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Susskind Quantum Mechanics Notes, Solutions and some Errata,

authored by Gary S. Shea


University of St Andrews

This colour indicates an exercise This colour indicates a misprint or malapropism

Lecture 1

Page 27

“Ordinary 3-vectors can be multiplied by real numbers (positive,


negative, or zero) but multiplication by complex numbers is not
defined.” Surely he means that the sentence to be completed with
something like “as a real vector”. In looking at his YouTube
lectures, it is apparent that this is what he means. Of course, any
real vector can be pre- or post-multiplied by a complex number or
vector. A real number multiplied into a complex number merely
scales both the real and imaginery components of the complex
number.

Exercise 1.1

a) From 2) on Page 31 {hA| + hB|} |Ci = hC| {|Ai + |Bi}∗


∗ ∗
and from 1) Page 30 = hC|Ai + hC|Bi

and again from 2) Page 31 = hA|Ci + hB|Ci

αj∗ αj = rj eiΘj rj e−iΘj = rj2 , a real number.


P P P
b) hA|Ai = j j j

Exercise 1.2

1) hC| {|Ai + |Bi} = (c∗1 , . . . , c∗k ) × (α1 + β1 , . . . , αk + βk )0 =


(c∗1 , . . . , c∗k ) × (α1 , . . . , αk )0 + (c∗1 , . . . , c∗k ) × (β1 , . . . , βk )0 = hC|Ai + hC|Bi

2) hB|Ai = α1 × β1∗ + · · · + αk × βk∗ = (α1∗ × β1 )∗ + · · · + (αk∗ × βk )∗ =



= hA|Bi

Page 41: Taking (2.5) as given, we get (2.6) on Page 42 as follows:

hl|ri = 0 = hl| { √12 |ui + √12 |di}, by which we find hl|ui = − hl|di (= √12 ).
Since hl|ui and hl|di are real, hu|li and hd|li are also real and equal in absolute
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 2

value (= √1 ), but opposite in sign. This leaves us with Equation (2.6).


2

Exercise 2.1

If (2.5) and (2.6) are orthogonal (we have already derived (2.6) under
that condition and assuming the form taken by Equation (2.5)), then
hr|li = 0. Let’s check that. hr|li = { √12 hu| + √12 hd|} × { √12 |ui − √12 |di} =
1 1 1 1
2 hu|ui − 2 hd|di = 2 − 2 = 0.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 3

Exercise 2.2
Check Equation (2.7) ho|ii = 0.

i2
ho|ii = { √12 hu| + √i
2
hd|} × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} = 1
2 hu|ui + 2 hd|di = 1
2 − 1
2 = 0.

Check Equation (2.8)

ho|ui hu|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i


2
hd|} × |ui ] × [ hu| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
√1 hu|ui √1 hu|ui = 1 .
2 2 2

ho|di hd|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i


2
hd|} × |di ] × [ hd| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
2
√i −i
2
hd|di × [− √i2 hd|di] = 2 = 1
2.

hi|ui hu|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i


2
hd|} × |ui ] × [ hu| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
√1 hu|ui √1 hu|ui = 1 .
2 2 2

hi|di hd|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i hd|}


2
× |di ] × [ hd| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
−i2
[− √i2 hd|di] × √i
2
hd|di = 2 = 2.
1

Check Equation (2.9)

ho|ri hr|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i hd|}


2
× |ri ] × [ hr| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 + 2 ]×[ 2 − 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

ho|li hl|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i hd|}


2
× |li ] × [ hl| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 − 2 ]×[ 2 + 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

hi|ri hr|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i hd|}


2
× |ri ] × [ hr| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 − 2 ]×[ 2 + 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

hi|li hl|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i hd|}


2
× |li ] × [ hl| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 + 2 ]×[ 2 − 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

If we substitute r and l for o and i in Equation 2.7 we get a version of


Equation 2.8, which necessitates a substitution of u and d for o and i in
Equation 2.9, which also continues to hold. Likewise, if we substitute u and d
for o and i in Equation 2.7 we get a version of Equation 2.8, which necessitates
a substitution of u and d for o and i in Equation 2.9, which also continues to
hold. So, o and i are not unique in how they hold in Equation 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 4

Exercise 2.3

a) ho|ui hu|oi = [ {γ ∗ hu| + δ ∗ hd|} × |ui ] × [ hu| × {γ |ui + δ |di} ] =


γ ∗ hu|ui γ hu|ui = 21 .

ho|di hd|oi = [ {γ ∗ hu|+δ ∗ hd|}×|di ]×[ hd|×{γ |ui+δ |di} ] = δ ∗ hd|di δ hd|di = 12 .

hi|ui hu|ii = [ {α∗ hu|+β ∗ hd|}×|ui ]×[ hu|×{α |ui+β |di} ] = α∗ hu|ui α hu|ui =
1
2.

hi|di hd|ii = [ {α∗ hu|+β ∗ hd|}×|di ]×[ hd|×{α |ui+β |di} ] = β ∗ hd|di β hd|di =
1
2.

