For
Mechanical Engineering
By
www.thegateacademy.com
Quick Refresher Guide Contents Quick Refresher Guide Contents
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page I : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page II
Quick Refresher Guide Contents Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page III : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 1
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
1.1.1.6 Unit Matrix (or Identity Matrix) 1.1.1.13 Hermitian Matrix: It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to its own
conjugate transpose.
A Diagonal matrix in which all the leading diagonal elements are ‘1’.
1 0 0 A = A or a = a
e.g. I = 0 1 0
0 0 1 1.1.1.14 Note: In Hermitian matrix, diagonal elements → always real
1.1.1.7 Null Matrix (or Zero Matrix)
1.1.1.15 Skew Hermitian matrix:
It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to the negative of conjugate
A matrix is said to be Null Matrix if all the elements are zero. transpose.
0 0 0
e.g.
0 0 0
A = −A or a = − a
1.1.1.8 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices: Note: In Skew-Hermitian matrix , diagonal elements → either zero or Pure Imaginary
Symmetric, when a = +a for all i and j. In other words =A
1.1.1.16 Idempotent Matrix
Skew symmetric, when a = - a In other words = -A
Note: All the diagonal elements of skew symmetric matrix must be zero.
If A = A, then the matrix A is called idempotent matrix.
Symmetric Skew symmetric
a h g 0 −h g
1.1.1.17 Multiplication of Matrix by a Scalar:
h b f h 0 −f
g f c −g f 0 Every element of the matrix gets multiplied by that scalar.
Symmetric Matrix = ܂ۯA Skew Symmetric Matrix = ܂ۯ- A
Multiplication of Matrices:
1.1.1.9 Triangular Matrix Two matrices can be multiplied only when number of columns of the first matrix is equal to the
x A matrix is said to be “upper triangular” if all the elements below its principal diagonal number of rows of the second matrix. Multiplication of (m × n)
are zeros. and (n × p) matrices results in matrix of (m × p)dimension [ ] × × [ ] × = [ ] × .
x A matrix is said to be “lower triangular” if all the elements above its principal diagonal
are zeros. 1.1.1.18 Determinant:
a h g a 0 0
0 b f g b 0 An n order determinant is an expression associated with n × n square matrix.
0 0 c f h c
Upper Triangular Matrix Lower Triangular Matrix If A = [a ] , Element a with ith row, jth column.
a a
1.1.1.10 Orthogonal Matrix: If A. A = I, then matrix A is said to be Orthogonal matrix.. For n = 2 , D = det A = a a =a a -a a
1.1.1.11 Singular Matrix: If |A| = 0, then A is called a singular matrix.. Determinant of “order n”
a a a − − a
1.1.1.12 Unitary Matrix: If we define, A = (A) = transpose of a conjugate of matrix A a − − − − a
Then the matrix is unitary if A . A = I D = |A| = det A = − − − − − −
− − − − − −
a a − − − a
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 2 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 3
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
Important Points: Rank = Number of non-zero row in upper triangular matrix using elementary transformation.
1. IA = AI = A, (Here A is square matrix of the same order as that of I )
2. 0 A = A 0 = 0, (Here 0 is null matrix) Note:
3. If AB = 0, then it is not necessarily that A or B is null matrix. Also it doesn’t mean BA = 0. 1. r(A.B) ≤ min { r(A), r (B)}
4. If the product of two non-zero square matrices A & B is a zero matrix, then A & B are 2. r(A+B) ≤ r(A) + r (B)
singular matrices. 3. r(A-B) ≥ r(A) - r (B)
5. If A is non-singular matrix and A.B=0, then B is null matrix. 4. The rank of a diagonal matrix is simply the number of non-zero elements in principal
6. AB ≠ BA (in general) → Commutative property does not hold diagonal.
7. A(BC) = (AB)C → Associative property holds 5. A system of homogeneous equations such that the number of unknown variable exceeds
8. A(B+C) = AB + AC → Distributive property holds the number of equations, necessarily has non-zero solutions.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 4 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 5
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
For the following system of equations A X = B In the above method, it is assumed that
1. No of equations = No of unknowns
a a − − − a x k
⎡ a ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 2. D≠ 0
− − − − a ⎡x ⎤ k
⎢ − − − − − − ⎥ ⎢−⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎥, − ⎥ In general, for Non-Homogenous Equations
Where, A = ⎢ − − − − − − X= ⎢−⎥ , B = ⎢
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− ⎥ D≠ 0 → single solution (non trivial)
⎢ − − − − − ⎥ ⎢−⎥ ⎢− ⎥ D = 0 → infinite solution
⎣a a − − − a ⎦ ⎣x ⎦ ⎣k ⎦
For Homogenous Equations
A= Coefficient Matrix, C = (A, B) = Augmented Matrix D≠ 0 → trivial solutions ( x = x =………………………x = 0)
D = 0 → non- trivial solution (or infinite solution)
r = rank (A), r = rank (C), n = Number of unknown variables (x , x , - - - x )
Eigen Values & Eigen Vectors
Consistency of a System of Equations:
1.1.1.25 Characteristic Equation and Eigen Values:
For Non-Homogenous Equations (A X = B)
i) If r ≠ r , the equations are inconsistent i.e. there is no solution. Characteristic equation: | A − λ I |= 0, The roots of this equation are called the characteristic
ii) If r = r = n, the equations are consistent and there is a unique solution. roots /latent roots / Eigen values of the matrix A.
iii) If r = r < n, the equations are consistent and there are infinite number of solutions.
Eigen vectors: [ − ]X=0
For Homogenous Equations (A X = 0)
i) If r = n, the equations have only a trivial zero solution ( i.e. x = x = - - - x = 0). For each Eigen value λ, solving for X gives the corresponding Eigen vector.
ii) If r < n, then (n-r) linearly independent solution (i.e. infinite non-trivial solutions).
Note: For a given Eigen value, there can be different Eigen vectors, but for same Eigen vector,
Note: there can’t be different Eigen values.
Consistent means:: → one or more solution (i.e. unique or infinite solution) Properties of Eigen values
1. The sum of the Eigen values of a matrix is equal to the sum of its principal diagonal.
Inconsistent means:: → No solution 2. The product of the Eigen values of a matrix is equal to its determinant.
3. The largest Eigen values of a matrix is always greater than or equal to any of the
Cramer’s Rule diagonal elements of the matrix.
4. If λ is an Eigen value of orthogonal matrix, then 1/ λ is also its Eigen value.
Let the following two equations be there
5. If A is real, then its Eigen value is real or complex conjugate pair.
a x +a x = b ---------------------------------------(i) 6. Matrix A and its transpose A has same characteristic root (Eigen values).
7. The Eigen values of triangular matrix are just the diagonal elements of the matrix.
a x +a x = b ---------------------------------------(ii) 8. Zero is the Eigen value of the matrix if and only if the matrix is singular.
9. Eigen values of a unitary matrix or orthogonal matrix has absolute value ‘1’.
a a 10. Eigen values of Hermitian or symmetric matrix are purely real.
D= b b 11. Eigen values of skew Hermitian or skew symmetric matrix is zero or pure imaginary.
| |
12. is an Eigen value of adj A (because adj A = |A|. A ).
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 6 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 7
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
13. If λ is an Eigen value of the matrix then , 1.2 Probability and Distribution
i) Eigen value of A is 1/λ
ii) Eigen value of A is λ 1.2.1 Probability
iii) Eigen value of kA are kλ (k is scalar)
iv) Eigen value of A + k I are λ + k Event: Outcome of an experiment is called event.
v) Eigen value of (A − k I)2 are (O−k)
Mutually Exclusive Events (Disjoint Events): Two events are called mutually exclusive, if the
Properties of Eigen Vectors occurrence of one excludes the occurrence of others i.e. both can’t occur simultaneously.
1) Eigen vector X of matrix A is not unique.
Let X is Eigen vector, then CX is also Eigen vector (C = scalar constant). A ∩ B =φ, P(A ∩ B) =0
2) If λ , λ , λ . . . . . λ are distinct, then X , X . . . . . X are linearly independent .
3) If two or more Eigen values are equal, it may or may not be possible to get linearly Equally Likely Events: If one of the events cannot happen in preference to other, then such events
independent Eigen vectors corresponding to equal roots. are said to be equally likely.
4) Two Eigen vectors are called orthogonal vectors if X T∙ X = 0.
(X , X are column vector) Odds in Favour of an Event =
(Note: For a single vector to be orthogonal , A = A or, A. A = A. A = , )
5) Eigen vectors of a symmetric matrix corresponding to different Eigen values are Where m→ no. of ways favourable to A
orthogonal.
n→ no. of ways not favourable to A
Cayley Hamilton Theorem: Every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation.
Odds Against the Event =
1.1.1.26 Vector:
.
Probability: P(A)= = .
Any quantity having n components is called a vector of order n.
Independent Events: Two events are said to be independent, if the occurrence of one does not
affect the occurrence of the other.
Conditional Probability: If A and B are dependent events, then P denotes the probability of
occurrence of B when A has already occurred. This is known as conditional probability.
( ∩ )
P(B/A)=
( )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 8 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 9
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
For independent events A & B → P(B/A) = P(B) Discrete Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) or Distribution Function
Theorem of Combined Probability: If the probability of an event A happening as a result of trial is The Cumulative Distribution Function F(x) of the discrete variable x is defined by,
P(A). Probability of an event B happening as a result of trial after A has happened is P(B/A) then
the probability of both the events A and B happening is F (x) = F(x) = P(X≤x) = ∑ P(x ) = ∑ f(x )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 10 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 11
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
(if covariance = 0, then the events are not necessarily independent) D = m -m (m , σ = mean, SD of combined sample)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 12 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 13
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
ρ is called the regression coefficient of x on y and is denoted by bxy. 1.3 Numerical Methods
Note: X and Y are said to be independent random variable Similarly x2 and x3 . . . . . are determined.
9 Simplest iterative method
If fxy(x,y) = fx(x) . fy(y) 9 Bisection method always converge, but often slowly.
9 This method can’t be used for finding the complex roots.
9 Rate of convergence is linear
3. Secant Method
x =x − ( )– (
f(x )
)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 14 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 15
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
Solve for Y from a) then solve for X from b). This method is known as Doolittle’s method.
1.3.2 Solution of Linear System of Equations
9 Similar methods are Crout’s method and Cholesky methods.
1. Gauss Elimination Method
4. Iterative Method
Here equations are converted into “upper triangular matrix” form, then solved by “back
(i) Jacobi Iteration Method
substitution” method.
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1
Consider a1x + b1x + c1z = d1
a2x + b2x + c2z = d2 a2x + b2y + c2z = d2
a3x + b3y + c3z = d3
a3x + b3x + c3z = d3
If a1, b2 , c3 are large compared to other coefficients, then solving these for x, y, z
Step 1: To eliminate x from second and third equation (we do this by subtracting suitable
respectively
multiple of first equation from second and third equation)
x = k1 – l1y – m1z
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1’ (pivotal equation, a1 pivot point.)
y = k2 – l2x – m2z
b2’y + c2’ z = d2’
z = k3 – l3x – m3y
b3’y + c3’ z = d3’
Let us start with initial approximation x0 , y0 , z0
Step 2: Eliminate y from third equation x1= k1 – l1y0 – m1z0
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1’ y1= k2 – l2y0 – m2z0
b2’y + c2z = d2’ (pivotal equation, b2’ is pivot point.) z1= k3 – l3y0 – m3z0
c3’’z = d3”
Note: No component of x(k) is used in computation unless y(k) and z(k) are computed.
Step 3: The value of x , y and z can be found by back substitution.
The process is repeated till the difference between two consecutive approximations is
negligible.
Note: Number of operations: N = +n -
In generalized form:
x(k+1) = k1 – l1 y(k) – m1z(k)
y(k+1) = k2 – l2 x(k) – m2z(k)
2. Gauss Jordon Method z(k+1) = k3 – l3 x(k) – m3y(k)
9 Used to find inverse of the matrix and solving linear equations.
9 Here back substitution is avoided by additional computations that reduce the matrix to (ii) Gauss-Siedel Iteration Method
“diagonal from”, instead to triangular form in Gauss elimination method.
9 Number of operations is more than Gauss elimination as the effort of back substitution Modification of the Jacobi’s Iteration Method
is saved at the cost of additional computation.
Step 1: Eliminate x from 2nd and 3rd Start with (x0, y0, z0) = (0, 0, 0) or anything [No specific condition]
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 16 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 17
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
In first equation, put y = y0 z = z0 which will give x1 Solution is given by, Yn+1 = yn + h f(xn,yn)
In second equation, put x = x1 and z = z0 which will give y1
In third equation, put x = x1 and y = y1 which will give z1 (ii) Runge Kutta Method
Note: To compute any variable, use the latest available value. Used for finding the y at a particular x without solving the 1st order differential equation
In generalized form: = f(x, y)
x(k+1) = k1 – l1y(k) – m1z(k)
K1 = h f(x0, y0)
y(k+1) = k2 – l2x(k+1) – m2z(k)
z(k+1) = k3 – l3x(k+1) – m3y(k+1) K2 = h f(x0 + , y0 + )
K3 = h f(x0 + , y0 + )
1.3.3 Numerical Integration
K4 = h f(x0 +h, y0 + k3)
K = (k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4)
Trapezoidal Formula: Step size h =
Y(x0+h) = y0 + k
h
f(x)dx = {( first term + last term) + 2 (remaining terms)}
2
h
− (b − a) max |f (ξ)|
12 ∈[ , ]
h
f(x)dx = {( first term + last term) + 4 (all odd terms) + 2 (all even terms)}
3
h
− (b − a) max |f ( ) (ξ)|
180 ∈[ , ]
(b − a)
− max |f ( ) (ξ)|
6480 ∈[ , ]
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 18 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 19
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
1.4 Calculus
log(1 + x)
lim =1
1.4.1 Limit of a Function → x
Let y = f(x) x −a
lim = a
→ x−a
Then lim → f(x)= ℓ i.e, “ f(x)→ℓ as x→a” implies for any ∈(>0), δ(>0) such that whenever
0< |x − a|<δ, |f(x) − ℓ|<∈ lim log|x| = − ∞
→
Properties of Continuity
log(1 + x) = x − + .........
If f and g are two continuous functions at a; then
log(1 − x) = − x − − ......... a. (f+g), (f.g), (f-g) are continuous at a
b. is continuous at a, provided g(a) ≠ 0
Sin x = x − + − ......... c. |f| or |g| is continuous at a
! ! !
Rolle’s theorem
Cos x = 1− !
+ !
− !
.........
If (i) f(x) is continuous in closed interval [a,b]
Sinh x = x + !
+ !
+ !
.........
(ii) f’(x) exists for every value of x in open interval (a,b)
Some Important Limits Then there exists at least one point c between (a, b) such that ′( ) = 0
sinx Geometrically: There exists at least one point c between (a, b) such that tangent at c is parallel to
lim =0 x axis
→ x
1
lim 1 + =
→ x C
C
lim(1 + x) =
→
a −1
lim = log a C1
→ x
e −1
lim =1
→ x
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 20 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 21
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
If (i) f(x) is continuous in the closed interval [a,b] and Any function f(x, y) which can be expressed in from xnϕ is called homogenous function of
(ii) f’(x) exists in the open interval (a,b), then atleast one value c of x exist in (a,b) such that order n in x and y. (Every term is of nth degree.)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 22 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 23
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
28. ∫ √x − a dx = √x − a − log(x + √x − a )
Maclaurian Series:
29. ∫ dx = tan
h3
f(x) = f(0) + x f’(0) + f′′(0)+ f'''(0) 30. ∫ dx = log ( ) where x <a
! 3!
31. ∫ dx = log ( ) where x > a
Maxima & Minima (Two variables)
32. ∫ sin x dx = − sin 2x
r= ,s= , t= 33. ∫ cos x dx = + sin 2x
34. ∫ tan x dx = tan x − x
1. = 0, = 0 → solve these equations. Let the solution be (a, b), (c, d)…
35. ∫ cot x dx = − cot x − x
2. (i) if rt− s > 0 and r < 0 → maximum at (a, b) 36. ∫ ln x dx = x ln x − x
(ii) if rt− s > 0 and r > 0 → minimum at (a, b)
37. ∫ e sin bx dx = (a sin bx − b cos bx )
(iii) if rt− s < 0 at (a, b), f(a,b) is not an extreme value i.e, f(a, b) is saddle point.
(iv) if rt− s > 0 at (a, b), It is doubtful, need further investigation. 38. ∫ e cos bx dx = (a cos bx + b sin bx )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 24 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 25
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
I L A T E If corresponding to each point P of region R there is a corresponding scalar then ∅(P) is said to
Selection of U & V be a scalar point function for the region R.
1.4.5 Rules for Definite Integral F(P) = F(x,y,z) = f1(x,y,z) ̂ +f2(x,y,z)ĵ +f3(x,y,z)k
1. ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(x)dx+∫ f(x)dx a<c<b
Vector Differential Operator or Del Operator: ∇ = î + ĵ + k
2. ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(a + b − x)dx → ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(a − x)dx
/ / /
3. ∫ f(x)dx =∫ f(x)dx+∫ f(a − x)dx → ∫ f(x)dx = 2 ∫ f(x)dx Directional Derivative:
if f(a-x)=f(x)
=0 if f(a-x)=-f(x) The directional derivative of f in a direction N⃗ is the resolved part of ∇f in direction N⃗.
4. ∫ f(x)dx =2 ∫ f(x)dx if f(-x) = f(x), even function
=0 if f(x) = -f(x), odd function ∇f. N⃗ = |∇f|cosα
Those integrals for which limit is infinite or integrand is infinite in a ≤ x ≤ b in case of ∫ f(x)dx, Direction cosine: l + m + n = 1
then it is called as improper integral.
Where, l =cos α , m=cos β , n=cos γ ,
1.4.6 Convergence:
1.4.8 Gradient:
x ∫ f(x)dx is said to be convergent if the value of the integral is finite.
x If (i) 0 ≤ f(x) ≤ g(x) for all x and (ii) ∫ g(x)dx converges , then ∫ f(x)dx also converges The vector function ∇f is defined as the gradient of the scalar point function f(x,y,z) and written
x If (i) f(x) ≥ g(x) ≥ 0 for all x and (ii) ∫ g(x)dx diverges, then ∫ f(x)dx also diverges as grad f.
( )
x If lim → = c where c≠0, then both integrals ∫ f(x)dx and ∫ g(x)dx converge or both grad f = ∇f = î +ĵ +k
( )
diverge.
x ∫ is converges when p> 1 and diverges when p≤ 1
∇f is vector function
x ∫ e dx and ∫ e dx is converges for any constant p> 0 and diverges for p≤ 0
If f(x,y,z) = 0 is any surface, then ∇f is a vector normal to the surface f and has a
magnitude equal to rate of change of f along this normal.
x The integral ∫ ( )
is convergent if and only if p< 1
Directional derivative of f(x,y,z) is maximum along ∇f and magnitude of this maximum
x The integral ∫ is convergent if and only if p< 1 is |∇f|.
( )
1.4.9 Divergence:
The divergence of a continuously differentiable vector point function F is denoted by div. F and
is defined by the equation.
div. F = ∇. F
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 26 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 27
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
F = f î + ∅ĵ + Ψk 9. ∇ × (F × G) = F(∇ × G) − G(∇ × F)
1. ∇(f/g)= (g ∇f – f ∇g)/g
∅
= + + 2. (F.G)’ = F’.G + F . G’
3. (F × G)’ = F’× G + F × G’
x ∇. f is scalar 4. ∇ (fg) = g ∇ f + 2 ∇f. ∇g + f ∇ g
x ∇. ∇= ∇ is Laplacian operator
The curl of a continuously differentiable vector point function F is denoted by curl F and is 1. Dot product of A × B with C is called scalar triplet product and denoted as [ABC]
defined by the equation. Rule: For evaluating the scalar triplet product
(i) Independent of position of dot and cross
î ĵ k (ii) Dependent on the cyclic order of the vector
[ABC] = A × B. C = A. B × C
Curl F = ∇ × f = = B × C. A= B.C × A
f φ Ψ = C × A. B = C.A × B
A × B. C = -(B × A. C)
∇ × F is vector function 2. (A⃗ × B⃗) × C⃗ = (extreme × adjacent) × Outer
= (Outer. extreme) adjacent−(Outer. adjacent) extreme
1.4.11 Solenoidal Vector Function
x (A⃗ × B)⃗ × C⃗ = (C⃗ . A⃗ ) B⃗ - (C⃗ . B⃗ ) A⃗
If ∇.A = 0 , then A is called as solenoidal vector function. x A⃗ × (B⃗ × C⃗ ) = (A⃗ . C⃗ ) B⃗ - (A⃗ . B⃗ ) C⃗
x (A⃗ × B⃗ ) × C⃗ ≠ A⃗ × (B⃗ × C⃗ )
1.4.12 Irrotational Vector Function
1.4.16 Line Integral, Surface Integral & Volume Integral
If ∇ × A =0, then A is said to be irrotational otherwise rotational.
x Line integral = ∫ F(R)dR
1.4.13 DEL Applied Twice to Point Functions: If F(R )=î f(x,y,z) + ĵ ∅(x,y,z) + k Ψ(x,y,z)
dR = î dx + ĵ dy + k dz
1. div grad f = ∇ f= + + ---------- this is Laplace equation ∫ F(R )dR = ∫ ( f dx + ∅ dy + Ψ dz )
2. curl grad f = ∇ × ∇f = 0 x Surface integral: ∫ F⃗ . ds⃗ or ∫ F⃗ . N⃗ ds, Where N is unit outward normal to Surface.
