Step 2: Draw (BMD) / (EI) i.e., M / EI C B
Step 3: Slope = area of (M / EI) diagram between fixed end point under consideration. A
Step 4: Deflection A / EI,
M
L B
A
L
= , = xLx =
2 2

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Maximum Bending Moment =− Slope = =− = − where W =

Slope =−
Maximum Deflection = − + ( − ) =− + ( −

Maximum Deflection = − (3 − ) SL No. 5 Cantilever subjected to uniformly distributed load up to a certain length from free end

w/unit run
SL No. 3: Cantilever subjected to uniformly distributed load.
a ( − )
B
w/unit run A

B
A

Maximum Bending Moment = − ( − ) +

Slope = − ( − )

Maximum Bending Moment = − =− where W = (total load on the cantilever) Maximum Deflection = − (3 −4 + )

Slope = − SL No. 6 Cantilever subjected to a couple at free end

Maximum Deflection = − B
A
SL No. 4 Cantilever subjected to uniformly distributed load up to a certain length from fixed end

w/unit run

C B Maximum Bending Moment =−


A
-
Slope =−
a

Maximum Deflection = −

Maximum Bending Moment = −

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SL No.7 Cantilever subjected to linearly varying load up to a certain length SL No.9 Simply supported beam subjected to point load on its span
W

/ run

A B
B
A

Maximum Bending Moment =

Slope =−

Maximum Bending Moment = − = +

/
Slope =−
Maximum Deflection =−

Maximum Deflection = −
=
SL No. 8 Simply supported beam subjected to point load at centre.

= −

W SL No. 10 simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load

/ / w/unit run
C
A B
B
A

Maximum Bending Moment =

Slope =−
Maximum Bending Moment = = where W = ( total load on the beam )
= +
Slope =− =−
Maximum Deflection (= )=−
= + =+

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Maximum Deflection = − =− Slope = −

SL No.11 Simply supported beam with linearly varying load as shown = +

w/unit run Maximum Deflection (= )=−

Sign conventions used : Slope: Clockwise −

B Counter- clockwise +
A
C
Deflection : upwards +

Downward −

Maximum Bending Moment =


Slope = −

= +


Maximum Deflection = −

( at x = 0∙519 from A )

SL No. 12 simply supported beam with linearly varying loads as shown

w/unit run

A B

Maximum Bending Moment =

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Part3.5: Torsion 2. Torsion is uniform along the shaft


3. Material of the shaft is homogeneous, and isotropic.
3.5.1 Torsion 4. Radii remain straight after torsion.
5. Stress is proportional to strain i.e., all the stresses are with in elastic limit.
If moment is applied in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam (or) shaft, it
will be subjected to Torsion. Note:

e.g.: x The stress setup at any point in a cross section is one of pure shear or simple shear.
x The longitudinal axis is neutral axis.
x Shaft Transmitting Torque or power. x The shear stress will vary linearly from zero at the centre to maximum at the outer surface
x L beams (any point on periphery)
x Portico beams
x Curved beams
x Close coiled springs.

Torsion formula:

= = Distribution along vertical


T

Torsional Section Modulus:


= = :
T ℎ
x As the value of Torsional modulus increases, the Torsional strength increases. For E.g.: A
hollow circular shaft compared to that of a solid shaft of same area, will have more
torsional strength.

T = =

Where T = Torque applied For a solid circular shaft, =

T = Twist of cross section ( )


For a hollow circular shaft, =
= Maximum shear stress due to torsion
= Outer diameter, = inner diameter.
R = Radius of shaft
Torsional Rigidity: GJ, unit: kg. or
L = Length of shaft
The torsional which produces unit twist per unit length.
J = Polar moment of inertia = for solid circular shaft
Angle of Twist, =

= for Hollow circular shaft 3.5.2 Torsion of shafts

Assumptions: Power Transmitted by a Shaft:

1. Plane normal sections of shaft remain plane after twisting. In SI system : Power (P) is measured in watts (W)
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= where T = Average Torque in kN-m, N in rpm If the Torque ‘T’ is applied at the junction of two shafts and resisting Torque at their remote
ends, the shafts are said to be connected in parallel.
For such a case,
= . . 1 watt = 1 Joule / sec = 1 N. m/sec
x = ;
x T= +
1 metric ‘H.P.’ = 746 watts ≅ 0.75 kW
. ., = =
Metric System = H.P. If both the shafts are of same material

Where T = average torque in kg.m = . =


( + )
Design of Shaft: To be safe against maximum permissible shear stress.
Combined Bending and Torsion:
/
Diameter of shaft, =
Let a shaft be subjected to a bending moment of ‘M’ and twisting moment ‘T’ at a sector.
Composite Shafts: When two dissimilar shafts are connected together to form one shaft, the shaft
is known as composite shaft. Now bending stress, = =
Shafts in Series: If the driving torque is applied at one end, and the resisting torque at the other
end, the shafts are said to have been connected in series. Shear stress, = =

Principle stresses are,

16
( ) = + ( /4) + = ( + + )
2
T ( )
16
= − ( /4) + = ( − + )
2
2 − 16
2 = = = = +
2

Equivalent Torque: It is the twisting moment, which acting along produce the maximum shear
For such shaft, stress due to combined bending and Torsion.
x Both the parts carry same Torque i.e., =
x Total angle of twist at fixed end is sum of separate angles of twist of two shafts. = +
= + = + Equivalent Bending Moment: The bending moment to produce the maximum bending stress
equal to greater principle stress ‘ ’.
Shafts in Parallel:
1
= ( + + )
2

Comparison of Hollow and Solid Shafts:


OR
x When the areas of solid and hollow sections are equal,
=( ) /
ℎ = / ℎ ℎ .

For e.g. If K = 0.6, = 1.7

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x When radius of solid shaft is equal to external radius of hollow shaft, Part 3.6: Mohr’s circle
=1−
3.6.1 Mohr’s Circle
x The ratio of the weight of a hollow shaft, and solid shaft of equally strength is
1− Mohr's circle gives us a graphic tool by which, we can compare the different stress
=
(1 − ) / transformation states of a stress cube to a circle. Each different stress combination is described
by a point around the circumference of the circle.

Compare the stress cube to a circle created using the circle offset
3.5.3 Close coiled helical spring subjected to Axial Pull (W)
2
Assumptions: V x V y § V x V y · 2
a Ÿ V ave and R ¨ ¸  W xy
2y © 2 ¹
x each turn is practically a plane at right angles to the axis of helix
x stresses in the material are due to ‘Pure Torsion’ σy
x Bending couple is negligible
x axial force need not be considered at a section.
τyx

τxy x-face coordinate: ( V x ,W xy )


Stresses at a section of a rod: A section of a rod is subjected to direct shear force (W) and a σx
Torque (T = WR) σx
τxy
Maximum Shear Stress = ( )= + x
τyx y-face coordinates: ( V y , W xy )
= + = 1+ …… (1) σy
-τ y 2
R = Radius of coil, d = dia of circular wire or rod.
§ V x V y · 2
R ¨ ¸  W xy
B © 2 ¹
(σx , -τxy )

Spring Index: (m) 2R/d, σ

If m is large, the effect of direct shearing force may be neglected.


V x V y
(σx , τxy ) 2
16 A
∴ = σave
W xy
+τ R
If m is small, then maximum shear stress can be calculated by A.M. Wahl’s formulae that takes x
account for initial curvature of the spring wire:
.
Max. = + Notes:

Twist and deflection of free end: x +τ (meaning counterclockwise around the cube) is downward
x - τ (meaning clockwise around the cube) is up on the axis
Twist = 64 / , deflection = x A rotation angle of θ on the stress cube shows up as 2θ on the circle diagram and rotates in
the same direction. The largest and smallest values of σ are the principle stresses, σ 1 and σ2.
The largest shear stress, τmax is equal to the radius of the circle, R. The center of the circle is
Stiffness of Spring: Load required to produce unit deflection. = / = /64
located at the value of the average stress, σave
x If σ1 =σ2 in magnitude and direction (nature) the Mohr circle will reduce into a point and
no shear stress will be developed.

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x If the plane contain only shear and no normal stress (pure shear), then origin and centre of
the circle will coincide and maximum and minimum principal stress equal and opposite.
=
4
σ1=+ τ , σ2= -τ
( ) = =
x The summation of normal stresses on any two mutually perpendicular planes remains 2 8
constant.
Spherical shells:
σx + σy = σ1 +σ2
Hoop stress = longitudinal stress = σ = σ =

3.6.2 Applications: Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Cylindrical shells:

Hoop stress or circumferential stress = =

Longitudinal stress = =

σ pd
τ = =
2 8t

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Part 3.7: Strain Energy Methods 3.7.3 Elastic Strain Energy in Torsional Loading

3.7.1 Elastic Strain Energy in Uniaxial Loading For a circular bar of constant cross section, the strain energy stored in the body is equal to the
product of average torque and the angular deformation; that is
Strain energy, also known as internal energy per unit volume stored in a deformed material. The
strain energy is equivalent to the work done by the applied force. Simple work is calculated as U = 1/2 TT = T =
the product of a force moving through a distance.
When the torque varies the result may be applied over a segment of length dx and integrated
Work = force x distance = FdL ³ over the length of the bar to obtain

FdL T dx
Work per volume = =
³ AL ³ VdH U=
2GJ
Work per unit volume corresponds to the area under the stress-strain curve.
3.7.4 Castigliano’s Theorem
For an axially loaded member below the proportionality limit, the total strain energy is given by,
It states that the deflection caused by any external force is equal to the partial derivative of the
strain energy with respect to that force.
1 P2 L
U PG
2 2 AE ∂U
δ=
∂P
The strain energy per unit volume is
Interpretation: The partial derivative of the strain energy with respect to one of the external
U V2 loads equals the displacement of the point of application of load in the direction of that load.
u
AL 2E
3.7.5 Impact or Dynamic Loading
3.7.2 Elastic Strain Energy in Flexural Loading
The problem of impact is analogous to that of a falling body stopped by spring. Let us consider a
In the beam shown in the figure consider a differential element isolated by two transverse free falling body of mass ‘m’ from a height h that produces a deflection G in the spring.
Relationship between dynamic and static deflection can be obtained by equating the resultant
sections at a distance dx apart. Treating this element as an axially loaded bar, where P = VdA =
work done to the zero change in kinetic energy.
(My/I)dA, the energy stored in it is
The ratio of the maximum dynamic deformation G to the static deformation Gst can be given by
the equation

N.A. δ 2h
=1+ 1+
y δ δ
P

dx This ratio is called as the impact factor.

dU = P2dx/2AE = M2y2/ (dA)2 dx/2(dA)E Also the stress due to gradually applied load may be applied by the impact factor to obtain the
maximum stress:
dU = y dA =
σ =σ 1+ 1+
Therefore, for the entire length of the beam we obtain:
For sudden loading, free fall ‘h’ does not exist i.e., h = 0. i.e., a suddenly applied load (dynamic
M dx condition), produced a deflection which is twice as great as that obtained when the load is
U= applied gradually.
2EI

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3.8: Columns & Struts 3.8.2 Euler’s Theory of Buckling

3.8.1 Columns & Struts Critical load: The load at which a long column fails is known as the critical load or Euler load. The
Euler load is the theoretical maximum load that an initially straight column can support without
Definitions: transverse buckling. For column with frictionless or pinned ends, this load is given by Euler’s
formula shown below.
x Columns and Stanchions : Vertical compression members in building
x Struts : compressions members in roof trusses S2 EI
x Beam : Jib of a crane. Pcr --------- (1)
L2
x Beam column : Co-beam that is acted on by an axial compressive
force in addition to transversely applied loads. The corresponding column stress is given by the equation shown below. This stress cannot
exceed the yield strength of the column material.
Short Column: Short columns, called piers or pedestals, will fail by compression of the material.
These columns fail essentially by direct crushing at ultimate load. Pcr S2 E
V cr 2
≤ --------- (2)
∴ Crushing load P = f . A, f = ultimate crushing stress. A §L·
¨ ¸
©r¹
Long columns: Long columns will buckle in the transverse direction that has the smallest radius
of gyration. Buckling failure is sudden, often without significant warning. If the material is wood L is the longest unbraced column length. If a column is braced against buckling at some point
or concrete, the material will usually fracture (because the yield stress is low); however, if the between its two ends, the column is known as a braced column, and L will be less than the full
column is made of steel, the column will usually fail by local buckling, followed later by twisting column height.
and general yielding failure. Intermediate length columns will usually fail by a combination of
crushing and buckling. The quantity L/r is known as the slenderness ratio. Long columns have high slenderness ratios.
The smallest slenderness ratio for which Eq. (2) is valid is the critical slenderness ratio, which
Radius of gyration: r = I/A can be calculated from the material’s yield strength and modulus of elasticity. Typical
slenderness ratios range from 80 to 120. The critical slenderness ratio becomes smaller as the
Slenderness Ratio: Effective length/least radius of gyration. compressive yield strength increases.

As slenderness ratio increases, permissible stress or critical stress reduces, consequently, load Most columns have two radii of gyration, rx and ry, and therefore, have two slenderness ratios.
carrying capacity also reduces. The largest slenderness ratio will govern the design.

x Radius of gyration will be least along major axis of cross section. The smallest force at which a buckled shape is possible. Prior to this load the column remains
e.g. for a rectangular column along yy−axis straight. The columns buckle in the plane of the major axis of the cross section as shown below.
Y
Y

X X X X
X

Y
x For a given area, Tubular section will have maximum radius of gyration.
x H-Section is more efficient than I-Section.

Equilibrium of a column: A column is said to have buckled or failed when it reaches “Neutral
Equilibrium”.

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Assumptions: 2L π EI/4L
6. One end pinned, at
1. Column is initially perfectly straight and is axially loaded. other only lateral
L
2. Section of column is uniform. displacement no
3. The material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous, isotropic and obeys hook’s law. rotation
4. Length of column is very large compared to lateral dimension.
5. Direct stress is small compared to bending stress corresponding to buckling condition.
6. Self weight of column is ignorable. 1.5L π EI/2.5L
7. The column will fail by buckling alone. 7. One end fixed, at
other end lateral
Effective length of columns: L
displacement and
partial rotation.
Effective length and critical loads for various boundary conditions compared to a column whose
both ends are hinged.

L = Eff. Length I = actual length Limitations of Euler’s formula:


Boundary Condition Eff. Length (L) Critical load
L π EI/L Euler’s formula can also be written as σ = π E/(L/r)
1. Both ends hinged
L
As V and E are constant for a particular material, Euler’s formula is valid for a particular range of
slenderness ratio, for e.g. for mild steel whose V = 3300 Kg/cm and E = 2.1 × 10 Kg/cm
L/2 4 π EI/L Euler formula is not valid for slenderness ratio less than 80.
2. Both ends fixed
L Euler’s formula is valid only up to proportional limit i.e., in inelastic zone, the formulae are not
valid

L/√2 2 π EI/L Note:


3. One end fixed and
other hinged i) The relation between slenderness ratio and corresponding critical stress is
L hyperbolic
ii) According to Euler formulae the critical load does not depend upon strength
property of material the only material property involved is the elastic modules ‘E’
which physically represents the stiffness characteristics of the material.
2L π EI/4L
4. One end fixed and 3.8.3 Rankine’s formula
other end free
L x It is empirical formula
x Takes into account both direct crushing (Pc) load and Euler critical load (P ).
1 1 1
i. e. , = +
P P P
L π EI/L P .P
5. One end fixed, at ∴ P =
P +P
other end only lateral
L
displacement and no
Basic Formula:
rotation .
P = ( / )
Where α = Rankine’s constant
L = eff. Length
σ = yield stress.
Rankine’s Co-efficient: is independent of geometry and end conditions, can be modified to
incorporate imperfections

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σ
α= Part – 4: Thermodynamics
π E

Material σ Rankine’s Constant Part 4.1: Basic Thermodynamics

4.1.1 Thermodynamic systems


Mild steel 3200 1/7500
Wrought Iron 2500 1/9000 Thermodynamic system is a quantity of matter or region in space considered for the analysis of a
Cast Iron 5500 1/1600
problem.
x Rankine’s formula is valid for any type of column Surroundings: Everything external to the system.
x No limitations for slenderness ratio.
Boundary: It separates system and surroundings

Boundary

System

Surroundings

Classification of system:

Open system: Both energy and mass can transfer across the boundary e.g., Steam turbine,
centrifugal pump.

Energy in

Mass out
Mass in

Energy out

Closed system: Energy transfer occurs across the boundary. No mass transfer across the
boundary

Energy out

Energy in

e.g. Gas compressed in a piston-cylinder assembly

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Cylinder
W
Gas
Piston All are in
1
thermodynamic
Q Thermal conductor equilibrium
P
Isolated system: Neither mass nor energy transfers across the boundary e.g. Universe
2
Mass Transfer
X Thermodynamic processes (non-flow V processes):
Energy a) Constant pressure or Isobaric process:
Transfer
X

Thermodynamic property: Any characteristic of a system by which its physical condition can be
described, eg. Pressure, temperature, volume, etc. 1 2
P P=C
W = ∫ pdv
Thermodynamic state: All the properties have definite values.

Change of state: Any operation in which one or more of the properties of the system changes. V
b) Constant volume process or Isochoric process :
Path of change of state: The succession of states passed through during a change of state.

4.1.2 Thermodynamic Processes 2


Process: When path is completely specified, the change of state is called process. P
V=C

Types of thermodynamic properties


1
a) Intensive properties – independent of mass eg. Pressure, temperature, density. V
b) Extensive properties – depends on the mass of the system eg. Volume, energy etc.
c) Isothermal (constant temperature) process:
Thermodynamic equilibrium should satisfy the following.

a) Mechanical equilibrium
b) Thermal equilibrium. 1 T=C
c) Chemical equilibrium
P
Quasi – static process: The departure of the state of the system from the thermodynamic 2
equilibrium is infinitely small. W=∫

The quasi – static process is an ‘infinite slow’ process. V


=

d) Reversible Adiabatic or Isentropic process:

PV = constant

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4.1.3 Zeroth law, First law & Second law of thermodynamics

1 Zeroth law of thermodynamics (ZLTD):

- Definition: When a body A is in thermal equilibrium with a body B, and also separately with
P P =C a body C, then B and C will be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
- ZLTD is the basis for temperature measurement
2 - A reference body used for quantitave measurement of temperature is called thermometer
- A certain physical characteristic of thermometer which changes with change in temperature
V
is called thermometer property.

e) Polytropic process (generalized process)

PV = const
n – index of expansion
B

P P =C C

If t = t & t = t
2
Then t = t
V
First law of thermodynamics (FLTD):
n=
FLTD is postulated by J.P. Joule
It is law of conservation of energy (energy can neither be created nor be destroyed)
Energy is of 2 types
Representation of thermodynamic processes on P – V diagram: 1. Energy in transit 2. Energy in storage
e.g. Heat & work e.g. Internal energy
For a closed system undergoing a cyclic process, FLTD states that
P =C
∮ δQ = ∮ δW
For a closed system undergoing non cyclic process, FLTD:
P T =C δQ = δW + ∆U
For a cyclic process ∆U = 0 (i.e.: U = constant)
PV = C (1 < < 1.4) Note: Q – heat supplied/liberated

V=c PV = C W= work done


V U- internal Energy
Thermodynamic Process Index of expansion (n)
- As per FLTD, heat (Q) and work (W) are mutually convertible
Constant volume (V = C) ∞
100kJ of ‘Q’ 100 kJ of ‘W’
Constant pressure (P = C ) 0
100kJ of ‘W’ 100kJ of ‘Q’
Isothermal (T = C) 1
Polytrophic (PV = c ) 1< n < 1.25
Sign convention of heat and work:
Reversible adiabatic (PV = C) (= 1.4 )
Heat supplied to the system (+ve)

Heat liberated from the system (-ve)

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pv = flow work per unit mass (kJ/kg)


Q → (+ve) Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE):
Q Q → (−ve)
Q
(1) Control Volume
Work done by the system (+ve) ̇ , , , (2)
Work done on the system (-ve) ̇ , , ,
W W → (−ve)
(3)
W → (+ve) ̇ , , ,
̇ , , ,
W
(4)
Control Surface
Perpetual motion machine of first kind (PMM1)is a fictitious machine which gives continuous
output without any input. It violates FLTD
Fig. SFEE
Q=0
ṁ → mass flow rate(kg/s)
P → density (kg/m ).
PMM1 C → velocity (m/s)
T → temp(℃ or 0K)
SFEE continued
Mass balance:
ṁ = constant
ṁ + ṁ = ṁ + ṁ (From Fig. SFEE)
W
In general,
FLTD for a non cyclic process (non-flow process) ∑ , , ,…. ṁ =∑ , , ,…. ṁ

Q − W = U − U ṁ → mass flow rate at inlet


1 ṁ → mass flow rate at outlet
Continuity equations:
P
2 ṁ = =
V
Where A = Cross-sectional area (m )
C = velocity (m/s)
FLTD for a steady flow process
v = specific volume (m /kg)
x Steady flow – properties of the system are constant with respect to time. = density (m /kg)
x Flow energy or flow work: work done by the fluid on itself to cause the fluid flow.
Flow work = PV kJ
x Flow work is a point function
ṁ = =
x Enthalpy (H): H= (U+PV) kJ
Where, U – internal energy(kJ) Energy balance:
PV – flow work (kJ). [Total Energy ] = [Total Energy ]
Specific enthalpy, h= (u+pv) kJ/kg
Where u – specific internal energy (kJ/kg

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(1)
LPS( )
(2)
(1)

(2)
LPW ( )

datum
Condenser
Q̇ + ṁ + + + = Ẇ + ṁ + + +
q =h −h
( Q̇ − Ẇ ) = ṁ + + + − + + +
W =0
C ≈C
( Q̇ − Ẇ ) = ṁ[(ℎ − ℎ ) + − + ( − ) Z ≈Z
- - - - - SFEE
HPW – High Pressure Water LPW – Low Pressure Water
HPS – High Pressure Steam LPS – Low Pressure Steam
( q̇ − ẇ ) = ṁ[(ℎ − ℎ ) + − + ( − ) - - - - - SFEE
(ii) Turbine/Compressor
̇
Where q = ̇
and Turbine
Compressor
̇
w = ̇

LPF( )
Applications of SFEE
HPF( )
(i) Boiler Condenser

HPS( )
LPF( )
q HPF( )

= − = −

HPW( ) q =0
C ≈C
Boiler Z ≈Z
HPF – high pressure fluid
q =h −h
LPF - low pressure fluid.