b) ho|ri hr|oi = [ {γ ∗ hu| + δ ∗ hd|} × { √12 |ui + √1 |di} ] × [ { √1 hu|


2 2
+
∗ ∗
γ
√1 hd|} × {γ |ui + δ |di} ] = [ √
2 2
hu|ui + δ

2
hd|di] × [ √γ2 hu|ui + √δ2 hd|di] =
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
γ γ γ δ γδ
2 + 2 + 2 + 2
δ δ
= 2 ⇒ γ∗γ
1 ∗ ∗
+ γ δ + γδ + δ δ = 1. ∗
But since
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
ho|oi = γ γ + δ δ = 1, γ δ + γδ = 0.

hi|ri hr|ii = [ {α∗ hu|+β ∗ hd|}×{ √12 |ui+ √12 |di} ]×[ { √12 hu|+ √12 hd|}×{α |ui+
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
β
α
β |di} ] = [ √ 2
hu|ui+ √ 2
hd|di]×[ √α2 hu|ui+ √β2 hd|di] = α2α + α2β + αβ2 + β 2β =
1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
2 ⇒ α α+α β+αβ +β β = 1. But since hi|ii = α α+β δ = 1, α δ+αβ = 0.

c) Suppose α∗ β is wholly complex so that α∗ β = x + iy and αβ ∗ = x − iy. But


we have shown already that α∗ β + αβ ∗ = 0 ⇒ α∗ β + αβ ∗ = 2x ⇒ x = 0. But if
x = 0, then α∗ β = iy cannot be wholly complex, it must be purely complex; If
we let α∗ = i and let β = y, then α = −i or β ∗ = −i. It is clear that α∗ and β
cannot both be real. The logic would apply equally well to γ ∗ and δ .

Page 56, Last sentence in Section 3.1.1:“...relationships between vectors and


operators are....” (not “is”).

Page 58:       
1 −1 1 −i 1
= = −i
1 0 i 1 i
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 5

Exercise 2.2
Check Equation (2.7) ho|ii = 0.

i2
ho|ii = { √12 hu| + √i
2
hd|} × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} = 1
2 hu|ui + 2 hd|di = 1
2 − 1
2 = 0.

Check Equation (2.8)

ho|ui hu|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i


2
hd|} × |ui ] × [ hu| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
√1 hu|ui √1 hu|ui = 1 .
2 2 2

ho|di hd|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i


2
hd|} × |di ] × [ hd| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
2
√i −i
2
hd|di × [− √i2 hd|di] = 2 = 1
2.

hi|ui hu|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i


2
hd|} × |ui ] × [ hu| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
√1 hu|ui √1 hu|ui = 1 .
2 2 2

hi|di hd|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i hd|}


2
× |di ] × [ hd| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
−i2
[− √i2 hd|di] × √i
2
hd|di = 2 = 2.
1

Check Equation (2.9)

ho|ri hr|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i hd|}


2
× |ri ] × [ hr| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 + 2 ]×[ 2 − 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

ho|li hl|oi = [ { √12 hu| + √i hd|}


2
× |li ] × [ hl| × { √12 |ui − √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 − 2 ]×[ 2 + 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

hi|ri hr|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i hd|}


2
× |ri ] × [ hr| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 − 2 ]×[ 2 + 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

hi|li hl|ii = [ { √12 hu| − √i hd|}


2
× |li ] × [ hl| × { √12 |ui + √i
2
|di} ] =
1 i 1 i 1 i2 1
[ 2 + 2 ]×[ 2 − 2 ]= 4 − 4 = 2.

If we substitute r and l for o and i in Equation 2.7 we get a version of


Equation 2.8, which necessitates a substitution of u and d for o and i in
Equation 2.9, which also continues to hold. Likewise, if we substitute u and d
for o and i in Equation 2.7 we get a version of Equation 2.8, which necessitates
a substitution of u and d for o and i in Equation 2.9, which also continues to
hold. So, o and i are not unique in how they hold in Equation 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 6

Exercise 2.3

a) ho|ui hu|oi = [ {γ ∗ hu| + δ ∗ hd|} × |ui ] × [ hu| × {γ |ui + δ |di} ] =


γ ∗ hu|ui γ hu|ui = 21 .

ho|di hd|oi = [ {γ ∗ hu|+δ ∗ hd|}×|di ]×[ hd|×{γ |ui+δ |di} ] = δ ∗ hd|di δ hd|di = 12 .

hi|ui hu|ii = [ {α∗ hu|+β ∗ hd|}×|ui ]×[ hu|×{α |ui+β |di} ] = α∗ hu|ui α hu|ui =
1
2.

hi|di hd|ii = [ {α∗ hu|+β ∗ hd|}×|di ]×[ hd|×{α |ui+β |di} ] = β ∗ hd|di β hd|di =
1
2.