3. div curl F = ∇. ∇ × F =0 x Volume integral : ∫ F dv
4. curl curl F = ∇ × (∇ × f) = ∇(∇. f) - ∇ F
5. grad div F = ∇(∇. f)= ∇ × (∇ × F) + ∇ F If F(R ) = f(x,y,z)î + ∅ (x,y,z)ĵ + Ψ (x,y,z) k and δv = δxδyδz , then
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 28 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 29
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
Equations of first order and first degree can be expressed in the form f (x, y, y ) = 0 or
y = f(x, y). Following are the different ways of solving equations of first order and first degree:
=V+x
Case I: If ≠
Case II: If =
= = (say)
( )
= ( )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 30 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 31
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
Substitute ax +by = t, so that, The necessary and sufficient condition for the differential equations M dx +N dy = 0 to be
( )
exact is =
= +a
Solution of exact differential equation: ∫ M dx + ∫(terms of N not contaning x ) dy = C
Solve by variable separable method.
3. Linear Equations:
4.1 Equation Reducible the Exact Equation:
The standard form of a linear equation of first order:
Integrating Factor:
+ P(x) y = Q(x) , where P and Q are functions of x Sometimes an equation which is not exact may become so on multiplication by some
function known as Integrating factor (I.F.).
d y dy
Second order linear equation: + P(x) + Q(x)y = R(x) Rule 0: Finding by inspection
dx dx
1. x dy + y dx = d (x y)
Commonly known as “Leibnitz’s linear equations”
2. =d( )
Integrating factor, I.F. = e∫ 3. = d [log ( )]
Ex: + 3x + y = 0.
Rule 2: If the equation f (x, y) y dx + f (x, y) x dy = 0 and M x – N y ≠ 0 then I.F. =
3.1 Bernoulli’s Equation:
( )
Rule 3: If the M dx + N dy = 0 and − = f(x), then I.F. = e∫
+Py=Qy where, P & Q are functions of x only.
( )
Rule 4: If the equation M dx + N dy = 0 and − = f(y) , then I.F. = e∫
Divide by y
y + Py =Q
1.5.4 Linear Differential Equation with Constant Coefficients:
Substitute, y =z
+ + ------- +k y=X
+ (1 − n)Pz = Q (1-n) → This is a linear equation and can be solved easily
The equation can be written as (D + k D + - - - - - + k )y = X {Where, D = }
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 32 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 33
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
(D − m ) (D − m ) - - - - - - (D − m ) y = 0 = 0, ф(- ) = 0]
Case III:
So, the solution is: y = C e + C e + -- - - - -+ C e
When X = , m being positive integer
Case II: If two roots are equal i.e. m = m
P.I. = ( )
= [ ( )]
y = (C + C x ) e
= (D) [1 + ]
( )
Similarly, if m = m = m
= (D) [1− ( ) + ( )− ( ) +⋯]
y = (C + C x +C x ) e Case IV:
Case III: If one pair of roots are imaginary When X = V where V is function of x
P. I. = V
i.e. m = ∝ +iβ , m = ∝ −iβ ( )
Case I: P.I. = ( )
X
When X =
Factorize f(D) = (D − ) (D − ) - - - - - - - (D − ) and resolve ( )
into partial fractions
P.I. = put D = a [ ( ) ≠ 0] and then apply, X= ∫ on each terms.
( )
= D (D-1) y
=xф( )
( + ) put =- [ф’(- ) ≠ 0, ф(- ) = 0]
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 34 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 35
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
After substituting these differentials, the Cauchy – Euler equation results in a linear equation Step II: Finding P.I.
with constant coefficients.
P.,. = ( ,
f (x, y)
)
( + ) = D(D-1)y
( + ) = D(D-1)(D-2)y
After substituting these differentials, the Legendre’s equation results in a linear equation with
constant coefficients.
z = f(x, y)
=p, =q, = r, = s, =
1. Write A.E.
+ + - - - - - + = 0,
Where m = and the roots are , ---- -
2. CF = (y + x) + (y + x) + - - - - - - , are distinct
CF = (y + x) + x (y + x) + (y + x) + - - - - - - , , two equal roots.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 36 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 37
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
= + is a complex no., where x & y are real numbers called as real and imaginary part of z. If f(z) = u + iv be an analytic function in some region of the z – plane then the C –R equations are
satisfied.
Modulus or absolute value = | | = + , Argument of = = ( )=
= , =−
1.6.1 Function of a Complex Variable: It is a rule by means of which it is possible to find one or
more complex numbers ‘w’ for every value of ‘z’ in a certain domain D, then w = f (z) Differentiating with respect to x and y respectively,
Where z = x + iy, = , =−
w = f (z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y)
+ =0 → (Laplace Equation)
1.6.2 Continuity of f (z):
Note:
x A function = f (z) is said to be continuous at = if → ( ) = ( ).
x Further f (z) is said to be continuous in any region R of the z-plane, if it is continuous at (1) For a function to be regular, the first order partial derivations of u and v must be
every point of that region. continuous in addition to CR equations.
x Also if w = f (z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y) is continuous at = , then u(x, y) and v(x, y) are also (2) Mean value of any harmonic function over a circle is equal to the value of the function at
continuous at x= & y = . the centre.
o A single valued function which is defined and differentiable at each point of a domain D is 2. If u (x, y) is known, then to find v(x, y) we have
said to be analytic in that domain. dv = dx + dy
o A point at which an analytic function ceases to possess a derivative is called Singular point.
o Thus if u and v are real Single – valued functions of x and y such that , , , are dv = − dx + dy
continuous throughout a region R , then CR equations Integrate this equation to find v.
f (z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y)
3. If a real part of the analytic function f(z) is given which is harmonic function u (x, y), then
= , =-
f(z) = 2u , - u(0, 0)
are both “necessary and sufficient” condition for the function f(z) = u + iv to be analytic in R.
1.6.7 Complex Integration
o Real and imaginary part i.e. u, v of the function is called conjugate function. o Line integral = ∫ ( ) , C need not be closed path
o An analytic function posses derivatives of all order and these are themselves analytic. Here, f(z) = integrand , curve C = path of integration
o Contour integral = ∮ ( ) , if C is closed path
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 38 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 39
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
If f(z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y) and dz = dx + i dy 1.6.9 Morera’s Theorem: If f(z) is continuous in a region and ∫ ( ) = 0 around every
simple closed C then f(z) is analytic in that region.
∴∫ ( ) =∫( − )+ ∫( + )
1.6.10 Taylor’s Series: If f(z) is analytic inside a circle C with centre at a then for z inside C
Theorem: f(z) is analytic in a simple connected domain then ∫ ( ) = f( ) − ( ), i.e.
"( )
f(z) = f(a) + f’(a) (z-a) + (z-a) + - - - - - - -
!
integration is independent of the path
f(z) = ∑ ( − )
Dependence on Path: In general “Complex line integration” depends not only on the end points
but also on the path (however analytic function in simple connected domain is independent of ( )
where = ∫ ( )
path.)
If f(z) is analytic in a simple connected domain D, then for every simple closed path C in D, f(a+h) = f(a) + h ’( ) + ”( ) + - - - - - - -
!
∮ ݂( = ݖ݀)ݖ0
1.6.11 Laurent’s Series: If f(z) is analytic in the ring shaped region R bounded by two concentric
circles and of radii and ( > ) and with centre at a then for all z in R
Note: In other words, by Cauchy’s theorem if f(z) is analytic on a simple closed path C and
everywhere inside C (with no exception, not even a single point) then ∮ ( ) = 0 f(z) = + ( − )+ ( − ) + − − − + ( − ) + ( − )
D ( )
where, = ∫ ( )
C If f(z) is analytic inside the curve then = 0 and Laurent series reduces to Taylor’s series.
. . . A “singular point” of a function as the point at which the function ceases to be analytic.
! ( ) 1. Isolated Singularity: If z =a is a singularity of f(z) such that f(z) is analytic at each point in its
( )= ∫ ( ) neighbourhood (i.e. there exists a circle with centre a which has no other singularity 1, then
z =a is called an isolated singularity).
2. Removable Singularity: If all the negative powers of (z-a) in Laurent series are zero then
th th th
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30 Cross, 10 Main, Jayanagar 4 Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 40 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 41
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
3. Essential singularity: If the numbers of negative power of (z-a) in Laurent’s series is infinite,
then z =a is called an essential singularity. Definition of Laplace Transform
→ ( ) does not exist in this case
ℒ[ ( )] = ( ) = ∫ . ( ) : One sided/ unilateral LT, where S = (σ + J ω)
4. Poles: If all the negative power of (z-a) in Laurent’s series after are missing then. The
singularity at z = a is called a pole of order n. ℒ[ ( )] = ( )= ∫ . ( ) : Two sided/ bilateral LT.
A pole of first order is called a “simple pole”.
1.7.2 Properties of Laplace transform
1.6.14 Residue Theorem
Frequency shift
If f(z) is analytic in and on a closed curve C except at a finite number of singular point within C
then
ℒ [e-at f(t) ] = F(s + a) and ℒ [eat f(t) ] = F(s - a)
∫ f(z)dz = 2 i (sum of the residue at the singular point within C)
Time shift
Calculation of Residues
ℒ [f(t – to)] = . F(s)
1. If f(x) has a simple pole at z=a , then
Res f(a) = → [( − ) ( )] Differentiation in Time domain
∅( )
2. If ( ) = where ø( ) = ( − ) ( ), ( ) ≠ 0 ܽ
ø( ) C
∅( ) ܥ ܥ ℒ[ ( ) ] = s F(s) – f(0) where f(0) is initial value of f(t).
Res ( ) = ܽ
ø( )
3. If ( ) has a pole of order n at z=a , then ܥ If initial conditions are zero (i.e. f(0) = 0),differentiating in time domain is equivalent to
ܥ
( )=( )!
[( − ) ( )] multiplying by s in frequency domain.
Here n =order of singularity
Similarly, ℒ [ ( )]= F(s) –s f(0) - ′(0) where ′(0) is the value of [ ( ) ] at t = 0
Note: If an analytic function has singularities at a finite number of points, then the sum of
residues at these points along with infinity is zero. Integration in Time domain
( )
ℒ ∫ ( ) = and ℒ ∫ ( ) = ( )+ ∫ ( )
Integration in time domain is equivalent to division by s in frequency domain, if f(t) = 0 for t < 0.
( )
ℒ [ t f(t) ] = and ℒ { ( )} = (−1) (F(s))
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 42 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 43
Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics Quick Refresher Guide Mathematics
Integration in frequency domain is equal to division by t in time domain. 10. cos at. u(t) ( + )
11. sin hat. u(t) ( − )
12. cos hat. u(t) s
(s − a )
1.7.3 Initial Value Theorem 13. f (t) s.F(s)-f(o )
14. f (t) s . F(s) − s. f(o ) –f (o )
If f(t) and its derivative ( ) are Laplace transformable, then 15. ∫ f(u) du 1 F(s)
s
16. ∫ f(u)du F(s) + f (o ). where f (o ) = ∫ f(u)du
→ ( )= → ( )
17. f(t-a).u(t-a) e . F(s)
18. t . F(t) d
This theorem does not apply to the rational function F(s) in which the order of numerator (−1) . F(s)
polynomial is equal to or greater than the order of denominator polynomial. ds
19. f ta |a|. F(as)
1.7.4 Final Value Theorem 20. f(at) 1 s
F( ⁄a)
|a|
If f(t) and its derivative ′(t) are Laplace transformable, then 21. f (t) ∗ f (t)=∫ f (u). f (t − u)du F (s). F (s) where * is convolution operator
e ∝ . cos ω t (s+∝)
( )= ( ) ((s+∝) + ω )
→ →
For applying final value theorem, it is required that all the poles of ( ) be in the left half of ∝ ω
s- plane (strictly) i.e. poles on axis also not allowed. 22 e sin ωt ((s+∝) + ω )
23 . f(t) ∫ F(s)ds
24 √
1.7.5 Convolution theorem t
ℒ[ ( ). ( )] = ( ) ∗ ( ) 25 √
t
ℒ[ ( ) ∗ ( )] = ( ). ( )
4. u(t) 1
5. . ( ) 1
( − )
6. t.u(t) 1
7. . ( ) √
8. f(t). ( ) F(s-a)
9. sin at. u(t) ( + )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 44 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 45
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
Coplanar force system: If all the forces in the system lie in a single plane, it is called coplanar
force system. B
P
Concurrent force system: If line of action of all the forces in a system passes through a single
point it is called concurrent force system.
Parallelogram law of forces: If two forces acting simultaneously on a body at a point are
Collinear force system: In a system, all the forces parallel to each other, if line of action of all
represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram their
forces lie along a single line then it is called a collinear force system.
resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram which
passes through the point of intersection of the two sides representing the forces.
Force system Example
2.1.2 Equilibrium and Free body diagrams
Coplanar like parallel force Weight of stationary train on rail when the trackis
straight.
2.1.2.1 Coplanar Concurrent Forces
Coplanar concurrent Forces on a rod resting against wall.
Triangle law of forces: If two forces acting simultaneously on a body are represented by the sides
of triangle taken in order, then their resultant is represented by the closing side of the triangle
Coplanar non- concurrent force Forces on a ladder resting against a wall when a
taken in the opposite order.
person stands on a rung which is not at its center
of gravity.
Polygon law of forces:
P3 P2
Non- coplanar parallel The weight of benches in class room
P4 D
E
Non- coplanar concurrent force A tripod carrying camera P3
R2
Non- coplanar Non-concurrent force Forces acting on moving bus R R1 C
P1
P2
P4 A P B
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 46 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 47
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
If a number of forces acting at a point be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of A ladder resting on smooth wall
a polygon in order, then the resultant of all these forces may be represented in magnitude and
direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in opposite order
P2 E D
ߠ
P1 ߠ
∝ ߠ A cantilever beam
A C
B
Resultant (R) = + +2
tan =
= angle between two forces, = inclination of resultant with force P1
When forces acting on a body are collinear, their resultant is equal to the algebraic sum of
the forces.
Lami’s theorem: (only three coplanar concurrent forces) If a body is in equilibrium under the
action of three forces, then each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other
two forces.
c
∝
P2
P2 P1 J
ߛ
b
ߚ P3
∝
P1
P3
a
ߚ A block on a ramp
P P P In a free body diagram all the contacts/supports are replaced by reaction forces which it will
= =
sinα sinβ sinγ exert on the structure. A mechanical system comprises of different types of contacts/supports.
Free body diagram: A free body diagram is a pictorial representation used to analyze the forces
Types of contacts/supports:
acting on a free body.
A free body diagram shows all contact and non-contact forces acting on the body. Following types of mechanical contacts can be found in various structures:
Sample Free body diagrams
x Flexible cable, belt, chain or rope
600N 600N
W R1 We Weight of cable negligible
SMOOTH
Force exerted by the cable is always a tension away from the body in the direction of the
P cable.
P
SMOOTH
R2
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 48 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 49
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
x Smooth surfaces A built-in or fixed end supports an axial force F, a transverse force V, and a bending moment M.
Varignon’s theorem: The algebraic sum of the moments of a system of coplanar forces about a
Contact force is compressive and is normal to the surface. momentum center in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant forces about the same
moment center.
x Rough surfaces
B ܌
R
܌
۾
Rough surfaces are capable of supporting a tangential component F (frictional force as well
as a normal component N of the resultant R.
۾
A
x Roller support
R.d = P1.d1 + P2.d2
∑ F = 0, ∑ F = 0 & ∑ F = 0
A freely hinged pin supports a force in any direction in the plane normal to the axis; usually
shown as two components Rx and Ry. A pin not free to turn also supports a couple M. For non-collinear force system
These requirements are both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.
Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and
collinear in action. If a system is in equilibrium under the action of three forces, those three
forces must be concurrent.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 50 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 51
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
m = 2j – 3
where j is the number of joints, then the truss is known as a perfect truss, otherwise imperfect.
The truss is called deficient or redundant, if m < (2j-3) or m > (2j – 3), respectively.
A pin jointed frame which has just sufficient number of members to resist the loads without
undergoing deformation in space is called perfect frame. If number of members in frame is less
than that that required for a perfect frame then it is called deficient frame. If number of
Stable Equilibrium Unstable Equilibrium Neutral Equilibrium members in frame is more than that required for perfect frame then it is called redundant frame.
A redundant frame is indeterminate.
2.1.3 Virtual Work
The following assumptions are made in solving trusses:
Work: When a force acts on a body and moves it through some distance in its own direction, then
work is said to be done. Thus, work may be defined as the product of the force and the distance 1. The members of truss are connected at the joints by friction less joints.
moved in the direction of the force. Mathematically, we can write that 2. The members of truss lie in a common plane (plane truss).
3. The loads are applied only on the pins connecting the members and that the lines of
Work = Force × distance
action of the loads lie in the plane of the truss.
4. The weight of members is negligible as compared to the applied loads.
U=F×S
5. The truss is rigid and that it does not deform or change its shape upon the application of
When the distance moved by the body is not in the direction of the force then to determine the the loads.
work done, the component of the force in the direction of the distance moved may be multiplied
with the distance moved. For example, if the force F is acting at an angle θ with the direction of The member of a truss may be in tension or compression. A member in tension is called a tie and
a member in compression a strut.
the distance S moved, then work done is given by
U = F cos θ × S Methods of Solution: Two methods are generally used for determining the forces in various
members of a truss. These methods are
Virtual Displacement: It may be defined as the infinitesimally small imaginary (or hypothetical or
virtual) displacement given to a body or to a system of bodies in equilibrium, consistent with the 1. Analytical methods
constraints. The virtual displacement may be either rectilinear or angular.
(a) Method of joints (concurrent force system).
Virtual Work: The product of the force F and the virtual displacement δs in the direction of the
force is called virtual work. (b) Method of sections (non-concurrent force system).
δU = F.δs 2. Graphical method
It states that if a system of forces acting on a body or a system of bodies are in equilibrium and if x Large truss in which only few forces are required
the system is supposed to undergo a small virtual displacement consistent with its geometrical x Situation where method of joints fail.
constraints, the algebraic sum of the virtual work done by the system of forces is zero.
While determining the reactions at the supports, the following points should be remembered
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 52 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 53
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
(a) At simply supported (i.e., pinned or roller support) support there can be only a vertical Part 2.2: Dynamics
reaction.
2.2 Dynamics
(b) At fixed support, the reaction can take an arbitrary direction.
A frame in which all the member lies in a single plane is called plane frame. While a frame in Dynamics can be divided into two main branches:
which all the member do not lie in a single plane is called space frame.
(a) Kinematics
2 4 4 (b) Kinetics
In kinematics, motion of particles or rigid bodies is studied without considering the forces that
3 produce or change this motion.
1
5
In kinetics, motion of particles or rigid bodies is studied with the unbalanced force system that
1 produces or changes this motion.
3
For perfect frame, m = (2j -3) 2
2.2.1 Kinematics of Rectilinear Motion
= +
= +2
For deficient frame, m < (2j -3)
= +
Where u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, s = distance of travel, t = time and a = acceleration
Motion of projectile:
∝
Maximum height (h) =
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 54 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 55
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
∝ v = linear speed
Time required to reach maximum height (t) =
∝
g = acceleration due to gravity
∴ time of flight =
Moment of momentum (angular momentum)of the whole body = Iω
∝
Range (R) = Where I = mk , k being the radius of gyration.