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(iii) Nozzle /Diffuser


Nozzle (ii) SFEE for a water pump:
(1) Diffuser
(2) (2)
(2) (2)
(1)
, ,
0
, h ,C
(2)
(1)
(1) (1) (1)
(2)

h >h h <h
C <C C >C q =0
q =0 C ≈ C
w =0 h ≈ h
Z ≈ Z W = g(Z − Z )
i.e. work input = increase in P.E
SFEE: For Nozzle
(h − h ) + (C − C ) = 0 (h − h ) + (C − C ) = 0 (vi) SFEE for a heat exchanger
q =0
(C − C ) = (h − h ) (h − h ) = (C − C ) W =0
i.e. gain in kE = drop in enthalpy gain in enthalpy = drop in KE Z ≈Z
exit velocity, C = C + 2(h − h ) SFEE: h − h = 0
Increase in enthalpy of cold fluid = decrease in enthalpy of heat fluid
where C = exit velocity, m/s
(h − h ) = enthalpy drop, J/kg , ̇
In general, C <<< C
, ̇
C = 2(h − h ) m/s
= 2000(h − h ) where h and h are given in kJ/kg
C = 44.7 (h − h ) (∆h) = (∆h)
for a gas nozzle h = C (T − T ) ṁ C (t − t )= m (C ̇ ( − ))
where C = specific heat, k ṁ , ̇ → mass flow rates of hot and cold fluids respectively
C , C → spacific heats
C = 2C (T − T )
t , t → temperatures
(i) SFEE for a throttling process:
q =0 Second law of thermodynamics:
W =0
Also called as “law of degradation of energy”
C ≈ C
Z ≈Z
Kelvin Planck Statement: It is impossible for a heat engine to produce net work in a complete
SFEE:
cycle if it exchanges heat only with bodies at a single fixed temperature.
h −h =0
h =h
Throttling process is also called is isenthalpic process.

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Part 4.2: Properties of pure substances

4.2.1 Properties of pure substances

A substance that is homogeneous and invariable in chemical composition in all of its three
Impossible
phases (solid, liquid and gases) is called pure substance.
Heat Engine
E.g. Water – steam mixture
HE W
Atmospheric air
η = Combustion Products of a fuel.

Heat supplied: it causes


x Q ≠ i.e. (W<Q )
x No heat engine (HE) is 100% efficient a) Change in temperature without phase change – sensible heat
x PMM 2 – fictitious heat engine with 100% efficiency b) Change in phase at constant temperature – latent heat
Clausius statement: It is impossible to construct a device, which operating in a cycle, will
produce no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body Phase diagrams:

′′′ (f)
CP
′′ (e)
′′′ 2′′′
′′′ ′
Impossible HP/K+1 ( > ) ′′′ ′′
T (d) ′′
′ (c) 4
′′
2 ′
Q ′
1 (a)
3 (b)
V
Heat pump (HP)/refrigerator
x The performance of heat pump or refrigerator is represented by its COP (coefficient of
performance) (a) - Saturated liquid curve (SLC)
(b) - Saturated vapour curve (SVC)
(c) - vapour dome
(d) - under cooled liquid.
(e) - Super heated vapour zone
(f) - Gaseous Zone

2, 2’, 2”, 2”’ ------- saturated liquid states

3, 3’, 3”, 3’’’ ------ saturated vapour states

CP --- Critical Point.

Critical point: Water changes its phase directly to vapour with no distinction between liquid and
vapour phases.

- At critical point, change in enthalpy, change in specific volume etc. are zero
- At critical point (for water) pressure, p = 220.8 bar
Temperature, T = 374.14 ℃

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Triple point: the state at which all three phases solid, liquid and gas exist in equilibrium is called (v) s=s +xs
triple point.
where
For water, triple point is
T = 273.16K h , s ⟶ for saturated liquid
P = 4.587mm of Hg
h = h −h
Dryness fraction: Wet steam characterized by dryness fraction.
s = s − s
=
where m = mass of vapour h , s ⟶ for dry saturated steam
m = mass of liquid
0≤ ≤1 b) Superheated steam ( )
x = 0 → 100% liquid V=V = V
x = 1 → 100% vapour
h = h +C (T −T )
Mollier Diagram: s = s + C ln
where
Constant pressure lines T = superheated steam temperature, Kelvin
T = saturated steam temperature, Kelvin
C = specific heat of steam kJ/kg k
Note: internal energy, u = (h –PV) kJ/kg
h Constant dryness fraction lines
(quality lines)
=
= .
s

h – enthalpy (kJ/kg)

s – entropy (kJ/kg K )

– specific Volume(m /kg)

Sublimation: Solid directly converts into vapour.

Steam Tables: Two types

a) Pressure entry
b) Temperature entry

Properties for pure substance (water)

a) Wet steam:
(iii) =
V = specific volume of dry saturated steam (directly available from steam tables )
= dryness fractio
(iv) h= h + xh

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Part 4.3: Irreversibility & Availability Perfect gas Laws:

4.3.1 Availability and irreversibility (a) Boyle’s Law: V ∝ at T = const


(b) Charles’s Law: V∝T at P = const
δW = PdV
reversible process V ∝ ⟹ = const = R
δQ = Tds
PV = RT - characteristic gas equation
δW = PdV − TδS P – Pressure (Pa)
irreversible process v – Specific volume ( / )
δQ = Tds – TδS
R – characteristic gas constant (J/kg K)
δS = entropy generated in the process T – Temperature (K)
For ‘m’ kg of gas
δS ≥ 0, > 0 → irreversible process
PV = mRT
= 0 → reversible process (c) Regnaut’s Law:
C & C are constant for a given gas
TδS = lost work or lost heat = Irreversibility (I) C – specific heat at constant pressure
C – specific heat at constant volume
Irreversibility: (I)
(d) Joule’s Law:
I = W − W − for heat engines u = f(T) only
h = f(T) only
I = W − W – for compressor/ refrigerator

Available Energy (AE) or EXERGY:

Maximum work that can be obtained from the given heat source.

AE=Q T u h

T
(A E) where u = specific internal energy (J/kg)
T0
(U E) h= specific enthalpy (J/kg)
S (e) Avogadro’s hypothesis: It states that equal volumes of different gases at same pressure
and temperature contain equal no of molecules.
AE=Q 1− - At NTP 22.4136 of any perfect gas has its mass equal to its molecular weight in kg.
- In a gram of perfect gas, there are 6.023 × 10 molecules.
Unavailable Energy (UV) or ANERGY:
Avogadro Number, A = 6.023 × 10
UE = T (∆S) .
Universal Gas Constant:
Anergy: Minimum heat losses that are to be suffered during energy conversion process.
PV = mRT - - - - - - - - (1)
4.3.2 Ideal or perfect gases
Where R = characteristic gas constant. Its value changes from gas to gas.
Ideal gas: * Inter molecular forces are negligible
PV = nR⃗T - - - - - - - - - (2)
* Obeys all ‘Perfect gas Laws’ at low pressure and high temperatures.
Where ⃖R = universe gas constant. Its value is constant for all the gases.

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̅ < ̅
R⃗ = 8.314 kJ/kg mol K Inter molecular forces attractive
In general 0.95≤Z ≤1.05
a) Vander waal’s equation :
In equation (2) n = no. of moles = = P+ [V − b] = RT
a → is a constant. It is called forces of cohesion.
R⃗ = MR – Relation between R and R⃗
b → another constant. It called as co – volume.
Specific heat (C): x The values of a & b have been obtained using kinetic theory of gases.

C=

kJ kJ
Units:kg K or kg ℃
For solids – only one specific heat
For liquids – only one specific heat
For gases – two specific heats
1. C (specific heat at constant pressure)
2. C ( specific heat at constant volume)

C = and C =

Change in enthalpy Change in internal energy

∆ H = mC (T − T ) ∆U = m C (T − T )

- Relation between C , C &


C − C =R
C

C
J – adiabatic index
C = C =
γ = 1.4 for diatomic gases
= 1.67 for monoatomic gases
= 1.33 for triatomic gases.
[γ] > [γ] > [γ]

4.3.3 Real gases

a) Compressibility factor, Z =
Where, ̅ = molar specific volume =
If Z = 1 , P ̅ = RT ⟶ a perfect gas
Z ≷1 , ⟶ a real gas
I. Z>1
̅ > ̅

Inter molecular forces are repulsive

II. Z<1
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Part 4.4: Work, Heat & Entropy Q = ∆ U +W

4.4.1 Work & Heat = mC (T − T )


P T
=
For any closed system, non- flow work is given by P T
W = ∫ pdV, applicable for any process.

Change in internal energy during any process ∆U = m C (T − T ) Isothermal (constant temperature) process:

Work and Heat calculations for various thermodynamic processes are:


1 T=C
Constant pressure or Isobaric process:
P
Work done, W = ∫ pdV = p (V − )
Change in internal energy ∆u = mC (T − T ) 2
As per FLTD, W=∫

V
P=C
=

W = ∫ pdV = mRT ln
1 2 = mRT ln
P
W = ∫ pdv ∆U = mC (T − T ) = 0
P
Q = mRT ln P =W
V
Q = ∆U +W Reversible Adiabatic or Isentropic process:
= mC (T − T ) + p(V − V )
Q = mC (T − T ) ∵ PV = constant

V T
=
V T 1
Constant volume process or Isochoric process:
P P =C

2 V
V=C W = ∫ pdV =
P
For an isentropic process
1 = 0
=0
V
∴∆ = Q–W=

W = ∫ pdv = 0
( )
T V P
∆U = mC (T − T ) = =
T V P

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Polytropic process (generalized process) x Work done by the system, W = C (T − T )


PV = const 3-4 : Isothermal expansion
n – index of expansion x Heat rejected by the system, q = T . ∆s
1
4-1 : Isentropic compression
P =C x Work done on the system, W = C (T − T )
P
Carnot efficiency, η =
2
= =
V
n=
Where T (= T ) − source temp, Kelvin
W = ∫ PdV = T (= T ) - Sink temp, Kelvin
∆U = mC (T − T ) In general representation
Q = ∆U + W = mC (T − T ) + T − source temp, K
T − sink temp, K
T V P =
= =
T V P
x Carnot cycle consists of 4 reversible processes.
Q ≠ 0 in polytropic process. x Carnot cycle is an ideal cycle.
4.4.2 Heat Engine x No other heat engine has more efficiency than heat engine working on carnot cycle
A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which there is net heat transfer to the system Heat engines connected in series:
and a net work transfer from the system. The system which executes a heat engine cycle is called
a heat engine.
The function of a heat engine cycle is to produce work continuously at the expense of heat input
to the system. So the net work done W and heat input Q are of primary interest.
The efficiency of a heat engine is defined as
Net Work Output of the cycle
=
Total heat input to the system
=

Carnot Cycle:

1
1 2
P 2 T

4 4 3
3 η = =
V S η = =
(A) For equal work output (W = W ),
1-2: Isothermal expansion
T =
x Heat supplied to the system, q = T . ∆S (B) For equal efficiency (η =η )
2-3: Isentropic expansion

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T = T T Part 4.5: Psychrometrics


Important note: Always convert temperature to “Kelvin” units. The science which investigates the thermal properties of moist air, considers the measurement
4.4.3 Entropy and control of the moisture content of air, and studies the affects of atmospheric moisture on
material and human comfort may properly be termed ‘Psychrometrics’.
- It is outcome of SLTD
- The entropy of the universe always increases and it represents the degree of irreversibility 4.5.1 Dew Point Temperature:
associated with the process.
- Entropy of the system increases upon heating and decreases upon cooling. x Suppose a mixture of air-water vapour which is not saturated is cooled at constant pressure
- Clasius theorem: When closed system undergoes a cyclic process. the partial pressure of water vapour remains constant till it is equal to the saturation
∮ =0 R → Reversible pressure of water. With continued cooling, the water vapour begins to condense. The
constant pressure cooling of a mixture is represented on a T-S diagram in Fig.
i.e, ∮ = 0 for unit mass
ds = ⇒δq = T.ds
= ∫ Tds P = constant
For closed system
1 T
2
T

S
s
Process change in entropy x If a mixture of air-water vapour is cooled at constant pressure, the temperature at which
a) V = C s − s = C log ( ) water vapour begins to condense is called the dew point temperature.
x At dew point the partial pressure of water vapour in the mixture is equal to the saturation
b) P = C s − s = C log ( ) pressure of water.
c) T = C s − s = R log ( ) x The composition of air-water vapour mixture is usually specified in terms of specific
humidity or relative humidity.
d) Adiabatic s −s ≠0
e) Isentropic (Reversible adiabatic) s −s =0 Specific Humidity: Specific humidity (SH) or humidity ratio is defined as the ratio of mass of
water vapour to the mass of dry air in the mixture.
- Clasius inequality: It states that when a closed system undergoes a cyclic process,
a) ∮ < 0, for irreversible cycle = ̇ / ̇ = 0.622 ( / ) = 0.622 ( /( − )
b) ∮ > 0, impossible Where ṁ , ṁ = Mass of water vapour and dry air, respectively
c) ∮ = 0, reversible p , p = Partial pressure of water vapour and air in the mixture, respectively
- Principle of increase of entropy
P = Total pressure.
∮ ≤ 0,
∮ ≤ Relative Humidity: Relative humidity (RH) is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of the
water vapour in the mixture to the saturation pressure (p ) of water at the mixture temperature.
ds ≥ 0
∵ δq = 0 for the universe = / = /0.622
[∆s] ⋛0
i.e. > 0 → irreversible process Adiabatic Saturation: Consider the steady flow of an unsaturated air-water vapour mixture
= 0 → reversible process through an insulated device as shown in fig. called adiabatic saturator. Assume the equilibrium
< →impossible process is attained between the water and air-water vapour mixture in the device and hence saturated
air-water vapour leaves the device.

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saturated air – water x The adiabatic saturation relation when expressed in terms of enthalpy reduces to h∗ = h∗ .
1 3 Vapour mixture That is during adiabatic saturation h* remains constant
Unsaturated air –
ṁ , ṁ , T , SH x The lines of constant h* coincide with the lines of constant wet bulb temperature, because h∗
water Vapour
mixture depends on T = (=T ) only. Once T is specified p is fixed because P = p and hence
ṁ , ṁ , T , SH SH is fixed.

Liquid water 4.5.2 Applications of Psychrometry

The field of air conditioning uses various processes such as heating, cooling, humidification and
adiabatic mixing of air-water vapour mixtures. These processes can be easily analysed with the
help of a psychrometric chart.
Consider the device as control volume and apply material and energy balances to get
Adiabatic Mixing of Streams: Consider the steady flow of steams 1 and 2 into the adiabatic mixer
Mass balance of air: ṁ = ṁ
shown in Fig. The mixture leaves the device as stream 3. Considering the device as a control
Mass balance for water: ṁ̇ + ṁ = ṁ
volume, one can write the following material and energy balance equations
Energy balance: ṁ h + ṁ h + ṁ h = ṁ h + ṁ h
Mass balance for air : ṁ + ṁ = ṁa
These equations can be solved to obtain
Mass balance for water : ṁ SH + ṁ SH = ṁ SH
(h − h ) + SH (h − h ) Energy balance : ṁ h ∗ + ṁ h ∗ = ṁ h ∗
SH =
(ℎ − ℎ ) These equations can be solved to obtain
Where,
ṁ = mass flow rate of dry air; ṁ = mass flow rate of water vapour / water ∗ ∗
̇ − ℎ −ℎ
h = specific enthalpy of dry air; h = specific enthalpy of water vapour / water = = ∗ ∗
̇ − ℎ −ℎ
Subscripts 1, 2, 3 denote the conditions at the points shown in fig. If air is treated as an ideal gas,
we can write (h − h ) = C (T − T ). Assume that liquid water enters the device at the same
The adiabatic mixing process is shown in Fig.
temperature as the air leaving the device. That is T = .
Then, h − h = (h − h ) = (h ) and h − h = h − h
Thus,
C (T − T ) + SH (h ) ∗
SH =
ℎ −ℎ
1
x The specific humidity and relative humidity of an air-water vapour mixture can be measured
̇ ,
with an adiabatic saturator. Adiabatic
x For all practical purposes, the adiabatic saturation temperature (T3) does not depend upon ̇ , mixer ̇ ,
the temperature at which liquid water enters the device
x The adiabatic saturation temperature (T3) does not depend upon the temperature at which ∗
Control
liquid water enters the device volume
x The adiabatic saturation temperature (T3) depends only on the conditions (T1, SH1) of the ∗
entering air.
RH
Psychrometric Chart:

x A graphical representation of the solution of the adiabatic saturation relation is called


psychrometric chart. Dry bulb Temp (℃
℃)
x The enthalpy of air-water vapour mixture is expressed on the basis of dry air and is given by Dehumidification: If a mixture of air-water vapour is cooled at constant pressure, the specific
h∗ = h + SHh humidity of the mixture does not undergo any change till the dew point temperature is reached,
That is h* represents the enthalpy of 1 kg dry air and the enthalpy of the accompanying but its relative humidity increases. Further cooling results in condensation of water vapour and
water vapour. the specific humidity decreases. A schematic diagram of a dehumidifier is shown in Fig.
x In the psychrometric chart, the enthalpies of air and water vapour are measured with
reference to 0℃. Some psychrometric charts use 0℉ as reference state for air and 32℉ as
reference state for water vapour.