b) ho|ri hr|oi = [ {γ ∗ hu| + δ ∗ hd|} × { √12 |ui + √1 |di} ] × [ { √1 hu|


2 2
+
∗ ∗
γ
√1 hd|} × {γ |ui + δ |di} ] = [ √
2 2
hu|ui + δ

2
hd|di] × [ √γ2 hu|ui + √δ2 hd|di] =
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
γ γ γ δ γδ
2 + 2 + 2 + 2
δ δ
= 2 ⇒ γ∗γ
1 ∗ ∗
+ γ δ + γδ + δ δ = 1. ∗
But since
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
ho|oi = γ γ + δ δ = 1, γ δ + γδ = 0.

hi|ri hr|ii = [ {α∗ hu|+β ∗ hd|}×{ √12 |ui+ √12 |di} ]×[ { √12 hu|+ √12 hd|}×{α |ui+
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
β
α
β |di} ] = [ √ 2
hu|ui+ √ 2
hd|di]×[ √α2 hu|ui+ √β2 hd|di] = α2α + α2β + αβ2 + β 2β =
1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
2 ⇒ α α+α β+αβ +β β = 1. But since hi|ii = α α+β δ = 1, α δ+αβ = 0.

c) Suppose α∗ β is wholly complex so that α∗ β = x + iy and αβ ∗ = x − iy. But


we have shown already that α∗ β + αβ ∗ = 0 ⇒ α∗ β + αβ ∗ = 2x ⇒ x = 0. But if
x = 0, then α∗ β = iy cannot be wholly complex, it must be purely complex; If
we let α∗ = i and let β = y, then α = −i or β ∗ = −i. It is clear that α∗ and β
cannot both be real. The logic would apply equally well to γ ∗ and δ .
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 7

Exercise 3.1

I am not sure how this exercise is supposed to be easy. I first have to


presume at least one eigenvector exists. I know this is true for a complex
N-vector space, but I do not know how to prove it. It is easy to construct an
example of a real vector space that has no eignvectors (my textbook cites the
example of any rotation in R2 through an angle θ 6= nπ), so I presume the
author is writing of complex vector spaces only.

So, if we let L be a N × N Hermitian matrix, it is a complex matrix and will


have at least one eigenvector, which in the book is defined as |λi such that
L |λi = λ |λi. Re-writing this we have L |λi−λ |λi = (L−λ IN ×N ) |λi = 0. If |λi
is going to be anything other than a nontrivial solution, det(L − λ IN ×N ) = 0
and because L is complex, we know (by the fundamental theorem of algebra)
that the characteristic polynomial associated with det(L − λ IN ×N ) will have
at least one complex root. This will be our first eigenvalue. Call it λ1 . The
eignevector associated with it is defined as |λ1 i such that L |λ1 i = λ1 |λ1 i.
Can we find any more eigenvalues and asscoiated eigenvectors of L so that can
for the orthonormal basis for a N-dimension complex vector space?

There are special properties of Hermitian matrices such as L that I do


not yet understand that can be exploited to complete this problem. The
finishing of the proof is described at, for example,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral theorem. See also
http://theuncertainbiscuit.uk/exercise3.1.html .

Exercise 3.2

This is rather obvious. If we lay out


 (3.14)
 and (3.15)
 together into 
a
(σz )1 1 (σz )1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0
row vector, we get = . But since
(σz )2 1 (σz )2 2 0 1 0 −1 0 1
itself is the identity matrix, I, we end up with (3.16).

Pages 79-80: To derive Pauli matrices and to practice with bracket notation, lay
out Equations (3.18) in row vector form as we did in Exercise 3.2. σx [ |ri |li ] =
[ |ri − |li ]. Now just carefully note that our ket row vectors can be re-written
as bra column
 vectors so that Equations (3.18) can have an alternative form:
hr| hl|
σx = . Now post-multiply both sides of the equations with [ |ri |li ]
hl|  hr|       
hr|ri hr|li hl| hl|ri hl|li 0 1
to get σx = σx I = σx = [ |ri |li ] = = .
hl|ri hl|li hr| hr|ri hr|li 1 0

Now write a new set of equations for the y-component of spin: σy |ii = |ii
and σy |oi = − |oi and lay them out in row vector form as we have done
above, σy [ |ii |oi ] = [ |ii − |oi ]. We again carefully note how these ket
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 8

row vectors can  written


  as bra column vectors to get a new version of our
hr| hl|
equations, σy = . Post-multiply both sides of the equations with
i hl|  i hr|   
hr|ri −i hr|li hl|
[ |ri − i |li ] to get σy 2 = σy I = σy = [ |ri − i |li ] =
   −i hl|ri  −i hl|li i hr|
hl|ri −i hl|li 0 −i
= .
i hr|ri −i2 hr|li i 0

Page 85, bottom: σn first looks like a rotation matrix, but it isn’t. Just to
remind myself, counter-clockwise
  rotation in the x-z plane is achieved with the
cos θ − sin θ
rotation matrix when θ is the angle of rotation away from
cos θ sin θ
the x-axis. And clockwise rotation  θ away from  z and towards the x-axis is
cos θ sin θ
achieved with a rotation matrix . This is why of course that
− sin θ cos θ
when
 the unit vector
  lying
  on the z-axis
 is rotated by θ clockwise, we achieve
cos θ sin θ 0 nx sin θ
= = .
− sin θ cos θ 1 nz cos θ

In Exercise 3.3, however, we want to find the eigenvalues and eigenvec-


tors for σn . We want solutions of the form σn |λi = λ |λi. Looking first
at the characteristic polynomial for the system we find det(σn − λ I) =
− cos2 (θ) + λ2 − sin2 (θ) = λ2 − 1 = (λ − 1)(λ + 1) = 0 ⇒ λ1 = 1, λ2 = −1.

