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NAMA : Gita Minarwati

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1 PRONOUN A. Pronouns can be used in place of nouns (when appropriate), and 5-10 ______. (_____).Capella
a pronoun operates just like a noun in a sentence. It’s important University: Grammar
to remember, however, to use pronouns carefully. Often times, Handbook.Minneapolis.
writers make the mistake of referring to a noun with a pronoun
without first providing and introducing the actual noun a
pronoun is replacing. This creates confusion for readers since
it’s then not clear who or what a pronoun is referring to. Also,
once introduced, nouns should be mentioned again here and
there throughout a paragraph to remind readers of the name or
title of a noun (or noun phrase) even if it’s only a common noun,
such as “philosophy student” or “kitten.”
1. Personal pronouns tend to come to mind first when we think
about pronouns. It’s because most people use them a lot in
their writing, and most writers instinctively know to use
personal pronouns when referring to people or things even if
they’re not always sure when or how often to use them. The
main thing to remember about personal pronoun usage is that
it is based on number, person and gender.However, with the
factor, gender, a lot has changed over the years in English
language usage when it comes to the political correctness
(PC) of referring to a person by their gender. It’s something
to keep in mind when writing since the main change has to
do with writers no longer automatically referring to an
anonymous someone as “he” or “him.” For instance: “A
baseball pitcher must work constantly on the accuracy of his
pitch.” How do we know the pitcher isn’t female? So, it’s
better to replace the word “his” with either “his or her” or
with the word “their.” Even though “their” is typically
known as a plural personal pronoun, it has now become an
acceptable and gender-neutral way to refer to someone: “A
baseball pitcher must work constantly on their pitch.” (More
information on gender can be found in the Sexist Language
section under Word Choice in this handbook.) Another thing
to remember about personal pronouns is that when writers
use certain statements or commands, such as “Stop!’ or
“Listen to me!” the personal pronoun “you” is implied…
“You stop!” or “You listen to me!”
The possessive form of a personal pronoun is not punctuated with an
apostrophe. For instance, many people get the words “its” and “it’s”
mixed up. However, the word “its” is the possessive form of the
pronoun “it,” whereas the word “it’s” is a contraction for the words “it

2. Reflexive pronouns are used only to reflect or refer back to

the main noun of a sentence or the subject—who or what the
sentence is about.
Reflexive Pronoun Examples:
1) Jerome hurt himself playing tennis. (Jerome)
2) Michelle struggled with herself over the issue.
3) I said to myself I would never get behind on my studies.
4) The couple enjoyed themselves on vacation in Norway.
(The couple)
5) We set ourselves on the right course and never looked
back. (We)
6) You should prepare yourselves for a wonderful
experience at the restaurant. (You)
7) It duplicated itself after a massive exposure to radiation
and chemicals. (It)

3. Intensive reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize the

subject of a sentence.
- He himself will be the first to admit he was wrong.
- I like chocolate cake with chocolate icing myself!

4. Reciprocal pronouns include “each other,” which refers to

two nouns, and “one another,” which refers to more than two
- Trevor and Rover always hurt each other when they play
too rough.
- Participants in the group support one another.
5. Demonstrative pronouns are used to determine “number” and
- This latte’ is yours, and that one is mine.
- These shoes will be okay for hiking the low trail today,
but you will need those boots for hiking the higher trail
Demonstrative pronouns may also be used to replace a
common noun (or noun phrase) in a sentence as long as it’s
first clear to readers who or what the pronoun is referring to.
It’s not accurate to refer to a human as “that” or “this”unless
it precedes a noun: “That belongs to “this” man.” However,
it is okay to refer to a group of humans as “those” or “these.”
- The fast roller coaster caused my stomach to ache. That
caused my stomach to ache.
- Which kids knocked over the table? Oh, those.

6. Indefinite pronouns are used to replace universal groups and

general quantities or parts of groups or things. (They are also
used as adjectives, which describe nouns.)
- Many people joined the organization after the meeting. o
One will know when it’s the right time.
2 CONJUNCTION Conjunctions are words which link two clauses in one sentence. Below 452-456 Ansel, Mary. (2000). Free
is a list of conjunctions, grouped according to the function they perform English Grammar.
in a sentence.
3 QUESTION Nearly all question words in English start with the same two letters – 71-74 Oliveira, Shayna.
WORDS WH. That's why questions with question words are also called WH- (_____).Intermediate English
questions. Grammar.
4 QUESTION TAG Question tags: A tag question is a short question (e.g. have you? / 55 Brown, Caroline and Brown,
haven’t you?) that follows a statement. pearson. (2010).English
Grammar Secrets.Meeting
We use tags in spoken English but not in formal written English. They Point: Macmillan Education)
are not really questions but are a way of asking the other person to make
a comment and so keep the conversation open. Making a tag is very
mechanical. To make a tag, use the first auxiliary. If there is no
auxiliary, use do, does or did. With a positive sentence, make a negative
tag and with a negative sentence, make a positive tag.
 It's beautiful, isn't it?
 He has been, hasn't he?
 You can, can't you? Etc.
Notice these:
 There isn't an ATM here, is there?
 Let's have a cup of coffee, shall we?

To reply, use the same auxiliary:

 It's beautiful, isn't it? ~ Yes, it is. I think it's fabulous.
 It isn't very good, is it? ~ No, it isn't. In fact, it's terrible.

Although, the rules are very simple and mechanical, in order to use them
easily in conversation, they have to be automatic.
5 MODALS A. Meaning: 141-150 Ansel, Mary. (2000). Free
______. (_____).Capella University: Grammar Handbook.Minneapolis.
Ansel, Mary. (2000). Free English Grammar.
Brown, Caroline and Brown, Pearson. (2010).English Grammar Secrets.Meeting Point: Macmillan Education)
Oliveira, Shayna. (_____). Intermediate English Grammar.