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where, SH and SH denote the specific humidity of air-water vapour mixture at the inlet and
outlet of the cooler, respectively.
Refrigerant Heating coil
x A schematic diagram of an evaporative cooler is shown in fig. And the process of
humidification with cooling is shown on a psychrometric chart.
Water ̇
Dehumidified
Humid air
air 1 2 Heating unit 4
Cooling unit

Condensed Dry air


water Cool and humid
3 air;
x Dehumidification of air-water vapour mixture can be achieved by cooling the mixture below ̇
its dew point temperature, allowing some water to condense, and then reheating the mixture
to the desired temperature
x For cooling the mixture, chilled water can be sprayed into the mixture or the mixture can be
made to pass over cooling coils through which a cold refrigerant is circulated.
x The dehumidification process is represented on a psychrometric chart in Fig. below.
Porous pad
*h

1
SH 2

h∗ kJ/kg dry air 1

h∗
RH

dry air
RH
*h

2 4 SH

Specific Humidity(SH) kgH O/kg


Dry bulb .( )
23 41
Dry bulb Temp. ( C)
Degree of Saturation: The water vapour exists at the dry bulb temperature T of the mixture and
partial pressure P . Consider now that more water vapour is added in this Control volume V at
Humidification with Cooling: If an unsaturated air-water vapour mixture is made to flow through temperature T itself. The partial pressure P will go on increasing with the addition of of water
porous pads soaked in water, the mixture gets saturated. Since the process occurs without any vapour until it reaches a value p corresponding to state 2, after which it cannot increase further
energy exchange as heat with the surroundings, it is adiabatic. The energy required for the as p is the saturation pressure or maximum possible pressure of water at temperature T. The
evaporation of water comes from air-water vapour mixture resulting in a decrease in its thermodynamic state of water vapour is now saturated at point 2. The air containing moisture in
temperature. such a state is called saturated air.

x The process of humidification with cooling is extensively used in evaporative coolers or


desert cooers which are used for cooling homes in hot and dry climates.
x The rate at which water is evaporated in the evaporative cooler is given by
ṁ = ṁ (SH − SH )

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From eqs 1 and 2 we get

I = /[1 − (1 − ) / ]
2
3 1 Enthalpy of Moist Air: The enthalpy of moist air h is equal to the sum of the enthalpies of dry air
T
and associated water vapour, i.e (h = h + ω h ) per kg of dry air, where h is the enthalpy of the
Saturated water dry air part and h is the enthalpy of the water vapour part. h = C t = 1.005 t kJ/kg
Vapour in saturated Super heated water vapour
Air in unsaturated Air

C A
B
S

In this state the air is holding the maximum amount of water vapour (the specific humidity being
ω , corresponding to the partial pressure p ) at temperature T of the mixture. The maximum
possible specific humidity, ω at temperature T is thus
Reference state
ωs = 0.622 [P / (p − p )]
S
The ratio of the actual specific humidity ω to the specific humidity ω of saturated air at
temperature T is termed as the degree of saturation denoted by the symbol μ. Thus
Again taking the reference state enthalpy as zero for saturated liquid at 0℃, the enthalpy of the
1− / water vapour part, at point A is expressed as
= =
1− / h =h =C t + (h ) + C (t − t )kJ/kg
Relative Humidity: Relative humidity denoted by the symbol I or RH is defined as the ratio of the
where C = specific heat of liquid water, t = dew point temperature
mass of water vapour m in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature mass of water
vapour m in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature. Thus if V and V are
(h ) = latent heat of vaporization at DTP, C = specific heat of superheated vapour
the specific volumes of water vapour in the actual moist air and saturated air respectively at
temperate T and in volume V, at points 1 and 2 respectively
Taking the specific heat of liquid water as 4.1868 kJ/kg K) and that of water vapour as 1.88
/ kJ/kg K in the range 0 to 60℃, we have
I= = =
/
h = 4.1868 t + (h ) + 1.88 (t − t )
/
, I= = Accordingly, enthalpy of water vapour at A, at DPT of t and DBT of t, can be determined more
/
conveniently by the following two methods:
Using the perfect-gas relationship between points 1 and 2,
i) h = h = (h ) ii) h = h = (h ) 0℃ + C (t − 0)
P v = P v or P V = P V
Thus, employing the second expression and taking the latent heat of vaporization of water at 0℃
We have as 2501 kJ/kg, we obtain the following empirical expression for the enthalpy of the water vapour
part
I= / = /
h = 2501 + 1.88 t kJ/kg
It can be shown that (2500 + 1.88 )
ℎ = 1.005 + . .
= 0.622 I ( / ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (1)

I = ( /0.622) / ( / ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (2)

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Humid Specific Heat: Then t’ = t* i.e. the two temperatures are equal. The dimensionless quantity f /k C is
called the Lewis number. The air and water vapour mixture at low pressures, this
x ℎ=( + ) + ℎ 0℃ number is approximately equal to unity (L = 0.945).
= + ℎ 0℃ x The measurable wet bulb temperature is equal to the thermodynamic wet bulb
where = + temperature.
= (1.005 + 1.88 ω kJ/(kg d.a.) (K) x For any other kind of gas and vapour mixture these would not be the same
x Humid specific heat is the specific heat of moist air (1 + ω) kg per kg of dry air. The term x In the case of air and water vapour mixture, the two temperatures are exactly the same.
C t governs the change in enthalpy of moist air with temperature at constant specific
humidity, and the term ω (h ) 0℃ governs the change in enthalpy with the change in Mixing with Condensation: When large quantity of cold air mixes with a quantity of warmer air at
a high
specific humidity, i.e. due to the addition or removal of water vapour in air.
x Since the second term 1.88 ω is very small compared to the first term 1.005, an
approximated value of C of 1.0216 kJ/kg d.a.) (K) may be taken for all practical 1
purposes in air-conditioning calculations.
1
Thermodynamic wet bulb temperature or temperature of adiabatic saturation: Adiabatic Mixer 4

x For any state of unsaturated moist air, there exists a temperature t* at which the air
2
becomes adiabatically saturated by the evaporation of water into air, at exactly the same
temperature t*
x The leaving air is saturated at temperature t*. The specific humidity is correspondingly
increased to ω*. The enthalpy is increased from a given initial value h to the value h*.
The weight of water added per kg of dry air is ω* - ω which adds energy to the moist air
of amount equal to ω*- ωh ∗, where h * is the specific enthalpy of the injected water at t*. relative humidity, there is a possibility of condensation of water vapour, the mixture will then
consist of saturated air and the condensate.
Adiabatic
Enclosure

Inlet Air Outlet air


t t*
*
h* 4
h t*
* Feed Water 3

=( *- ) per kg of Dry air


2
Therefore, since the process is strictly adiabatic, we have by energy balance
t
ℎ + ( ∗ − )ℎ ∗= ℎ ∗
It the DBT of the mixture falls below 0℃, the condensate may eventually freeze.
∗= − (ℎ ∗/ )( ∗− )
If may be noted that due to condensation, the specific humidity of the mixture ω , will be
x Let us compare the expressions for the wet bulb temperature t’ and the temperature of reduced to below ω . Correspondingly, the temperature of the air would be increased to t from
adiabatic saturation t*, i.e. t due to the release of the latent heat of the condensate. Now, if ω represents the mass of the
∗= − ( / ) ℎ ( ∗ − ) condensate per unit mass of the mixture, we have by moisture and energy balance
∗= − (ℎ ∗ / ) ( ∗ − )
It follows that if k /f = (1/C ) ω =ω −ω or ω = [(ṁ ω + ṁ ω )/(ṁ + ṁ )] − ω
Or f /k C = L = 1 = (α/D) /

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and ṁ h + ṁ h = ṁ h
Because of this change in the humidity ratio, there is also a Change in enthalpy of the air
or h = [(ṁ h + ṁ h )/ (ṁ + ṁ )] ω h given by (h − h ). In air-conditioning practice this change in enthalpy due to the change in
the Humidity ratio is considered to cause a latent-heat transfer
Where h is the enthalpy of the condensate at temperature t of the mixture. The two variables Given by Q = m (h − h )
to be solved are t and ω . By assuming different values of t and substituting for ω , h and h ,
the two equations can be solved by trial and error to obtain he final state after mixing.

Sensible Heat Process-Heating or Cooling:

= −

= +ℎ −( +ℎ )
t
= ℎ ( − )
= ℎ = 2500
Q = m (h − h )
x If the building gains or loses moisture, it is supposed to have a latent-heat load. A gain of
= ( − )= ( − )+ ( − ) moisture will require the condensation of moisture for the dehumidification of air in the
conditioning apparatus, and hence a cooling load. On the other hand, a loss of moisture will
= (1.005 + 1.88 )( − ) necessitate the evaporation of water for the humidification of air in the apparatus and hence
a heating load.
where C is the humid specific heat. This heat, denoted by the subscript S, is called the sensible Q = [(cmm)(1.2)(2501)/ 60] ∆ω
heat. If a building to be air conditioned r receives or loses heat due to transmission or other = 50 ( )∆ ,
reasons, it is supposed to have sensible heat load.
Total Heat Process:
x m denotes the mass flow rate of dry air. Generally the flow rate of dry air is measured in
terms of cubic meters of air per minute (cmm). Then the mass flow rate of dry air can be x The change in temperature causes a sensible heat load given by
calculated from Q = m (h − h ) = m C (t − t )
m =Q ρ The change in the humidity ratio causes a moisture transfer given by
where Q is the volume flow rate of air. Expressing this in cmm, we have = m (ω − ω )
m = (cmm)ρ/60 kg d. a./s And a latent heat load given by
For the purpose of calculation, standard air is taken at 20℃ and 50 percent RH. The density Q = m (h − h ) = m h + (ω − ω )
of standard air is approximated to 1.2 kg/m d.a. The value of humid specific heat is taken as Q = Q + Q = m (h − h )
1.0216 kJ/ (kg d.a.) K. we obtain = m [ C (t − t ) + h (ω − ω )]
x Q = [(cmm)(1.2)(1.0216)/ 60] ∆t = 0.0204 (cmm) ∆t, kW again, expressing the mass flow rate in cmm, we get
= [( )(1.2)/ 60] ∆ℎ
Latent Heat Process-Humidification or Dehumidification: = 0.02 ( )∆ℎ,
Which is the same as
x When the state of air is altered along the t = constant line, such as BC moisture in the form of =( )(0.0204 ∆ + 50 ∆ ),
vapour has to be transferred to change the humidity ratio of the air.
x This transfer of moisture is given by = (ω − ω )

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Sensible Heat Factor (SHF): The ratio of the sensible heat transfer to the total heat transfer is Part 4.6: Power Engineering
termed as the sensible heat factor. Thus SHF = Q / (Q + Q ) = Q /Q
4.6.1 STEAM NOZZLES
SHF = [(h − h )/(h − h ) + (h − h )] = h − h /(h − h )
= [0.0204 ∆ / 0.0204∆ + 50 ∆ ] = (0.0204 ∆ /0.02∆ℎ) A steam nozzle may be defined as a passage of varying cross – section, through which heat
energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy. Its major function is to produce a steam jet with
The process line AC is called the sensible heat factor line or process or condition line. high velocity to drive steam turbine. A turbine nozzle performs two functions:

A zero SHF line is vertical on the psychrometric chart and implies no sensible heat transfer. An (i) It transforms a portion of energy of steam (obtained from steam generating unit) into
SHF of 0.75 to 0.8 is quite common in air conditioning practice in a normal dry climate. A lower kinetic energy.
value of SHF, such as 0.65, implies a high latent head load, which is quite common (ii) In the impulse turbine it directs the steam jet of high velocity against blades, which are
free to move in order to convert kinetic energy into shaft work. In reaction turbines the
1 1 nozzles discharge high velocity steam. The reactive force of the steam against the nozzle
= =
1 + 2451 (∆ /∆ ) 1 + tan produces motion and work is obtained.
Convergent
Where tan θ = ∆ω / ∆t = (1/2451) [1/SHF) – 1] part
We see tan θ is the slope of the SHF line AC on the Psychrometric chart, which is purely a Divergent
function of SHF
part

∆h
h

Entry Exit
(1 – SHF)
C
SHF

∆ Throat
Fig. Convergent – divergent nozzle.

A The cross – section of a nozzle at first tapers to a smaller section (to allow for changes which
occur due to changes in velocity, specific volume and dryness fraction as the steam expands); the
smallest section being known as throat, and then it diverges to a large diameter. The nozzle
which converges to throat and diverges afterwards is known as convergent – divergent nozzle.
∆t In convergent nozzle there is no divergence after the throat.
In a convergent – divergent nozzle, because of the higher expansion ratio, addition of divergent
portion produces steam at higher velocities as compared to a convergent nozzle.
Velocity of steam at the exit of nozzle, C = 44.2 h
where h = heat drop during expansion of steam.

Discharge through the Nozzle and Conditions for its Maximum Value:

Let p = initial pressure of steam

v = initial volume of 1 kg of steam at pressure p ( )


p = steam pressure at the throat
v = volume of 1 kg of steam at pressure p (m )
A = cross – sectional area of nozzle at throat (m )

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C = velocity of steam (m/s) Impulse Turbines


The steam flowing through the nozzle follows approximately the equation given below:
pv = constant Velocity Diagram for Moving Blade
where, n = 1.135 for saturated steam
and = 1.3 for superheated steam
[For wet steam, the value of n can be calculated by Dr. Zenner’s equation,
n = 1.035 + 0.1 x where x is the initial dryness fraction of steam]
The discharge through the nozzle is maximum when critical pressure ratio, i.e.,
= =
The value of maximum discharge is given by

m =A n
)

4.6.2 STEAM TURBINES

Definitions and Formulae


β
1. The steam turbine is a prime mover in which the potential energy of the steam is
transformed into kinetic energy, and latter in its turn is transformed into the mechanical
energy of rotation of the turbine shaft.
2. The most important classification of steam turbines is as follows:
(i) Impulse turbines Fig. Velocity diagram for moving blade.
(ii) Reaction turbines
(iii) Combination of impulse and reaction turbines. Fig. shows the velocity diagram of a single stage impulse turbine.
3. The main difference between Impulse and Reaction turbines lies in the way in which C = liner velocity of moving blade (m/s)
steam is expanded while its moves through them. In the former type, steam expands in C = absolute velocity of steam entering moving blade (m/s)
the nozzle and its pressure does not change as it moves over the blades while in the C = absolute velocity of steam leaving moving blade (m/s)
latter type the steam expands continuously as it passes over the blades and thus there is C = velocity of whirl at the entrance of moving blade.
a gradual fall in pressure during expansion. = tangential component of C .
4. The different methods of compounding are: C = velocity of whirl at exit of the moving blade.
(i) Velocity compounding = tangential component of C .
(ii) Pressure compounding C = velocity of flow at entrance of moving blade.
(iii) Pressure velocity compounding = axial component of C .
(iv)Reaction turbine. C = velocity of flow at exit of moving blade.
5. Force (tangential) on the wheel = axial component of C .
= ṁ + Nm C = relative velocity of steam at moving blade at entrance.
̇ × C = relative velocity of steam at moving blade at exit.
Power per wheel = kW
α = angle with the tangent of the wheel at which steam with velocity C enters. This is also
called nozzle angle.
The common types of steam turbines are:
β = angle which the discharging steam makes with the tangent of the wheel at the exit of
1. Impulse turbine. moving blade.
2. Reaction turbine. θ = entrance angle of moving blade.
ϕ = exit angle of moving blade.

The steam jet issuing from the nozzle at a velocity C impinges on the blade at an angle α.
The tangential component of this jet C performs work on the blade, the axial
compontent C however does not work but causes the steam to flow through the turbine.

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As the blades move with tangential velocity of C , the entering steam jet has a relative 8. The blade efficiency of the reaction turbine is given by
velocity C , (with respect to blade) which makes an angle θ with the wheel tangent. The η =2−
steam then glides over the blade without any shock and discharges at a relative velocity of C η becomes maximum when, ρ = cos α
at an angle ϕ with the tangent of the blades. The relative velocity at the inlet C is the
and hence (η ) =
same as the relative velocity at the C if there is no frictional loss at the blade. The absolute
velocity (C ) of leaving steam makes an angle β to the tangent at the wheel. 9. The state point may be defined as that point on h – s diagram which represents the
condition of steam at that instant.
To have convenience in solving the problems on turbines it is a common practice to combine
the two vector velocity diagrams on a common base which represents the blade velocity 10. Theoretical efficiency of reheat cycle is given by
( ) ( )
(C ) as shown in Fig. This diagram has been obtained by superimposing the inlet velocity η =( )
, neglecting pump work.
( )
diagram on the outlet diagram in order that the blade velocity lines C coincide.
4.6.3 Rankine Cycle
- Basis for steam turbine power plant
- Working substance is steam.
M L B- boiler
P Q ST – Steam Turbine
α
SC – Steam Condenser
P – Pump
HPL – High Pressure Liquid
LPL – Low Pressure Liquid
HPV- High Pressure Vapour
LPV – Low Pressure Vapour
N HPV
S (1)
Fig. 6.3
ST
Important Formulae: B
(2) LPV
(4)
1. Blade or diagram efficiency, η =
HPL
×
2. Stage efficiency, η =
( )
3. The axial thrust on the wheel due to difference between the velocities of flow at entrance (3)
and outlet : LPL
Axial force on the wheel = ṁ C − C
4. Energy converted to heat by blade friction
= loss of kinetic energy during flow over blades
= ṁ −
5. Optimum value of ratio of blade speed to steam is, (1)
ρ =
6. The blade efficiency for two stage turbine will be maximum when, (4) (1)
ρ = P (4)
In general optimum blade speed ratio for maximum blade efficiency or maximum work P T
done is given by
ρ = (2)
(3) (2) (3)
and the work done in the last row = of total work
where n is the number of moving rotating blade rows in series. V
In practice more than two rows are hardly preferred. S
7. The degree of reaction of reaction turbine stage is defined as the ratio of heat drop over
moving blades to the total heat drop in the stage.