Let’s find the first eigenvector s.t. σn |λ1 i = |λ1 i. Even without the
hints given, we can exploit some trignometric identities. Let λ11 and λ21 be
the elements of |λ1 i. We have then two equations λ11 cos θ + λ21 sin θ = λ11
and λ11 sin θ − λ21 cos θ = λ21 . Simplifying either equation gives us
the same result: λ11 (1 − cos θ) = λ21 sin θ or λ21 (1 +cos θ) = λ11 sin θ.
Now cos θ = 1 − 2 sin2 θ2 and sin θ = 2 sin θ2 cos θ2 so that we have


λ11 (1 − cos θ) = λ11 [2 sin2 θ2 ] = λ21 sin θ = λ21 [2 sin θ2 cos θ2 ] ⇒


  

λ11 [sin θ2 ] = λ21 [cos θ2 ] ⇒ λ11 = cos θ2 and λ21 = sin θ2 . We get the same
   

result if we start with λ21 (1 + cos θ) = λ11 sin θ.

For the second eigenvector s.t. σn |λ2 i = − |λ2 i, let λ12 and λ22 be the
elements of |λ2 i. We have then two equations λ12 cos θ + λ22 sin θ = −λ12 and
λ12 sin θ − λ22 cos θ = −λ22 . We can simplify either of these equations to find
λ12 (1 + cos θ) = −λ22 sin θ or λ22 (1 − cos θ) = −λ12 sin θ . As we did above, we
can use certain trigonometric identities
 in either of these
 latter two equations
to establish λ22 sin θ2 = −λ12 cos θ2 ⇒ λ12 = − sin θ2 and λ22 = cos θ2 .
 
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 9

Exercise 3.4: As in Exercise 3.3, we want to find the eigenvalues and eigen-
vectors for σn . We want solutions of the form σn |λi = λ |λi. Note that
nx ± iny = sin θ cos φ ± i sin θ sin φ = sin θ(cos φ ± i sin φ) = e±iφ sin θ. Looking
first at the characteristic polynomial for the system we find det(σn − λ I) =
− cos2 (θ)+λ2 −e−iφ eiφ sin2 (θ) = λ2 −1 = (λ−1)(λ+1) = 0 ⇒ λ1 = 1, λ2 = −1.

Let’s find the first eigenvector(s) s.t. σn |λ1 i = |λ1 i. Even without the
hints given, we can exploit the same trignometric identities that we used in
Exercise 3.3. Let λ11 and λ21 be the elements of |λ1 i. We have then two
equations λ11 cos θ + λ21 e−iφ sin θ = λ11 and λ11 e+iφ sin θ − λ21 cos θ = λ21 .
−iφ
We can simplify the first equation
2 θ
 θ
 − cos
to find that λ11 (1
θ
 θ) = λ21 e sin θ.
Now cos θ = 1 − 2 sin 2 and sin θ = 2 sin 2 cos 2 so that we have
λ11 (1 − cos θ) = λ11 [2 sin2 θ2 ] = λ21 e−iφ sin θ = λ21 e−iφ [2 sin θ2 cos θ2 ] ⇒
  

λ11 [sin θ2 ] = λ21 e−iφ [cos θ2 ] ⇒ λ11 = cos θ2 and λ21 = e+iφ sin θ2 . If we
   

were to simplify the second equation in the same way we could also find the
same eigenvector. But the non-uniqueness of eigenvectors also suggests that
our manipulations could equally well have found that λ11 = e−iφ cos θ2 and
λ21 = sin θ2 . Any multiple of an eigentor is still an eigenvector for the same


eigenvalue. All we have to worry about is that the eigenvectors satisfy the
unit-length and orthogonality conditions.

For the second eigenvector s.t. σn |λ2 i = − |λ2 i, let λ12 and λ22 be the
elements of |λ2 i. We have then two equations λ12 cos θ + λ22 e−iφ sin θ = −λ12
and λ12 e+iφ sin θ − λ22 cos θ = −λ22 . We can simplify the two equa-
tions as we have done before to find λ22 (1 − cos θ) = −λ12 e+iφ sin θ. As
we did above, we can use  certain trigonometric  identities to establish
λ22 sin θ2 = −λ12 e+iφ cos θ2 ⇒ λ12 = − sin θ2 and λ22 = e+iφ cos θ2
or equally well, λ12 = e−iφ sin θ2 and λ22 = − cos θ2 . Non-uniqueness
 

of eigenvectors again makes any pairing of eigenvectors possible as long as


hλ1 |λ1 i = 1, hλ2 |λ2 i = 1 and hλ1 |λ2 i = 0.