D’ Alembert’s Principle Σ = =
It was pointed out first of all by D’Alembert that on the line of equation of static equilibrium, Or Σ =
equation of dynamic equilibrium can also be established by introducing inertia force in the
direction opposite to acceleration in addition to the real forces acting on the system. For a finite period of time, integrating, we get
F = ma where =
If Σ is constant, above equation may be integrated, giving
or + − =0 Σ = ⟶
where ∑ indicates the sum of all forces acting on the body in the direction of motion. Conservation of Linear Momentum
2.2.4 Kinetics of Curvilinear Motion If the sum of the external forces acting on any system of mutually attracting and impinging
bodies resolved in any direction is always zero, the total momentum of the system in that
Central force motion direction remains constant during the motion.
Centrifugal force = = Let the two bodies have masses and with velocities and respectively, before coming
into contact with each other, and velocities ′ and ′ at the end of the period of contact. Then
Where r = radius of the path according to the conservation of linear momentum, we have
+ = + ′
= angular velocity
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 56 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 57
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
If two bodies suddenly collide, an impulsive force, or impact, is set up between them. When the Work: If a force acts on a body and causes it to move some distance, work is said to be done by
direction of each body is along the common normal at the point where they touch, the impact is the force. Thus, work is a measure of accomplishment. Therefore, work done by a constant force
said to be direct. When the direction of motion of either or both, is not along the common normal is equal to the product of the force and the displacement of its point of application in the
at the point of contact, the impact is said to be oblique. If the pressure exerted on the surfaces of direction of the force. It is measured in Nm.
contact coincides with the line joining the mass centres of the bodies, the impact is central. If
such is not the case, it is eccentric. Energy: The capacity to do work is called energy. It is measured in N.m.
For a very short period of time after the two bodies come in contact, the mass centres continue Potential Energy: This is the energy which a body possesses because of its position.
to approach each other. This is known as the period of deformation. During this period the
intensity of the force between the surfaces increases. For an instant at the end of the period of Kinetic Energy: This is the energy which a body possesses because of its velocity.
deformation, the mass centres are moving with the same velocity. If the bodies are elastic, the
impulsive forces causes centres to begin separating and, after a second short interval, the Power: The rate of doing work is called power.
surfaces of the bodies are no longer in contact. This second short period is known as the period
is known as the period of restitution. Time of impact is the sum of the period of deformation and Work Done by a Force
period of restitution. The time of impact is very small. For this reason, the resultant impulse of
the external forces acting on the system during this time must be small and can be neglected. On The work done by a force is equal to the product of the force, F, and its displacement, s, provided
the bosis of this assumption, the sum of the momentum before impact is equal to the sum of the the force is constant and the displacement, of the body is in the same direction as the force.
momentum after impact, i.e, the conservation of momentum holds, thus for direct central impact,
we have Denoting work by , we have
+ + + ′ , = F.s
For direct central impact Newton verified experimentally that the relative velocity after impact Net work = change in kinetic energy
is in a constant ratio to the relative velocity before impact. If the bodies collide obliquely, the
same fact holds for their compound velocities along the common normal at the point of contact. , =∆
This ratio is known as the coefficient of restitution, and is denoted by e. Thus
Where represents kinetic energy. This equation represents the principle of work and energy..
= Power = (F cos ∝) v.
v is the velocity of the point where the force F is acting.
in which the proper sign of the four velocities must be included. ∝ is the angle between the directions of the force and the velocity.
If both are in the same direction then = . .
The value of e lies between zero and one. It is zero for perfectly inelastic bodies and one for
perfectly elastic bodies. One metric horse power = 735.5 watts
Conservation of Angular Momentum Work of the Elastic force: If a prismatic bar of area of cross section A, length and elastic constant
E is stretched then the work of elastic force can be calculated by treating it as a spring of
According to this principle, if a system of two rotating bodies are brought into contact for a short stiffness k.
time period, and no external torque is applied to the system during this time, the resultant
angular impulse on the system is zero. =
Suppose the two bodies have moments of inertia and and angular velocities Z and Z Principle of work and Energy:
repectively, before coming, into contact, and angular velocities Z ′ and Z ′ and the end of the
period of contact. Then the principle of conservation of angular momentum may be stated as Work energy principle: The work done by a force acting on a particle during its displacement is
equal to the change in kinetic energy of the particle during that displacement.
Z + Z = Z + Z ′
U =( − ) & are . . =
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 58 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 59
Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Engineering Mechanics
= Net W.D. by the force for displacing a body from (1) to (2) W.D. by the springs ⟹ +ve ⟸ W.D. by the system (springs)
W.D. on the system ⟹ −ve. ⟸ W.D. on the system (springs)
=( − ) When spring is stretched W. D. by force is "–ve" ie work is done on the spring.
When the spring returns returns towards undeformed position W. D. is +ve(or)work is done by the spring.
W.D. by a force for displacing a body from (1) ⟶ (2) is positive (+ve) and from (1) ⟵ (2) is
negative (−ve). Work Done by a Couple or Torque
Principle of conservation of energy: states that the sum of the potential energy and the kinetic Let a couple Fr act on a body so that the body starts rotating. As the body rotates through a small
energy of a particle (or of a system of particles) remains constant during the motion under the angle d , the work done by the force is
action of conservative forces.
= Fds = Fr d
K. E. + P. E. = K. E. + P. E.
When the body rotates through the angle , the total work done is,
This principle cannot be applied where frictional force is involved.
=∫ d = =
Work of the gravity force:
Relation between Work and Kinetic Energy for Rotation
. .= =− ( ) is positive upwards
Consider a rigid body rotating about an axis 0 with an angular velocity w as shown in a Fig. The
is negative upwards. particle of mass dm in this body has a velocity v = rw normal to the radial line r.
=− ( − )
The kinetic energy of the particle is, as
=−
Force exerted by the spring is not a constant force but it varies linearly with the displacement
from the undeformed position.
W
U =− ( − ) U = ∫ du = − ∫ F. dx
′ − ′ sign indicates that Force and displacement are in opposite directions.
=− .
O
=−
2 Rigid body
If a particle of mass m is moving with velocity , it’s kinetic energy k.E is given by.
Therefore,
1
. .= = ( )
2
Let v and be the velocities of the particle at points 1 and 2 and the corresponding distance be ∴ =∫ ( ) = ∫
and .
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 60 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 61
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
When an axial member has distinct sections differing in cross-sectional area or composition,
Part – 3: Strength of Material superposition is used to calculate the total deformation as the sum of individual deformations.
3.1.1 Simple Stress & Strain When one of the variables (e.g., A), varies continuously along the length,
Stress is the internal resistance offered by the body per unit area. Stress is represented as force PdL dL
G ³ P³
per unit area. Typical units of stress are N/m2, ksi and MPa. There are two primary types of AE AE
stresses: normal stress and shear stress. Normal stress,V, is calculated when the force is normal
to the surface area; whereas the shear stress, W is calculated when the force is parallel to the The new length of the member including the deformation is given by
surface area.
Lf L G
Pnormal _to _area
V
A The algebraic deformation must be observed.
Pparallel _ to _ area Hooke’s law may also be applied to a plane element in pure shear. For such an element, the shear
W stress is linearly related to the shear strain, by the shear modulus (also known as the modulus of
A rigidity), G.
Linear strain (normal strain, longitudinal strain, axial strain), H, is a change in length per unit
W GJ
length. Linear strain has no units. Shear strain, J is an angular deformation resulting from shear
stress. Shear strain may be presented in units of radians, percent, or no units at all.
The relationship between shearing deformation, Gs and applied shearing force, V is then
G expressed by
H
L VL
Gs
AG
G parallel _ to _ area
J tan T | T [T in radians]
Height 3.1.3 Stress-Strain Diagram
This expression for axial deformation assumes that the linear strain is proportional to the
normal stress H V 0
E and that the cross-sectional area is constant. =
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 62 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 63
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
Proportional Limit: It is the point on the stress strain curve up to which stress is proportional to 1
strain. Hz
E
>
Vz Q Vx Vy @
Elastic Limit: It is the point on the stress strain curve up to which material will return to its W xy
original shape when unloaded. J xy
G
Yield Point: It is the point on the stress strain curve at which there is an appreciable elongation
or yielding of the material without any corresponding increase of load; indeed the load actually W yz
may decrease while the yielding occurs. J yz
G
Ultimate Strength: It is the highest ordinate on the stress strain curve.
W zx
J zx
Rupture Strength: It is the stress at failure G
For an elastic isotropic material, the modulus of elasticity E, shear modulus G, and Poisson’s
3.1.4 Poisson’s Ratio: Biaxial and Triaxial Deformations ratio Q are related by
Poisson’s ratio, Q, is a constant that relates the lateral strain to the axial strain for axially loaded E
members. G
21 Q
H lateral
Q E 2G1 Q
H axial
The bulk modulus (K) describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object's volume to
Theoretically, Poisson’s ratio could vary from 0 to 0.5, but typical values are 0.33 for aluminum deform when under pressure; it is defined as volumetric stress over volumetric strain, and is the
and 0.3 for steel and maximum value of 0.5 for rubber. inverse of compressibility. The bulk modulus is an extension of Young's modulus to three
dimensions.
Poisson’s ratio permits us to extend Hooke’s law of uniaxial stress to the case of biaxial stress.
Thus if an element is subjected simultaneously to tensile stresses in x and y direction, the strain For an elastic, isotropic material, the modulus of elasticity E, bulk modulus K, and Poisson’s ratio
in the x direction due to tensile stress Vx is Vx/E. Simultaneously the tensile stress Vy will Q are related by
produce lateral contraction in the x direction of the amount QVy/E, so the resultant unit
deformation or strain in the x direction will be E 3K1 2Q
Vy Vx ΔL = L.α.'t
Hy Q
E E
Where, L is the length, α (/oC) is the coefficient of linear expansion, and 't (oC) is the
Hooke’s law can be further extended for three-dimensional stress-strain relationships and temperature change.
written in terms of the three elastic constants, E, G, and Q. The following equations can be used to
find the strains caused due to simultaneous action of triaxial tensile stresses: From the above equation thermal strain can be expressed as:
1 ϵ= = α't
Hx
E
>
Vx Q Vy Vz @
If a temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely no load or the stress will be induced in
1 the structure. But in some cases it is not possible to permit these temperature deformations,
Hy
E
>
V y QV z V x @ which results in creation of internal forces that resist them. The stresses caused by these
internal forces are known as thermal stresses.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 64 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 65
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
When the temperature deformation is prevented, thermal stress developed due to temperature Spherical shells
change can be given as:
σ = E.α.'t
Cylindrical shells
2
¦F x 0 : V 2 (2S rt ) p(2S r ) 0
pr
V1 V 2
Hoop stress = longitudinal stress = 2t
2
¦F x 0 : V 2 (2S rt ) p(2S r ) 0
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 66 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 67
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
Part 3.2: Shear Force and Bending Moment 3.2.2 Shear Force and Bending Moment Relationships
The change in magnitude of the shear at any point is equal to the integral of the load function,
w(x), or the area under the load diagram up to that point.
3.2.1 Shear and Moment
x2
The shear force, V at a section of a beam is the sum of all vertical forces acting on the beam V2 V1 ³ wxdx
between that section and any one of its ends. It has units of Newtons, pounds, kips, etc. Shear x1
force is not the same as shear stress, since the area of the object is not considered.
dV x
The direction (i.e., to the left or right of the section) in which the summation proceeds is not wx
dx
important. Since the values of shear will differ only in sign for summation to the left and right
ends, the direction that results in the minimum no. of calculations should be selected. The change in magnitude of the moment at any point is equal to the integral of the shear
function, or the area under the shear diagram up to that point.
V ¦F i
ª sec tion _ to º x2
«¬ one _ end »¼
M 2 M1 ³V xdx
x1
Shear is positive when there is a net upward force to the left of a section, and it is negative when
there is a net downward force to the left of the section.
dM x
V x
dx
Both shear force and bending moment can be described mathematically for simple loadings by
the preceding equations, but the formulas become discontinuous as the loadings become more
complex. It is more convenient to describe complex shear and moment functions graphically.
Graphs of shear and moment as functions of position along the beam are known as shear force
and bending moment diagrams.
Shear force sign conventions
The following guidelines and conventions should be observed when constructing a shear
The bending moment, M, at a section of a beam is the algebraic sum of all moments and couples diagram.
located between the section and any one of its ends.
x The shear at any section is equal to the sum of the loads and reactions from the section to
M ¦F d i i ¦C i the left end.
ªsec tion _ to º ªsec tion _ to º
«¬ one _ end »¼ «¬ one _ end »¼ x The magnitude of the shear at any section is equal to the slope of the moment function at
that section.
Bending moments in a beam are positive when the upper surface of the beam is in compression x Loads and reactions to the left of the section acting upward are positive
and the lower surface is in tension. Positive moments cause lengthening of the lower surface and x The shear diagram is straight and sloping for uniformly distributed loads.
shortening of the upper surface. A useful image with which to remember this convention is to x The shear diagram is straight and horizontal between concentrated loads.
imagine the beam “smiling” when the moment is positive. x The shear is undefined at points of concentrated loads.
The following guidelines and conventions should be observed when constructing a bending
moment diagram. By convention, the moment diagram is drawn on the compression side of the
beam.
x The moment at any section is equal to the sum of the moments and couples from the
section to the left end.
x The change in magnitude of the moment at any section is the integral of the shear
diagram, or the area under the shear diagram. A concentrated moment will produce a
Bending moment sign conventions jump or discontinuity in the moment diagram.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 68 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 69
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
x The maximum or minimum moment occurs when the shear is either zero or changes its Part 3.3: Stresses in Beams
sign.
x The moment diagram is parabolic and is curved downward for downward uniformly 3.3.1 Bending Stress
distributed loads.
For positive bending moment, the lower surface of the beam experiences tensile stress while the
Note: upper surface of the beam experiences compressive stress. The bending stress distribution
passes through zero at the centroid, or neutral axis, of the cross section. The distance from the
¾ If the external load is not at right angles to the axis of the beam, the loading can be resolved neutral axis is y; and the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber (i.e., the top or
axially and transversely to the beam bottom surface most distant from the neutral axis) is c.
Bending stress varies with location (depth) within the beam. It is zero at the neutral axis, and
increases linearly with distance from the neutral axis, as predicted by Equation,
I
My
Vb
I
Transverse: Components (sin ∅) produces B.M. and S.F.
¾ If there is any internal hinge in beam , bending moment will be zero at hinge point.
Variation of S.F. and B.M. for different loadings on spans of beams:
Since the maximum stress will govern the design, y can be set equal to c to obtain the extreme
fiber stress.
Mc
V b,max
I
This equation shows that the maximum bending stress will occur at the section where the
moment is maximum. For standard structural shapes, I and c are fixed. Therefore, for design, the
elastic section modulus S, is often used.
I
S
c
M
Vb
S
For a rectangular b x h section, the centroidal moment of inertia and section modulus are
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 70 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 71
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
bh3 bh 2 QV
I Srec tan gular W xy
12 6 Ib
Also, the strain in any fiber varies directly with its location y from the neutral axis and can be
found by the equation
y Vb y
Hb Or,
R E R
x The transverse sections which are plane and normal before bending remain plane and
normal to the longitudinal fibres after bending (Bernoulli’s Assumption).
Figure: Dimensions for Shear stress Calculations
x Material is homogeneous, isotropic and obeys Hook’s Law and limits of eccentricity are not
exceeded.
In the above equation, I is the area moment of inertia, and b is the width or thickness of the beam
x Every layer is free to expand or contract. at the depth y within the beam where the shear stress is to be found. The first (or statical)
x Modulus of elasticity has same value for tension and compression. moment of the area of the beam with respect to the neutral axis, Q, is defined by,
x The beam is subjected to pure bending and therefore bends in an arc of a circle.
c
x Radius of curvature is large compared to the dimensions of the cross section. Q ³ ydA
y1
Points to remember:
For rectangular beams, dA = bdy. Then, the moment of the area A’ above 1ayer y is equa1 to the
Pure Bending: Only B.M. but no S.F. product of the area and the distance from the centroidal axis to the centroid of the area.
Neutral Layer: The layer which does not undergo any change in length (N.A.)
Q y ' A'
Neutral axis: Line of intersection of Neutral Layer with plane of cross section. It passes through
C.G. of cross section. At this axis the strain changes its sign. For a rectangular beam, the equation for Wmax, can be simplified. The maximum shear stress is 50
percent higher than the average shear stress.
Equation of Pure Bending:
3V 3V
W max, rec tan gular 1.5W avg
M/I=V/y=E/R 2A 2bh
Curvature = (1/ R) = (M / EI), EI = Flexural rigidity For a beam with a circular cross section, the maximum shear stress is
Section Modulus ( S = I/c):: It represents the strength of the section. Greater the value of ‘S’, 4V 4V 4
stronger will be the section. Wmax,circular Wavg
3A 3Sr 2 3
3.3.2 Shear Stress
For a steel beam with web thickness tweb and depth d, the web shear stress is approximated by
The shear stresses in a vertical section of a beam consist of both horizontal and transverse
(vertical) shear stresses.
V V
W avg
Aweb dtweb
The exact value of shear stress is dependent on the location, y, within the depth of the beam. The
shear stress distribution is given by equation shown below. The shear stress is zero at the top
and bottom surfaces of the beam. For a regular shaped beam, the shear stress is maximum at the
neutral axis
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 72 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 73
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
The curvature of a beam caused by a bending moment is given by Eq. (1), where U is the radius
of curvature, c is the largest distance from the neutral axis of the beam, and Hmax is the maximum
longitudinal normal strain in the beam.
Figure. Dimensions of a Steel Beam
1 H max M d2y dT
------- (1)
U c EI dx 2 dx
3.3.3 Composite Beams
c ------- (2)
H max
A composite structure is one in which two or more different materials are used. Each material U
carries part of the applied load. Examples of composite structure include steel-reinforced
concrete and timber beams with bolted-on steel plates. Using the preceding relationships, the deflection and slope of a loaded beam are related to the
moment M(x), shear V(x), and load w(x) by Eqs. (3) through (7).
Most simple composite structures can be analyzed using the method of consistent deformations,
also known as the transformation method. This method assumes that the strains are the same in y deflection ------- (3)
both materials at the interface between them. Although the strains are the same, the stresses in
the two adjacent materials are not equal, since stresses are proportional to the modulus of dy
elasticity. y' slope ------- (4)
dx
The transformation method starts by determining the modulus of elasticity for each (usually two
in number) of the materials in the composite beam and then calculating the modular ratio, n. d2 y Mx
y'' ------- (5)
Eweaker is the smaller modulus of elasticity. dx2 EI
E d3 y Vx
n y''' ------- (6)
E wea ker dx3 EI
The area of the stronger material is increased by a factor of n. The transformed area is used to d4 y wx
calculate the transformed composite area, Ac,t , or transformed moment of inertia, Ic,t. For y'''' ------- (7)
dx 4 EI
compression and tension members, the stresses in the weaker and stronger materials are
If the moment function, M(x), is known for a section of the beam, the deflection at any point on
F that section can be found from Eq. (8). The constants of integration are determined from the
V wea ker
Ac,t beam boundary conditions in the table shown below.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 74 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 75
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
When multiple loads act simultaneously on a beam, all of the loads contribute to deflection. The A = B.M.D area between fixed end and point under consideration.
principle of superposition permits the deflections at a point to be calculated as the sum of the = distance of C.G. of M/EI
deflections from each individual load acting individually. Superposition can also be used to from point under consideration.
calculate the shear and moment at a point and to draw the shear and moment diagrams. This
principle is valid as long as the normal stress and strain are related by the modulus of elasticity,
E. Generally this is true when the deflections are not excessive and all stresses are kept below 3.4.3 Maxwell’s Law of Reciprocal Deflections:
the yield point of the beam material.
Consider cantilever beam AB. Let ‘C’ be an intermediate point. Then the deflection at ‘C’ due to a
Points to be remembered point load ‘P’ at B say , is equal to deflection at ‘B’ due to a point load ‘P’ at C i.e.,
=∫ / = / . A = area of B.M.D.
Theorem 2: The intercept on a vertical line made by two tangents drawn at the two points on the
deflected curve, is equal to the moment of M / EI diagram between the two points about the
vertical line.
= = distance of C.G. of B.M.D. Maximum Bending Moment =−
e.g,: (Suitable for cantilevers) – from objective point of view.
Slope = −
Step 1: To determine slope and deflection at any point say B.