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P − boiler pressure M kg/s


P - Condenser pressure
Rankine cycle contains ST
2 – isentropic processes(expansion & pumping ) Boiler
2 – isobaric processes (boiling & condensation) m kg/s (M –m) kg/s
1-2 isentropic expansion in steam turbine work developed per kg of steam,
W = h − h Condenser
M kg/s Regenerator
2 − 3 isobaric condensation. Heat rejected by the steam, q = h − h
3 – 4 isentropic pumping
Work supplied per kg of steam, M-m
W = h − h = V = V (P − P )
4 − 1: Isobaric heat adition
Heat supplied per kg of steam in the boiler M kg/s
q =h − h
- Net work done = q − q = W − W
( ) ( )
η = = × 100 (1)
In general W <<< W (7) M
∴η = T (6) (2)
- Work ratio, W = 1 − (5) m
- 0.95< W < 0.98 (4) (M – m) (3)
- Specific steam consumption (KJ/KWh): The amount of steam consumed by the steam power
plant per unit power output S
̇
- SSC = M = total mass flow rate of steam
Where ṁ = mass flow rate of steam, kg/h
P = net power output, kW = mass flow rate of bled steam
SSC = = Effects of Regeneration:
SSC = (∵ W <<< W ) - Efficiency increases
- Work output decreases
- Effects of Reheating
1. Net work output increases Rankine cycle with Reheating:
2. Efficiency of the plant increases
3. Life of steam turbine blades increases
HP LPT
T

Rankine Cycle with Regeneration:


Reheated steam
- Purpose of regeneration: To increase the efficiency of the plant by increasing the mean
temperature of heat addition.
- Regeneration: some amount of steam is extracted from the turbine and is used to increase
the temperature of feed water. This process is called ‘bleeding’.
Condenser

Pump

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- Purpose of reheating: To avoid blade erosion by increasing the dryness fraction of the steam 1
at the end of expansion process in steam turbine.
- To avoid blade erosion , dryness fraction should be greater than or equal to 0.88
x ≥ 0.88
- Reheating involves partial expansion of steam in HPT and then extract this steam for
reheating in to the boiler, feed the reheated steam to LPT for further expansion (refer Fig. ) 4
T
2
(1) 3
(3) a

T Steam
d
(2)
b
c
(6)

(5) S
(4)

s 4.6.4 Brayton (or) Joule Cycle:

1-2 : expansion in HPT


2-3 : Reheating Process 3 3
2
3-4 : Expansion in LPT
2
Binary power cycles: P T 4
4 1
1
- 2 working fluids are being used
- In general,
Hg − working fluid for primary cycle V S
Steam - working fluid for secondary cycle
1 - Basic cycle for gas turbine plant and jet propulsion systems.
Turbine - Cycle contains – 2 isentropic and 2 constant pressure processes.
ST a - Pressure ratio (r ) =

2 Steam Turbine Compression ratio (r) = = (r )


ST
1-2 : isentropic compression through the required pressure ratio(r )
b
3 W = C (T − T ) KJ/Kg
Condenser = r
4 d
W → work input to the compressor
Pump
2-3 constant pressure heat addition
Cascade Heat exchanger c
Pump q = C (T − T ) KJ/Kg

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3-4 Isentropic expansion process work developed by the turbine, Part 4.7: Refrigeration
W = C (T − T )KJ/Kg 4.7.1 Refrigerator

4-1 Isobaric (constant pressure ) heat rejection. Source Q = heat supplied to source Source
q = C (T − T )KJ/Kg
Q = heat extracted from sink
W = W −W =q −q
T = source temperature
1 W W
HP/K+1 T = sink temperature HP/K+1
η = 1− ν
(r ) ν
W = work input

Work ratio (W ) : W = =1− Sink Sink

For gas turbine plants, 0.45 ≤ W ≤ 0.55


COP = COP =
For steam turbine plants, 0.95 ≤ W ≤ 0.98
Heat Pump Refrigerator
Effect of ( ) on Brayton cycle efficiency
Carnot COP = Carnot COP =

Actual COP= Actual COP=

Relative COP = Relative COP =


W η
COP = COP +1

Simple Vapor Compression Cycle:


( ) . ( ) ( ) . ( )

r → r →

(r ) ---------- Pressure ratio for η

(r ) . ---------- Pressure ratio for W

(r ) =

( )
(r ) . =

(r ) . = (r )

W = C T − T KJ/Kg Fig. T-s diagram of refrigeration cycle

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Figure shows a simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle on T-s diagram for different (c) Power Required by Compressor:
compression processes. The cycle works between temperatures T and T representing the (i) If the compression is isentropic, then,
condenser and evaporator temperatures respectively. The various processes of the cycle A-B-C-
D (A-B’-C’-D and A-B”-C”-D) are as given below: Work of compression = (ℎ − ℎ ) KJ/Kg
( )
i) Process B-C (B’-C’ or B”-C”): Isentropic compression of the vapor from state B to C. If Hence, Power required = (KW / ton)
vapor state is saturated (B), or superheated (B”), the compression is called dry
compression. If initial state is wet (B’), the compression is called wet compression as (ii) If the compression is polytropic (Pv = C).
represented by B’-C’.
ii) Process C-D (C’-D or C”-D): Heat rejection in condenser at constant pressure. Work of compression = ( − )( − / )
iii) Process D-A: An irreversible adiabatic expansion of vapor through the expansion value.
The pressure and temperature of the liquid are reduced. The process is accompanied by ( )
partial evaporation of some liquid. The process is shown by dotted line. Or Power required = ∗ ∗ (KW/ton)

iv) Process A-B (A-B’ or A-B”) : Heat absorption in evaporator at constant pressure. The
final state depends on the quantity of heat absorbed and same may be wet (B’) dry (B) or (d) Heat Rejected to Cylinder Jacket:
superheated (B”).
Q =m ( − ) − (ℎ − ℎ ) (KJ⁄min − ton)
COP of Vapor Compression Cycle:

Heat extracted at low temperature (e) Heat Rejected in Condenser:


COP =
Work supplied Heat rejected in condenser = (ℎ − ℎ ) (KJ / Kg)
Heat extracted at low temperature = Heat transfer during the process A-B = refrigerating effect. Total heat rejected = (ℎ − ℎ ) (KJ /min- ton)
= (ℎ − ℎ ) 4.7.2 Reversed Carnot Cycle
Work of compression = = (ℎ − ℎ ) (adiabatic compression). Reversed Carnot cycle is shown in below Figure. It consists of the following processes.
Process a-b: Absorption of heat by the working fluid from refrigerator at constant low
ℎ −ℎ
So, COP = temperature T during isothermal expansion.
ℎ −ℎ
Process b-c: Isentropic compression of the working fluid with the aid of external work.
Now, heat rejected to the condenser, = = + The temperature of the fluid rises from T to T .
= (ℎ − ℎ ) + (ℎ − ℎ ) Process c-d: Isothermal compression of the working fluid during which heat is rejected at
constant high temperature T .
= (ℎ − ℎ ) = (ℎ − ℎ ) Process d-a: Isentropic expansion of the working fluid. The temperature of the working fluid falls
from T to T .
(a) Mass of Refrigerant in Circulation:

Refrigeration effect = (ℎ − ℎ ) KJ/Kg of refrigerant


. ∗
Or, mass of refrigerant in circulation, = kg/min – ton
( )

(b) Piston Displacement:

Let the specific volume of the vapor at B i.e at suction of the compressor be, v and let the
volumetric efficiency of the compressor be η , then piston displacement required per min.

Piston displacement = (m / min – ton)

Fig. Reversed Carnot cycle

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COP of Refrigerator:

= =

( − )
= =
( − )− ( − ) ( − )

Practically, the reversed Carnot cycle cannot be used for refrigeration purpose as the isentropic
process requires very high speed operation, whereas the isothermal process requires very low
speed operation.

4.7.3 Reversed Brayton Cycle

(c) Air refrigeration system

The working of air-refrigeration cycle is represented on p-v and T-s diagrams in Fig. (b) and (c).

Process 1-2 represents the suction of air into the compressor. Process 2-3 represents the
isentropic compression of air by the compressor. Process 3-5 represents the discharge of high
pressure air from the compressor into the heat exchanger. The reduction in volume of air from
v to v is due to the cooling of air in the heat exchanger.

Process 5-6 represents the isentropic expansion of air in the expander. Process 6-2 represents
the absorption of heat from the evaporator at constant pressure.

(a) Air refrigeration system

(b) Air refrigeration system

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Part 4.8: I.C. Engines V = Vc + Vs


x Compression Ratio (r): It is ratio of cylinder volume to clearance volume.
4.8.1 Basics of I.C. Engine
r = V/Vc
Engine Components: The I.C. Engine Figure below showing its various components.
I.C. Engine classification:

Cylinder head x On the basis of the number of stroke engine can be four-stroke engine or can be two – stroke
Exhaust Valve engine.
Suction Valve
x On the basis of the working cycle it can be spark ignition (otto cycle) engine or it can be
Intake of suction manifold Exhaust manifold
compression ignition engine (diesel cycle).

Four – stroke Engine:


Clearance volume, Vc Stroke Valve position
Top dead center T.D.C
Suction stroke. Suction valve open
Piston Cylinder volume ‘ V ’
Gudgeon of wrist pin Stroke volume Vs Exhaust valve closed
Compression stroke Both valves closed
Bottom dead center BDC
Cylinder Expansion stroke Both valves closed
Connecting rod
Exhaust stroke Exhaust valve open
Crank case Crank Pin Suction valve closed.
Crank Shaft Crank
Valve timing diagrams:

x For four-stroke S.I. engine

Name of the part Material used Intake Exhaust Overlap Intake Exhaust
Closes Opens opens Opens
Cylinder Cast iron
Cylinder head Cast iron, aluminum alloy
Piston Cast iron, aluminum alloy
Piston rings Silicon cast iron
ve

ve

Connecting rods Steel


ve open
ve open
open

open

Crank shaft Alloy steel


n
n

Power
Power

Intake valv

Intake valv

Bearing White metal


Compressio
Compressio

Exhaust valv

Exhaust valv

Cylinder liner Nickel alloy steel

Exhaust Intake Exhaust


Opens Closes Opens
Engine’s Terminology: BDC
Intake BDC
x Piston Swept Volume (Vs): The nominal volume generated by the piston when travelling Closes
( ) ( )
from one dead centre to the next one.
Vs = A × L
x Clearance Volume (Vc): The nominal volume of the space on the combustion side of the
piston at top dead centre
x Cylinder Volume (V) : The sum of piston swept volume and clearance volume

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x For two-stroke engine For a muticylinder engine a smaller flywheel is required

Rotation Performance parameter:


Ignition
occurs x Indicated thermal efficiency ( ): It is a ratio of energy in the indicated horse power to the
T.D.C
fuel energy.

=
×

Expansion

Compression
Exhaust port I. P. = Indicated power
Exhaust port closes
Inlet port mf = Mass of fuel
closes
Inlet port closes QLHV = Lower Heat Calorific Value
B.D.C
closes
Inlet port open x Brake thermal efficiency ( ): Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of energy in the brake
Exhaust port open power to the fuel energy.
. .
Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle = ×
x The cycle is completed The cycle is completed in
b. p. = break power.
in four strokes of the piston. two strokes of the piston.
x It has only one power stroke It has one power stroke in x Mechanical efficiency ( ): It is a ratio of brake power to the indicated horse power.
in two revolutions of crank each revolution of crank . .
=
Shaft shaft . .

x Turning moment is not More uniform turning


=
uniform hence heavier moment hence lighter
flywheel is needed flywheel is needed. = ×
x More volumetric efficiency Less volumetric efficiency
f. p. = i. p. – b. p.
x Higher thermal efficiency Lower thermal efficiency
It contains only ports not valves f. p. = friction power
x It contains valves
x Better part load efficiency Poor part load efficiency f.p. is usually assumed constant. At part loads b.p. is changed, thus from b.p. & f.p., ip. can be
calculated.
x Volumentric efficiency ( ): It is defined as the ratio of the air actually induced at ambient
S.I. Engines C. I. Engines
conditions to the swept volume of engine.
x Based on otto cycle Based on diesel cycle
x Fuel has high self Fuel has low self =
ignition temperature ignition temperature
x Relative efficiency or efficiency ratio: It is defined as ratio of thermal efficiency of the actual
x Compression ratio Compression ratio cycle to that of the ideal cycle.
is between 6 to 10.5 is between 14 to 22
x Lower max. efficiency Higher max. efficiency =
x Lighter Heavier
x Specific fuel consumption (sfc): It is expressed in grams per horsepower-hour or per kWh.

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bsfc = kg/kWh x The kinetic and potential energies of the working fluid are neglected.
. .
x The operation of the engine is frictionless.
x All the process are reversible.
isfc = kg/kWh
. .
The constant volume or Otto cycle:
x Fuel-Air Ratio: It is relative proportion of the fuel and air in the engine. P 3

= T
W.D. in expansion = Constant
3
3-4 = area 3-4-6-5-3 Q
x Mean Piston speed = 2LN

‘L’ – length of cylinder


2 4
‘N’ – r.p.m.
2 4 Q
Mean effective pressure, 1
= Constant
. . ×
= = 1
/ S
5 6 V

n= for 4s Process Remark


1–2 Adiabatic and reversible compression
n = N for 2s 2–3 Combustion
3–4 Adiabatic and reversible expansion
k = No. of cylinders 4–1 Exhaust stroke

x Equivalent ratio: Thermal efficiency, =

= Work done = heat added – heat rejected = cv(T3 – T2) – cv(T4 – T1)
( )
=1−( )
= 1 chemically correct
=1−
< 1 lean mixture
Thus the efficiency of otto cycle depends only on compression ratio (r), and the efficiency
> 1 rich mixture increases with increasing compression ratio and . The efficiency at compression ratio 5 is
47.5% and at compression ratio 10 is 60.2%
NOTE: Monoatamic gas
= 1.67
Air
x In line engines : all cylinders are arranged linearly and transmit power to a single crankshaft
= 1.4
x Radial engines: air cooled aircraft engines, odd cylinders are employed for balancing, pistons
of all cylinders are coupled to same crankshaft. = 1.30
Exchaust gas

4.8.2 Air Standard Cycles

Assumptions in ideal or air standard cycle

x The working medium is a perfect gas throughout, i.e., it follows the law pV= mRT.
x The working medium has constant specific heats. r
x The working medium does not undergo any chemical change throughout the cycle.

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Mean effective pressure (mep) The efficiency of the diesel cycle is different from that of the Otto cycle only by the bracketed
term, which is always greater that unity.
mep =
Mean Effective Pressure (mep)
(∝ )
= ( )( ) mep =

Constant pressure or Diesel cycle: ( ) ( )


= ( )( )

3 The efficiency decreases as cut off ratio increases. If cut off ratio is greater than 10% of stroke,
Isothermal T smoking occurs in an actual engine because there is no sufficient time for the combustion
P process to be completed before the exhaust valve opens.

The dual combustion or mixed or limited pressure cycle

x The name dual combustion is derived from the fact that it incorporates the features of both
Reversible otto and diesel cycles.
adiabatic x High speed diesel engine is based on this.
= 2
4 3 4 v = constant (otto )
T
= − 4

v = constant
1
2
P P = constant (Diesel)
2 5

0
5 6 S
1 5 1

r
5
1
= f g s
V
( ) ( )
= ( )
=
=1− ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) = ( ) ( )

= cut off ratio ∝


=1− (∝ ) ( )

= ,r= = , =

= . = x If ρ = 1 in above equation it becomes otto cycle and when α = 1, it becomes diesel cycle.

( )

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mep =
( ) ( ) ( )
= ( )( ) 3
Constant pressure
T

Comparison of Otto, Diesel, and dual Combustion (Limited - pressure) Cycles:

x For same compression ratio and same heat input: The heat rejected in the Otto cycle is less
than that in the diesel cycle and dual combustion cycle thus the efficiency of the Otto cycle
is more than the diesel and the dual combustion cycle for same compression ratio and same
heat input.
′ 4
ηotto > ηdual > ηdiesel

2
T
3 1
Constant volume
"
′ 6 S
x For same maximum pressure and temperature
′ > >
"

T
2 ′ Constant 3
" pressure
4
1

5 6 " ′ S

′ 4
x For constant maximum pressure and same heat input.
2

1 Constant
volume
S
5 6

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Classification of kinematic pairs:


Part – 5: Theory of Machines
Based on Degrees of Freedom: A kinematic pair allows few degrees of freedom and constraints
some of them. When two bodies are joined together one of the body (base) has all the DOF,
Part 5.1: Mechanisms
whereas the other body looses some DOF and has few DOF relative to the base body. Depending
5.1.1 Introduction on the allowed degrees of freedom and constrained degrees of freedom they are classified into
Mechanism: A system that consists of links and joints and converts one form of motion to Class I, Class II ….. Class V incase of spatial kinematic pairs and class I and class II in planar
another form (or) A system of links and joint that converts the available form of motion to the kinematic pairs.
desired form.
Class-n kinematic pair allows n degrees of freedom for the pair and constrains 6-n (3-n) degrees
Planar Mechanism: A mechanism that is constrained to move in a single plane or in parallel of freedom. A pair that constrains all the degrees of freedom of the second link relative to the
planes is referred as a planar mechanism or plane mechanism. first link is not considered as a kinematic pair. It is a rigid joint.
Degrees of Freedom: Number of independent co-ordinates that are required to specify the
Based on Nature of relative motion: Based on the relative motion that exists between the two
system completely. DOF of a rigid body in spatial motion are 6, consisting of 3 translatory
links the pairs can be classified as Rotary/ Revolute pairs, Sliding/ Prismatic pairs, Cylindrical
freedom and 3 rotational freedoms
pairs, special pairs and so on.
DOF of a rigid body in plane motion are 3 consisting of 2 translatory freedoms and one rotational
freedom. Based on Nature of contact: Based on the nature of contact between the two links the kinematic
pairs are classified as lower pairs and higher pairs. When the two bodies have surface to surface
Link / Kinematic Element: A rigid body or a resistant body that forms the part of a mechanism.
contact they are referred as lower pairs. When the contact between the bodies is a point or line
Classification of links: The links or the kinematic elements are the basic building block. They are contact they are referred as higher pairs.
classified as follows:
Based on type of closure: Closure means the way the two bodies are held together to have
Binary link: It connects with two other links
continuous contact. Two types of joint closures exists they are form closure and force closure.

x Form Closure: The two links are held together by the shape of the links and they cannot
be detached easily.
x Force Closure: The contact is maintained by an external force either the gravity force or
spring force and the two bodies can be separated easily.
Ternary link: It connects with three other links in a system Kinematic chain:

A kinematic chain is formed by connecting number of links with kinematic pairs so that there
exists definite relation between the motion of various links. They can be of two types closed
kinematic chains and open kinematic chains.

A mechanism is obtained by fixing any one link in a kinematic chain.

Degrees of Freedom of a Kinematic chain: A kinematic chain is formed by connecting number of


links with number of pairs. Let ‘n’ be the no. of links and J is the number of pairs of class n. Then
Quatenary Link: It connects with four other links. as for grubler’s criterion the DOF of a spatial kinematic chain is given by

= − − − − −

For a planar kinematic chain.

= − −

Kinematic Pair: Two links or elements connected with a joint that allows the relative motion
between the links.

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Degrees of Freedom of a Mechanism: As one link is fixed in a kinematic chain to get a mechanism. A four bar mechanism is as shown in figure; AD, the link 1 is known as the fixed link. AB, the link
Grublers equation for the DOF of a mechanism is as follows for spatial mechanism 2 acts as input link. The link 3 BC is the coupler and the link 4 CD is the output link. The input
and output links can be interchanged. If the input/output link can have complete rotation about
= ( − )− − − − − . its centre it is known as crank. If it has only a partial revolution it is known as a rocker or an
oscillatory link. Based on this the mechanisms can be classified as C-C, C-R, R-C, R- R
For a planar mechanism mechanisms.

= ( − )− − Inversions of Grashoff’s 4-bar chain (l + s < p + q): The mechanisms obtained from the
Grashoff’s kinematic chain are based on the positions of the shortest link
Note: A mechanism has six (three) degrees of freedom less compared to that of the kinematic
chain from which it is obtained. x Shortest link fixed-Double crank mechanism
x Link adjacent to shortest link is fixed crank-Rocker mechanism
Classification based on degrees of freedom: x Link opposite to the Shortest link is fixed: Rocker-Rocker mechanism
Zero degrees of freedom: Structure Inversions of Non-Grashoffs 4-bar chain: l + s > p + q
Negative degrees of freedom: Super structure/ Preloaded structure By fixing any link it results in Rocker-Rocker mechanism.
Positive degrees of Freedom: Mechanism Inversion of Special Grashoff’s Chain:
Parallelogram or anti-parallelogram connection will result in double crank or drag link
Four bar chain/quadric cycle chain: It is the basic chain that consists of four links and four mechanism. Deltoid connection will result in crank-Rocker mechanism.
turning pairs. It is the basic chain from which many one DOF mechanism can be derived. The
necessary condition to form a four bar chain based on their length is l < s + p + q. In parallelogram connection both long links and short links are opposite to each other. In deltoid
connection both long links and short links are side by side.
When l is the length of the longest link, s is that of the shortest link and p, q are the lengths of the
remaining two links. Though a chain is formed by satisfying the above condition it may not Equivalent linkage: By replacing any pair in a kinematic chain with its equivalent (from the same
result in useful mechanism, if one barely satisfy the condition. class). An equivalent chain can be obtained, by replacing any turning pair in a four bar chain
with a sliding pair a slider crank chain can be obtained. By replacing any two turning pairs with
Grashoff’s Condition: Grashoff’s condition checks the link proportions and classifies the chains sliding pairs a double slider crank chain can be obtained.
mechanism
Inversions of a single slider crank chain:
If l + s < p + q Grashoffs or Class –I I inversion: An I.C. engine mechanism/compressor mechanism
If l + s > p + q Non grashoffs or Class-II
If l + s = p + q Special Grashoffs or Class-III II inversion: wit-worth Quick return motion mechanism and rotary engine.

III inversion: Crank and slotted level type quick return motion mechanism and oscillating
Inversion: By fixing one link in a kinematic chain a mechanism is obtained. By fixing different cylinder engine
links, different mechanisms are obtained. Inversion is the process of obtaining different
mechanism by fixing different links in a kinematic chain. IV inversion: Hand pump

C Inversions of Double Slider Crank chain:


B I inversion: Scotch Yoke-mechanism. Useful for generating trignometric functions

II inversion: Elliptical trammel. Useful for tracing the elliptical curves

III inversion: Oldham’s Coupling. Useful for connecting two parallel shafts with little offset.