As was done at the top of Page 87, after the device was prepared so
that its state-vector is |ui, suppose we rotate the device to the n̂-axis.
Pr(+1) = hu|λ1 i hλ1 |ui = cos2 θ2 and Pr(−1) = hu|λ2 i hλ2 |ui = sin2 θ2 still,
 

just as in Exercise 3.3. n̂ still is displaced from the z-axis at the angle θ, so
that is all that matters in determining the overlaps of the ”spun” state-vector
~σ · |ui. (I think I might be making a mistake here in interpretation that the
author warns me about in section 3.5.)

Exercise 3.5 is rather obvious after we have done Exercise 3.4. Preparing the
spin to be +1 along m̂ is tantamount to rotating the xyz-axis system so that
the z axis is aligned with m̂.

Section 3.8, Page 90: The spin polarisation principle seems pretty self evident.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 10

If we let the components of a state vector |Ai be a1 and a2 respectively, then


we can always define some direction nx , ny , nz for which σn |Ai = |Ai. For
example, by expressing the directions as functions of a1 and a2 we can write

(nz − 1)a1 + (nx − iny )a2 = 0 and (nz + 1)a2 − (nx + iny )a1 = 0.

For any a1 and a2 , for example, nx and ny can be arbitrarily chosen, leaving nz
as a point in the complex plane s.t.
a2 − a1
nz = (nx + 1 − iny ) .
a1 + a2
Exercise 4.2: From Page 62, mij = m∗ji . So let’s look at the ij-element of the
P ∗ ∗
mki ⇒ M L = [LM ]† . It follows
P
matrix M L. [M L]ij = k mik lkj = k ljk
LM = [M L]† .

[M, L] = M L − LM = [LM ]† − [M L]† = [L, M ]† = −[L, M ] ⇒ [L, M ]


is anti-Hermitian. It follows that [M, L] is also anti-Hermitian. And now it
follows i[M, L] is Hermitian.

Exercise 4.3: By Equation 4.21 being ”dimensionally consistent” I assume the


author means that the units on both sides of the double arrow are the same.
The left-hand side commutator is dimensionless so that I presume we need to
show that the right side is dimensionless as well. i and 2π are without units
and h is in units of kg × m2 /s. The question then is, is the Poisson bracket
s
F, G in units of kg×m 2?

It would be helpful if we re-stated that F and G are operators that op-


erate on vectors in the classical phase space of position (x, in units of m) and
conjugate momentum (p = kg a, in units of kg m/s2 ). Thus differentiating
F and G with respect to x would result in units of F G divided by m and
differentiating F and G with respect to p would result in units of F G divided
by kg m and multiplied by s. So, that would do it. The units of the Poisson
2
bracket would be units of F G divided by kg×m s . I have a feeling that this
exercise is not as productive of understanding of the connection between
Poisson brackets and quantum commutators as it could be after we understand
better what is quantum energy.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 11

Exercise 4.4:
     
0 1 0 −i 0 −i 0 1
[σx , σy ] = − =
1 0 i 0 i 0 1 0
     
i 0 −i 0 1 0
− = 2i = 2iσz
0 −i 0 i 0 −1
     
0 −i 1 0 1 0 0 −i
[σy , σz ] = − =
i 0 0 −1 0 −1 i 0
     
0 i 0 −i 0 1
− = 2i = 2iσx
i 0 −i 0 1 0
     
1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
[σz , σx ] = − =
0 −1 1 0 1 0 0 −1
       
0 1 0 −1 0 1 0 −i
− =2 = 2i = 2iσy
−1 0 1 0 −1 0 i 0

Exercise 4.5, Page 121: Since we have done Exercise 3.4 already, we have the
answer to this exercise . In 3.4 we found that the eigenvalues for σn were
λ1 = 1, λ2 = −1 respectively. In this exercise H = }ω2 σn so that makes the
eigenvalues of H respectively λ1 = }ω
2 , λ 2 = − }ω
2 .

The multiplication of a matrix by a constant does not change its eigen-


vectors, so the eigenvectors remain those of Exercise 3.4’s σn . They are
λ11 = e−iφ cos θ2 and λ21 = sin θ2 for the elements of the first eigenvector


and λ12 = e−iφ sin θ2 and λ22 = − cos θ2 for the elements of the second
 

eignevector.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 12

Exercise 4.6, Page 126: The system is prepared in the ”up” state, which
simultaneously tells us that (according to the recipe):
 
1 0
1) H = ω} σ
2 z = ω}
and
2 0 −1
 
1
2) |ψ(0)i = |ui = ;
0
3) The eigenvalues of H are respectively λ1 = }ω 2 , λ2 = − 2 as we

have seen in Exercise 4.5. And it follows that the respective eigenvectors have
to be the eignevectors of σz ; |ui and |di.
   