Maximum Deflection = −
A L B
SL No. 2: Cantilever subjected to point load on its span
= x xL= , = x xLx = W
a b
Step 2: Draw (BMD) / (EI) i.e., M / EI C B
Step 3: Slope = area of (M / EI) diagram between fixed end point under consideration. A
Step 4: Deflection A / EI,
M
L B
A
L
= , = xLx =
2 2
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 76 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 77
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
Slope =−
Maximum Deflection = − + ( − ) =− + ( −
Maximum Deflection = − (3 − ) SL No. 5 Cantilever subjected to uniformly distributed load up to a certain length from free end
w/unit run
SL No. 3: Cantilever subjected to uniformly distributed load.
a ( − )
B
w/unit run A
B
A
Slope = − ( − )
Maximum Bending Moment = − =− where W = (total load on the cantilever) Maximum Deflection = − (3 −4 + )
Maximum Deflection = − B
A
SL No. 4 Cantilever subjected to uniformly distributed load up to a certain length from fixed end
w/unit run
Maximum Deflection = −
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 78 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 79
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
SL No.7 Cantilever subjected to linearly varying load up to a certain length SL No.9 Simply supported beam subjected to point load on its span
W
/ run
A B
B
A
Slope =−
/
Slope =−
Maximum Deflection =−
√
Maximum Deflection = −
=
SL No. 8 Simply supported beam subjected to point load at centre.
= −
/ / w/unit run
C
A B
B
A
Slope =−
Maximum Bending Moment = = where W = ( total load on the beam )
= +
Slope =− =−
Maximum Deflection (= )=−
= + =+
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 80 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 81
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
B Counter- clockwise +
A
C
Deflection : upwards +
Downward −
Slope = −
= +
∙
Maximum Deflection = −
( at x = 0∙519 from A )
w/unit run
A B
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 82 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 83
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
e.g.: x The stress setup at any point in a cross section is one of pure shear or simple shear.
x The longitudinal axis is neutral axis.
x Shaft Transmitting Torque or power. x The shear stress will vary linearly from zero at the centre to maximum at the outer surface
x L beams (any point on periphery)
x Portico beams
x Curved beams
x Close coiled springs.
Torsion formula:
T = =
1. Plane normal sections of shaft remain plane after twisting. In SI system : Power (P) is measured in watts (W)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 84 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 85
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
= where T = Average Torque in kN-m, N in rpm If the Torque ‘T’ is applied at the junction of two shafts and resisting Torque at their remote
ends, the shafts are said to be connected in parallel.
For such a case,
= . . 1 watt = 1 Joule / sec = 1 N. m/sec
x = ;
x T= +
1 metric ‘H.P.’ = 746 watts ≅ 0.75 kW
. ., = =
Metric System = H.P. If both the shafts are of same material
16
( ) = + ( /4) + = ( + + )
2
T ( )
16
= − ( /4) + = ( − + )
2
2 − 16
2 = = = = +
2
Equivalent Torque: It is the twisting moment, which acting along produce the maximum shear
For such shaft, stress due to combined bending and Torsion.
x Both the parts carry same Torque i.e., =
x Total angle of twist at fixed end is sum of separate angles of twist of two shafts. = +
= + = + Equivalent Bending Moment: The bending moment to produce the maximum bending stress
equal to greater principle stress ‘ ’.
Shafts in Parallel:
1
= ( + + )
2
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 86 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 87
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
x When radius of solid shaft is equal to external radius of hollow shaft, Part 3.6: Mohr’s circle
=1−
3.6.1 Mohr’s Circle
x The ratio of the weight of a hollow shaft, and solid shaft of equally strength is
1− Mohr's circle gives us a graphic tool by which, we can compare the different stress
=
(1 − ) / transformation states of a stress cube to a circle. Each different stress combination is described
by a point around the circumference of the circle.
Compare the stress cube to a circle created using the circle offset
3.5.3 Close coiled helical spring subjected to Axial Pull (W)
2
Assumptions: V x V y § V x V y · 2
a V ave and R ¨ ¸ W xy
2y © 2 ¹
x each turn is practically a plane at right angles to the axis of helix
x stresses in the material are due to ‘Pure Torsion’ σy
x Bending couple is negligible
x axial force need not be considered at a section.
τyx
Twist and deflection of free end: x +τ (meaning counterclockwise around the cube) is downward
x - τ (meaning clockwise around the cube) is up on the axis
Twist = 64 / , deflection = x A rotation angle of θ on the stress cube shows up as 2θ on the circle diagram and rotates in
the same direction. The largest and smallest values of σ are the principle stresses, σ 1 and σ2.
The largest shear stress, τmax is equal to the radius of the circle, R. The center of the circle is
Stiffness of Spring: Load required to produce unit deflection. = / = /64
located at the value of the average stress, σave
x If σ1 =σ2 in magnitude and direction (nature) the Mohr circle will reduce into a point and
no shear stress will be developed.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 88 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 89
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
x If the plane contain only shear and no normal stress (pure shear), then origin and centre of
the circle will coincide and maximum and minimum principal stress equal and opposite.
=
4
σ1=+ τ , σ2= -τ
( ) = =
x The summation of normal stresses on any two mutually perpendicular planes remains 2 8
constant.
Spherical shells:
σx + σy = σ1 +σ2
Hoop stress = longitudinal stress = σ = σ =
Cylindrical shells:
Longitudinal stress = =
σ pd
τ = =
2 8t
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 90 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 91
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
Part 3.7: Strain Energy Methods 3.7.3 Elastic Strain Energy in Torsional Loading
3.7.1 Elastic Strain Energy in Uniaxial Loading For a circular bar of constant cross section, the strain energy stored in the body is equal to the
product of average torque and the angular deformation; that is
Strain energy, also known as internal energy per unit volume stored in a deformed material. The
strain energy is equivalent to the work done by the applied force. Simple work is calculated as U = 1/2 TT = T =
the product of a force moving through a distance.
When the torque varies the result may be applied over a segment of length dx and integrated
Work = force x distance = FdL ³ over the length of the bar to obtain
FdL T dx
Work per volume = =
³ AL ³ VdH U=
2GJ
Work per unit volume corresponds to the area under the stress-strain curve.
3.7.4 Castigliano’s Theorem
For an axially loaded member below the proportionality limit, the total strain energy is given by,
It states that the deflection caused by any external force is equal to the partial derivative of the
strain energy with respect to that force.
1 P2 L
U PG
2 2 AE ∂U
δ=
∂P
The strain energy per unit volume is
Interpretation: The partial derivative of the strain energy with respect to one of the external
U V2 loads equals the displacement of the point of application of load in the direction of that load.
u
AL 2E
3.7.5 Impact or Dynamic Loading
3.7.2 Elastic Strain Energy in Flexural Loading
The problem of impact is analogous to that of a falling body stopped by spring. Let us consider a
In the beam shown in the figure consider a differential element isolated by two transverse free falling body of mass ‘m’ from a height h that produces a deflection G in the spring.
Relationship between dynamic and static deflection can be obtained by equating the resultant
sections at a distance dx apart. Treating this element as an axially loaded bar, where P = VdA =
work done to the zero change in kinetic energy.
(My/I)dA, the energy stored in it is
The ratio of the maximum dynamic deformation G to the static deformation Gst can be given by
the equation
N.A. δ 2h
=1+ 1+
y δ δ
P
dU = P2dx/2AE = M2y2/ (dA)2 dx/2(dA)E Also the stress due to gradually applied load may be applied by the impact factor to obtain the
maximum stress:
dU = y dA =
σ =σ 1+ 1+
Therefore, for the entire length of the beam we obtain:
For sudden loading, free fall ‘h’ does not exist i.e., h = 0. i.e., a suddenly applied load (dynamic
M dx condition), produced a deflection which is twice as great as that obtained when the load is
U= applied gradually.
2EI
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 92 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 93
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
3.8.1 Columns & Struts Critical load: The load at which a long column fails is known as the critical load or Euler load. The
Euler load is the theoretical maximum load that an initially straight column can support without
Definitions: transverse buckling. For column with frictionless or pinned ends, this load is given by Euler’s
formula shown below.
x Columns and Stanchions : Vertical compression members in building
x Struts : compressions members in roof trusses S2 EI
x Beam : Jib of a crane. Pcr --------- (1)
L2
x Beam column : Co-beam that is acted on by an axial compressive
force in addition to transversely applied loads. The corresponding column stress is given by the equation shown below. This stress cannot
exceed the yield strength of the column material.
Short Column: Short columns, called piers or pedestals, will fail by compression of the material.
These columns fail essentially by direct crushing at ultimate load. Pcr S2 E
V cr 2
≤ --------- (2)
∴ Crushing load P = f . A, f = ultimate crushing stress. A §L·
¨ ¸
©r¹
Long columns: Long columns will buckle in the transverse direction that has the smallest radius
of gyration. Buckling failure is sudden, often without significant warning. If the material is wood L is the longest unbraced column length. If a column is braced against buckling at some point
or concrete, the material will usually fracture (because the yield stress is low); however, if the between its two ends, the column is known as a braced column, and L will be less than the full
column is made of steel, the column will usually fail by local buckling, followed later by twisting column height.
and general yielding failure. Intermediate length columns will usually fail by a combination of
crushing and buckling. The quantity L/r is known as the slenderness ratio. Long columns have high slenderness ratios.
The smallest slenderness ratio for which Eq. (2) is valid is the critical slenderness ratio, which
Radius of gyration: r = I/A can be calculated from the material’s yield strength and modulus of elasticity. Typical
slenderness ratios range from 80 to 120. The critical slenderness ratio becomes smaller as the
Slenderness Ratio: Effective length/least radius of gyration. compressive yield strength increases.
As slenderness ratio increases, permissible stress or critical stress reduces, consequently, load Most columns have two radii of gyration, rx and ry, and therefore, have two slenderness ratios.
carrying capacity also reduces. The largest slenderness ratio will govern the design.
x Radius of gyration will be least along major axis of cross section. The smallest force at which a buckled shape is possible. Prior to this load the column remains
e.g. for a rectangular column along yy−axis straight. The columns buckle in the plane of the major axis of the cross section as shown below.
Y
Y
X X X X
X
Y
x For a given area, Tubular section will have maximum radius of gyration.
x H-Section is more efficient than I-Section.
Equilibrium of a column: A column is said to have buckled or failed when it reaches “Neutral
Equilibrium”.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 94 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 95
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material
Assumptions: 2L π EI/4L
6. One end pinned, at
1. Column is initially perfectly straight and is axially loaded. other only lateral
L
2. Section of column is uniform. displacement no
3. The material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous, isotropic and obeys hook’s law. rotation
4. Length of column is very large compared to lateral dimension.
5. Direct stress is small compared to bending stress corresponding to buckling condition.
6. Self weight of column is ignorable. 1.5L π EI/2.5L
7. The column will fail by buckling alone. 7. One end fixed, at
other end lateral
Effective length of columns: L
displacement and
partial rotation.
Effective length and critical loads for various boundary conditions compared to a column whose
both ends are hinged.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 96 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 97
Quick Refresher Guide Strength of Material Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
σ
α= Part – 4: Thermodynamics
π E
Boundary
System
Surroundings
Classification of system:
Open system: Both energy and mass can transfer across the boundary e.g., Steam turbine,
centrifugal pump.
Energy in
Mass out
Mass in
Energy out
Closed system: Energy transfer occurs across the boundary. No mass transfer across the
boundary
Energy out
Energy in
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 98 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 99
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Cylinder
W
Gas
Piston All are in
1
thermodynamic
Q Thermal conductor equilibrium
P
Isolated system: Neither mass nor energy transfers across the boundary e.g. Universe
2
Mass Transfer
X Thermodynamic processes (non-flow V processes):
Energy a) Constant pressure or Isobaric process:
Transfer
X
Thermodynamic property: Any characteristic of a system by which its physical condition can be
described, eg. Pressure, temperature, volume, etc. 1 2
P P=C
W = ∫ pdv
Thermodynamic state: All the properties have definite values.
Change of state: Any operation in which one or more of the properties of the system changes. V
b) Constant volume process or Isochoric process :
Path of change of state: The succession of states passed through during a change of state.
a) Mechanical equilibrium
b) Thermal equilibrium. 1 T=C
c) Chemical equilibrium
P
Quasi – static process: The departure of the state of the system from the thermodynamic 2
equilibrium is infinitely small. W=∫
PV = constant
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 100 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 101
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
- Definition: When a body A is in thermal equilibrium with a body B, and also separately with
P P =C a body C, then B and C will be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
- ZLTD is the basis for temperature measurement
2 - A reference body used for quantitave measurement of temperature is called thermometer
- A certain physical characteristic of thermometer which changes with change in temperature
V
is called thermometer property.
PV = const
n – index of expansion
B
P P =C C
If t = t & t = t
2
Then t = t
V
First law of thermodynamics (FLTD):
n=
FLTD is postulated by J.P. Joule
It is law of conservation of energy (energy can neither be created nor be destroyed)
Energy is of 2 types
Representation of thermodynamic processes on P – V diagram: 1. Energy in transit 2. Energy in storage
e.g. Heat & work e.g. Internal energy
For a closed system undergoing a cyclic process, FLTD states that
P =C
∮ δQ = ∮ δW
For a closed system undergoing non cyclic process, FLTD:
P T =C δQ = δW + ∆U
For a cyclic process ∆U = 0 (i.e.: U = constant)
PV = C (1 < < 1.4) Note: Q – heat supplied/liberated
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 102 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 103
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 104 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 105
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
(1)
LPS( )
(2)
(1)
(2)
LPW ( )
datum
Condenser
Q̇ + ṁ + + + = Ẇ + ṁ + + +
q =h −h
( Q̇ − Ẇ ) = ṁ + + + − + + +
W =0
C ≈C
( Q̇ − Ẇ ) = ṁ[(ℎ − ℎ ) + − + ( − ) Z ≈Z
- - - - - SFEE
HPW – High Pressure Water LPW – Low Pressure Water
HPS – High Pressure Steam LPS – Low Pressure Steam
( q̇ − ẇ ) = ṁ[(ℎ − ℎ ) + − + ( − ) - - - - - SFEE
(ii) Turbine/Compressor
̇
Where q = ̇
and Turbine
Compressor
̇
w = ̇
LPF( )
Applications of SFEE
HPF( )
(i) Boiler Condenser
HPS( )
LPF( )
q HPF( )
= − = −
HPW( ) q =0
C ≈C
Boiler Z ≈Z
HPF – high pressure fluid
q =h −h
LPF - low pressure fluid.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 106 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 107
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
h >h h <h
C <C C >C q =0
q =0 C ≈ C
w =0 h ≈ h
Z ≈ Z W = g(Z − Z )
i.e. work input = increase in P.E
SFEE: For Nozzle
(h − h ) + (C − C ) = 0 (h − h ) + (C − C ) = 0 (vi) SFEE for a heat exchanger
q =0
(C − C ) = (h − h ) (h − h ) = (C − C ) W =0
i.e. gain in kE = drop in enthalpy gain in enthalpy = drop in KE Z ≈Z
exit velocity, C = C + 2(h − h ) SFEE: h − h = 0
Increase in enthalpy of cold fluid = decrease in enthalpy of heat fluid
where C = exit velocity, m/s
(h − h ) = enthalpy drop, J/kg , ̇
In general, C <<< C
, ̇
C = 2(h − h ) m/s
= 2000(h − h ) where h and h are given in kJ/kg
C = 44.7 (h − h ) (∆h) = (∆h)
for a gas nozzle h = C (T − T ) ṁ C (t − t )= m (C ̇ ( − ))
where C = specific heat, k ṁ , ̇ → mass flow rates of hot and cold fluids respectively
C , C → spacific heats
C = 2C (T − T )
t , t → temperatures
(i) SFEE for a throttling process:
q =0 Second law of thermodynamics:
W =0
Also called as “law of degradation of energy”
C ≈ C
Z ≈Z
Kelvin Planck Statement: It is impossible for a heat engine to produce net work in a complete
SFEE:
cycle if it exchanges heat only with bodies at a single fixed temperature.
h −h =0
h =h
Throttling process is also called is isenthalpic process.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 108 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 109
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
A substance that is homogeneous and invariable in chemical composition in all of its three
Impossible
phases (solid, liquid and gases) is called pure substance.
Heat Engine
E.g. Water – steam mixture
HE W
Atmospheric air
η = Combustion Products of a fuel.
′′′ (f)
CP
′′ (e)
′′′ 2′′′
′′′ ′
Impossible HP/K+1 ( > ) ′′′ ′′
T (d) ′′
′ (c) 4
′′
2 ′
Q ′
1 (a)
3 (b)
V
Heat pump (HP)/refrigerator
x The performance of heat pump or refrigerator is represented by its COP (coefficient of
performance) (a) - Saturated liquid curve (SLC)
(b) - Saturated vapour curve (SVC)
(c) - vapour dome
(d) - under cooled liquid.
(e) - Super heated vapour zone
(f) - Gaseous Zone
Critical point: Water changes its phase directly to vapour with no distinction between liquid and
vapour phases.
- At critical point, change in enthalpy, change in specific volume etc. are zero
- At critical point (for water) pressure, p = 220.8 bar
Temperature, T = 374.14 ℃
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 110 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 111
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Triple point: the state at which all three phases solid, liquid and gas exist in equilibrium is called (v) s=s +xs
triple point.
where
For water, triple point is
T = 273.16K h , s ⟶ for saturated liquid
P = 4.587mm of Hg
h = h −h
Dryness fraction: Wet steam characterized by dryness fraction.
s = s − s
=
where m = mass of vapour h , s ⟶ for dry saturated steam
m = mass of liquid
0≤ ≤1 b) Superheated steam ( )
x = 0 → 100% liquid V=V = V
x = 1 → 100% vapour
h = h +C (T −T )
Mollier Diagram: s = s + C ln
where
Constant pressure lines T = superheated steam temperature, Kelvin
T = saturated steam temperature, Kelvin
C = specific heat of steam kJ/kg k
Note: internal energy, u = (h –PV) kJ/kg
h Constant dryness fraction lines
(quality lines)
=
= .
s
h – enthalpy (kJ/kg)
s – entropy (kJ/kg K )
a) Pressure entry
b) Temperature entry
a) Wet steam:
(iii) =
V = specific volume of dry saturated steam (directly available from steam tables )
= dryness fractio
(iv) h= h + xh
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 112 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 113
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Maximum work that can be obtained from the given heat source.
AE=Q T u h
T
(A E) where u = specific internal energy (J/kg)
T0
(U E) h= specific enthalpy (J/kg)
S (e) Avogadro’s hypothesis: It states that equal volumes of different gases at same pressure
and temperature contain equal no of molecules.
AE=Q 1− - At NTP 22.4136 of any perfect gas has its mass equal to its molecular weight in kg.
- In a gram of perfect gas, there are 6.023 × 10 molecules.
Unavailable Energy (UV) or ANERGY:
Avogadro Number, A = 6.023 × 10
UE = T (∆S) .
Universal Gas Constant:
Anergy: Minimum heat losses that are to be suffered during energy conversion process.
PV = mRT - - - - - - - - (1)
4.3.2 Ideal or perfect gases
Where R = characteristic gas constant. Its value changes from gas to gas.
Ideal gas: * Inter molecular forces are negligible
PV = nR⃗T - - - - - - - - - (2)
* Obeys all ‘Perfect gas Laws’ at low pressure and high temperatures.
Where ⃖R = universe gas constant. Its value is constant for all the gases.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 114 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 115
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
̅ < ̅
R⃗ = 8.314 kJ/kg mol K Inter molecular forces attractive
In general 0.95≤Z ≤1.05
a) Vander waal’s equation :
In equation (2) n = no. of moles = = P+ [V − b] = RT
a → is a constant. It is called forces of cohesion.
R⃗ = MR – Relation between R and R⃗
b → another constant. It called as co – volume.
Specific heat (C): x The values of a & b have been obtained using kinetic theory of gases.