Mechanical Advantage: The ratio of load to effort is known as mechanical advantage.


A D
∴ Mechanical advantage = =
Nomenclature of four bar mechanisms:

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5.1.2 Dynamic Analysis of Slider-crank Mechanism The –ve sign indicates that the sense of angular acceleration of the rod is such that it tends to
reduce the angle β. Thus, in the given case, the angular acceleration of the connecting rod is
clockwise.

A Engine Force Analysis:

An engine is acted upon by various forces such as weight of reciprocating masses and connecting
B rod, gas forces, forces due to friction & inertia forces due to acceleration & retardation of engine
0 ODC
elements, the least being dynamic in nature. The effect of the weight & the inertia effect of the
IDC
connecting rod is neglected.

Fig. 5.1.2.1
A
+ ( + )
Figure shows a slider crank mechanism in which the crank OA rotates in the clockwise direction.
ℓ & r are the lengths of the connecting rod & the crank respectively. B
F

Let x = displacement of piston from IDC (Inner Dead Centre).


Fig. 5.1.2.2
Velocity of Piston:

V = rω sin θ + Let A = area of the cover end



If n is large compared to sin θ, A = area of the piston rod
p = pressure on the cover end
V = rω sin θ +
p = pressure on the rod end
If is neglected if ‘n’ is quite large m = mass of the reciprocating parts.
V = rω sin θ
Force on the piston due to gas pressure,
Acceleration of Piston: F =p A −p A
Inertia force, F = m × a.
a = rω cos θ + = mrω cos θ +
If n is very very large Net (Effective) force on the piston,
a = rω cos θ as in case of SHM F=F −F
When θ = 0° i.e. at IDC, a = rω 1 + In case friction resistance F is also taken into account,
Force on the piston, F = F − F − F
θ = 180° i.e. at ODC, a = rω −1 +
In case of vertical engines, the weight of the piston or reciprocating parts also acts as force
At θ = 180° , when direction of motion is reversed and thus,
a = rω 1 − Force on the piston, F = F + mg − F − F

Angular velocity & Angular Acceleration of connecting rod: 1. Force (thrust) along the connecting rod:
Let F = Force in the connecting rod shown in Fig (1.2.2)
ω = ω. Then equating the horizontal components of forces.

F × cos β = F or F =
ω = angular velocity of connecting rod.

α = −ω sin θ ( ) / 2. Thrust on the sides of cylinder:


It is the normal reaction on the cylinder walls.
α = angular acceleration of the connecting rod F = F sin β = F tan β

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3. Crank Effort: Capital letters deals with the configuration diagram is AB, CD are respective link positions, lower
Force is exerted on the crankpin as a result of the force on the piston. Crank effort is the net case letters indicate the points on the velocity diagram
effort (force) applied at the crank pin perpendicular to the crank which gives the required
Cases:
turning moment on the crank shaft.
Let F = crank effort 1. When the link AB and BC are parallel to each other
As Ft × r = F r sin(θ + β) Velocity of polygon will be a straight line
F = F sin(θ + β) Velocity of B is equal to the velocity of C.
= sin(θ + β) ∴l ω =l ω and ω = 0
If both AB and DC are on the same side of AB both have the angular velocity in the same
sense. If they are on opposite side i.e. BC crosses AD; AB and DC will have velocities in the
4. Thrust on the Bearing opposite sense
The component of F along the crank (in the radial direction) produces a thrust on the crank
shaft bearings. 2. When AB and DC are parallel
F = F cos(θ + β) = cos(θ + β) i.e. they are in the same line, ω = 0 and ω l = ω l .

Turning moment on crank shaft 3. When BC and CD are parallel


i.e. they are in same line, ω = 0 and ω l = ω l
T = F sin θ +

Instantaneous Centre: The instantaneous centre, for a plane body moving in a two dimensional
5.1.3 Velocity Analysis in 4-bar Mechanism: plane is a point in its plane around which all other points on the body are rotating at the instant.
Consider the mechanism shown in Figure 5.1.3.1. The pre requisite for the velocity analysis is This point itself is the only point that is not moving at that instant.
the knowledge of position of all the links which is available from the position analysis or from The number of instantaneous centers in a mechanism depends upon number of links. If N is the
configuration diagram. If the link 2 rotates with ω rad/sec in counter clock wise direction. The number of instantaneous centers and n is the number of links.
velocity of other links is obtained as follows.
n n  1
N=
2
There are three types of instantaneous centers namely fixed, permanent and neither fixed nor
⊥ AB permanent.
n n  1 4 4  1
b For Four bar mechanism, n = 4, N = = 6
B C 2 2
I13

a, d
⊥ DC
D c
A

⊥ BC I34
Fig. 5.1.3.1 3

Construction procedure for velocity polygon: A and D are fixed points having zero velocity mark, I23
a, d at a convenient location and they act as reference for the velocity polygon. Velocity of B
relative to A will be l ω perpendicular to AB in the direction of ω so draw ab ⊥ to AB⃗ with a 4
length l ω . Velocity of C relative to B will be ⊥ to BC but sense is not known hence draw a line ⊥ 2
to BC passing through b. Velocity of C relative to D will be ⊥’lr to DC sense is not known. So draw
a line ⊥lr to DC through d. These two lines will intersect at C that completes the velocity polygon.
In the velocity diagram the vector bc indicates the velocity of C relative to B and ω l = bc gives I24
ω . Similarly dc = ω l from which ω can be obtained. I12 1 I14
Fig. 5.1.3.2

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Fixed instantaneous center I12, I14 The tangential component of velocity is Ar to the link and is given by Vt = Zr. In this case Z has
been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant velocity. Therefore,
Permanent instantaneous center I23, I34 tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in uniform increase in tangential
velocity. The equation Vt = Zr remain same but r increases uniformly i.e. there is a constant
Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I13, I24 acceleration Ar to rod.
Coriolis Acceleration: To illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever ? Displacement B1B2 = ½ at2
mechanisms.
= ½ f (dt)2

? ½ f (dt)2 = VB/A Z2 (dt)2


P P1
fcrB/A = 2Z2 VB/A Coriolis acceleration
2 B1 B2
Q The direction of coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector for the two
coincident points rotated at 90o in the direction of angular velocity of rotation of the link.
B on link 3 dT
Figure 5.1.3.4 shows the direction of coriolis acceleration in different situation.

fcr
3 A1

A on link 2
dT Z2
Z2
Z2
Z2

O
fcr
Fig. 5.1.3.3
(a) Rotation CW slider moving up (b) Rotation CW slider moving down

Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity Z2, in its motions from OP to OP1 in a small
interval of time Gt. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B to B2. Assume this fcr
motion also to have constant velocity VB/A. Consider the motion of slider from B to B2 in 3 stages.

1. B to A1 due to rotation of link 2.


Z2 Z2
2. A1 to B1 due to outward velocity of slider VB/A.

3. B1 to B2 due to acceleration Ar to link 2 this component in the coriolis component of


acceleration.
fcr
We have Arc B1B2 = Arc QB2 – Arc QB1
(c) Rotation CCW slider moving up (d) Rotation CCW slider moving down
= Arc QB2 – Arc AA1 Fig. 5.1.3.4

? Arc B1B2 = OQ dT - AO dT

= A1B1 dT

= VB/A Z2(dt)2

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Part 5.2: Gear Trains Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the engagement of a
given pair of teeth.
5.2.1 Gears
Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth. The Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear teeth and
gear teeth act like small levers. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily rolling the Pitch Point.
contact between the teeth.
Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of contact of
the gear teeth.
Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the axes of
revolution. Backlash: Play between mating teeth.
x Gears for connecting parallel shafts: Base Circle: The base circle of an involute gear is the circle from which involute teeth profiles are
1. Spur gears: They are common types of gears with straight teeth. derived.

2. Helical gears: The teeths on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. Because Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears.
of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a thrust load on the gear when they
mesh. Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord, passing through the points where the Pitch
Circle crosses the tooth profile, and the tooth top.
3. Double helical gears (Herringbone gears): Herringbone gear is a special type of gear which
is a side to side (not face to face) combination of two helical gears of opposite hands. Their Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the points
advantage over the simple helical gear is that the side-thrust of one half is counter-balanced where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile.
by that of the other half.
Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth. Pc =
4. Rack and Pinion: Racks are straight gears that are used to convert rotational motion to
translational motion by means of a gear mesh. Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch Circle

x Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it fits on
the meshing gear.
1. Bevel Gears: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be
changed. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid. Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.

x Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle.
1. Worm Gears: Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common for
worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater. Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter. DP = T/D

Gear Terminology: Face: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the top of the
tooth.

Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis.

Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the bottom of
the teeth

Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. If both gears are of the same size, they are both called "gears".

Land: The top surface of the tooth.

Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels, between the
first point of contact and the last.

Module: Millimeter of Pitch Diameter to Teeth. m =


Addendum: The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth.

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Pinion: The smaller of two meshed gears. Mathematically,


PC Circular pitch S u m
Pitch Circle: The circle, the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the gear to the Where: and m = Module.
pitch point.
5.2.2 Gear Trains
Pitch Point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears, where the Line of
Centers crosses the pitch circles. The combination of gear wheels by means of which motion is transmitted from one shaft to
another shaft is called a gear train. The gear trains are of the following types:
Pressure Angle: Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of Centers.
Simple Gear Trains: The typical spur gears are shown in diagram. The direction of rotation is
Profile Shift: An increase in the Outer Diameter and Root Diameter of a gear, introduced to lower the reversed from one gear to another. It has no affect on the gear ratio. The teeth on the gears must
practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance. all be of the same size so if gear A advances one tooth, so does B and C.

Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears. t = number of teeth on the gear, v
D = Pitch circle dia meter, N = speedin rpm v
Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces.
D
m = module =
Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle. t
and module must be the same for all gears , ZA ZB
Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the mating
ZC
otherwise they would not mesh.
gear.
D D D
m= A = B = C
Path of contact: The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the tA tB tC
addendum circles of the wheel and the pinion. D A = m t A; DB = m t B and DC = m t C
Z = angula r velocity.
Path of approach: R A 2  R 2 cos2 I  R sin I
D
v = linear velocity on the circle. v = Z = Z r GEAR 'A' GEAR 'B' GEAR 'C'
Path of recess: ra 2  r 2 cos2 I  r sin I 2 (Idler gear)

Length of path of contact R A 2  R 2 cos2 I  ra 2  r 2 cos2 I  R  r sin I The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears, otherwise they would be
slipping. DA DB DC
v ZA ZB ZC
ra = Radius of addendum circle of pinion, 2 2 2
Z A DA ZB DB ZC DC
R A = Radius of addendum circle of wheel
Z A m t A ZB m t B ZC m tC
r = Radius of pitch circle of pinion, Z A t A ZB t B ZC tC
R = Radius of pitch circle of wheel. or in terms of rev / min
N A t A N B t B N C tC
I = Pressure angle.
If A is the driving wheel and C is driven wheel, then
Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to
the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. Velocity Ratio = = =

Length of arc of approach Lenght of path of approach


cos I Train Value: It is reciprocal of velocity ratio.
Length of arc of recess Lenght of path of recess
cos I In an ideal gear box, the input and output powers are the same so;
Length of arc contact Length of path of contact
2S N1 T1 2S N 2 T2
cosI P
Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact): The contact ratio or the number of pairs of 60 60
teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch. T2 N1
Length of the arc of contact N1 T1 N 2 T2 Ÿ GR
Contatratio T1 N2
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Epicyclic Gear Train: Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. The design
involves planet and sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet around the sun.
It follows that if the speed is reduced, the torque is increased and vice versa. In a real gear box,
power is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. The
efficiency is defined as:
Power out 2S u N 2 T2 u 60 N 2 T2 The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear B meshes with gear C and revolves
K around it when the arm is rotated. B is called the planet gear and C the sun.
Power In 2S u N1 T1 u 60 N1 T1
Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine how many revolutions
the planet gear B makes.
Because the torque in and out is different, a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case
or body rotating. A holding torque T3 must be applied to the body through the clamps. Step Action A B C

The total torque must add up to zero. 1 Revolve all once 1 1 1

T1 + T2 + T3 = 0 tC
2 Revolve C by –1 revolution, keeping the arm fixed 0  -1
tB

If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine tC
1
the holding torque. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the 3 Add 1 tB 0
gear box.

Compound Gear Trains: Compound gears are simply a


Step 1 is to revolve everything once about the center.
chain of simple gear trains with the input of the second
„‡‹‰–Š‡‘—–’—–‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‹”•–Ǥ Step 2 identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm
fixed as it should only do one revolution in total. Work out the revolutions of B.
6LQFHJHDU%DQG&DUHRQWKHVDPHVKDIW
Z B ZC Step 3 is simply add them up and we find the total revs of C is zero and for the arm is 1.
ZA tB tD
u GR § t ·
ZD t A tC The number of revolutions made by B is ¨¨1  C ¸¸
© tB ¹
Since Z 2 u S u N
The gear ratio may be tC
Note: that if C revolves -1, then the direction of B is opposite so  .
written as : tB
N In t B t D
u GR
N Out t A t C
Reverted Gear train: The driver and driven axes lies on
the same line. These are used in speed reducers, clocks
N A tB u tD
and machine tools. GR
ND t A u tC

If R and T=Pitch circle radius & number of teeth of the


gear

RA + RB = RC + RD and tA + tB = tC + tD

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Part 5.3: Flywheel again maximum at d & minimum at a. Thus, there are two maximum & two minimum speeds for
the turning-moment diagram.
A flywheel is a device which serves as a reservoir to store energy when the supply of energy is
more than the requirement and releases energy when the requirement is more than the supply. The difference between the greatest & the least speeds of the engine over one revolution is
Thereby, it controls the fluctuation of speed of the prime mover during each cycle of operation. known as the fluctuation of speed
5.3.1 Turning Moment Diagram Turning Moment Diagram for Single-cylinder Four stroke Engine:
A turning moment diagram also known as a crank effort diagram is the graphical representation −
of the turning moments for different positions of the crank.
+
Turning Moment Diagram for Single-cylinder Double acting Steam Engine: Turning moment

k
+

e f h j e f

Torque
p
0

p SUCTION COMPRESSION EXPANSION EXHAUST

crank angle,

FIG. 5.3.1.1
Fig.5. 3.1.2
It can be observed from Fig. 5.3.1.1 that during the outstroke ( ) the turning moment is
maximum when the crank angle is little less than 90° (π/2) & zero when the crank angle is zero In case of a four-stroke IC engine, the diagram repeats itself after every two revolutions instead
& 180° (π). Similar turning moment diagram is obtained during the instroke ( ). of one revolution as for a steam engine. It can be seen from the diagram (Fig. 5.3.1.2) that for the
majority of the suction stroke, turning moment is –ve but becomes +ve after point ‘p’. During the
Note that the area of the turning-moment diagram is proportional to the work done per
compression stroke, it is totally –ve. It is +ve throughout the expansion stroke & again –ve for
revolution as the work is the product of turning-moment & the angle turned.
most of the exhaust stroke.
The mean torque against which the engine works is given by = where is the Turning Moment Diagram for Multi-cylinder Engine:
mean torque and is the mean height of the turning-moment diagram.
Mean
When the crank turns from angle to (Fig. 5.3.1.1), the work done by the engine is Torque
represented by area ℎ . But the work done against the resisting torque is represented by the
area ℎ . Thus, the engine has done more work than what has been taken from it. The excess b c d e
work is represented by the area ℎ. This excess work increases the speed of the engine and is
stored in the flywheel.
1st 2nd 3rd
During the crank travel from or the work needed for the external resistance is
Torque

proportional to ℎ , whereas the work produced by the engine is represented by the area under
ℎ . Thus, during this period, more work has been taken from the engine that is produced. The
loss is made up by the flywheel which gives up some of its energy & the speed decreases during
this period.
0 f

Similarly, during the period of crank travel from to , excess work is again developed and is
stored in the flywheel and the speed of the engine increases. During the crank travel from to
, the loss of work is made up by flywheel and the speed again decreases. Fig. 3.1.3
The area ℎ, ℎ , & represent fluctuations of energy of the fly wheel. When the crank is
at b, the flywheel has absorbed energy while the crank has moved from a to b and thereby, the As observed in the foregoing paragraphs, the turning-moment diagram for a single cylinder
speed of the engine is maximum. At c, the flywheel has given out energy while the crank has engine varies considerably & a greater variation of the same is observed in case of four stroke,
moved from b to c and thus, the engine has a minimum speed. Similarly, the engine speed is single-cylinder engine. For engines with more than one cylinder, the total crank shaft torque at

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any instant is given by the sum of the torques developed by each cylinder at the instant. For The whole weight of the flywheel is assumed to be concentrated in the rim of the flywheel,
example, if an engine has two cylinders with cranks at 90°, the resultant turning moment therefore it is usual practice to neglect the weight of the arms and the boss in the design of the
diagram has a less variation than that for a single cylinder. In a three-cylinder engine having its flywheel.
cranks at 120°, the variation is still less.
I = moment of Inertia of the Flywheel
Fig. 5.3.1.3 shows the turning moment diagrams for a multi-cylinder engine. The mean torque = maximum speed =
line ab intersects the turning moment curve at a, b, c, d & e. The area under the wavy curve is
equal to the area . As discussed earlier, the speed of the engine will be maximum when the = minimum speed =
crank positions correspond to b, d & minimum corresponding to a, c, e. = mean speed =
= Kinetic energy of the Flywheel at mean speed
Fluctuation of Energy: = Maximum fluctuation Energy
Let , be the areas in work units of the portions above the mean torque ae of the turning = Co-efficient of fluctuation of speed
moment diagram (Fig. 5.3.1.3) these areas represent quantities of energies added to the = ( / ). (radius of gyration)
flywheel. Parallely areas , below ae represents quantities of energies taken from the
= ,
flywheel.

The energies of the flywheel corresponding to positions of the crank are as follows. where, = is the average speed, ks = is the coefficient of fluctuation of speed

Crank position Flywheel energy The Hoop stress in the flywheel can be determined by assuming it is as a ring.
a E
b E+ Hoop stress, =

c E+ − Where, is the density of the rim & is its peripheral speed.

d E+ − + If b & d be the respective width and diameter of the flywheel & t its thickness, then
e E+ − + −
= . . .
− + − =0
Co-efficient of Fluctuation of energy ( )::
The greatest of these energies is the maximum kinetic energy of the flywheel & for the
corresponding crank position, the speed is maximum. Excess energy developed by the engine between two cranks positions.

The least of these energies is the least kinetic Energy of the fly wheel & for the corresponding = where, =
crank position, the speed is minimum.
= =
. .
The difference between the maximum & minimum kinetic energies of the fly wheel is known as
where, = mean torque = ,
the maximum fluctuation of energy.
= mean speed =
Whereas the ratio of this maximum fluctuation of energy to the work done per cycle is defined as
the co-efficient of fluctuation of energy. & = 4 for steam engine &

The difference between the greatest speed & the least speed is known as the maximum 4 for four stroke IC engine.
fluctuation of speed & the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of speed to the mean speed is the co-
efficient of fluctuation of speed.

5.3.2 Size of Flywheel

There are two types of flywheels: disc type & arm type. In the arm type of flywheel, the weight of
the flywheel is mainly located in the rim & the arms & boss do not contribute much in storing the
energy.

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Part 5.4: Vibrations The undamped natural frequency does not depend on the initial conditions or the amplitude of
motion. It only depends on the mass and stiffness.
Vibration refers to oscillations about an equilibrium point. A system vibrates when, it is possible
for energy to be converted from one form to another and back again. There are three types of 5.4.2 Damped Vibrations
vibrations viz. Free Vibrations, Damped Vibrations & Forced Vibrations
Real vibration systems have a source of energy dissipation and it is convenient to represent this
5.4.1 Free Vibration by a massless viscous damper as shown. This produces a drag force opposing the motion which
depends on the velocity of the mass.
A free vibration is one that dies away with time due to energy dissipation. Usually there is some
initial disturbance. Following this initial disturbance the system vibrates without any further Thus the damping coefficient c, of the damper, results in an additional force − ̇ ( ) on the mass.
input. This is called the transient vibration or free vibration. Consider the motion of the Thus from Newton’s second law of motion using a free body diagram, the equation of motion is,
spring/mass system when it is initially disturbed and then allowed to vibrate freely. The
displacement of the mass with time, x(t), is measured from the static equilibrium position, i.e. m ̈+ ̇ ( ) + kx(t) = 0 . . . 5.4.2.1
the rest position.