  1   1
4) α1 (0) = 1 0 = 1; α2 (0) = 0 1 = 0.
0 0
 
1
5) This step is merely a check that we have |ψ(0)i = |ui = in Step
  0
1
2 correct. |ψ(0)i = α1 (0)E1 = 1 × = |ui.
0
6) It follows that |ψ(t)i = α1 (t) |ui.
−i ω}t −iωt
7) |ψ(t)i = α1 (0)e } 2 |ui = e 2 |ui.
" #
√1
8) If we set L = σy , the observable has eigenvectors (Page 79) of |ii = 2
√i
" # 2
√1
with eigenvalue +1 and |oi = 2 with eigenvalue -1. There are only two
−i

2
possibly observable spin states +1 and -1 whose probabilities
" # are respectively
i  −iωt √1
 −iωt iωt
e 2
h
−i
P+1 (t) = hi|ψ(t)i hψ(t)|ii = √12 √
iωt
0 √i2 = e √2 e√2 =
  2 2
2 e 2
0 2
1
2 and P−1 (t) = 21 . Check it out.
" #
i  −iωt √1

e 2  iωt
h
√1 √i
 2
P−1 (t) = ho|ψ(t)i hψ(t)|oi = 2 2 e 2 0 −i

=
0 2
−iωt iωt
e √2 e√2
2 2
= 12 .

Page 126: ”If the state-vector were the main focus....” The word ”the” left out.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 13

Pages 145-6: I am not happy with the devlopment from Equation 5.8 to 5.9.
If we do literally what is asked of us at the top of Page 146, we get

|X|2 + 2|X||Y | + |Y |2 ≥ |X + Y |2 ⇒ hX|Xi + 2|X||Y | + hY |Y i ≥


hX|Xi + hY |Y i + hX|Y i hY |Xi, which simplifies to 2|X||Y | ≥ hX|Y i hY |Xiand
not 2|X||Y | ≥ | hX|Y i hY |Xi | as averred in Equation 5.10.

A problem starts I think by just assuming the form of the triangle inequality
in the middle of Page 145 and proceeding from that to develop a version of the
Cauchy-Schwartz Inequaility. It would be much more straightforward to first
just demonstrate the simple Caucy-Schwartz Inequality |X||Y | ≥ | hX|Y i |. If
we can do that, that establishes equally well |X||Y | ≥ | hY |Xi |. Adding both
inequalities together we get 2|X||Y | ≥ | hX|Y i | + | hY |Xi | ≥ | hX|Y i hY |Xi |.

I attach a standard demonstration that |X||Y | ≥ | hX|Y i |.

We know that both hZ|Zi is a non-negative norm, s.t. hZ|Zi ≥ 0.

Define hZ| = hX| + λ hY |. Then |Zi = |Xi + λ∗ |Y i.

hZ|Zi = hX|Xi + λ hX|Y i + λ∗ hY |Xi + |λ2 | hY |Y i ≥ 0. Now define


λ = − hY |Xi
hY |Y i s.t. λ∗ = − hX|Y i
hY |Y i . So now we have hZ|Zi = hX|Xi −
hY |XihX|Y i hX|Y ihY |Xi |hY |XihX|Y i|
≥ 0 ⇒ hX|Xi hY |Y i ≥ | hX|Y i |2 , or
 


 
hY |Y i hY |Y i + hY |Y i
 
2 2 2
in other words, |X| |Y | ≥ | hX|Y i | or |X||Y | ≥ | hX|Y i |.

Page 146: From Equation 5.9 top 5.12. Recall that anyp observables will be Her-

mitian
p operators s.t. A = A. 2 hX|Xi hY |Y i = 2 hψ| |A2 | |ψi hψ| |B 2 | |ψi =
† †
2 hA2 ihB 2 i ≥ | hψ| |A iB| |ψi+hψ| |B (−i)A| |ψi | = |i hψ| |AB| |ψi−i hψ| |BA| |ψi | =
| hψ| |AB| |ψi − hψ| |BA| |ψi | = | hψ| [A, B] |ψi |.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 14

Exercise 5.2:

1)p Define |Xi = Āp|ψi and |Y i = iB̄ |ψi. From


p Equation 5.9 we have
2 hX|Xi hY |Y i = 2 hψ| |Ā | |ψi hψ| |B̄ | |ψi = 2 hĀ ihB̄ 2 i. From Page 141
2 2 2

we have alreadyp establishedp that hĀ2 i = (∆A)2 . The left-hand side of Inequality
5.12 is still 2 hĀ ihB̄ i = 2 (∆A)2 (∆B)2 = 2∆A∆B.
2 2

2) [Ā, B̄] = ĀB̄ − B̄ Ā = (A − hAi)(B − hBi) − (B − hBi)(A − hAi) =


AB −   − 
AhBi BhAi
 + hAihBi
  − BA + AhBi
 + 
 BhAi hAihBi
 −   = AB − BA = [A, B].