C=
kJ kJ
Units:kg K or kg ℃
For solids – only one specific heat
For liquids – only one specific heat
For gases – two specific heats
1. C (specific heat at constant pressure)
2. C ( specific heat at constant volume)
C = and C =
∆ H = mC (T − T ) ∆U = m C (T − T )
a) Compressibility factor, Z =
Where, ̅ = molar specific volume =
If Z = 1 , P ̅ = RT ⟶ a perfect gas
Z ≷1 , ⟶ a real gas
I. Z>1
̅ > ̅
II. Z<1
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 116 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 117
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Change in internal energy during any process ∆U = m C (T − T ) Isothermal (constant temperature) process:
V
P=C
=
W = ∫ pdV = mRT ln
1 2 = mRT ln
P
W = ∫ pdv ∆U = mC (T − T ) = 0
P
Q = mRT ln P =W
V
Q = ∆U +W Reversible Adiabatic or Isentropic process:
= mC (T − T ) + p(V − V )
Q = mC (T − T ) ∵ PV = constant
V T
=
V T 1
Constant volume process or Isochoric process:
P P =C
2 V
V=C W = ∫ pdV =
P
For an isentropic process
1 = 0
=0
V
∴∆ = Q–W=
W = ∫ pdv = 0
( )
T V P
∆U = mC (T − T ) = =
T V P
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 118 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 119
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle:
1
1 2
P 2 T
4 4 3
3 η = =
V S η = =
(A) For equal work output (W = W ),
1-2: Isothermal expansion
T =
x Heat supplied to the system, q = T . ∆S (B) For equal efficiency (η =η )
2-3: Isentropic expansion
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 120 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 121
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
S
s
Process change in entropy x If a mixture of air-water vapour is cooled at constant pressure, the temperature at which
a) V = C s − s = C log ( ) water vapour begins to condense is called the dew point temperature.
x At dew point the partial pressure of water vapour in the mixture is equal to the saturation
b) P = C s − s = C log ( ) pressure of water.
c) T = C s − s = R log ( ) x The composition of air-water vapour mixture is usually specified in terms of specific
humidity or relative humidity.
d) Adiabatic s −s ≠0
e) Isentropic (Reversible adiabatic) s −s =0 Specific Humidity: Specific humidity (SH) or humidity ratio is defined as the ratio of mass of
water vapour to the mass of dry air in the mixture.
- Clasius inequality: It states that when a closed system undergoes a cyclic process,
a) ∮ < 0, for irreversible cycle = ̇ / ̇ = 0.622 ( / ) = 0.622 ( /( − )
b) ∮ > 0, impossible Where ṁ , ṁ = Mass of water vapour and dry air, respectively
c) ∮ = 0, reversible p , p = Partial pressure of water vapour and air in the mixture, respectively
- Principle of increase of entropy
P = Total pressure.
∮ ≤ 0,
∮ ≤ Relative Humidity: Relative humidity (RH) is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of the
water vapour in the mixture to the saturation pressure (p ) of water at the mixture temperature.
ds ≥ 0
∵ δq = 0 for the universe = / = /0.622
[∆s] ⋛0
i.e. > 0 → irreversible process Adiabatic Saturation: Consider the steady flow of an unsaturated air-water vapour mixture
= 0 → reversible process through an insulated device as shown in fig. called adiabatic saturator. Assume the equilibrium
< →impossible process is attained between the water and air-water vapour mixture in the device and hence saturated
air-water vapour leaves the device.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 122 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 123
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
saturated air – water x The adiabatic saturation relation when expressed in terms of enthalpy reduces to h∗ = h∗ .
1 3 Vapour mixture That is during adiabatic saturation h* remains constant
Unsaturated air –
ṁ , ṁ , T , SH x The lines of constant h* coincide with the lines of constant wet bulb temperature, because h∗
water Vapour
mixture depends on T = (=T ) only. Once T is specified p is fixed because P = p and hence
ṁ , ṁ , T , SH SH is fixed.
The field of air conditioning uses various processes such as heating, cooling, humidification and
adiabatic mixing of air-water vapour mixtures. These processes can be easily analysed with the
help of a psychrometric chart.
Consider the device as control volume and apply material and energy balances to get
Adiabatic Mixing of Streams: Consider the steady flow of steams 1 and 2 into the adiabatic mixer
Mass balance of air: ṁ = ṁ
shown in Fig. The mixture leaves the device as stream 3. Considering the device as a control
Mass balance for water: ṁ̇ + ṁ = ṁ
volume, one can write the following material and energy balance equations
Energy balance: ṁ h + ṁ h + ṁ h = ṁ h + ṁ h
Mass balance for air : ṁ + ṁ = ṁa
These equations can be solved to obtain
Mass balance for water : ṁ SH + ṁ SH = ṁ SH
(h − h ) + SH (h − h ) Energy balance : ṁ h ∗ + ṁ h ∗ = ṁ h ∗
SH =
(ℎ − ℎ ) These equations can be solved to obtain
Where,
ṁ = mass flow rate of dry air; ṁ = mass flow rate of water vapour / water ∗ ∗
̇ − ℎ −ℎ
h = specific enthalpy of dry air; h = specific enthalpy of water vapour / water = = ∗ ∗
̇ − ℎ −ℎ
Subscripts 1, 2, 3 denote the conditions at the points shown in fig. If air is treated as an ideal gas,
we can write (h − h ) = C (T − T ). Assume that liquid water enters the device at the same
The adiabatic mixing process is shown in Fig.
temperature as the air leaving the device. That is T = .
Then, h − h = (h − h ) = (h ) and h − h = h − h
Thus,
C (T − T ) + SH (h ) ∗
SH =
ℎ −ℎ
1
x The specific humidity and relative humidity of an air-water vapour mixture can be measured
̇ ,
with an adiabatic saturator. Adiabatic
x For all practical purposes, the adiabatic saturation temperature (T3) does not depend upon ̇ , mixer ̇ ,
the temperature at which liquid water enters the device
x The adiabatic saturation temperature (T3) does not depend upon the temperature at which ∗
Control
liquid water enters the device volume
x The adiabatic saturation temperature (T3) depends only on the conditions (T1, SH1) of the ∗
entering air.
RH
Psychrometric Chart:
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 124 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 125
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
where, SH and SH denote the specific humidity of air-water vapour mixture at the inlet and
outlet of the cooler, respectively.
Refrigerant Heating coil
x A schematic diagram of an evaporative cooler is shown in fig. And the process of
humidification with cooling is shown on a psychrometric chart.
Water ̇
Dehumidified
Humid air
air 1 2 Heating unit 4
Cooling unit
1
SH 2
h∗
RH
dry air
RH
*h
2 4 SH
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 126 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 127
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
I = /[1 − (1 − ) / ]
2
3 1 Enthalpy of Moist Air: The enthalpy of moist air h is equal to the sum of the enthalpies of dry air
T
and associated water vapour, i.e (h = h + ω h ) per kg of dry air, where h is the enthalpy of the
Saturated water dry air part and h is the enthalpy of the water vapour part. h = C t = 1.005 t kJ/kg
Vapour in saturated Super heated water vapour
Air in unsaturated Air
C A
B
S
In this state the air is holding the maximum amount of water vapour (the specific humidity being
ω , corresponding to the partial pressure p ) at temperature T of the mixture. The maximum
possible specific humidity, ω at temperature T is thus
Reference state
ωs = 0.622 [P / (p − p )]
S
The ratio of the actual specific humidity ω to the specific humidity ω of saturated air at
temperature T is termed as the degree of saturation denoted by the symbol μ. Thus
Again taking the reference state enthalpy as zero for saturated liquid at 0℃, the enthalpy of the
1− / water vapour part, at point A is expressed as
= =
1− / h =h =C t + (h ) + C (t − t )kJ/kg
Relative Humidity: Relative humidity denoted by the symbol I or RH is defined as the ratio of the
where C = specific heat of liquid water, t = dew point temperature
mass of water vapour m in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature mass of water
vapour m in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature. Thus if V and V are
(h ) = latent heat of vaporization at DTP, C = specific heat of superheated vapour
the specific volumes of water vapour in the actual moist air and saturated air respectively at
temperate T and in volume V, at points 1 and 2 respectively
Taking the specific heat of liquid water as 4.1868 kJ/kg K) and that of water vapour as 1.88
/ kJ/kg K in the range 0 to 60℃, we have
I= = =
/
h = 4.1868 t + (h ) + 1.88 (t − t )
/
, I= = Accordingly, enthalpy of water vapour at A, at DPT of t and DBT of t, can be determined more
/
conveniently by the following two methods:
Using the perfect-gas relationship between points 1 and 2,
i) h = h = (h ) ii) h = h = (h ) 0℃ + C (t − 0)
P v = P v or P V = P V
Thus, employing the second expression and taking the latent heat of vaporization of water at 0℃
We have as 2501 kJ/kg, we obtain the following empirical expression for the enthalpy of the water vapour
part
I= / = /
h = 2501 + 1.88 t kJ/kg
It can be shown that (2500 + 1.88 )
ℎ = 1.005 + . .
= 0.622 I ( / ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (1)
I = ( /0.622) / ( / ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (2)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 128 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 129
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Humid Specific Heat: Then t’ = t* i.e. the two temperatures are equal. The dimensionless quantity f /k C is
called the Lewis number. The air and water vapour mixture at low pressures, this
x ℎ=( + ) + ℎ 0℃ number is approximately equal to unity (L = 0.945).
= + ℎ 0℃ x The measurable wet bulb temperature is equal to the thermodynamic wet bulb
where = + temperature.
= (1.005 + 1.88 ω kJ/(kg d.a.) (K) x For any other kind of gas and vapour mixture these would not be the same
x Humid specific heat is the specific heat of moist air (1 + ω) kg per kg of dry air. The term x In the case of air and water vapour mixture, the two temperatures are exactly the same.
C t governs the change in enthalpy of moist air with temperature at constant specific
humidity, and the term ω (h ) 0℃ governs the change in enthalpy with the change in Mixing with Condensation: When large quantity of cold air mixes with a quantity of warmer air at
a high
specific humidity, i.e. due to the addition or removal of water vapour in air.
x Since the second term 1.88 ω is very small compared to the first term 1.005, an
approximated value of C of 1.0216 kJ/kg d.a.) (K) may be taken for all practical 1
purposes in air-conditioning calculations.
1
Thermodynamic wet bulb temperature or temperature of adiabatic saturation: Adiabatic Mixer 4
x For any state of unsaturated moist air, there exists a temperature t* at which the air
2
becomes adiabatically saturated by the evaporation of water into air, at exactly the same
temperature t*
x The leaving air is saturated at temperature t*. The specific humidity is correspondingly
increased to ω*. The enthalpy is increased from a given initial value h to the value h*.
The weight of water added per kg of dry air is ω* - ω which adds energy to the moist air
of amount equal to ω*- ωh ∗, where h * is the specific enthalpy of the injected water at t*. relative humidity, there is a possibility of condensation of water vapour, the mixture will then
consist of saturated air and the condensate.
Adiabatic
Enclosure
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 130 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 131
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
and ṁ h + ṁ h = ṁ h
Because of this change in the humidity ratio, there is also a Change in enthalpy of the air
or h = [(ṁ h + ṁ h )/ (ṁ + ṁ )] ω h given by (h − h ). In air-conditioning practice this change in enthalpy due to the change in
the Humidity ratio is considered to cause a latent-heat transfer
Where h is the enthalpy of the condensate at temperature t of the mixture. The two variables Given by Q = m (h − h )
to be solved are t and ω . By assuming different values of t and substituting for ω , h and h ,
the two equations can be solved by trial and error to obtain he final state after mixing.
= −
= +ℎ −( +ℎ )
t
= ℎ ( − )
= ℎ = 2500
Q = m (h − h )
x If the building gains or loses moisture, it is supposed to have a latent-heat load. A gain of
= ( − )= ( − )+ ( − ) moisture will require the condensation of moisture for the dehumidification of air in the
conditioning apparatus, and hence a cooling load. On the other hand, a loss of moisture will
= (1.005 + 1.88 )( − ) necessitate the evaporation of water for the humidification of air in the apparatus and hence
a heating load.
where C is the humid specific heat. This heat, denoted by the subscript S, is called the sensible Q = [(cmm)(1.2)(2501)/ 60] ∆ω
heat. If a building to be air conditioned r receives or loses heat due to transmission or other = 50 ( )∆ ,
reasons, it is supposed to have sensible heat load.
Total Heat Process:
x m denotes the mass flow rate of dry air. Generally the flow rate of dry air is measured in
terms of cubic meters of air per minute (cmm). Then the mass flow rate of dry air can be x The change in temperature causes a sensible heat load given by
calculated from Q = m (h − h ) = m C (t − t )
m =Q ρ The change in the humidity ratio causes a moisture transfer given by
where Q is the volume flow rate of air. Expressing this in cmm, we have = m (ω − ω )
m = (cmm)ρ/60 kg d. a./s And a latent heat load given by
For the purpose of calculation, standard air is taken at 20℃ and 50 percent RH. The density Q = m (h − h ) = m h + (ω − ω )
of standard air is approximated to 1.2 kg/m d.a. The value of humid specific heat is taken as Q = Q + Q = m (h − h )
1.0216 kJ/ (kg d.a.) K. we obtain = m [ C (t − t ) + h (ω − ω )]
x Q = [(cmm)(1.2)(1.0216)/ 60] ∆t = 0.0204 (cmm) ∆t, kW again, expressing the mass flow rate in cmm, we get
= [( )(1.2)/ 60] ∆ℎ
Latent Heat Process-Humidification or Dehumidification: = 0.02 ( )∆ℎ,
Which is the same as
x When the state of air is altered along the t = constant line, such as BC moisture in the form of =( )(0.0204 ∆ + 50 ∆ ),
vapour has to be transferred to change the humidity ratio of the air.
x This transfer of moisture is given by = (ω − ω )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 132 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 133
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Sensible Heat Factor (SHF): The ratio of the sensible heat transfer to the total heat transfer is Part 4.6: Power Engineering
termed as the sensible heat factor. Thus SHF = Q / (Q + Q ) = Q /Q
4.6.1 STEAM NOZZLES
SHF = [(h − h )/(h − h ) + (h − h )] = h − h /(h − h )
= [0.0204 ∆ / 0.0204∆ + 50 ∆ ] = (0.0204 ∆ /0.02∆ℎ) A steam nozzle may be defined as a passage of varying cross – section, through which heat
energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy. Its major function is to produce a steam jet with
The process line AC is called the sensible heat factor line or process or condition line. high velocity to drive steam turbine. A turbine nozzle performs two functions:
A zero SHF line is vertical on the psychrometric chart and implies no sensible heat transfer. An (i) It transforms a portion of energy of steam (obtained from steam generating unit) into
SHF of 0.75 to 0.8 is quite common in air conditioning practice in a normal dry climate. A lower kinetic energy.
value of SHF, such as 0.65, implies a high latent head load, which is quite common (ii) In the impulse turbine it directs the steam jet of high velocity against blades, which are
free to move in order to convert kinetic energy into shaft work. In reaction turbines the
1 1 nozzles discharge high velocity steam. The reactive force of the steam against the nozzle
= =
1 + 2451 (∆ /∆ ) 1 + tan produces motion and work is obtained.
Convergent
Where tan θ = ∆ω / ∆t = (1/2451) [1/SHF) – 1] part
We see tan θ is the slope of the SHF line AC on the Psychrometric chart, which is purely a Divergent
function of SHF
part
∆h
h
Entry Exit
(1 – SHF)
C
SHF
∆ Throat
Fig. Convergent – divergent nozzle.
A The cross – section of a nozzle at first tapers to a smaller section (to allow for changes which
occur due to changes in velocity, specific volume and dryness fraction as the steam expands); the
smallest section being known as throat, and then it diverges to a large diameter. The nozzle
which converges to throat and diverges afterwards is known as convergent – divergent nozzle.
∆t In convergent nozzle there is no divergence after the throat.
In a convergent – divergent nozzle, because of the higher expansion ratio, addition of divergent
portion produces steam at higher velocities as compared to a convergent nozzle.
Velocity of steam at the exit of nozzle, C = 44.2 h
where h = heat drop during expansion of steam.
Discharge through the Nozzle and Conditions for its Maximum Value:
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 134 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 135
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
m =A n
)
The steam jet issuing from the nozzle at a velocity C impinges on the blade at an angle α.
The tangential component of this jet C performs work on the blade, the axial
compontent C however does not work but causes the steam to flow through the turbine.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 136 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 137
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
As the blades move with tangential velocity of C , the entering steam jet has a relative 8. The blade efficiency of the reaction turbine is given by
velocity C , (with respect to blade) which makes an angle θ with the wheel tangent. The η =2−
steam then glides over the blade without any shock and discharges at a relative velocity of C η becomes maximum when, ρ = cos α
at an angle ϕ with the tangent of the blades. The relative velocity at the inlet C is the
and hence (η ) =
same as the relative velocity at the C if there is no frictional loss at the blade. The absolute
velocity (C ) of leaving steam makes an angle β to the tangent at the wheel. 9. The state point may be defined as that point on h – s diagram which represents the
condition of steam at that instant.
To have convenience in solving the problems on turbines it is a common practice to combine
the two vector velocity diagrams on a common base which represents the blade velocity 10. Theoretical efficiency of reheat cycle is given by
( ) ( )
(C ) as shown in Fig. This diagram has been obtained by superimposing the inlet velocity η =( )
, neglecting pump work.
( )
diagram on the outlet diagram in order that the blade velocity lines C coincide.
4.6.3 Rankine Cycle
- Basis for steam turbine power plant
- Working substance is steam.
M L B- boiler
P Q ST – Steam Turbine
α
SC – Steam Condenser
P – Pump
HPL – High Pressure Liquid
LPL – Low Pressure Liquid
HPV- High Pressure Vapour
LPV – Low Pressure Vapour
N HPV
S (1)
Fig. 6.3
ST
Important Formulae: B
(2) LPV
(4)
1. Blade or diagram efficiency, η =
HPL
×
2. Stage efficiency, η =
( )
3. The axial thrust on the wheel due to difference between the velocities of flow at entrance (3)
and outlet : LPL
Axial force on the wheel = ṁ C − C
4. Energy converted to heat by blade friction
= loss of kinetic energy during flow over blades
= ṁ −
5. Optimum value of ratio of blade speed to steam is, (1)
ρ =
6. The blade efficiency for two stage turbine will be maximum when, (4) (1)
ρ = P (4)
In general optimum blade speed ratio for maximum blade efficiency or maximum work P T
done is given by
ρ = (2)
(3) (2) (3)
and the work done in the last row = of total work
where n is the number of moving rotating blade rows in series. V
In practice more than two rows are hardly preferred. S
7. The degree of reaction of reaction turbine stage is defined as the ratio of heat drop over
moving blades to the total heat drop in the stage.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 138 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 139
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Pump
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 140 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 141
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
- Purpose of reheating: To avoid blade erosion by increasing the dryness fraction of the steam 1
at the end of expansion process in steam turbine.
- To avoid blade erosion , dryness fraction should be greater than or equal to 0.88
x ≥ 0.88
- Reheating involves partial expansion of steam in HPT and then extract this steam for
reheating in to the boiler, feed the reheated steam to LPT for further expansion (refer Fig. ) 4
T
2
(1) 3
(3) a
T Steam
d
(2)
b
c
(6)
(5) S
(4)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 142 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 143
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
3-4 Isentropic expansion process work developed by the turbine, Part 4.7: Refrigeration
W = C (T − T )KJ/Kg 4.7.1 Refrigerator
4-1 Isobaric (constant pressure ) heat rejection. Source Q = heat supplied to source Source
q = C (T − T )KJ/Kg
Q = heat extracted from sink
W = W −W =q −q
T = source temperature
1 W W
HP/K+1 T = sink temperature HP/K+1
η = 1− ν
(r ) ν
W = work input
r → r →
(r ) =
( )
(r ) . =
(r ) . = (r )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 144 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 145
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Figure shows a simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle on T-s diagram for different (c) Power Required by Compressor:
compression processes. The cycle works between temperatures T and T representing the (i) If the compression is isentropic, then,
condenser and evaporator temperatures respectively. The various processes of the cycle A-B-C-
D (A-B’-C’-D and A-B”-C”-D) are as given below: Work of compression = (ℎ − ℎ ) KJ/Kg
( )
i) Process B-C (B’-C’ or B”-C”): Isentropic compression of the vapor from state B to C. If Hence, Power required = (KW / ton)
vapor state is saturated (B), or superheated (B”), the compression is called dry
compression. If initial state is wet (B’), the compression is called wet compression as (ii) If the compression is polytropic (Pv = C).
represented by B’-C’.
ii) Process C-D (C’-D or C”-D): Heat rejection in condenser at constant pressure. Work of compression = ( − )( − / )
iii) Process D-A: An irreversible adiabatic expansion of vapor through the expansion value.
The pressure and temperature of the liquid are reduced. The process is accompanied by ( )
partial evaporation of some liquid. The process is shown by dotted line. Or Power required = ∗ ∗ (KW/ton)
∗
iv) Process A-B (A-B’ or A-B”) : Heat absorption in evaporator at constant pressure. The
final state depends on the quantity of heat absorbed and same may be wet (B’) dry (B) or (d) Heat Rejected to Cylinder Jacket:
superheated (B”).