If the spring has a linear stiffness k, then = kx.

If at some time t the mass is displaced an amount x(t) in the positive direction as shown.

Then there will be a force on the mass from the spring of –kx(t).

Thus from Newton’s second law of motion using a free – body diagram,

m ̈ + kx(t) = 0 . . .5.4.1.1
Equilibrium
position x(t)

It is useful to divide equation (5.4.2.1) by m so that rearranging we obtain,


̈( ) + 2 ( )+ ( )=0 . . . 5.4.2.2
Equilibrium
Where is the undamped natural frequency as before and the viscous damping ratio is defined
position
as
ξ=

The solution of equation (5.4.2.2) has different forms depending on the value of ξ.
x(t)
If the initial conditions are x(0) and ̇ (0) then for
Equation (5.4.1.1) is called the equation of motion. The equation is unchanged if gravity effects ξ<1
are included. The solution of the equation of motion gives, [ ̇( ) ( )]
̇( )
x(t) = (0) 1− +
x(t) = x(0) cos +
=1
where x(0) is the initial displacement from the equilibrium position; ̇ (0) is the initial velocity.
The frequency Zn is called the undamped natural frequency and is given by x(t) = [ (0) + [ ̇ (0) + (0)] ]
>1
= /
[ ̇( ) ( )]
Thus for an initial displacement but with no initial velocity the motion is sinusoidal with an x(t) = (0) ℎ − 1+
amplitude x(0) and frequency Zn,
Logarithmic decrement: For damping ratio ξ < 1.0 then vibration will occur and the motion is
x(t) = x(0) cos defined by

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[ ̇( ) ( )] The mathematical solution of the equation of motion may be achieved in various ways. It will be
x(t) = (0) 1− ,
found that after an initial transient (depending on initial conditions and start up effects from
and looks like applying the sinusoidally varying force) the motion becomes a steady sinusoidal displacement.
This situation is known as the steady state.
x(t )
x(t )
The steady state solution for x(t) can be shown to be
x(t) = X sin (ωt + ϕ) . . .5. 4.3.2
Where x = [( ) ( ) ] /
and tan ϕ = ( )

t t X is the displacement amplitude and ϕ is the phase angle between displacement and force.
It is common to non-dimensionalize these equations so that
= / …5. 4.3.3

It can be shown that, if the amplitudes on any two successive peaks are measured, the ratio of /
and tan ϕ = . . . 5.4.3.4
these amplitudes is constant. For any value of m, the log decrement will be
δ = ln[x( )/ ( )] = 2 / 1− Where = / ξ= and =

This equation can be rearranged to give, = The equation may be presented in graphical form,

For small values of δ, =


5 = 0.1
5.4.3 Forced vibration
4
A forced vibration is usually defined as being one that is kept going by an external excitation. We
now come to look at the vibration of a one degree of freedom system when there is an externally 3
applied force. The system will respond to the force. The response will depend on the particular
forcing function. We will look at a forcing function that illustrate most of the main effects 2
resulting from external forces.
1
It is a sinusoidally varying force that has a particular frequency which is popularly known as
harmonic excitation. 0
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0


k c

x(t) F sin ωt
is known as magnification factor (MF)

The equation of motion when the force input f(t) is F sin ωt is M.F o 1 as o0

̈( ) + ̇( ) + ( )= . . . 5.4.3.1 M.F o 0 as o∞

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Notes: Part – 6: Machine Design


The response curve has a resonance. The resonance is at a frequency = 1−2
Part 6.1: Theory of Failures
There is thus no resonance (i.e. no peak in the response) when ξ >1/√2
At resonance the response peak equals 1/2ξ for small ξ. The value of ξ may be determined from
the response curve for small ξ. The phase ϕ varies from 0 to – 180 degrees, i.e. the displacement
lags the force. 6.1.1 Theories of Failure under Static Load

Resonance: The strength of machine members is based upon the mechanical properties of the materials
Resonance used. Since these properties are usually determined from simple tension or compression tests,
predicting failure in members subjected to uniaxial stress is both simple and straight-forward.
5
But the problem of predicting the failure stresses for members subjected to bi-axial or tri-axial
4 stresses is much more complicated, that a large number of different theories have been
formulated. The principle theories of failure for a member subjected to tri-axial stress are as
3
follows:
= 0.1
2
1. Maximum principle (or normal) stress theory (also known as Rankine’s theory).
1 2. Maximum shear stress theory (also known as Guest’s or Tresca’s theory).
3. Maximum principle (or normal) strain theory (also known as Saint Venant theory).
0 4. Maximum strain energy theory (also known as Haigh’s theory).
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 5. Maximum distortion energy theory (also known as Hencky and Von Mises theory).
6. Octahedral Shearing Stress theory.
Resonant frequency
Ductile materials have identifiable yield strength that is often same in compression as in tension
Resonance occurs, i.e. X/ is a maximum, when (X/X ) /dt is zero. This can be shown to be (Syt = Syc = Sy ).
when
ω = ω (1 − 2ξ ) Brittle materials, do not exhibit identifiable yield strength, and are typically classified by
ultimate tensile and compressive strengths, Sut and Suc, respectively (where Suc is given as a
However note that there is no real solution for ω when ξ > 1/√2, i.e the response continuously positive quantity)
falls with frequency. The final point of interest is the response amplitude at resonance, X/X
Maximum principle or Normal Stress Theory (Rankine’s Theory) for Brittle materials
For small values of ξ, X/X is equal to 1/(2 ξ).
Vibration Isolation: Vibration forces generated by machines and other causes are often The elastic failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the maximum principle or
unavoidable; however, their effects on a dynamical system can be minimized by proper isolator normal stress reaches the limiting strength of the material in a simple tension test irrespective
design. An isolation system reduces the excessive vibration transmission to the delicate objects of the value of other two principle stresses, i.e., when =
from its supporting structure.
Since the limiting strength for ductile materials is yield point stress and for brittle materials is
The force to be isolated is transmitted through spring and damper. Its equation is ultimate stress, the maximum principle or normal stress ( ) is given by

F = (kX) + (cωX) = kX 1 + . . . 5.4.3.5 =

The ratio of transmitted force to that of disturbing force is known as Transmissibility ratio (TR). =
Mathematically, it is
Where, = Yield stress in tension as determined from simple tension test

= Ultimate stress

TR = = . . . 5.4.3.6 FOS = Factor of Safety

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Since this theory ignores the possibility of failure due to shearing stress, it is not used for ductile Shear Strain energy or Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky and Von Mises Theory)
materials.
The failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the distortion strain energy (also
However, for brittle materials which are relatively strong in shear but weak in tension or called shear strain energy) per unit volume in the stressed material reaches the limiting
compression, this theory is generally used. distortion energy (i.e. distortion energy at yield point) per unit volume as determined from a
simple tension test. Mathematically, the maximum distortion energy theory for yielding is
Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guest’s or Tresca’s Theory) for ductile materials. expressed as

The elastic failure occurs when the greatest shear stress reaches a value equal to the shear stress ( − ) +( − ) +( − ) = 2
at elastic limit in a simple tension test.

( − )= or

( − )=

Maximum Principle Strain Theory (Saint Venant’s Theory)


The elastic failure occurs when the greatest principle (or normal) strain reaches the elastic limit
point (i.e. strain at yield point) as determined from a simple tensile test.
According to the above theory, the elastic failure will occur, when
1
[ − ( + )] =

This theory over-estimates the elastic strength of ductile materials.

Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Beltrami’s or Haigh’s Theory) for ductile materials
Fig. 6.1.1 The distortion-energy (DE) theory for plane stress states
The failure or yielding occurs when the strain energy per unit volume in a strained material
This theory is mostly used for ductile materials in place of maximum strain energy theory.
reaches the limiting strain energy (i.e. strain energy at the yield point ) per unit volume as
determined from simple tension test. Note: The maximum distortion energy is the difference between the total strain energy and the
strain energy due to uniform stress.
According to this theory, the maximum energy which a body can store without deforming
plastically is constant for that material irrespective of the manner of loading. Octahedral Shearing Stress Theory
1
[ + + −2 ( + + )] = According to this theory, the critical quantity is the shearing stress on the octahedral plane. The
2 2
plane which is equally inclined to all the three principle axes is called the octahedral plane.
[ + + −2 ( + + )] =
This theory breaks down for a case when,
= = =−
And in that case failure is predicted when

=
3(1 − 2 )
But in fact with this type of loading (i.e.,) when there is uniform pressure all round (hydrostatic
pressure), no failure occurs.

This theory may be used for ductile materials.


Fig. 6.1.2 Octahedral surfaces

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= [( − ) +( − ) +( − ) ] If the loading conditions are suitably altered, a brittle material may be made to yield before
failure. Hence, design of a member requires the determination of the mode of failure (yielding
or fracture), and the factor (such as stress, strain and energy) associated with it. Full scale tests
Where, simulating all conditions would be ideal but not practicable.
= Octahedral shearing stress
In practice, in complex loading conditions, the factor associated with failure has to be identified
and precautions taken to ensure that this factor does not exceed maximum allowable value

Failure is said to occur when = determined on the basis of suitable tests (uniform tension or torsion) on the material in the
laboratory.
This theory is supported quite well by experimental evidences and is identical to Von Mises
theory. Results of many laboratory tests on ductile material shows shear stress from torsion tests varies
between 0.55 and 0.6 of the yield strength determined from tension tests. This result agrees
6.1.2 Theories of failure for two dimensional stresses: with shear strain energy theory and octahedral shear stress theory. The maximum shear stress
theory predicts that the shear yield value is 0.5 times the tensile yield value, which is about 15%
Taking as zero, the above equations reduce to less than the value predicted by the other two theories.

1. Maximum principle stress theory The maximum shear stress theory gives design values on the safe side and is widely used in
= design with ductile materials.

2. Maximum principle strain theory


( − )=

3. Maximum shear stress theory


(a) For like tensile stresses
> >0
−0 =
=

(b) For unlike stresses ≥0> ( )


− =
ℎ =
>0>
− =

4. Maximum strain energy theory


+ −2 =

5. Maximum distortion energy theory


+ − =

6.1.3 Significance of theories of failure

Mode of failure of a ductile material differs from that of brittle material. It depends on a large
number of factors like

x Nature and Properties of the material


x Type of loading
x Shape of member
x Temperature of member, etc.

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Part 6.2: Fatigue

6.2.1 Stress concentration

Whenever a machine component changes the shape of its cross-section, the simple stress
distribution no longer holds good and the neighbourhood of the discontinuity is different. This
irregularity in the stress distribution caused by abrupt changes of form is called stress
concentration.

It occurs for all kinds of stresses in the presence of fillets, notches, holes, keyways, splines,
surface roughness or scratches etc. Fig. 6.2.2 Stress Concentration due to holes

From the stress-distribution, the stress at the point away from the hole is practically uniform
and the maximum stress is induced at the edge of the hole. The maximum stress is given by

2
= 1+

Fig. 6.2.1
and the theoretical stress concentration factor,
In the above member with different cross-section under a tensile load, the nominal stress in the
2
right and left hand sides will be uniform but in the region where the cross-section is changing, a = = 1+
re-distribution of the force within the member must take place. The maximum stress occurs at
some point on the fillet and is directed parallel to the boundary at that point.
When a/b is large (a), the ellipse approaches a crack transverse to the load and the value of Kt
becomes very large. When a/b is small (b), the ellipse approaches a longitudinal slit and the
Theoretical or Form Stress Concentration Factor:
increase in stress is small. When the hole is circular (c), then a/b = 1 and the maximum stress is
The theoretical or form stress concentration factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum stress three times the nominal value.
to the nominal stress at the same section based upon net area.

Maximum stress
K =
Nominal stress

The value of Kt depends upon the material and geometry of the part.

x In static loading, stress concentration in ductile materials is not so serious as in brittle


materials, because in ductile materials local deformation or yielding takes place which Fig. 6.2.3 Stress Concentration due to notches
reduces the concentration. In brittle materials, cracks may appear at these local
concentrations of stress which will increase the stress over the rest of the section. The stress concentration in the notched tension member, is influenced by the depth a of the
x In cyclic loading, stress concentration in ductile materials is always serious because the notch and radius r at the bottom of the notch. The maximum stress, which applies to members
ductility of the material is not effective in relieving the concentration of stress caused by having notches that are small in comparison with the width of the plate, may be obtained by the
cracks, flaws, surface roughness, or any sharp discontinuity in the geometrical form of the following equation,
member. If the stress at any point in a member is above the endurance limit of the material, a
crack may develop under the action of repeated load and the crack will lead to failure of the 2
= 1+
member.

Stress Concentration due to Holes and Notches: Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration:
x Maintain or improve the spacing of the stress flow lines that tend to bunch up and cut very
Consider a plate with transverse elliptical hole and subjected to a tensile load as shown in the close to the sharp re-entrant corner, by providing
figure. 9 Fillets and
9 Notches ( when not possible to use large radius fillets as in case of ball and roller bearing
mountings)

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x The stress concentration effects of a press fit may be reduced by making more gradual 1. Mean or average stress,
transition from the rigid to the more flexible shaft
+
=
6.2.2 Dynamic loading

x The stresses which vary from a minimum value to a maximum value of the same nature, 2. Reversed stress component or alternating or variable stress,
(i.e. tensile or compressive) are called fluctuating stresses. −
=

Note: For repeated loading, the stress varies from maximum to zero (i.e. = 0) in each cycle.

∴ = =

3. Stress ratio,

Fig. 6.2.4
x For completely reversed stresses, R = – 1
x The stresses which vary from zero to a certain maximum value are called repeated x For repeated stresses, R = 0.
stresses. x R cannot be greater than unity.

4. Relation between endurance limit and stress ratio

=

Where,

= Endurance limit for any stress range represented by R.

Fig. 6.2.5 = Endurance limit for completely reversed stresses, and

x The stresses which vary from a minimum value to a maximum value of the opposite = Stress ratio.
nature (i.e. from a certain minimum compressive to a certain maximum tensile or from a
6.2.3 Fatigue
minimum tensile to a maximum compressive) are called alternating stresses.
When a material is subjected to repeated stresses, it fails at stresses below the yield point
stresses. Such type of failure of a material is known as fatigue.

The fatigue of material is effected by the size of the component, relative magnitude of static and
fluctuating loads and the number of load reversals.

Fatigue failure is due to crack formation and propagation. A fatigue crack will typically initiate at
a discontinuity in the material where the cyclic stress is a maximum.

Discontinuities can arise because of:


Fig. 6.2.6
x Design of rapid changes in cross section, keyways, holes, etc. where stress
The variable stress, in general, may be considered as a combination of steady (or mean or
concentrations occur
average) stress and a completely reversed stress component.

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x Elements that roll and/or slide against each other (bearings, gears, cams, etc.) under beam machine) of standard laboratory controlled specimens. The loading often is that of
high contact pressure, developing concentrated subsurface contact stresses that can sinusoidally reversing pure bending. The laboratory-controlled specimens are polished without
cause surface pitting or spalling after many cycles of the load. geometric stress concentration at the region of minimum area.
x Carelessness in locations of stamp marks, tool marks, scratches, and burrs; poor joint
design; improper assembly; and other fabrication faults.
x Composition of the material itself as processed by rolling, forging, casting, extrusion,
drawing, heat treatment, etc. Microscopic and submicroscopic surface and subsurface
discontinuities arise, such as inclusions of foreign material, alloy segregation, voids, hard
precipitated particles, and crystal discontinuities.
Conditions that accelerate crack initiation: Fig. 6.2.7 Test-specimen geometry for the R.R. Moore rotating beam machine.

x residual tensile stresses


x elevated temperatures
x temperature cycling
x corrosive environment
x high-frequency cycling
Fatigue-Life Methods
x Stress-life method
x Strain-life method
x Linear-elastic fracture mechanics method
These methods attempt to predict the life in number of cycles to failure, N, for a specific level of
loading.
N ≤ 103 - low-cycle fatigue
N > 103 - high-cycle fatigue
Stress-life method:
Fig. 6.2.8 S-N diagram for steel, normalized; Sut = 116 kpsi; maximum Sut = 125 kpsi.
9 Based on stress levels only
9 Least accurate approach, especially for low-cycle applications.
9 Easiest to implement for a wide range of design applications,
9 Has ample supporting data, and
9 Represents high-cycle applications adequately.
Strain-life method:
9 More detailed analysis of the plastic deformation at localized regions where the stresses
and strains are considered for life estimate
9 Good Method for low-cycle fatigue applications
9 In applying this method, several idealizations must be compounded, and so some
uncertainties will exist in the results.
Fracture mechanics method:
9 Assumes a crack is already present and detected. It is then employed to predict crack
growth with respect to stress intensity.
9 Most practical when applied to large structures in conjunction with computer codes and
a periodic inspection program. Fig. 6.2.9 S-N bands for representative aluminum alloys, excluding wrought alloys with Sut < 38
kpsi
Fatigue Strength and the Endurance Limit:
The strength-life (S-N) diagram provides the fatigue strength Sf versus cycle life N of a material. For steel and iron, the S-N diagram becomes horizontal at some point. The strength at this point
The results are generated from tests using a simple loading (R. R.Moore high-speed rotating- is called the endurance limit [maximum value of the completely reversed bending stress which a
polished standard specimen can withstand without failure for infinite number of cycles (usually

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107 cycles)]. S′e and occurs somewhere between 106 and 107 cycles. For non-ferrous materials Fatigue stress concentration factor,
that do not exhibit an endurance limit, a fatigue strength at a specific number of cycles, S′f , may
be given. The strength data are based on many controlled conditions that will not be the same as =
that for an actual machine part. What follows are practices used to account for the differences
between the loading and physical conditions of the specimen and the actual machine part. Notch Sensitivity Factor:
The term endurance limit is used for reversed bending only while for other types of loading, the The notch sensitivity of a material is a measure of how sensitive a material is to notches or
term endurance strength may be used when referring the fatigue strength of the material. It may geometric discontinuities. Mathematically, it is expressed as
be defined as the safe maximum stress which can be applied to the machine part working under
actual conditions. −1
=
−1
Endurance Limit Modifying Factors:
0≤ ≤1
Modifying factors are defined and used to account for differences between the specimen and the
actual machine part with regard to surface conditions, size, loading, temperature, reliability, and Combination of Mean Stress and Fluctuating stress:
miscellaneous factors.
The mean stress can have a significant effect on the failure due to fatigue and must be
Factor of Safety for Fatigue Loading: considered in combination with the alternating stress.. (Under normal fatigue loading conditions
the mean stress is small compared to the alternating stress.)
When a component is subjected to fatigue loading, the endurance limit is the criterion for failure.
Therefore, the factor of safety should be based on endurance limit. Mathematically, A number of interaction criteria are used to quantify the combined stress and the relevant
design factors of safety. These are plotted together below
Factor of safety (FOS) = =

For Steel, Soderberg Line

= . .
Gerber Line
Where,
Goodman Line
= Endurance limit stress for completely reversed stress cycle, and
Modified Goodman Line
= Yield point stress.
Stress Amplitude

Factors to be Considered while Designing Machine Parts to Avoid Fatigue Failure:

x The variation in the size of the component should be as gradual as possible.


x The holes, notches and other stress raisers should be avoided. Mean Stress
x The proper stress de-concentrators such as fillets and notches should be provided
wherever necessary.
The Mean Stress σ is plotted on the horizontal axis and the alternating stress σ is plotted
x The parts should be protected from corrosive atmosphere.
on the vertical axis.
x A smooth finish of outer surface of the component increases the fatigue life.
x The material with high fatigue strength should be selected. Soderberg Line
x The residual compressive stresses over the parts surface increases its fatigue strength.
If the point of the combined stress is below the Soderberg line then the component will not fail.
Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor: This is a very conservative criteria based on the material yield point S
When a machine member is subjected to cyclic or fatigue loading, the value of fatigue stress
To establish the factor of safety relative to the Soderberg Criteria
concentration factor shall be applied instead of theoretical stress concentration factor. Since the
determination of fatigue stress concentration factor is not an easy task, therefore from
experimental tests it is defined as

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Part 6.3: Design of Machine Elements


1
+ = 6.3.1 Design of riveted joints
Types of riveted joints and joint efficiency:
Goodman Line/Modified Goodman Line Riveted joints are mainly of two types
1. Lap joints
If the point of the combined stress is below the relevant Goodman line then the component will
2. Butt joints
not fail. This is a less conservative criteria based on the material Ultimate strength yield point
S Table 6.3.1.Efficiencies of riveted joints (in %)
Joints Efficiencies (in %)
To establish the factor of safety relative to the Goodman Criteria
Lap Single riveted 50-60
1 Double riveted 60-72
+ =
Triple riveted 72-80
Butt (double Single riveted 55-60
Gerber Line
strap) Double riveted 76-84
If the point of the combined stress is below the Gerber line then the component will not fail. This Triple riveted 80-88
is a less conservative criteria based on the material Ultimate strength S
Few parameters, which are required to specify arrangement of rivets in a riveted joint are as
To establish the factor of safety relative to the Gerber Criteria follows:
a. Pitch: This is the distance between two centers of the consecutive rivets in a single row.
(usual symbol p)
+ =1 b. Back Pitch: This is the shortest distance between two successive rows in a multiple
riveted joint. (usual symbol p or p )
x S = The Modified fatigue strength c. Diagonal pitch: This is the distance between the centers of rivets in adjacent rows of
x S = The ultimate tensile strength zigzag riveted joint. (usual symbol d )
x S = The yield tensile strength d. Margin or marginal pitch: This is the distance between the centre of the rivet hole to the
x N = The Factor of Safety applicable for Fatigue nearest edge of the plate. (usual symbol m)
These parameters are shown in figure
g 6.3.1.7.