3) Combining our result from 1) above with Equation 5.12, we have:

2∆A∆B ≥ | hψ| |Ā† iB̄| |ψi + hψ| |B̄ † (−i)Ā| |ψi | = |i hψ| |ĀB̄| |ψi − i hψ| |B̄ Ā| |ψi | =

| hψ| |ĀB̄| |ψi − hψ| |B̄ Ā| |ψi | = | hψ| [Ā, B̄] |ψi | = | hψ| [A, B] |ψi |.
It should be obvious that in getting this result that Ā† = Ā.

Exercise 6.1: If we start from the definition of conditional probability, P (a|b) =


P (a,b)
P (b) , P (a|b) = P (a) if the correlation between a and b is zero; knowing b conveys
no information about the likelihood of b. It follows that P (a, b) = P (a|b)P (b) =
P (a)P (b).

Exercise 6.2, Page 164: If we form the following non-negative norm:

hproductstate|productstatei = (αu∗ βu∗ )αu βu +(αd∗ βu∗ )αd βu +(αu∗ βd∗ )αu βd +(αd∗ βd∗ )αd βd .
We know this sum is one because it is exactly what we get if we take both equations
from Equation 6.4 and multiply them together to also get 1.

Exercise 6.3, Page 167: Using Equaiton 6.5 as the general expression of the product
state, we conclude that 1) αu βd = √12 and 2) αd βu = − √12 . At the same time
αu βu = 0, which means either αu = 0 or βu = 0. Neither is possible since that
would contradict either 1) and 2) above. We conclude that the general product-state
formula (Equation 6.5) cannot be used to describe this entangled state.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 15

Exercise 6.4, Page 172: Take the first Pauli matrix operator, σz ,
    
1 0 1 1
σz |ui = = = |ui
0 −1 0 0
      
1 0 0 0 0
σz |di = = =− = − |di
0 −1 1 −1 1
Next take the second Pauli matrix operator, σx ,
    
0 1 1 0
σx |ui = = = |di
1 0 0 1
      
0 1 0 1 1
σx |di = = = = |ui
1 0 1 0 0
Finally take the third Pauli matrix operator, σy ,
    
0 −i 1 0
σy |ui = = = i |di
i 0 0 i
      
0 −i 0 −i 1
σy |di = = = −i = −i |ui
i 0 1 0 0
σz |uui = |uui ⇒ σz |udi = |udi
σz |dui = − |dui ⇒ σz |ddi = − |ddi

σx |udi = |ddi ⇒ σx |uui = |dui


σx |ddi = |udi ⇒ σx |dui = |uui

σy |uui = i |dui ⇒ σy |udi = i |ddi


σy |dui = −i |uui ⇒ σy |ddi = −i |udi

But let’s go through them all for ~τ . Since τz |ui = |ui , τz |uui = |uui and τz |dui =
|dui. Since τz |di = − |di , τz |udi = − |udi and τz |ddi = − |ddi.

Since τx |ui = |di , τx |uui = |udi and τx |dui = |ddi. Since τx |di = |ui , τx |udi =
|uui and τx |ddi = |dui.

Since τy |ui = i |di , τy |uui = i |udi and τy |dui = i |ddi. Since τy |di =
−i |ui , τy |udi = −i |uui and τy |ddi = −i |dui.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 16

Exercise 6.5, Page 172: The first part of the required proof is pretty trivial. Any
product state is the sum of the four components (a la bottom Page 165) ψab |abi,
where a, b = u or d in any of the four combinations. When any spin operator
works on such a product state the result becomes the sum of the four components
ψab σk |abi, where a, b = u or d in any of the four combinations. Any spin operator
working on a composite spin |abi is of the form λ |a0 b0 i where λ is a complex
number, a0 b0 is still one of the possible four combinations of u or d. So we stioll have
a linear combination of the four possible composite states, |uui , |udi , |dui and |ddi.

As for the second part, first prove (a la Page 161): hab|σk |abi = ha|σk |ai. Us-
ing the notation above, hab|σk |abi is of the form hab|λ|a0 ni = λ hab|a0 bi = λδaa0 δbb =
λδaa0 = λ ha|a0 i = ha|λ|a0 i = ha|σk |ai.

It similarly follows that hab|τk |abi = hb|τk |bi. I do not think I can follow this
approach fruitfully now to complete the second part of the required proof. If I were
now to consider a state vector, |ψi things would get too messy. I think a brute force
method would use Equation 6.5 at this point. That is what I will do.

We have completed all the entries in Table 1 Page 350 and so we shall
use them. Consider first σz |ψi = σz (αu βu |uui + αu βd |udi + αd βu |dui +
αd βd |ddi) = αu βu |uui + αu βd |udi − αd βu |dui − αd βd |ddi. Now consider
hψ| σz |ψi = [ huu| αu∗ βu∗ + hud| αu∗ βd∗ + hdu| αd∗ βu∗ + hdd| αd∗ βd∗ ] × σz |ψi.

