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 Enclosure volume to be protected - 9.82m x 3.1m x 3.82m

Hazard – Natural gas ( chiefly Methane )

Theoretical minimum concentration for methane – 25%

Minimum design concentration assumed – 40%

(should not be less than 34% , for materials not mentioned in standard data
should be taken from reliable sources and 20% should be added to minimum
theoretical concentration )

 Volume of the room - 116.288m3

Flooding factor for 34% design concentration – 0.9kg/m3
Amount of CO2 required for will be = volume x flooding factor
116.288 x 0.9
104.65 kg

Amount of CO2 required for 40% concentration = Amount34 x 1.25

104.65 x 1.25
130.8244 kg

6 identical cylinders of each 45.4 kg CO2 capacity shall be provided

Out of which 3 shall be main while 3 shall be standby.

Since system is maintained at ambient temperature it shall be high pressure.

As GTC (Gas Turbine Compressor) is susceptible to surface fires design

concentration shall be achieved within 1min from start of discharge.

GTC’s generally comprises of 3 interconnected chambers with 2 nozzles for

each chamber discharge rate required is 130.8244 kg/min from manifold.

Thus making each nozzle to discharge at 21.804 kg/min.

High pressure cylinders are stored at around 750psi.

Pipe and subsequently nozzle size can be calculated after determining the
pressure loss in the piping system thus giving us an orifice pressure.

Terminal pressure can be obtained from graphs and equation below

(L/D1.25) = [3647Y/((Q/D2)2)] – 8.08Z

L = effective length of pipe (ft.)
D = pipe size (inches)
Q = discharge (lbs/min)
Y and Z are constants which can be derived as follows

Y = -ʃρdP integrated over limits P1 to P

Z = ln(ρ1/ρ)

Where P = storage pressure

P1 = pressure at the end of pipeline
ρ = density of CO2 at pressure P
ρ1 = density of CO2 at pressure P1

Pressure losses were calculated out to be as follows :-

Gate valve - 0.6 ft (1’’)

Elbow 90º - 1.4 ft (1’’)
T thru - 1.1 ft (1’’)
Elbow 90º - 1.1 ft (3/4’’)
2 side Tee - 2.8 ft each (3/4’’)
Elbow 90º - 1.1 ft (3/4’’)

Along with pipe length for the remotest nozzle of 27 + 17.7417 ft

Total equivalent length calculated out to be 55.6417ft

Pipe diameter of 25mm up to thru TEE after that 2 branches each with
diameter 20mm supporting nozzles each.
For orifice pressure 725 psi
Discharge pressure should be 2.706 kg/min-mm2
Total area for 3.18mm diameter nozzle will be 7.94mm2
Which will meet the required characteristics of Flooding system

Reference tables and graphs

Bill of Material


1 67L capacity seamless cylinder CCOE approved valve
filled with 45kg CO2 gas
2 Manual pneumatic actuator
3 High pressure discharge hose
4 Manifold check valve
5 High pressure pilot hose
6 Cylinder shed with canopy and rack arrangement
7 Bleeder valve
8 Discharge nozzle (Horn type)
9 Safety release valve
1 Weight loss unit (Mechanical)
11 Discharge pressure switch
12 Cylinder manifold galvanized
13 Gas discharge Indicator
14 Manual gas release unit
15 Horn with flasher
16 Warning sign
17 Single area gas release panel with main and standby
selector switch and lead acid battery & battery backup