Q =m ( − ) − (ℎ − ℎ ) (KJ⁄min − ton)
COP of Vapor Compression Cycle:
Let the specific volume of the vapor at B i.e at suction of the compressor be, v and let the
volumetric efficiency of the compressor be η , then piston displacement required per min.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 146 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 147
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
COP of Refrigerator:
= =
−
( − )
= =
( − )− ( − ) ( − )
Practically, the reversed Carnot cycle cannot be used for refrigeration purpose as the isentropic
process requires very high speed operation, whereas the isothermal process requires very low
speed operation.
The working of air-refrigeration cycle is represented on p-v and T-s diagrams in Fig. (b) and (c).
Process 1-2 represents the suction of air into the compressor. Process 2-3 represents the
isentropic compression of air by the compressor. Process 3-5 represents the discharge of high
pressure air from the compressor into the heat exchanger. The reduction in volume of air from
v to v is due to the cooling of air in the heat exchanger.
Process 5-6 represents the isentropic expansion of air in the expander. Process 6-2 represents
the absorption of heat from the evaporator at constant pressure.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 148 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 149
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Cylinder head x On the basis of the number of stroke engine can be four-stroke engine or can be two – stroke
Exhaust Valve engine.
Suction Valve
x On the basis of the working cycle it can be spark ignition (otto cycle) engine or it can be
Intake of suction manifold Exhaust manifold
compression ignition engine (diesel cycle).
Name of the part Material used Intake Exhaust Overlap Intake Exhaust
Closes Opens opens Opens
Cylinder Cast iron
Cylinder head Cast iron, aluminum alloy
Piston Cast iron, aluminum alloy
Piston rings Silicon cast iron
ve
ve
open
Power
Power
Intake valv
Intake valv
Exhaust valv
Exhaust valv
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 150 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 151
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
=
×
Expansion
Compression
Exhaust port I. P. = Indicated power
Exhaust port closes
Inlet port mf = Mass of fuel
closes
Inlet port closes QLHV = Lower Heat Calorific Value
B.D.C
closes
Inlet port open x Brake thermal efficiency ( ): Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of energy in the brake
Exhaust port open power to the fuel energy.
. .
Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle = ×
x The cycle is completed The cycle is completed in
b. p. = break power.
in four strokes of the piston. two strokes of the piston.
x It has only one power stroke It has one power stroke in x Mechanical efficiency ( ): It is a ratio of brake power to the indicated horse power.
in two revolutions of crank each revolution of crank . .
=
Shaft shaft . .
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 152 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 153
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
bsfc = kg/kWh x The kinetic and potential energies of the working fluid are neglected.
. .
x The operation of the engine is frictionless.
x All the process are reversible.
isfc = kg/kWh
. .
The constant volume or Otto cycle:
x Fuel-Air Ratio: It is relative proportion of the fuel and air in the engine. P 3
= T
W.D. in expansion = Constant
3
3-4 = area 3-4-6-5-3 Q
x Mean Piston speed = 2LN
= Work done = heat added – heat rejected = cv(T3 – T2) – cv(T4 – T1)
( )
=1−( )
= 1 chemically correct
=1−
< 1 lean mixture
Thus the efficiency of otto cycle depends only on compression ratio (r), and the efficiency
> 1 rich mixture increases with increasing compression ratio and . The efficiency at compression ratio 5 is
47.5% and at compression ratio 10 is 60.2%
NOTE: Monoatamic gas
= 1.67
Air
x In line engines : all cylinders are arranged linearly and transmit power to a single crankshaft
= 1.4
x Radial engines: air cooled aircraft engines, odd cylinders are employed for balancing, pistons
of all cylinders are coupled to same crankshaft. = 1.30
Exchaust gas
x The working medium is a perfect gas throughout, i.e., it follows the law pV= mRT.
x The working medium has constant specific heats. r
x The working medium does not undergo any chemical change throughout the cycle.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 154 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 155
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
Mean effective pressure (mep) The efficiency of the diesel cycle is different from that of the Otto cycle only by the bracketed
term, which is always greater that unity.
mep =
Mean Effective Pressure (mep)
(∝ )
= ( )( ) mep =
3 The efficiency decreases as cut off ratio increases. If cut off ratio is greater than 10% of stroke,
Isothermal T smoking occurs in an actual engine because there is no sufficient time for the combustion
P process to be completed before the exhaust valve opens.
x The name dual combustion is derived from the fact that it incorporates the features of both
Reversible otto and diesel cycles.
adiabatic x High speed diesel engine is based on this.
= 2
4 3 4 v = constant (otto )
T
= − 4
v = constant
1
2
P P = constant (Diesel)
2 5
0
5 6 S
1 5 1
r
5
1
= f g s
V
( ) ( )
= ( )
=
=1− ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) = ( ) ( )
= ,r= = , =
= . = x If ρ = 1 in above equation it becomes otto cycle and when α = 1, it becomes diesel cycle.
( )
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 156 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 157
Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics Quick Refresher Guide Thermodynamics
mep =
( ) ( ) ( )
= ( )( ) 3
Constant pressure
T
′
Comparison of Otto, Diesel, and dual Combustion (Limited - pressure) Cycles:
x For same compression ratio and same heat input: The heat rejected in the Otto cycle is less
than that in the diesel cycle and dual combustion cycle thus the efficiency of the Otto cycle
is more than the diesel and the dual combustion cycle for same compression ratio and same
heat input.
′ 4
ηotto > ηdual > ηdiesel
′
2
T
3 1
Constant volume
"
′ 6 S
x For same maximum pressure and temperature
′ > >
"
T
2 ′ Constant 3
" pressure
4
1
5 6 " ′ S
′ 4
x For constant maximum pressure and same heat input.
2
1 Constant
volume
S
5 6
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 158 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 159
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
x Form Closure: The two links are held together by the shape of the links and they cannot
be detached easily.
x Force Closure: The contact is maintained by an external force either the gravity force or
spring force and the two bodies can be separated easily.
Ternary link: It connects with three other links in a system Kinematic chain:
A kinematic chain is formed by connecting number of links with kinematic pairs so that there
exists definite relation between the motion of various links. They can be of two types closed
kinematic chains and open kinematic chains.
= − − − − −
= − −
Kinematic Pair: Two links or elements connected with a joint that allows the relative motion
between the links.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 160 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 161
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
Degrees of Freedom of a Mechanism: As one link is fixed in a kinematic chain to get a mechanism. A four bar mechanism is as shown in figure; AD, the link 1 is known as the fixed link. AB, the link
Grublers equation for the DOF of a mechanism is as follows for spatial mechanism 2 acts as input link. The link 3 BC is the coupler and the link 4 CD is the output link. The input
and output links can be interchanged. If the input/output link can have complete rotation about
= ( − )− − − − − . its centre it is known as crank. If it has only a partial revolution it is known as a rocker or an
oscillatory link. Based on this the mechanisms can be classified as C-C, C-R, R-C, R- R
For a planar mechanism mechanisms.
= ( − )− − Inversions of Grashoff’s 4-bar chain (l + s < p + q): The mechanisms obtained from the
Grashoff’s kinematic chain are based on the positions of the shortest link
Note: A mechanism has six (three) degrees of freedom less compared to that of the kinematic
chain from which it is obtained. x Shortest link fixed-Double crank mechanism
x Link adjacent to shortest link is fixed crank-Rocker mechanism
Classification based on degrees of freedom: x Link opposite to the Shortest link is fixed: Rocker-Rocker mechanism
Zero degrees of freedom: Structure Inversions of Non-Grashoffs 4-bar chain: l + s > p + q
Negative degrees of freedom: Super structure/ Preloaded structure By fixing any link it results in Rocker-Rocker mechanism.
Positive degrees of Freedom: Mechanism Inversion of Special Grashoff’s Chain:
Parallelogram or anti-parallelogram connection will result in double crank or drag link
Four bar chain/quadric cycle chain: It is the basic chain that consists of four links and four mechanism. Deltoid connection will result in crank-Rocker mechanism.
turning pairs. It is the basic chain from which many one DOF mechanism can be derived. The
necessary condition to form a four bar chain based on their length is l < s + p + q. In parallelogram connection both long links and short links are opposite to each other. In deltoid
connection both long links and short links are side by side.
When l is the length of the longest link, s is that of the shortest link and p, q are the lengths of the
remaining two links. Though a chain is formed by satisfying the above condition it may not Equivalent linkage: By replacing any pair in a kinematic chain with its equivalent (from the same
result in useful mechanism, if one barely satisfy the condition. class). An equivalent chain can be obtained, by replacing any turning pair in a four bar chain
with a sliding pair a slider crank chain can be obtained. By replacing any two turning pairs with
Grashoff’s Condition: Grashoff’s condition checks the link proportions and classifies the chains sliding pairs a double slider crank chain can be obtained.
mechanism
Inversions of a single slider crank chain:
If l + s < p + q Grashoffs or Class –I I inversion: An I.C. engine mechanism/compressor mechanism
If l + s > p + q Non grashoffs or Class-II
If l + s = p + q Special Grashoffs or Class-III II inversion: wit-worth Quick return motion mechanism and rotary engine.
III inversion: Crank and slotted level type quick return motion mechanism and oscillating
Inversion: By fixing one link in a kinematic chain a mechanism is obtained. By fixing different cylinder engine
links, different mechanisms are obtained. Inversion is the process of obtaining different
mechanism by fixing different links in a kinematic chain. IV inversion: Hand pump
III inversion: Oldham’s Coupling. Useful for connecting two parallel shafts with little offset.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 162 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 163
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
5.1.2 Dynamic Analysis of Slider-crank Mechanism The –ve sign indicates that the sense of angular acceleration of the rod is such that it tends to
reduce the angle β. Thus, in the given case, the angular acceleration of the connecting rod is
clockwise.
An engine is acted upon by various forces such as weight of reciprocating masses and connecting
B rod, gas forces, forces due to friction & inertia forces due to acceleration & retardation of engine
0 ODC
elements, the least being dynamic in nature. The effect of the weight & the inertia effect of the
IDC
connecting rod is neglected.
Fig. 5.1.2.1
A
+ ( + )
Figure shows a slider crank mechanism in which the crank OA rotates in the clockwise direction.
ℓ & r are the lengths of the connecting rod & the crank respectively. B
F
Angular velocity & Angular Acceleration of connecting rod: 1. Force (thrust) along the connecting rod:
Let F = Force in the connecting rod shown in Fig (1.2.2)
ω = ω. Then equating the horizontal components of forces.
√
F × cos β = F or F =
ω = angular velocity of connecting rod.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 164 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 165
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
3. Crank Effort: Capital letters deals with the configuration diagram is AB, CD are respective link positions, lower
Force is exerted on the crankpin as a result of the force on the piston. Crank effort is the net case letters indicate the points on the velocity diagram
effort (force) applied at the crank pin perpendicular to the crank which gives the required
Cases:
turning moment on the crank shaft.
Let F = crank effort 1. When the link AB and BC are parallel to each other
As Ft × r = F r sin(θ + β) Velocity of polygon will be a straight line
F = F sin(θ + β) Velocity of B is equal to the velocity of C.
= sin(θ + β) ∴l ω =l ω and ω = 0
If both AB and DC are on the same side of AB both have the angular velocity in the same
sense. If they are on opposite side i.e. BC crosses AD; AB and DC will have velocities in the
4. Thrust on the Bearing opposite sense
The component of F along the crank (in the radial direction) produces a thrust on the crank
shaft bearings. 2. When AB and DC are parallel
F = F cos(θ + β) = cos(θ + β) i.e. they are in the same line, ω = 0 and ω l = ω l .
a, d
⊥ DC
D c
A
⊥ BC I34
Fig. 5.1.3.1 3
Construction procedure for velocity polygon: A and D are fixed points having zero velocity mark, I23
a, d at a convenient location and they act as reference for the velocity polygon. Velocity of B
relative to A will be l ω perpendicular to AB in the direction of ω so draw ab ⊥ to AB⃗ with a 4
length l ω . Velocity of C relative to B will be ⊥ to BC but sense is not known hence draw a line ⊥ 2
to BC passing through b. Velocity of C relative to D will be ⊥’lr to DC sense is not known. So draw
a line ⊥lr to DC through d. These two lines will intersect at C that completes the velocity polygon.
In the velocity diagram the vector bc indicates the velocity of C relative to B and ω l = bc gives I24
ω . Similarly dc = ω l from which ω can be obtained. I12 1 I14
Fig. 5.1.3.2
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 166 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 167
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
Fixed instantaneous center I12, I14 The tangential component of velocity is Ar to the link and is given by Vt = Zr. In this case Z has
been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant velocity. Therefore,
Permanent instantaneous center I23, I34 tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in uniform increase in tangential
velocity. The equation Vt = Zr remain same but r increases uniformly i.e. there is a constant
Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I13, I24 acceleration Ar to rod.
Coriolis Acceleration: To illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever ? Displacement B1B2 = ½ at2
mechanisms.
= ½ f (dt)2
fcr
3 A1
A on link 2
dT Z2
Z2
Z2
Z2
O
fcr
Fig. 5.1.3.3
(a) Rotation CW slider moving up (b) Rotation CW slider moving down
Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity Z2, in its motions from OP to OP1 in a small
interval of time Gt. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B to B2. Assume this fcr
motion also to have constant velocity VB/A. Consider the motion of slider from B to B2 in 3 stages.
? Arc B1B2 = OQ dT - AO dT
= A1B1 dT
= VB/A Z2(dt)2
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 168 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 169
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
Part 5.2: Gear Trains Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the engagement of a
given pair of teeth.
5.2.1 Gears
Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth. The Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear teeth and
gear teeth act like small levers. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily rolling the Pitch Point.
contact between the teeth.
Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of contact of
the gear teeth.
Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the axes of
revolution. Backlash: Play between mating teeth.
x Gears for connecting parallel shafts: Base Circle: The base circle of an involute gear is the circle from which involute teeth profiles are
1. Spur gears: They are common types of gears with straight teeth. derived.
2. Helical gears: The teeths on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. Because Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears.
of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a thrust load on the gear when they
mesh. Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord, passing through the points where the Pitch
Circle crosses the tooth profile, and the tooth top.
3. Double helical gears (Herringbone gears): Herringbone gear is a special type of gear which
is a side to side (not face to face) combination of two helical gears of opposite hands. Their Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the points
advantage over the simple helical gear is that the side-thrust of one half is counter-balanced where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile.
by that of the other half.
Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth. Pc =
4. Rack and Pinion: Racks are straight gears that are used to convert rotational motion to
translational motion by means of a gear mesh. Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch Circle
x Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it fits on
the meshing gear.
1. Bevel Gears: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be
changed. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid. Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.
x Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle.
1. Worm Gears: Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common for
worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater. Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter. DP = T/D
Gear Terminology: Face: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the top of the
tooth.
Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis.
Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the bottom of
the teeth
Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. If both gears are of the same size, they are both called "gears".
Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels, between the
first point of contact and the last.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 170 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 171
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears. t = number of teeth on the gear, v
D = Pitch circle dia meter, N = speedin rpm v
Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces.
D
m = module =
Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle. t
and module must be the same for all gears , ZA ZB
Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the mating
ZC
otherwise they would not mesh.
gear.
D D D
m= A = B = C
Path of contact: The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the tA tB tC
addendum circles of the wheel and the pinion. D A = m t A; DB = m t B and DC = m t C
Z = angula r velocity.
Path of approach: R A 2 R 2 cos2 I R sin I
D
v = linear velocity on the circle. v = Z = Z r GEAR 'A' GEAR 'B' GEAR 'C'
Path of recess: ra 2 r 2 cos2 I r sin I 2 (Idler gear)
Length of path of contact R A 2 R 2 cos2 I ra 2 r 2 cos2 I R r sin I The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears, otherwise they would be
slipping. DA DB DC
v ZA ZB ZC
ra = Radius of addendum circle of pinion, 2 2 2
Z A DA ZB DB ZC DC
R A = Radius of addendum circle of wheel
Z A m t A ZB m t B ZC m tC
r = Radius of pitch circle of pinion, Z A t A ZB t B ZC tC
R = Radius of pitch circle of wheel. or in terms of rev / min
N A t A N B t B N C tC
I = Pressure angle.
If A is the driving wheel and C is driven wheel, then
Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to
the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. Velocity Ratio = = =
Epicyclic Gear Train: Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. The design
involves planet and sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet around the sun.
It follows that if the speed is reduced, the torque is increased and vice versa. In a real gear box,
power is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. The
efficiency is defined as:
Power out 2S u N 2 T2 u 60 N 2 T2 The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear B meshes with gear C and revolves
K around it when the arm is rotated. B is called the planet gear and C the sun.
Power In 2S u N1 T1 u 60 N1 T1
Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine how many revolutions
the planet gear B makes.
Because the torque in and out is different, a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case
or body rotating. A holding torque T3 must be applied to the body through the clamps. Step Action A B C
T1 + T2 + T3 = 0 tC
2 Revolve C by –1 revolution, keeping the arm fixed 0 -1
tB
If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine tC
1
the holding torque. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the 3 Add 1 tB 0
gear box.
RA + RB = RC + RD and tA + tB = tC + tD
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 174 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 175
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
Part 5.3: Flywheel again maximum at d & minimum at a. Thus, there are two maximum & two minimum speeds for
the turning-moment diagram.
A flywheel is a device which serves as a reservoir to store energy when the supply of energy is
more than the requirement and releases energy when the requirement is more than the supply. The difference between the greatest & the least speeds of the engine over one revolution is
Thereby, it controls the fluctuation of speed of the prime mover during each cycle of operation. known as the fluctuation of speed
5.3.1 Turning Moment Diagram Turning Moment Diagram for Single-cylinder Four stroke Engine:
A turning moment diagram also known as a crank effort diagram is the graphical representation −
of the turning moments for different positions of the crank.
+
Turning Moment Diagram for Single-cylinder Double acting Steam Engine: Turning moment
k
+
e f h j e f
Torque
p
0
crank angle,
FIG. 5.3.1.1
Fig.5. 3.1.2
It can be observed from Fig. 5.3.1.1 that during the outstroke ( ) the turning moment is
maximum when the crank angle is little less than 90° (π/2) & zero when the crank angle is zero In case of a four-stroke IC engine, the diagram repeats itself after every two revolutions instead
& 180° (π). Similar turning moment diagram is obtained during the instroke ( ). of one revolution as for a steam engine. It can be seen from the diagram (Fig. 5.3.1.2) that for the
majority of the suction stroke, turning moment is –ve but becomes +ve after point ‘p’. During the
Note that the area of the turning-moment diagram is proportional to the work done per
compression stroke, it is totally –ve. It is +ve throughout the expansion stroke & again –ve for
revolution as the work is the product of turning-moment & the angle turned.
most of the exhaust stroke.
The mean torque against which the engine works is given by = where is the Turning Moment Diagram for Multi-cylinder Engine:
mean torque and is the mean height of the turning-moment diagram.
Mean
When the crank turns from angle to (Fig. 5.3.1.1), the work done by the engine is Torque
represented by area ℎ . But the work done against the resisting torque is represented by the
area ℎ . Thus, the engine has done more work than what has been taken from it. The excess b c d e
work is represented by the area ℎ. This excess work increases the speed of the engine and is
stored in the flywheel.
1st 2nd 3rd
During the crank travel from or the work needed for the external resistance is
Torque
proportional to ℎ , whereas the work produced by the engine is represented by the area under
ℎ . Thus, during this period, more work has been taken from the engine that is produced. The
loss is made up by the flywheel which gives up some of its energy & the speed decreases during
this period.
0 f
Similarly, during the period of crank travel from to , excess work is again developed and is
stored in the flywheel and the speed of the engine increases. During the crank travel from to
, the loss of work is made up by flywheel and the speed again decreases. Fig. 3.1.3
The area ℎ, ℎ , & represent fluctuations of energy of the fly wheel. When the crank is
at b, the flywheel has absorbed energy while the crank has moved from a to b and thereby, the As observed in the foregoing paragraphs, the turning-moment diagram for a single cylinder
speed of the engine is maximum. At c, the flywheel has given out energy while the crank has engine varies considerably & a greater variation of the same is observed in case of four stroke,
moved from b to c and thus, the engine has a minimum speed. Similarly, the engine speed is single-cylinder engine. For engines with more than one cylinder, the total crank shaft torque at
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 176 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 177
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
any instant is given by the sum of the torques developed by each cylinder at the instant. For The whole weight of the flywheel is assumed to be concentrated in the rim of the flywheel,
example, if an engine has two cylinders with cranks at 90°, the resultant turning moment therefore it is usual practice to neglect the weight of the arms and the boss in the design of the
diagram has a less variation than that for a single cylinder. In a three-cylinder engine having its flywheel.
cranks at 120°, the variation is still less.