Figure 6.3.1.7 Important design parameters of riveted joint

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Strength of riveted joint: c) Crushing of rivet: If the bearing stress on the rivet is too large the contact surface between
the rivet and the plate may get damaged. (see Figure 6.3.1.4). With a simple assumption of
Strength of a riveted joint is evaluated taking all possible failure paths in the joint into account. uniform contact stress the maximum force allowed is
Since rivets are arranged in a periodic manner, the strength of joint is usually calculated P = s dt
considering one pitch length of the plate. There are four possible ways a single rivet joint may
fail. where s = allowable bearing stress between the rivet and plate material.

a) Tearing of the plate: If the force is too large, the plate may fail in tension along the row (see
figure 6.3.1.2). The maximum force allowed in this case is

P = s (p − d)t

where s = allowable tensile stress of the plate material

p = pitch

d = diameter of the rivet hole

t = thickness of the plate

Figure 6.3.1.4 Failure of rivets by

d) Tearing of the plate at edge: If the margin is too small, the plate may fail as shown in figure
6.3.1.5. To prevent the failure a minimum margin of m = 1.5d is usually provided.

Figure 6.3.1.2 Failure of plate in tension (tearing)

b) Shearing of the rivet: The rivet may shear as shown in Figure 6.3.1.3 . The maximum force
withstood by the joint to prevent this failure is
P =s d for lap joint, single strap butt joint
= 2s d for double strap butt joint
where s = allowable shear stress of the rivet material.
Figure 6.3.1.5 Tearing of the plate at the edge

Efficiency:

Efficiency of the single riveted joint can be obtained as ratio between the maximum of P , P and
P and the load carried by a solid plate which is

s pt. Thus
Figure 6.3.1.3 Failure of a rivet by shearing
( , , )
efficiency (η)=

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In a double or triple riveted joint the failure mechanisms may be more than those discussed =
above. The failure of plate along the outer row may occur in the same way as above. However, in
addition the inner rows may fail. For example, in a double riveted joint, the plate may fail along where s = allowable tensile strength of the weld material.
the second row. But in order to do that the rivets in the first row must fail either by shear or by
crushing. Thus the maximum allowable load such that the plate does not tear in the second row t = thickness of the weld
is
l = length of the weld.
P = s (p − d)t + min{P , P }
For a square butt joint t is equal to the thickness of the plates. In general, this need not be so
Further, the joint may fail by (see figure 6.3.2.1).

(i) shearing of rivets in both rows


(ii) crushing of rivets in both rows
(iii) shearing of rivet in one row and crushing in the other row.

The efficiency should be calculated taking all possible failure mechanism into consideration.

Design of rivet joints:

The design parameters in a riveted joints are, d, p, and m

Diameter of the hole (d): When thickness of the plate (t) is more than 8 mm, Unwin’s formula is
used,
= 6√t mm. Figure 6.3.2.1 Design of a butt joint
Otherwise d is obtained by equating crushing strength to the shear strength of the joint. In a 2. Design of transverse fillet joint: Consider a single transverse joint as shown in figure 6.3.2.2.
double riveted zigzag joint, this implies The general stress distribution in the weld metal is very complicated. In design, a simple
procedure is used assuming that entire load P acts as shear force on the throat area, which is
s t= d s (valid for t < 8 ) the smallest area of the cross section in a fillet weld. If the fillet weld has equal base and
height, (h, say), then the cross section of the throat is easily seen to be . With the above
However, d should not be less than t, in any case. The standard size of d is tabulated in code IS: √
consideration the permissible load carried by a transverse fillet weld is
1928-1961.
P=s A
Pitch (p): Pitch is designed by equating the tearing strength of the plate to the shear strength of
the rivets. In a double riveted lap joint, this takes the following form.
where s = allowable shear stress
s (p − d)t = s × 2 d A = throat area.

But p ≥ 2d in order to accommodate heads of the rivets. For a double transverse fillet joint the allowable load is twice that of the single fillet joint.

Margin (m): m = 1.5d

In order to design boiler joints, a designer must also comply with Indian Boiler Regulations
(I.B.R.).

(p : usually 0.33p + 0.67d mm)

6.3.2 Design of welded joints

1. Design of a butt joint: The main failure mechanism of welded butt joint is tensile failure.
Therefore the strength of a butt joint is Figure 6.3.2.2 Design of a single transverse fillet

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3. Design of parallel fillet joint: Consider a parallel fillet weld as shown in figure 6.3.2.3. Each shear stress develops in the weld in a similar way as in parallel fillet joint. Assuming that the
weld carries a load P 2. It is easy to see from the strength of material approach that the weld thickness is very small compared to the diameter of the shaft, the maximum shear
maximum shear occurs along the throat area (try to prove it). The allowable load carried by stress occurs in the throat area. Thus, for a given torque the maximum shear stress in the
weld is
each of the joint is s A where the throat area A = . The total allowable load is

( )
P = 2s A . τ =

where T = torque applied.

d = outer diameter of the shaft

t = throat thickness

I = polar moment of area of the throat section.

= [(d + 2t ) −d ]

When, t ≪ d, τ = =

The throat dimension and hence weld dimension can be selected from the equation

Figure 6.3.2.3 Design of a parallel fillet joint =s

In designing a weld joint the design variables are h and l. They can be selected based on the
above design criteria. When a combination of transverse and parallel fillet joint is required
(see figure-6.3.2.4) the allowable load is

P = 2s A + s A ′

where A = throat area along the longitudinal direction.

A ′= throat area along the transverse direction.

Fig. 6.3.2.5 Design of a fillet weld for torsion

6.3.3 Design of Shafts

Shaft is a common and important machine element. It is a rotating member, in general, has a
circular cross-section and is used to transmit power. The shaft may be hollow or solid. The shaft
Figure 6.3.2.4 Design of combined transverse and parallel fillet joint
is supported on bearings and it rotates a set of gears or pulleys for the purpose of power
4. Design of circular fillet weld subjected to torsion: Consider a circular shaft connected to a transmission. The shaft is generally acted upon by bending moment, torsion and axial force.
Design of shaft primarily involves in determining stresses at critical point in the shaft that is
plate by means of a fillet joint as shown in figure-6.3.2.5. If the shaft is subjected to a torque,
arising due to mentioned loading.

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Design based on Strength σ = yield stress in compression

The stress at any point on the shaft depends on the nature of load acting on it. The stresses Stress due to torsion
which may be present are as follows.
τ = ( )
Basic stress equations:

Bending stress Where,

σ = T: Torque on the shaft


( )
τ : Shear stress due to torsion
Where,
Combined Bending and Axial stress
M: Bending moment at the point of interest
Both bending and axial stresses are normal stresses, hence the net normal stress is given by,
d : Outer diameter of the shaft
σ = ( )
+ ( )
k: Ratio of inner to outer diameters of the shaft ( k = 0 for a solid shaft because inner
diameter is zero )
The net normal stress can be either positive or negative. Normally, shear stress due to torsion is
Axial Stress only considered in a shaft and shear stress due to load on the shaft is neglected.

σ = Maximum shear stress theory


( )

Design of the shaft mostly uses maximum shear stress theory. It states that a machine member
Where, fails when the maximum shear stress at a point exceeds the maximum allowable shear stress for
the shaft material. Therefore,
F: Axial force (tensile or compressive)

α: Column-action factor(= 1.0 for tensile load) τ = τ = +τ

The term α has been introduced in the equation. This is known as column action factor. What is a
column action factor? This arises due the phenomenon of buckling of long slender members
Substituting the values of σ and τ in the above equation, the final form is,
which are acted upon by axial compressive loads.

Here, α is defined as, ( )


τ = ( )
C M+ + (C T)

α= . ( / )
for L/K < 115
Therefore, the shaft diameter can be calculated in terms of external loads and material
properties. However, the above equation is further standarized for steel shafting in terms of
α= for L/K > 115 allowable design stress and load factors in ASME design code for shaft.

6.3.4 Design of Bearings


Where,
Bearings are machine elements which are used to support a rotating member viz., a shaft. They
n = 1.0 for hinged end
transmit the load from a rotating member to a stationary member known as frame or housing.
n = 2.25 for fixed end
They permit relative motion of two members in one or two directions with minimum friction,
n = 1.6 for ends partly restrained, as in bearing and also prevent the motion in the direction of the applied load.

K = least radius of gyration, L = shaft length The bearings are classified broadly into two categories based on the type of contact they have
between the rotating and the stationary member

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a. Sliding contact Hydrodynamic lubrication:


b. Rolling contact
If a lubricant film is enclosed in a wedge or tapered gap between the stationary and moving
The sliding contact bearings have surface contact and come under lower kinematic pair. members, the oil film is drawn into the wedge shape generating a pressure that can support a
load.
Journal / sleeve bearings:
It has been shown experimentally that the coefficient of friction varies as shown in Figure
Among the sliding contact bearings radial bearings find wide applications in industries and 6.3.4.2. In which a curve of f versus is plotted. It is found that the operation of a bearing to the
hence these bearings are dealt in more detail here.
left of point B, the lubrication is not stable and is known as boundary lubrication.
The radial bearings are also called journal or sleeve bearings. The portion of the shaft inside the A
bearing is called the journal and this portion needs better finish and specific property.
Depending on the extent to which the bearing envelops the journal, these bearings are classified C
as full, partial and fitted bearings. As shown in Fig. 6.3.4.1 f

B
μN/P

Figure 6.3.4.2

However, if we are operating in the region BC, the lubrication is stable and is known as thick film
or hydrodynamic lubrication.

When a journal starts rotating in a bearing as shown in Figure 6.3.4.3, below the lubricant is
(a) Full (b) Partial (c) Fitted forced into a wedge shaped (strictly a curved wedge) space by a pumping type of action and the
pressure built up in the wedge supports the load on the journal.
Figure 6.3.4.1 Various types of journal bearings.
Bearing Line of centres
Petroff’s Equation:
Journal
The relation between bearing friction and viscosity of the lubricant in a circular journal bearing
e O′
which is running truly concentric is given by,
O
f = 2π . .

where f = coefficient of friction, h


β
c = radial clearance
= viscosity,
Figure 6.3.4.3
N = rev/min or rev/sec,
As a result of the lubricant pressure, a minimum film thickness h occurs, not at the bottom of
p = pressure and
the journal, but displaced in the direction of rotation, as shown in the Figure 6.3.4.3. This is
r, c = radius and radial clearance respectively. because the lubricant pressure in converging gap reaches maximum at a point to the left of the
bearing centre.
In the above relation the parameter is called the bearing characteristic or the bearing In a journal bearing, the following nomenclature is used.
modulus. This a very important dimensionless parameter.
c is the radial clearance and is the difference in the radii of the bearing and the journal.
is known as the clearance ratio.

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e is the eccentricity and is the distance between the centers O and O′ of the journal and and the other is in relative motion, a frictional force dF is developed between the members. The
bearing respectively. magnitude of the frictional force is equal to the co-efficient of friction times the normal force dN

h is the minimum film thickness and it occurs on the line of centres. (The film thickness
at any other point is normally designated as h)

∈ is the eccentricity ratio = also = 1 − .

β shown in Figure is the angular length of a partial bearing, if it is not a full circle.

A bearing in which the radii of the bearing and the journal are equal, is known as a fitted bearing.

The moment of the frictional force relative to the point of motion contributes to the retardation
of motion and braking. The basic mechanism of braking is illustrated above.
Rated life of a ball or roller bearings:
Design and Analysis: To design, select or analyze the performance of these devices knowledge on
(a) Ball bearings the following are required.
L =
x The braking torque
(b) Roller bearings
/ x The actuating force needed
L = x The energy loss and temperature rise

where L is the millions of revolutions that 90% of a group of bearings (which are apparently There are two major classes of brakes, namely drum brakes and disc brakes. Design and analysis
identical) will complete before any of them develops evidence of fatigue. of drum brakes will be considered in detail in following sections, the discussion that follow on
disc or plate clutches will form the basis for design of disc type of brakes.
When a bearing is installed there is no way of knowing whether it is one of the 90 per cent that
are good or one of the 10 per cent that will not attain the rating life. In other words, one can have Drum brakes basically consists of a rotating body called drum whose motion is braked together
but 90 per cent confidence that the bearing will achieve or exceed its rating life, usually with a shoe mounted on a lever which can swing freely about a fixed hinge H. A lining is attached
designated L . to the shoe and contacts the braked body. The actuation force P applied to the shoe gives rise to
a normal contact pressure distributed over the contact area between the lining and the braked
6.3.5 Brakes body. A corresponding friction force is developed between the stationary shoe and the rotating
body which manifest as retarding torque about the axis of the braked body.
A brake is a device by means of which artificial resistance is applied on to a moving machine
member in order to retard or stop the motion of the member or machine Brakes Classification: Various geometric configuration of drum brakes are illustrated below:

Types of Brakes: Different types of brakes are used in different applications. Based on the
working principle used, brakes can be classified as mechanical brakes, hydraulic brakes,
electrical (eddy current) magnetic and electro-magnetic types.

Mechanical Brakes: Mechanical brakes are invariably used based on the frictional resistance
principles.

In mechanical brakes artificial resistances are created using frictional contact between the
moving member and a stationary member, to retard or stop the motion of the moving member.

Basic mechanism of braking: The illustration below explains the working of mechanical brakes.
An element dA of the stationary member is shown with the braked body moving past at velocity
v. When the brake is actuated contact is established between the stationary and moving member
and a normal pressure is developed in the contact region. The elemental normal force dN is
equal to the product of contact pressure p and area of contact dA. As one member is stationary
Figure 6.3.5.1

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Drum Brakes are classified based on the shoe geometry. Shoes are classified as being either The torque on the brake drum is then,
short or long. A short shoe is one whose lining dimension in the direction of motion is so small
that contact pressure variation is negligible, i.e. the pressure is uniform everywhere. T = f Fn. r = f.p.A.r

When the area of contact becomes larger, the contact may no longer be with a uniform pressure, A quasi static analysis is used to determine the other parameters of braking.
in which case the shoe is termed as long shoe. The shoes are either rigid or pivoted, pivoted
shoes are also some times known as hinged shoes. The shoe is termed rigid because the shoes Applying the equilibrium condition by taking moment about the pivot ‘O’ we can write
with attached linings are rigidly connected to the pivoted posts. In a hinged shoe brake – the
shoes are not rigidly fixed by hinged or pivoted to the posts. The hinged shoe is connected to the ∑M = F a − F b + f F c = 0
actuating post by the hinge, G, which introduces another degree of freedom.
Substituting for F and solving for the actuating force, we get,
Preliminary Analysis: The figure shows a brake shoe mounted on a lever, hinged at O, having an
actuating force F , applied at the end of the lever. On the application of an actuating force, a F = F (b − fc)/a
normal force F is created when the shoe contacts the rotating drum. And a frictional force F of
magnitude f. F , f being the coefficient of friction, develops between the shoe and the drum. The reaction forces on the hinged pin (pivot) are found from a summation of forces,
Moment of this frictional force about the drum center constitutes the braking torque.
i.e.

F = 0, R = fp A

F = 0, R = p A − F

Self – energizing:

The principle of self energizing and leading and trailing shoes

With the shown direction of the drum rotation (CCW), the moment of the frictional force f. F c
adds to the moment of the actuating force F . As a consequence, the required actuation force
needed to create a known contact pressure p is much smaller than that if this effect is not
present. This phenomenon of frictional force aiding the brake actuation is referred to as self –
energization.
(a) Brake assembly (b) Free-body diagram
Leading and trailing shoe:

x For a given direction of rotation the shoe in which self energization is present is known
as the leading shoe
x When the direction of rotation is changed, the moment of frictional force now will be
opposing the actuation force and hence greater magnitude of force is needed to create
the same contact pressure. The shoe on which this is prevailing is known as a trailing
shoe

Self Locking: At certain critical value of f.c. the term (b-fc) becomes zero. i.e no actuation force
need to be applied for braking. This is the condition for self-locking. Self-locking will not occur
Figure 6.3.5.2 unless it is specifically desired.

¾ Short Shoe Analysis:


¾ Short and Long Shoe Analysis:
For a short shoe we assume that the pressure is uniformly distributed over the contact area. x Foregoing analysis is based on a constant contact pressure p.
Consequently the equivalent normal force F = p. A, where = p is the contact pressure and A is x In reality, constant or uniform constant pressure may not prevail at all points of contact
the surface area of the shoe. Consequently the friction force Ff = f.Fn where f is the co-efficient of on the shoe.
friction between the shoe lining material and the drum material. x In such case the following general procedure of analysis can be adopted

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General Procedure of Analysis: the contact pressure appropriately and uniform pressure condition may no longer prevail.
Hence the analysis here is based on uniform wear condition
x Estimate or determine the distribution of pressure on the frictional surfaces
x Find the relation between the maximum pressure and the pressure at any point Uniform pressure condition: Assuming uniform pressure and considering an elemental area dA
x For the given geometry, apply the condition of static equilibrium to find the actuating
force, torque and reactions on support pins etc. dA = 2Π.r dr

6.3.6 Clutch The normal force on this elemental area is

A Clutch is a machine member used to connect the driving shaft to a driven shaft, so that the dN = 2π.r.dr.p
driven shaft may be started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving shaft. A clutch thus
provides an interruptible connection between two rotating shafts The frictional force dF on this area is therefore

To design analyze the performance of these devices, a knowledge on the following are required. dF = f.2π.r.dr.p

1. The torque transmitted


2. The actuating force.
3. The energy loss
4. The temperature rise

Friction Clutches: As in brakes a wide range of clutches are in use wherein they vary in their are
in use their working principle as well the method of actuation and application of normal forces.
The discussion here will be limited to mechanical type friction clutches or more specifically to
the plate or disc clutches also known as axial clutches.