I = moment of Inertia of the Flywheel
Fig. 5.3.1.3 shows the turning moment diagrams for a multi-cylinder engine. The mean torque = maximum speed =
line ab intersects the turning moment curve at a, b, c, d & e. The area under the wavy curve is
equal to the area . As discussed earlier, the speed of the engine will be maximum when the = minimum speed =
crank positions correspond to b, d & minimum corresponding to a, c, e. = mean speed =
= Kinetic energy of the Flywheel at mean speed
Fluctuation of Energy: = Maximum fluctuation Energy
Let , be the areas in work units of the portions above the mean torque ae of the turning = Co-efficient of fluctuation of speed
moment diagram (Fig. 5.3.1.3) these areas represent quantities of energies added to the = ( / ). (radius of gyration)
flywheel. Parallely areas , below ae represents quantities of energies taken from the
= ,
flywheel.
The energies of the flywheel corresponding to positions of the crank are as follows. where, = is the average speed, ks = is the coefficient of fluctuation of speed
Crank position Flywheel energy The Hoop stress in the flywheel can be determined by assuming it is as a ring.
a E
b E+ Hoop stress, =
d E+ − + If b & d be the respective width and diameter of the flywheel & t its thickness, then
e E+ − + −
= . . .
− + − =0
Co-efficient of Fluctuation of energy ( )::
The greatest of these energies is the maximum kinetic energy of the flywheel & for the
corresponding crank position, the speed is maximum. Excess energy developed by the engine between two cranks positions.
The least of these energies is the least kinetic Energy of the fly wheel & for the corresponding = where, =
crank position, the speed is minimum.
= =
. .
The difference between the maximum & minimum kinetic energies of the fly wheel is known as
where, = mean torque = ,
the maximum fluctuation of energy.
= mean speed =
Whereas the ratio of this maximum fluctuation of energy to the work done per cycle is defined as
the co-efficient of fluctuation of energy. & = 4 for steam engine &
The difference between the greatest speed & the least speed is known as the maximum 4 for four stroke IC engine.
fluctuation of speed & the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of speed to the mean speed is the co-
efficient of fluctuation of speed.
There are two types of flywheels: disc type & arm type. In the arm type of flywheel, the weight of
the flywheel is mainly located in the rim & the arms & boss do not contribute much in storing the
energy.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 178 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 179
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
Part 5.4: Vibrations The undamped natural frequency does not depend on the initial conditions or the amplitude of
motion. It only depends on the mass and stiffness.
Vibration refers to oscillations about an equilibrium point. A system vibrates when, it is possible
for energy to be converted from one form to another and back again. There are three types of 5.4.2 Damped Vibrations
vibrations viz. Free Vibrations, Damped Vibrations & Forced Vibrations
Real vibration systems have a source of energy dissipation and it is convenient to represent this
5.4.1 Free Vibration by a massless viscous damper as shown. This produces a drag force opposing the motion which
depends on the velocity of the mass.
A free vibration is one that dies away with time due to energy dissipation. Usually there is some
initial disturbance. Following this initial disturbance the system vibrates without any further Thus the damping coefficient c, of the damper, results in an additional force − ̇ ( ) on the mass.
input. This is called the transient vibration or free vibration. Consider the motion of the Thus from Newton’s second law of motion using a free body diagram, the equation of motion is,
spring/mass system when it is initially disturbed and then allowed to vibrate freely. The
displacement of the mass with time, x(t), is measured from the static equilibrium position, i.e. m ̈+ ̇ ( ) + kx(t) = 0 . . . 5.4.2.1
the rest position.
If at some time t the mass is displaced an amount x(t) in the positive direction as shown.
Then there will be a force on the mass from the spring of –kx(t).
Thus from Newton’s second law of motion using a free – body diagram,
m ̈ + kx(t) = 0 . . .5.4.1.1
Equilibrium
position x(t)
The solution of equation (5.4.2.2) has different forms depending on the value of ξ.
x(t)
If the initial conditions are x(0) and ̇ (0) then for
Equation (5.4.1.1) is called the equation of motion. The equation is unchanged if gravity effects ξ<1
are included. The solution of the equation of motion gives, [ ̇( ) ( )]
̇( )
x(t) = (0) 1− +
x(t) = x(0) cos +
=1
where x(0) is the initial displacement from the equilibrium position; ̇ (0) is the initial velocity.
The frequency Zn is called the undamped natural frequency and is given by x(t) = [ (0) + [ ̇ (0) + (0)] ]
>1
= /
[ ̇( ) ( )]
Thus for an initial displacement but with no initial velocity the motion is sinusoidal with an x(t) = (0) ℎ − 1+
amplitude x(0) and frequency Zn,
Logarithmic decrement: For damping ratio ξ < 1.0 then vibration will occur and the motion is
x(t) = x(0) cos defined by
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 180 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 181
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines
[ ̇( ) ( )] The mathematical solution of the equation of motion may be achieved in various ways. It will be
x(t) = (0) 1− ,
found that after an initial transient (depending on initial conditions and start up effects from
and looks like applying the sinusoidally varying force) the motion becomes a steady sinusoidal displacement.
This situation is known as the steady state.
x(t )
x(t )
The steady state solution for x(t) can be shown to be
x(t) = X sin (ωt + ϕ) . . .5. 4.3.2
Where x = [( ) ( ) ] /
and tan ϕ = ( )
t t X is the displacement amplitude and ϕ is the phase angle between displacement and force.
It is common to non-dimensionalize these equations so that
= / …5. 4.3.3
It can be shown that, if the amplitudes on any two successive peaks are measured, the ratio of /
and tan ϕ = . . . 5.4.3.4
these amplitudes is constant. For any value of m, the log decrement will be
δ = ln[x( )/ ( )] = 2 / 1− Where = / ξ= and =
√
This equation can be rearranged to give, = The equation may be presented in graphical form,
√
−
k c
−
−
x(t) F sin ωt
is known as magnification factor (MF)
The equation of motion when the force input f(t) is F sin ωt is M.F o 1 as o0
̈( ) + ̇( ) + ( )= . . . 5.4.3.1 M.F o 0 as o∞
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 182 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 183
Quick Refresher Guide Theory of Machines Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
Resonance: The strength of machine members is based upon the mechanical properties of the materials
Resonance used. Since these properties are usually determined from simple tension or compression tests,
predicting failure in members subjected to uniaxial stress is both simple and straight-forward.
5
But the problem of predicting the failure stresses for members subjected to bi-axial or tri-axial
4 stresses is much more complicated, that a large number of different theories have been
formulated. The principle theories of failure for a member subjected to tri-axial stress are as
3
follows:
= 0.1
2
1. Maximum principle (or normal) stress theory (also known as Rankine’s theory).
1 2. Maximum shear stress theory (also known as Guest’s or Tresca’s theory).
3. Maximum principle (or normal) strain theory (also known as Saint Venant theory).
0 4. Maximum strain energy theory (also known as Haigh’s theory).
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 5. Maximum distortion energy theory (also known as Hencky and Von Mises theory).
6. Octahedral Shearing Stress theory.
Resonant frequency
Ductile materials have identifiable yield strength that is often same in compression as in tension
Resonance occurs, i.e. X/ is a maximum, when (X/X ) /dt is zero. This can be shown to be (Syt = Syc = Sy ).
when
ω = ω (1 − 2ξ ) Brittle materials, do not exhibit identifiable yield strength, and are typically classified by
ultimate tensile and compressive strengths, Sut and Suc, respectively (where Suc is given as a
However note that there is no real solution for ω when ξ > 1/√2, i.e the response continuously positive quantity)
falls with frequency. The final point of interest is the response amplitude at resonance, X/X
Maximum principle or Normal Stress Theory (Rankine’s Theory) for Brittle materials
For small values of ξ, X/X is equal to 1/(2 ξ).
Vibration Isolation: Vibration forces generated by machines and other causes are often The elastic failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the maximum principle or
unavoidable; however, their effects on a dynamical system can be minimized by proper isolator normal stress reaches the limiting strength of the material in a simple tension test irrespective
design. An isolation system reduces the excessive vibration transmission to the delicate objects of the value of other two principle stresses, i.e., when =
from its supporting structure.
Since the limiting strength for ductile materials is yield point stress and for brittle materials is
The force to be isolated is transmitted through spring and damper. Its equation is ultimate stress, the maximum principle or normal stress ( ) is given by
The ratio of transmitted force to that of disturbing force is known as Transmissibility ratio (TR). =
Mathematically, it is
Where, = Yield stress in tension as determined from simple tension test
= Ultimate stress
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 184 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 185
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
Since this theory ignores the possibility of failure due to shearing stress, it is not used for ductile Shear Strain energy or Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky and Von Mises Theory)
materials.
The failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the distortion strain energy (also
However, for brittle materials which are relatively strong in shear but weak in tension or called shear strain energy) per unit volume in the stressed material reaches the limiting
compression, this theory is generally used. distortion energy (i.e. distortion energy at yield point) per unit volume as determined from a
simple tension test. Mathematically, the maximum distortion energy theory for yielding is
Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guest’s or Tresca’s Theory) for ductile materials. expressed as
The elastic failure occurs when the greatest shear stress reaches a value equal to the shear stress ( − ) +( − ) +( − ) = 2
at elastic limit in a simple tension test.
( − )= or
( − )=
Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Beltrami’s or Haigh’s Theory) for ductile materials
Fig. 6.1.1 The distortion-energy (DE) theory for plane stress states
The failure or yielding occurs when the strain energy per unit volume in a strained material
This theory is mostly used for ductile materials in place of maximum strain energy theory.
reaches the limiting strain energy (i.e. strain energy at the yield point ) per unit volume as
determined from simple tension test. Note: The maximum distortion energy is the difference between the total strain energy and the
strain energy due to uniform stress.
According to this theory, the maximum energy which a body can store without deforming
plastically is constant for that material irrespective of the manner of loading. Octahedral Shearing Stress Theory
1
[ + + −2 ( + + )] = According to this theory, the critical quantity is the shearing stress on the octahedral plane. The
2 2
plane which is equally inclined to all the three principle axes is called the octahedral plane.
[ + + −2 ( + + )] =
This theory breaks down for a case when,
= = =−
And in that case failure is predicted when
=
3(1 − 2 )
But in fact with this type of loading (i.e.,) when there is uniform pressure all round (hydrostatic
pressure), no failure occurs.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 186 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 187
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
= [( − ) +( − ) +( − ) ] If the loading conditions are suitably altered, a brittle material may be made to yield before
failure. Hence, design of a member requires the determination of the mode of failure (yielding
or fracture), and the factor (such as stress, strain and energy) associated with it. Full scale tests
Where, simulating all conditions would be ideal but not practicable.
= Octahedral shearing stress
In practice, in complex loading conditions, the factor associated with failure has to be identified
and precautions taken to ensure that this factor does not exceed maximum allowable value
√
Failure is said to occur when = determined on the basis of suitable tests (uniform tension or torsion) on the material in the
laboratory.
This theory is supported quite well by experimental evidences and is identical to Von Mises
theory. Results of many laboratory tests on ductile material shows shear stress from torsion tests varies
between 0.55 and 0.6 of the yield strength determined from tension tests. This result agrees
6.1.2 Theories of failure for two dimensional stresses: with shear strain energy theory and octahedral shear stress theory. The maximum shear stress
theory predicts that the shear yield value is 0.5 times the tensile yield value, which is about 15%
Taking as zero, the above equations reduce to less than the value predicted by the other two theories.
1. Maximum principle stress theory The maximum shear stress theory gives design values on the safe side and is widely used in
= design with ductile materials.
Mode of failure of a ductile material differs from that of brittle material. It depends on a large
number of factors like
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 188 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 189
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
Whenever a machine component changes the shape of its cross-section, the simple stress
distribution no longer holds good and the neighbourhood of the discontinuity is different. This
irregularity in the stress distribution caused by abrupt changes of form is called stress
concentration.
It occurs for all kinds of stresses in the presence of fillets, notches, holes, keyways, splines,
surface roughness or scratches etc. Fig. 6.2.2 Stress Concentration due to holes
From the stress-distribution, the stress at the point away from the hole is practically uniform
and the maximum stress is induced at the edge of the hole. The maximum stress is given by
2
= 1+
Fig. 6.2.1
and the theoretical stress concentration factor,
In the above member with different cross-section under a tensile load, the nominal stress in the
2
right and left hand sides will be uniform but in the region where the cross-section is changing, a = = 1+
re-distribution of the force within the member must take place. The maximum stress occurs at
some point on the fillet and is directed parallel to the boundary at that point.
When a/b is large (a), the ellipse approaches a crack transverse to the load and the value of Kt
becomes very large. When a/b is small (b), the ellipse approaches a longitudinal slit and the
Theoretical or Form Stress Concentration Factor:
increase in stress is small. When the hole is circular (c), then a/b = 1 and the maximum stress is
The theoretical or form stress concentration factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum stress three times the nominal value.
to the nominal stress at the same section based upon net area.
Maximum stress
K =
Nominal stress
The value of Kt depends upon the material and geometry of the part.
Stress Concentration due to Holes and Notches: Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration:
x Maintain or improve the spacing of the stress flow lines that tend to bunch up and cut very
Consider a plate with transverse elliptical hole and subjected to a tensile load as shown in the close to the sharp re-entrant corner, by providing
figure. 9 Fillets and
9 Notches ( when not possible to use large radius fillets as in case of ball and roller bearing
mountings)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 190 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 191
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
x The stress concentration effects of a press fit may be reduced by making more gradual 1. Mean or average stress,
transition from the rigid to the more flexible shaft
+
=
6.2.2 Dynamic loading
x The stresses which vary from a minimum value to a maximum value of the same nature, 2. Reversed stress component or alternating or variable stress,
(i.e. tensile or compressive) are called fluctuating stresses. −
=
Note: For repeated loading, the stress varies from maximum to zero (i.e. = 0) in each cycle.
∴ = =
3. Stress ratio,
Fig. 6.2.4
x For completely reversed stresses, R = – 1
x The stresses which vary from zero to a certain maximum value are called repeated x For repeated stresses, R = 0.
stresses. x R cannot be greater than unity.
=
−
Where,
x The stresses which vary from a minimum value to a maximum value of the opposite = Stress ratio.
nature (i.e. from a certain minimum compressive to a certain maximum tensile or from a
6.2.3 Fatigue
minimum tensile to a maximum compressive) are called alternating stresses.
When a material is subjected to repeated stresses, it fails at stresses below the yield point
stresses. Such type of failure of a material is known as fatigue.
The fatigue of material is effected by the size of the component, relative magnitude of static and
fluctuating loads and the number of load reversals.
Fatigue failure is due to crack formation and propagation. A fatigue crack will typically initiate at
a discontinuity in the material where the cyclic stress is a maximum.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 192 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 193
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
x Elements that roll and/or slide against each other (bearings, gears, cams, etc.) under beam machine) of standard laboratory controlled specimens. The loading often is that of
high contact pressure, developing concentrated subsurface contact stresses that can sinusoidally reversing pure bending. The laboratory-controlled specimens are polished without
cause surface pitting or spalling after many cycles of the load. geometric stress concentration at the region of minimum area.
x Carelessness in locations of stamp marks, tool marks, scratches, and burrs; poor joint
design; improper assembly; and other fabrication faults.
x Composition of the material itself as processed by rolling, forging, casting, extrusion,
drawing, heat treatment, etc. Microscopic and submicroscopic surface and subsurface
discontinuities arise, such as inclusions of foreign material, alloy segregation, voids, hard
precipitated particles, and crystal discontinuities.
Conditions that accelerate crack initiation: Fig. 6.2.7 Test-specimen geometry for the R.R. Moore rotating beam machine.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 194 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 195
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
107 cycles)]. S′e and occurs somewhere between 106 and 107 cycles. For non-ferrous materials Fatigue stress concentration factor,
that do not exhibit an endurance limit, a fatigue strength at a specific number of cycles, S′f , may
be given. The strength data are based on many controlled conditions that will not be the same as =
that for an actual machine part. What follows are practices used to account for the differences
between the loading and physical conditions of the specimen and the actual machine part. Notch Sensitivity Factor:
The term endurance limit is used for reversed bending only while for other types of loading, the The notch sensitivity of a material is a measure of how sensitive a material is to notches or
term endurance strength may be used when referring the fatigue strength of the material. It may geometric discontinuities. Mathematically, it is expressed as
be defined as the safe maximum stress which can be applied to the machine part working under
actual conditions. −1
=
−1
Endurance Limit Modifying Factors:
0≤ ≤1
Modifying factors are defined and used to account for differences between the specimen and the
actual machine part with regard to surface conditions, size, loading, temperature, reliability, and Combination of Mean Stress and Fluctuating stress:
miscellaneous factors.
The mean stress can have a significant effect on the failure due to fatigue and must be
Factor of Safety for Fatigue Loading: considered in combination with the alternating stress.. (Under normal fatigue loading conditions
the mean stress is small compared to the alternating stress.)
When a component is subjected to fatigue loading, the endurance limit is the criterion for failure.
Therefore, the factor of safety should be based on endurance limit. Mathematically, A number of interaction criteria are used to quantify the combined stress and the relevant
design factors of safety. These are plotted together below
Factor of safety (FOS) = =
= . .
Gerber Line
Where,
Goodman Line
= Endurance limit stress for completely reversed stress cycle, and
Modified Goodman Line
= Yield point stress.
Stress Amplitude
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 196 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 197
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 198 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 199
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
Strength of riveted joint: c) Crushing of rivet: If the bearing stress on the rivet is too large the contact surface between
the rivet and the plate may get damaged. (see Figure 6.3.1.4). With a simple assumption of
Strength of a riveted joint is evaluated taking all possible failure paths in the joint into account. uniform contact stress the maximum force allowed is
Since rivets are arranged in a periodic manner, the strength of joint is usually calculated P = s dt
considering one pitch length of the plate. There are four possible ways a single rivet joint may
fail. where s = allowable bearing stress between the rivet and plate material.
a) Tearing of the plate: If the force is too large, the plate may fail in tension along the row (see
figure 6.3.1.2). The maximum force allowed in this case is
P = s (p − d)t
p = pitch
d) Tearing of the plate at edge: If the margin is too small, the plate may fail as shown in figure
6.3.1.5. To prevent the failure a minimum margin of m = 1.5d is usually provided.
b) Shearing of the rivet: The rivet may shear as shown in Figure 6.3.1.3 . The maximum force
withstood by the joint to prevent this failure is
P =s d for lap joint, single strap butt joint
= 2s d for double strap butt joint
where s = allowable shear stress of the rivet material.
Figure 6.3.1.5 Tearing of the plate at the edge
Efficiency:
Efficiency of the single riveted joint can be obtained as ratio between the maximum of P , P and
P and the load carried by a solid plate which is
s pt. Thus
Figure 6.3.1.3 Failure of a rivet by shearing
( , , )
efficiency (η)=
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 200 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 201
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
In a double or triple riveted joint the failure mechanisms may be more than those discussed =
above. The failure of plate along the outer row may occur in the same way as above. However, in
addition the inner rows may fail. For example, in a double riveted joint, the plate may fail along where s = allowable tensile strength of the weld material.
the second row. But in order to do that the rivets in the first row must fail either by shear or by
crushing. Thus the maximum allowable load such that the plate does not tear in the second row t = thickness of the weld
is
l = length of the weld.
P = s (p − d)t + min{P , P }
For a square butt joint t is equal to the thickness of the plates. In general, this need not be so
Further, the joint may fail by (see figure 6.3.2.1).
The efficiency should be calculated taking all possible failure mechanism into consideration.
Diameter of the hole (d): When thickness of the plate (t) is more than 8 mm, Unwin’s formula is
used,
= 6√t mm. Figure 6.3.2.1 Design of a butt joint
Otherwise d is obtained by equating crushing strength to the shear strength of the joint. In a 2. Design of transverse fillet joint: Consider a single transverse joint as shown in figure 6.3.2.2.
double riveted zigzag joint, this implies The general stress distribution in the weld metal is very complicated. In design, a simple
procedure is used assuming that entire load P acts as shear force on the throat area, which is
s t= d s (valid for t < 8 ) the smallest area of the cross section in a fillet weld. If the fillet weld has equal base and
height, (h, say), then the cross section of the throat is easily seen to be . With the above
However, d should not be less than t, in any case. The standard size of d is tabulated in code IS: √
consideration the permissible load carried by a transverse fillet weld is
1928-1961.
P=s A
Pitch (p): Pitch is designed by equating the tearing strength of the plate to the shear strength of
the rivets. In a double riveted lap joint, this takes the following form.
where s = allowable shear stress
s (p − d)t = s × 2 d A = throat area.