Frictional Contact axial or Disc Clutches: An axial clutch is one in which the mating frictional
members are moved in a direction parallel to the shaft. A typical clutch is illustrated in the figure
below. It consist of a driving disc connected to the drive shaft and a driven disc connected to the
driven shaft. A friction plate is attached to one of the members. Actuating spring keeps both the
members in contact and power/motion is transmitted from one member to the other. When the
power of motion is to be interrupted the driven disc is moved axially creating a gap between the
members as shown in the figure.
Figure 6.3.6.3 A single-Surface Axial Disk Clutch

Now the torque that can be transmitted by this elemental area is equal to the frictional force
times the moment arm about the axis that is the radius ‘r’

i.e. T = dF. r = f. dN. r = f. p. A. r

= f. p. 2. π. r. dr . r

The total torque that could be transmitted is obtained by integrating this equation between the
limits of inner radius r to the outer radius r

2
T= 2πpfr dr = πpf r − r
Figure 6.3.6.2 3

The applied force can keep the members together with a uniform pressure all over its contact
Integrating the normal force between the same limits we get the actuating force that need to be
area and the consequent analysis is based on uniform pressure condition. However as the time
applied to transmit this torque.
progresses some wear takes place between the contacting members and this may alter or vary

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T= f2πp r rdr = fπp r r −r


F = 2πprdr

Substituting the values of actuating force F


F = π r − r .p
The equation can be given as
Equation 1 and 2 can be combined together to give equation for the torque (r + r )
T = fF .
2
2 r −r ¾ Single Clutch and Multiple Disk Clutch
T = fF .
3 (r − r )
Basically, the clutch needs three parts. These are the engine flywheel, a friction disc called the
clutch plate and a pressure plate. When the engine is running and the flywheel is rotating, the
pressure plate also rotates as the pressure plate is attached to the flywheel. The friction disc is
Uniform Wear Condition:
located between the two. When the driver has pushed down the clutch pedal the clutch is
According to some established theories the wear in a mechanical system is proportional to the released. This action forces the pressure plate to move away from the friction disc. There are
‘PV’ factor where P refers to the contact pressure and V to the sliding velocity. Based on this for now air gaps between the flywheel and the friction disc, and between the friction disc and the
the case of a plate clutch we can state pressure plate. No power can be transmitted through the clutch.
Operation of Clutch: When the driver releases the clutch pedal, power can flow through the
The constant-wear rate R is assumed to be proportional to the product of pressure p and clutch. Springs in the clutch force the pressure plate against the friction disc. This action clamps
velocity V. the friction disc tightly between the flywheel and the pressure plate. Now, the pressure plate and
friction disc rotate with the flywheel.
R = pV = constant
As both side surfaces of the clutch plate is used for transmitting the torque, a term ‘N’ is added to
And the velocity at any point on the face of the clutch is V = r.ω include the number of surfaces used for transmitting the torque
By rearranging the terms the equations can be modified and a less general form of the equation
Combining these equation, assuming a constant angular velocity ω can be written as
pr = constant = K T = N. f. F . R
T is the torque (Nm).
The largest pressure p must then occur at the smallest radius r ,
N is the number of frictional discs in contact.
K=p r f is the coefficient of friction
Hence pressure at any point in the contact region F is the actuating force (N).
R is the mean or equivalent radius (m).
p=p
Note that N = n1 + n2 – 1
In the previous equations substituting this value for the pressure term p and integrating Where n1 = number of driving discs
between the limits as done earlier we get the equation for the torque transmitted and the
n2 = number of driven discs
actuating force to be applied.
6.3.7 Flywheel
i.e The axial force F is found by substituting p = p for p. A flywheel is an inertial energy-storage device. It absorbs mechanical energy and serves as a
reservoir, storing energy during the period when the supply of energy is more than the
and integrating equation dN = 2πprdr requirement and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is less than the
supply.
r Geometry of Flywheel
F = 2πprdr = 2π p rdr = 2πp r (r − r )
r
The geometry of a flywheel may be as simple as a cylindrical disc of solid material, or may be of
spoked construction like conventional wheels with a hub and rim connected by spokes or arms
Similarly the Torque

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Small fly wheels are solid discs of hollow circular cross section. As the energy requirements and Stresses in Flywheel
size of the flywheel increases the geometry changes to disc of central hub and peripheral rim
Flywheel being a rotating disc, centrifugal stresses acts upon its distributed mass and attempts
connected by webs and to hollow wheels with multiple arms.
to pull it apart. Its effect is similar to those caused by an internally pressurized cylinder
γ 3+v 1 + 3v
σ = ω r +r − r
g 8 3+v
γ 3+v r r
σ = ω r +r − −r
g 8 r
γ = material weight density, ω = angular velocity in rad/sec. v = Poisson’s ratio, is the radius to
a point of interest, r and r are inside and outside radii of the solid disc flywheel.

Figure 6.3.7.1

Figure 6.3.7.2 Arm Type Flywheel


The latter arrangement is a more efficient of material especially for large flywheels, as it
concentrates the bulk of its mass in the rim which is at the largest radius. Mass at largest radius
contributes much more since the mass moment of inertia is proportional to mr
For a solid disc geometry with inside radius r and outside radius r , the mass moment of inertia
I is
m
I = mk = r +r
2
The mass of a hollow circular disc of constant thickness t is
W γ Figure 6.3.7.3
m= =π r −r t
g g The point of most interest is the inside radius where the stress is a maximum. What causes
failure in a flywheel is typically the tangential stress at that point from where fracture originated
Combing the two equations we can write
and upon fracture fragments can explode resulting extremely dangerous consequences, Since
πγ the forces causing the stresses are a function of the rotational speed also, instead of checking for
I = r −r t
2g stresses, the maximum speed at which the stresses reach the critical value can be determined
Where γ is material’s weight density and safe operating speed can be calculated or specified based on a safety factor. Consequently
ω
The equation is better solved by geometric proportions i.e by assuming inside to outside radius F. O. S (N) = N =
ratio and radius to thickness ratio. ω

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Part – 7: Fluid Mechanics Specific gravity of water = 1.0, Mercury = 13.6

Since the density of fluid varies with temperature, specific gravity must be determined and
Part 7.1: Fluid Properties
specified at a particular temperature.
7.1.1 Fluids Viscosity: A measure of its resistance to shear or angular deformation. A property by virtue of
which it offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid over the adjacent layer. It is due
It is defined as a substance which deforms continuously even with a small amount of shear force to Intermolecular cohesion and Transfer of molecular momentum between layers.
exerts on it, whereas a solid offers resistance to the force because very strong intermolecular
attraction exists in it. Dynamic Viscosity ( )::

Both liquids and Gases come under the fluids. Units: SI: Pa.sec or N.sec/m2 MKS: kg/m.sec
CGS: Poise = dyne.sec/cm2
i) Liquid: has definite volume but no shape for all practical purposes incompressible
ii) Gas: has no shape and volume highly compressible Conversion: 1 poise = 0.1 Pa.sec.
iii) Vapour: A gas whose temperature and pressure are such that it is very near to the liquid
phase e.g.: Steam Dimensions: ML T or FL T
It is independent of pressure. For Liquids dynamic viscosity decreases with temperature
7.1.2 Properties of fluids: because molecular momentum increases and cohesion is negligible in gases.

Mass Density ( ):: It is defined as mass per unit volume. Unit: kg / m3, Dimension: M / L3 Kinematic Viscosity ( ) = =

Absolute quantity i.e., does not change with location Units: S I: m2/sec CGS: cm2/sec or stokes

As pressure increases mass density increases. (As large number of molecules are forced into a Dimensions: L2T
given volume) Kinematic viscosity depends on both pressure and Temperature
Specific Weight ( ):: Weight of the substance per unit volume. Cavitation: Occurs in a flow system, dissolved gases (vapour bubbles) carried into a region of
high pressure and their subsequent collapse gives rise to high pressure, which leads to noise,
Also represents force exerted by gravity on a unit volume fluid. vibrations and erosion. Cavitation occurs in

Mass density and specific weight of a fluid are related as: = ; 1. Turbine runners 2. Pump impellers
3. Hydraulic structures like spillways and sluice gates 4. Ship propellers.
where g = acceleration due to gravity Compressibility: Change in volume (or density) due to change in pressure. Compressibility is
inversely proportional to Bulk Modulus K.
Units: N/m3, Dimensions: ML2T2 or FL3
= (negative sign indicates a decrease in volume with increase in pressure)
( ) ( )
Specific Volume ( ):: Volume occupied by a unit mass of fluid,, = 1/ (reciprocal of density)
Coefficient of compressibility =
Units: m3/kg
Surface tension:
Specific gravity (G):
Cohesion: Force of attraction between the molecules of the same liquid.
( )
Specific gravity, G = ( )
Adhesion: force of attraction between the molecules of different liquids (or) between the liquid
molecules and solid boundary containing the liquid.
For liquids, standard fluid is water at 40C A liquid forms an interface with a second liquid or gas. This liquid – air interface behaves like a
membrane under tension. The surface energy per unit area of interface is called Surface Tension.
For gases, standard fluid is hydrogen or air.
It can also be expressed as a line surface: Force per unit length.
Units: No units (ratio)

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Units: N/m Dimensions: FL-1 or MT-2. θ = angle of contact between liquid and boundary
Surface tension is due to cohesion between liquid molecules. As temperature increases ⟶
d = dia. of tube θ = 00 → Water and glass
surface tension decreases (because cohesion decreases)
Due to cohesion, surface tension pressure changes occur across a curved surface of θ = 1300 → Mercury and gases
(i) Liquid jet (ii) droplet (iii) soap bubble. For tube dia. > 12mm capillary effects are negligible. Hence the dia. of glass tubes used for
A) Liquid jet: Increase in Pressure inside and outside of liquid jet measuring pressure (manometers, piezometer etc.) should be large enough.
△ = , where d = dia of jet
B) Liquid drop: △ = , where d = dia of drop let 7.1.3 Newton’s Law of Viscosity:

C) Soap bubble: △ = , where d = dia of bubble. moving plate


U
Capillarity: The phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface relative to the adjacent general F
level of liquid in small diameter tubes. The rise of liquid surface is designated as capillary rise
and lowering is called capillary depression. It happens due to both cohesion and adhesion.

Gap filled
with fluid
θ

h Stationary plate

Figure. 7.1.4
Water
Shear stress ∝ time rate of deformation (angular deformation)


Figure. 7.1.2
Where F is the Force required to move the surface Area ‘A’
Units: cm or mm of liquids
∝ or τ = μ (u / y)
Capillary rise: If the adhesion > cohesion
Differential form: = . . . (7.1.2)
For e.g., Mercury depressive with convex upwards is capillary rise or fall
where τ = Shear stress; (du / dy) = Velocity gradient; μ = Dynamic viscosity
According to Newton’s law of viscosity, for a given shear stress acting on fluid ( ), the rate at
. . . (7.1.1) which fluid deforms (u / y) is inversely proportional to viscosity ( ).
7.1.4 Types of fluids:
Ideal Fluid or Perfect Fluid:
x Non viscous (frictionless) and incompressible
x Used in the mathematical analysis of flow problems
x Does not exist in reality
h
mercury x Does not offer shear resistance when fluid is in motion.
Real Fluid:
Figure. 7.1.3
x Possess the properties such as viscosity, surface tension and compressibility.
x Resistance is offered when they are set in motion.
σ = surface tension

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Newtonian Fluids: Part 7.2: Fluid Statics


x Which obeys Newton’s Law of Viscosity
x Newtonian fluids have constant viscosity (Viscosity is independent of shear stress) 7.2.1 Fluid Pressure
x There will be linear relationship between shear stress and resulting rate of deformation. e.g.: The normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area of the surface
air, water, light oils and gasoline Units: N/m2 (Pascal) 1 bar = 105 N/m2 = 100kPa
τ
Dimensional Formula: ML-TT-2 (or) FL-2 1 MPa = 10 bar
Q Bingham plastic
Thixotropic Absolute pressure = Atmospheric Pressure + Positive Gauge Pressure.
D
Absolute Pressure = Atmospheric Pressure – Vacuum Pressure.

E G
Pascal’s Law: Intensity of pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is same in all the directions.
P
Newtonian
Dilatant i) Viscosity of fluid has no effect on fluids at rest, therefore ideal and real fluids behave in a
similar manner.
C Pseudoplastic
B ii) If the fluid is in motion, shear stresses occur and normal stresses are no longer same in all
Ideal fluid
directions at a point of a real fluid.

Figure. 7.1.5 du / dy iii) If the fluid is in motion and fluids is ideal (frictionless) then no shear stresses, hence the
pressure at any point is same in all the directions.
Non – Newtonian Fluids: F
W piston
x Do not follow the Newton’s law of viscosity

x Relationship between shear stress and

velocity gradient is = + P
P
Where A and B are constants depend upon the type of fluid and conditions imposed on
flow. Based on power index ‘n’ and constant B Non – Newtonian fluids are
i) B = 0 and n > 1
(represented by OE in Figure 7.1.5)
Dilatant Fluids, e.g.: Butter, quick sand
ii) B = 0 and n < 1
(represented by OC in Figure 7.1.5) Pseudoplastic Figure 7.2.1
e.g.: Blood, Paper Pulp, Polymeric solutions such as rubber, suspension paints.
iii) = = 1(represented by PD in the Figure 7.1.5)
iv) Application of Pascal’s Law-Hydraulic Press:
Bingham plastic Eg: Sewage sludge, drilling mud require minimum shear stress τ known as
yield stress before they start flowing. Assumption: Pressure variation due to height neglected and friction force is neglected.
iv) Thixotropic Fluids: Printers ink, lipstick
Time dependent fluid i.e., viscosity depends upon both shear stress and duration of = /
application. A = area of plunger
Viscosity increases or decreases with time. Wt. ‘W’ lifted
e.g.: Paints and enamels, when subjected to high shear by the brush during application of W = (F/a) × A
paints, the apparent viscosity is reduced the paint covers the surface smoothly and brush Where A = Area of piston.
marks disappears subsequently.

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Intensity of Pressure (Variation of pressure in a static fluid): 7.2.2 Forces on Submerged Bodies:

∗ =− Forces on Plane Surface:

a) Horizontal Plane b) Vertical Plane c) Inclined Plane


Where = specific weight of the fluid

= vertical distance measured from a datum (positive upward) θ

F
The linear variation of pressure with depth below the free surface is known as hydrostatic
pressure distribution. F

Measurement of Fluid Pressure:


M N F = γ.A.
F = γ.A.
a) Piezometer: It consists of a glass tube, open at one end to the atmosphere and another end MN → Plane surface to paper F = γ.A.
inserted in the wall of a pipe or a vessel. The height upto which the liquid rises in the tube is Figure 7.2.2
called pressure head and the pressure = ℎ.
Note:
Suitable for measuring moderate gauge pressures of liquids. Not suitable for high pressures,
i) Force F always acts normal to the plane surface.
suction pressures and pressures of gases. ii) The value of F is independent of the angle of inclination of the plane as long as the depth of
centroid (ℎ ) is unchanged.
iii) Total Force F = Area × Pressure at the centroid = . ̅
b) Manometer: Pressure measuring device based on the principle of balancing the column of a iv) Pressure Prism Concept:
liquid (whose pressure is to be found) by the same or another column of liquid. i) Total force F = volume of pressure prism
= area of pressure diagram X width of plane
i) U – Tube Manometer: Consists of a U – shaped bend unit whose one end is attached to ii) Force F acts at the C.G. of the pressure prism.
the gauge point and other is open to the atmosphere. Can measure both positive as well v) Centre of pressure (C.P): The point of application of resultant force (F).
as negative pressures. Contains liquid of specific gravity greater than that of the fluid of ℎ= ̅+ ̅
= M.I. of the section about an axis parallel o X passing through C.G. of the area.
which the pressure is to be measured. v) C.P is always below the C.G as the depth of immersion is increased, the C.P. approaches the
ii) Inverted U – Tube Manometer: Consists of an inverted U – Tube containing a light liquid. C.G
- This is used only to measure the difference of low pressures between two points Centre of Pressure (CP) on Inclined Plane:
where better accuracy is required. It generally consists of an air cock at top.
iii) Differential Manometer: A U – Tube manometric liquid heavier than the liquid for which
the pressure difference is to be measured, and is not immiscible with it (generally θ
mercury).
iv) Micro Manometer: Modified form of a simple manometer whose one limb is made of
large cross sectional area.
- Measurement of very small pr. differences with very high precision is made possible.
Figure 7.2.3
c) Mechanical Gauges: Generally used for measuring high pressures where high precision is not
required. Eg. Bourdon pressure gauge measures gauge pressures. NOTE:
i) CP always lies below CG.
d) Aneroid Barometer: used to measure local atmospheric pressure. (Absolute pressure) ii) As the depth of immersion is more, CP comes closer to CG.
iii) From eq. it is evident that the position of CP is independent of θ, i.e., θ may be varied by
rotating the surface provided h remains unchanged.

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Forces on plane surface (Applications):


(iii) A floating body displaces a volume of fluid whose weight is equal to the weight of the body.
i) Dam: Pressure prism concept is easier for plane rectangular surfaces.
= × ℎ × ℎ/2 (1m length of dam) Stability of Submerged Bodies:
F acts at h = 2/3 h from top
ii) Lock Gates: (*) Lock Gates are used in docks and at the tail end of a river for navigational
purposes.
F = Hydrostatic Force = F − F
R = Resultant Reaction G = center of gravity

Forces on Curved Surfaces:


B = center of buoyancy

E D
Total Force = F = Submerged body is in stable equilibrium when
h
= Horizontal component (i) Buoyancy Force F = W
C Here W = Weight of body
A (ii) CB lies above CG
Force on vertical Projection of the given area
H
L = vertical component Stable Equilibrium:

F = wt. of liquid prism vertically above it.


B
= wt. of liquid prism represented by ABCDE A slight rotational displacement generates forces which oppose the change of position and tend
Figure 7.2.5

7.2.3 Buoyancy

The resultant force exerted on a submerged or floating body in a static liquid is called ‘Buoyancy
Force (F )’.

to bring the body to its original position.

Unstable Equilibrium:
(i) When CG lies above CB.
(i) The Buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. (ii) The over turning couple produced due to a slight disturbance will cause the body to move
(ii) The Buoyancy force acts through the CG of the displaced volume called ‘Centre of Buoyancy
away from its original position.
(C )’.

M
CB G
BM > BG
B

Neutral Equilibrium:
(i) When CG coincides with CB.

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7.2.4. Floating Bodies: Stability


(c) The distance = / is called Meta Centric radius.
(ii) Buoyancy Force (F ) is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body and acts It depends upon the geometry of vessel and draft (depth of submergence).
through the CG of the displaced liquid. For e.g: For a vessel M.I. does not change but ‘V’ (displaced vol.) becomes less when load
(iii) The body is in stable equilibrium if the meta centre lies above its CG. *i.e., BM > BG) is removed.
(iv) Meta Centre
c (vi) Period of Rolling:
Time Period = /( . )
a
k = radius of gyration ‘m’. = meta centric height in ‘m’.
M If GM is large the Time Period of roll will reduce i.e., more stable vessel will have less period
T of roll.
0 Period of Rolling (T) is inversely proportional to stability and directly proportional to radius
G of gyration (k).
B’ b The meta centric height of ocean-going vessel is usually 30 cm to 1.2 m. for war ships it
ranges from 1 m to 1.5 m.
As meta centric height increases less comfort to passenger (because less period of roll) but
d W more stability.
Figure 7.2.6
B = Centre of Buoyancy (CB)
‘B’ is the shift in CB due a tilt through small angle ‘θ’.
The new CB (B ) cuts the vertical axis of the body (line cd) vertically at a point ‘M’ (Meta
centre).

(v) Meta Centric Height ( )


(a) The distance between the centre of gravity ‘G’ and the meta centre ‘M’ of the floating
body i.e., GM as θ → 0 is known as Meta Centric Height.
(b) The Meta Centric Height is independent of magnitude of angular rotation (θ) (as long as
it is small) and is given by
GM = (I / V) – BG, if ‘M’ is above G (stable)
GM = BG – (I / V), if ‘M’ is below G (unstable)
Y

dA

Figure 7.2.7
Where I = second moment of area of water plane (m4) about an axis passing through centre
of area and perpendicular to the axis of tilted longitudinal axis = ∫
V = volume of liquid displaced by the body (m3).

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Part 7.3: Fluid Kinematics Y


7.3.1 Velocity of a Fluid Flow: V
= lim → / V = f(x, y, z, t)
V
In x-direction, = →

Classification of Flow:
(a) (i) Steady Flow: At any point of the flowing fluid, various characteristics such as velocity,
pressure density temperature etc., do not change wi