But p ≥ 2d in order to accommodate heads of the rivets. For a double transverse fillet joint the allowable load is twice that of the single fillet joint.
In order to design boiler joints, a designer must also comply with Indian Boiler Regulations
(I.B.R.).
1. Design of a butt joint: The main failure mechanism of welded butt joint is tensile failure.
Therefore the strength of a butt joint is Figure 6.3.2.2 Design of a single transverse fillet
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 202 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 203
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
3. Design of parallel fillet joint: Consider a parallel fillet weld as shown in figure 6.3.2.3. Each shear stress develops in the weld in a similar way as in parallel fillet joint. Assuming that the
weld carries a load P 2. It is easy to see from the strength of material approach that the weld thickness is very small compared to the diameter of the shaft, the maximum shear
maximum shear occurs along the throat area (try to prove it). The allowable load carried by stress occurs in the throat area. Thus, for a given torque the maximum shear stress in the
weld is
each of the joint is s A where the throat area A = . The total allowable load is
√
( )
P = 2s A . τ =
t = throat thickness
= [(d + 2t ) −d ]
When, t ≪ d, τ = =
The throat dimension and hence weld dimension can be selected from the equation
In designing a weld joint the design variables are h and l. They can be selected based on the
above design criteria. When a combination of transverse and parallel fillet joint is required
(see figure-6.3.2.4) the allowable load is
P = 2s A + s A ′
Shaft is a common and important machine element. It is a rotating member, in general, has a
circular cross-section and is used to transmit power. The shaft may be hollow or solid. The shaft
Figure 6.3.2.4 Design of combined transverse and parallel fillet joint
is supported on bearings and it rotates a set of gears or pulleys for the purpose of power
4. Design of circular fillet weld subjected to torsion: Consider a circular shaft connected to a transmission. The shaft is generally acted upon by bending moment, torsion and axial force.
Design of shaft primarily involves in determining stresses at critical point in the shaft that is
plate by means of a fillet joint as shown in figure-6.3.2.5. If the shaft is subjected to a torque,
arising due to mentioned loading.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 204 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 205
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
The stress at any point on the shaft depends on the nature of load acting on it. The stresses Stress due to torsion
which may be present are as follows.
τ = ( )
Basic stress equations:
Design of the shaft mostly uses maximum shear stress theory. It states that a machine member
Where, fails when the maximum shear stress at a point exceeds the maximum allowable shear stress for
the shaft material. Therefore,
F: Axial force (tensile or compressive)
The term α has been introduced in the equation. This is known as column action factor. What is a
column action factor? This arises due the phenomenon of buckling of long slender members
Substituting the values of σ and τ in the above equation, the final form is,
which are acted upon by axial compressive loads.
α= . ( / )
for L/K < 115
Therefore, the shaft diameter can be calculated in terms of external loads and material
properties. However, the above equation is further standarized for steel shafting in terms of
α= for L/K > 115 allowable design stress and load factors in ASME design code for shaft.
K = least radius of gyration, L = shaft length The bearings are classified broadly into two categories based on the type of contact they have
between the rotating and the stationary member
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 206 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 207
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
B
μN/P
Figure 6.3.4.2
However, if we are operating in the region BC, the lubrication is stable and is known as thick film
or hydrodynamic lubrication.
When a journal starts rotating in a bearing as shown in Figure 6.3.4.3, below the lubricant is
(a) Full (b) Partial (c) Fitted forced into a wedge shaped (strictly a curved wedge) space by a pumping type of action and the
pressure built up in the wedge supports the load on the journal.
Figure 6.3.4.1 Various types of journal bearings.
Bearing Line of centres
Petroff’s Equation:
Journal
The relation between bearing friction and viscosity of the lubricant in a circular journal bearing
e O′
which is running truly concentric is given by,
O
f = 2π . .
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 208 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 209
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
e is the eccentricity and is the distance between the centers O and O′ of the journal and and the other is in relative motion, a frictional force dF is developed between the members. The
bearing respectively. magnitude of the frictional force is equal to the co-efficient of friction times the normal force dN
h is the minimum film thickness and it occurs on the line of centres. (The film thickness
at any other point is normally designated as h)
β shown in Figure is the angular length of a partial bearing, if it is not a full circle.
A bearing in which the radii of the bearing and the journal are equal, is known as a fitted bearing.
The moment of the frictional force relative to the point of motion contributes to the retardation
of motion and braking. The basic mechanism of braking is illustrated above.
Rated life of a ball or roller bearings:
Design and Analysis: To design, select or analyze the performance of these devices knowledge on
(a) Ball bearings the following are required.
L =
x The braking torque
(b) Roller bearings
/ x The actuating force needed
L = x The energy loss and temperature rise
where L is the millions of revolutions that 90% of a group of bearings (which are apparently There are two major classes of brakes, namely drum brakes and disc brakes. Design and analysis
identical) will complete before any of them develops evidence of fatigue. of drum brakes will be considered in detail in following sections, the discussion that follow on
disc or plate clutches will form the basis for design of disc type of brakes.
When a bearing is installed there is no way of knowing whether it is one of the 90 per cent that
are good or one of the 10 per cent that will not attain the rating life. In other words, one can have Drum brakes basically consists of a rotating body called drum whose motion is braked together
but 90 per cent confidence that the bearing will achieve or exceed its rating life, usually with a shoe mounted on a lever which can swing freely about a fixed hinge H. A lining is attached
designated L . to the shoe and contacts the braked body. The actuation force P applied to the shoe gives rise to
a normal contact pressure distributed over the contact area between the lining and the braked
6.3.5 Brakes body. A corresponding friction force is developed between the stationary shoe and the rotating
body which manifest as retarding torque about the axis of the braked body.
A brake is a device by means of which artificial resistance is applied on to a moving machine
member in order to retard or stop the motion of the member or machine Brakes Classification: Various geometric configuration of drum brakes are illustrated below:
Types of Brakes: Different types of brakes are used in different applications. Based on the
working principle used, brakes can be classified as mechanical brakes, hydraulic brakes,
electrical (eddy current) magnetic and electro-magnetic types.
Mechanical Brakes: Mechanical brakes are invariably used based on the frictional resistance
principles.
In mechanical brakes artificial resistances are created using frictional contact between the
moving member and a stationary member, to retard or stop the motion of the moving member.
Basic mechanism of braking: The illustration below explains the working of mechanical brakes.
An element dA of the stationary member is shown with the braked body moving past at velocity
v. When the brake is actuated contact is established between the stationary and moving member
and a normal pressure is developed in the contact region. The elemental normal force dN is
equal to the product of contact pressure p and area of contact dA. As one member is stationary
Figure 6.3.5.1
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 210 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 211
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
Drum Brakes are classified based on the shoe geometry. Shoes are classified as being either The torque on the brake drum is then,
short or long. A short shoe is one whose lining dimension in the direction of motion is so small
that contact pressure variation is negligible, i.e. the pressure is uniform everywhere. T = f Fn. r = f.p.A.r
When the area of contact becomes larger, the contact may no longer be with a uniform pressure, A quasi static analysis is used to determine the other parameters of braking.
in which case the shoe is termed as long shoe. The shoes are either rigid or pivoted, pivoted
shoes are also some times known as hinged shoes. The shoe is termed rigid because the shoes Applying the equilibrium condition by taking moment about the pivot ‘O’ we can write
with attached linings are rigidly connected to the pivoted posts. In a hinged shoe brake – the
shoes are not rigidly fixed by hinged or pivoted to the posts. The hinged shoe is connected to the ∑M = F a − F b + f F c = 0
actuating post by the hinge, G, which introduces another degree of freedom.
Substituting for F and solving for the actuating force, we get,
Preliminary Analysis: The figure shows a brake shoe mounted on a lever, hinged at O, having an
actuating force F , applied at the end of the lever. On the application of an actuating force, a F = F (b − fc)/a
normal force F is created when the shoe contacts the rotating drum. And a frictional force F of
magnitude f. F , f being the coefficient of friction, develops between the shoe and the drum. The reaction forces on the hinged pin (pivot) are found from a summation of forces,
Moment of this frictional force about the drum center constitutes the braking torque.
i.e.
F = 0, R = fp A
F = 0, R = p A − F
Self – energizing:
With the shown direction of the drum rotation (CCW), the moment of the frictional force f. F c
adds to the moment of the actuating force F . As a consequence, the required actuation force
needed to create a known contact pressure p is much smaller than that if this effect is not
present. This phenomenon of frictional force aiding the brake actuation is referred to as self –
energization.
(a) Brake assembly (b) Free-body diagram
Leading and trailing shoe:
x For a given direction of rotation the shoe in which self energization is present is known
as the leading shoe
x When the direction of rotation is changed, the moment of frictional force now will be
opposing the actuation force and hence greater magnitude of force is needed to create
the same contact pressure. The shoe on which this is prevailing is known as a trailing
shoe
Self Locking: At certain critical value of f.c. the term (b-fc) becomes zero. i.e no actuation force
need to be applied for braking. This is the condition for self-locking. Self-locking will not occur
Figure 6.3.5.2 unless it is specifically desired.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 212 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 213
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
General Procedure of Analysis: the contact pressure appropriately and uniform pressure condition may no longer prevail.
Hence the analysis here is based on uniform wear condition
x Estimate or determine the distribution of pressure on the frictional surfaces
x Find the relation between the maximum pressure and the pressure at any point Uniform pressure condition: Assuming uniform pressure and considering an elemental area dA
x For the given geometry, apply the condition of static equilibrium to find the actuating
force, torque and reactions on support pins etc. dA = 2Π.r dr
A Clutch is a machine member used to connect the driving shaft to a driven shaft, so that the dN = 2π.r.dr.p
driven shaft may be started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving shaft. A clutch thus
provides an interruptible connection between two rotating shafts The frictional force dF on this area is therefore
To design analyze the performance of these devices, a knowledge on the following are required. dF = f.2π.r.dr.p
Friction Clutches: As in brakes a wide range of clutches are in use wherein they vary in their are
in use their working principle as well the method of actuation and application of normal forces.
The discussion here will be limited to mechanical type friction clutches or more specifically to
the plate or disc clutches also known as axial clutches.
Frictional Contact axial or Disc Clutches: An axial clutch is one in which the mating frictional
members are moved in a direction parallel to the shaft. A typical clutch is illustrated in the figure
below. It consist of a driving disc connected to the drive shaft and a driven disc connected to the
driven shaft. A friction plate is attached to one of the members. Actuating spring keeps both the
members in contact and power/motion is transmitted from one member to the other. When the
power of motion is to be interrupted the driven disc is moved axially creating a gap between the
members as shown in the figure.
Figure 6.3.6.3 A single-Surface Axial Disk Clutch
Now the torque that can be transmitted by this elemental area is equal to the frictional force
times the moment arm about the axis that is the radius ‘r’
= f. p. 2. π. r. dr . r
The total torque that could be transmitted is obtained by integrating this equation between the
limits of inner radius r to the outer radius r
2
T= 2πpfr dr = πpf r − r
Figure 6.3.6.2 3
The applied force can keep the members together with a uniform pressure all over its contact
Integrating the normal force between the same limits we get the actuating force that need to be
area and the consequent analysis is based on uniform pressure condition. However as the time
applied to transmit this torque.
progresses some wear takes place between the contacting members and this may alter or vary
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 214 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 215
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 216 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 217
Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design Quick Refresher Guide Machine Design
Small fly wheels are solid discs of hollow circular cross section. As the energy requirements and Stresses in Flywheel
size of the flywheel increases the geometry changes to disc of central hub and peripheral rim
Flywheel being a rotating disc, centrifugal stresses acts upon its distributed mass and attempts
connected by webs and to hollow wheels with multiple arms.
to pull it apart. Its effect is similar to those caused by an internally pressurized cylinder
γ 3+v 1 + 3v
σ = ω r +r − r
g 8 3+v
γ 3+v r r
σ = ω r +r − −r
g 8 r
γ = material weight density, ω = angular velocity in rad/sec. v = Poisson’s ratio, is the radius to
a point of interest, r and r are inside and outside radii of the solid disc flywheel.
Figure 6.3.7.1
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 218 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 219
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
Since the density of fluid varies with temperature, specific gravity must be determined and
Part 7.1: Fluid Properties
specified at a particular temperature.
7.1.1 Fluids Viscosity: A measure of its resistance to shear or angular deformation. A property by virtue of
which it offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid over the adjacent layer. It is due
It is defined as a substance which deforms continuously even with a small amount of shear force to Intermolecular cohesion and Transfer of molecular momentum between layers.
exerts on it, whereas a solid offers resistance to the force because very strong intermolecular
attraction exists in it. Dynamic Viscosity ( )::
Both liquids and Gases come under the fluids. Units: SI: Pa.sec or N.sec/m2 MKS: kg/m.sec
CGS: Poise = dyne.sec/cm2
i) Liquid: has definite volume but no shape for all practical purposes incompressible
ii) Gas: has no shape and volume highly compressible Conversion: 1 poise = 0.1 Pa.sec.
iii) Vapour: A gas whose temperature and pressure are such that it is very near to the liquid
phase e.g.: Steam Dimensions: ML T or FL T
It is independent of pressure. For Liquids dynamic viscosity decreases with temperature
7.1.2 Properties of fluids: because molecular momentum increases and cohesion is negligible in gases.
Mass Density ( ):: It is defined as mass per unit volume. Unit: kg / m3, Dimension: M / L3 Kinematic Viscosity ( ) = =
Absolute quantity i.e., does not change with location Units: S I: m2/sec CGS: cm2/sec or stokes
As pressure increases mass density increases. (As large number of molecules are forced into a Dimensions: L2T
given volume) Kinematic viscosity depends on both pressure and Temperature
Specific Weight ( ):: Weight of the substance per unit volume. Cavitation: Occurs in a flow system, dissolved gases (vapour bubbles) carried into a region of
high pressure and their subsequent collapse gives rise to high pressure, which leads to noise,
Also represents force exerted by gravity on a unit volume fluid. vibrations and erosion. Cavitation occurs in
Mass density and specific weight of a fluid are related as: = ; 1. Turbine runners 2. Pump impellers
3. Hydraulic structures like spillways and sluice gates 4. Ship propellers.
where g = acceleration due to gravity Compressibility: Change in volume (or density) due to change in pressure. Compressibility is
inversely proportional to Bulk Modulus K.
Units: N/m3, Dimensions: ML2T2 or FL3
= (negative sign indicates a decrease in volume with increase in pressure)
( ) ( )
Specific Volume ( ):: Volume occupied by a unit mass of fluid,, = 1/ (reciprocal of density)
Coefficient of compressibility =
Units: m3/kg
Surface tension:
Specific gravity (G):
Cohesion: Force of attraction between the molecules of the same liquid.
( )
Specific gravity, G = ( )
Adhesion: force of attraction between the molecules of different liquids (or) between the liquid
molecules and solid boundary containing the liquid.
For liquids, standard fluid is water at 40C A liquid forms an interface with a second liquid or gas. This liquid – air interface behaves like a
membrane under tension. The surface energy per unit area of interface is called Surface Tension.
For gases, standard fluid is hydrogen or air.
It can also be expressed as a line surface: Force per unit length.
Units: No units (ratio)
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 220 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 221
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
Units: N/m Dimensions: FL-1 or MT-2. θ = angle of contact between liquid and boundary
Surface tension is due to cohesion between liquid molecules. As temperature increases ⟶
d = dia. of tube θ = 00 → Water and glass
surface tension decreases (because cohesion decreases)
Due to cohesion, surface tension pressure changes occur across a curved surface of θ = 1300 → Mercury and gases
(i) Liquid jet (ii) droplet (iii) soap bubble. For tube dia. > 12mm capillary effects are negligible. Hence the dia. of glass tubes used for
A) Liquid jet: Increase in Pressure inside and outside of liquid jet measuring pressure (manometers, piezometer etc.) should be large enough.
△ = , where d = dia of jet
B) Liquid drop: △ = , where d = dia of drop let 7.1.3 Newton’s Law of Viscosity:
Gap filled
with fluid
θ
dθ
h Stationary plate
Figure. 7.1.4
Water
Shear stress ∝ time rate of deformation (angular deformation)
∝
Figure. 7.1.2
Where F is the Force required to move the surface Area ‘A’
Units: cm or mm of liquids
∝ or τ = μ (u / y)
Capillary rise: If the adhesion > cohesion
Differential form: = . . . (7.1.2)
For e.g., Mercury depressive with convex upwards is capillary rise or fall
where τ = Shear stress; (du / dy) = Velocity gradient; μ = Dynamic viscosity
According to Newton’s law of viscosity, for a given shear stress acting on fluid ( ), the rate at
. . . (7.1.1) which fluid deforms (u / y) is inversely proportional to viscosity ( ).
7.1.4 Types of fluids:
Ideal Fluid or Perfect Fluid:
x Non viscous (frictionless) and incompressible
x Used in the mathematical analysis of flow problems
x Does not exist in reality
h
mercury x Does not offer shear resistance when fluid is in motion.
Real Fluid:
Figure. 7.1.3
x Possess the properties such as viscosity, surface tension and compressibility.
x Resistance is offered when they are set in motion.
σ = surface tension
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 222 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 223
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
E G
Pascal’s Law: Intensity of pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is same in all the directions.
P
Newtonian
Dilatant i) Viscosity of fluid has no effect on fluids at rest, therefore ideal and real fluids behave in a
similar manner.
C Pseudoplastic
B ii) If the fluid is in motion, shear stresses occur and normal stresses are no longer same in all
Ideal fluid
directions at a point of a real fluid.
Figure. 7.1.5 du / dy iii) If the fluid is in motion and fluids is ideal (frictionless) then no shear stresses, hence the
pressure at any point is same in all the directions.
Non – Newtonian Fluids: F
W piston
x Do not follow the Newton’s law of viscosity
velocity gradient is = + P
P
Where A and B are constants depend upon the type of fluid and conditions imposed on
flow. Based on power index ‘n’ and constant B Non – Newtonian fluids are
i) B = 0 and n > 1
(represented by OE in Figure 7.1.5)
Dilatant Fluids, e.g.: Butter, quick sand
ii) B = 0 and n < 1
(represented by OC in Figure 7.1.5) Pseudoplastic Figure 7.2.1
e.g.: Blood, Paper Pulp, Polymeric solutions such as rubber, suspension paints.
iii) = = 1(represented by PD in the Figure 7.1.5)
iv) Application of Pascal’s Law-Hydraulic Press:
Bingham plastic Eg: Sewage sludge, drilling mud require minimum shear stress τ known as
yield stress before they start flowing. Assumption: Pressure variation due to height neglected and friction force is neglected.
iv) Thixotropic Fluids: Printers ink, lipstick
Time dependent fluid i.e., viscosity depends upon both shear stress and duration of = /
application. A = area of plunger
Viscosity increases or decreases with time. Wt. ‘W’ lifted
e.g.: Paints and enamels, when subjected to high shear by the brush during application of W = (F/a) × A
paints, the apparent viscosity is reduced the paint covers the surface smoothly and brush Where A = Area of piston.
marks disappears subsequently.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 224 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 225
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
Intensity of Pressure (Variation of pressure in a static fluid): 7.2.2 Forces on Submerged Bodies:
F
The linear variation of pressure with depth below the free surface is known as hydrostatic
pressure distribution. F
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 226 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 227
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
E D
Total Force = F = Submerged body is in stable equilibrium when
h
= Horizontal component (i) Buoyancy Force F = W
C Here W = Weight of body
A (ii) CB lies above CG
Force on vertical Projection of the given area
H
L = vertical component Stable Equilibrium:
7.2.3 Buoyancy
The resultant force exerted on a submerged or floating body in a static liquid is called ‘Buoyancy
Force (F )’.
Unstable Equilibrium:
(i) When CG lies above CB.
(i) The Buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. (ii) The over turning couple produced due to a slight disturbance will cause the body to move
(ii) The Buoyancy force acts through the CG of the displaced volume called ‘Centre of Buoyancy
away from its original position.
(C )’.
M
CB G
BM > BG
B
Neutral Equilibrium:
(i) When CG coincides with CB.
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 228 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 229
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
dA
Figure 7.2.7
Where I = second moment of area of water plane (m4) about an axis passing through centre
of area and perpendicular to the axis of tilted longitudinal axis = ∫
V = volume of liquid displaced by the body (m3).
THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 230 : 080-65700750,
info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 231
Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics Quick Refresher Guide Fluid Mechanics
Classification of Flow:
(a) (i) Steady Flow: At any point of the flowing fluid, various characteristics such as velocity,
pressure density temperature etc., do not change wi