It is trivial to note from Page 161 that hab|abi = 1 and that hab|a0 b0 i = 0 if
a 6= a0 or b 6= b0 . From this we get

hψ| σz |ψi = αu∗ βu∗ βu αu + αu∗ βd∗ βd αu + αd∗ βu∗ βu αd − αd∗ βu∗ βu αd − αd∗ βd∗ βd αd =

βu∗ βu (αu∗ αu − αd∗ αd ) + βd∗ βd (αu∗ αu − αd∗ αd ) = αu∗ αu − αd∗ αd


since βu∗ βu + βd∗ βd = 1. In Alice’s single state

hα∗ |σz |αi = (hu| αu∗ + hd| αd∗ )σz (αu |ui + αd |di) = (hu| αu∗ + hd| αd∗ )(αu |ui − αd |di) =

αu∗ αu − αd∗ αd
Now that we have completed the second part of the required proof for Alice’s spin
operator σz , we shall do this procedure again for the rest of her spin operators and
for all of Bob’s spin operators.

σx |ψi = αu βu σx |uui + αu βd σx |udi + αd βu σx |dui + αd βd σx |ddi =


αu βu |dui + αu βd |ddi + αd βu |uui + αd βd |udi
hψ| σx |ψi = [ huu| αu∗ βu∗ + hud| αu∗ βd∗ + hdu| αd∗ βu∗ + hdd| αd∗ βd∗ ] × σx |ψi =
αu∗ βu∗ βu αd + αu∗ βd∗ βd αd + αd∗ βu∗ βu αu + αd∗ βd∗ βd αu = αu∗ αd + αd∗ αu
since βu∗ βu + βd∗ βd = 1.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 17

Exercise 6.5,continued: In Alice’s single state

hα∗ |σx |αi = (hu| αu∗ + hd| αd∗ )σx (αu |ui + αd |di) = (hu| αu∗ + hd| αd∗ )(αu |di + αd |ui) =

αu∗ αd + αd∗ αu

σy |ψi = αu βu σy |uui + αu βd σy |udi + αd βu σy |dui + αd βd σy |ddi =


iαu βu |dui + iαu βd |ddi − iαd βu |uui − iαd βd |udi
hψ| σy |ψi = [ huu| αu∗ βu∗ + hud| αu∗ βd∗ + hdu| αd∗ βu∗ + hdd| αd∗ βd∗ ] × σy |ψi =
−iαu∗ βu∗ βu αd − iαu∗ βd∗ βd αd + iαd∗ βu∗ βu αu + iαd∗ βd∗ βd αu = iαd∗ αu − iαu∗ αd
since βu∗ βu + βd∗ βd = 1. In Alice’s single state

hα∗ |σy |αi = (hu| αu∗ + hd| αd∗ )σy (αu |ui + αd |di) = (hu| αu∗ + hd| αd∗ )(iαu |di − iαd |ui) =

iαd∗ αu − iαu∗ αd

τz |ψi = αu βu τz |uui + αu βd τz |udi + αd βu τz |dui + αd βd τz |ddi =


αu βu |uui − αu βd |udi + αd βu |dui − αd βd |ddi
hψ| τz |ψi = [ huu| αu∗ βu∗ + hud| αu∗ βd∗ + hdu| αd∗ βu∗ + hdd| αd∗ βd∗ ] × τz |ψi =
αu∗ βu∗ βu αd − αu∗ βd∗ βd αu + αd∗ βu∗ βu αd − αd∗ βd∗ βd αd = βu∗ βu − βd∗ βd
since αu∗ αu + αd∗ αd = 1. In Bob’s single state

hβ ∗ |τz |βi = (hu| βu∗ + hd| βd∗ )τz (βu |ui + βd |di) = (hu| βu∗ + hd| βd∗ )(βu |ui − βd |di) =

βu∗ βu − βd∗ βd
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 18

Exercise 6.5, continued:

τx |ψi = αu βu τx |uui + αu βd τx |udi + αd βu τx |dui + αd βd τx |ddi =

αu βu |udi + αu βd |uui + αd βu |ddi + αd βd |dui


hψ| τx |ψi = [ huu| αu∗ βu∗ + hud| αu∗ βd∗ + hdu| αd∗ βu∗ + hdd| αd∗ βd∗ ] × τx |ψi =
βu∗ αu∗ αu βd + βd∗ αu∗ αu βu + βu∗ αd∗ αd βd + βd∗ αd∗ αd βu = βu∗ βd + βd∗ βu
since αu∗ αu + αd∗ αd = 1. In Bob’s single state

hβ ∗ |τx |βi = (hu| βu∗ + hd| βd∗ )τx (βu |ui + βd |di) = (hu| βu∗ + hd| βd∗ )(βu |di + βd |ui) =

βu∗ βd + βd∗ βu

τy |ψi = αu βu τy |uui + αu βd τy |udi + αd βu τy |dui + αd βd τy |ddi =


iαu βu |udi − iαu βd |uui + iαd βu |ddi − iαd βd |dui
hψ| τy |ψi = [ huu| αu∗ βu∗ + hud| αu∗ βd∗ + hdu| αd∗ βu∗ + hdd| αd∗ βd∗ ] × τy |ψi =
−iβu∗ αu∗ αu βd + iβd∗ αu∗ αu βu − iβu∗ αd∗ αd βd + iβd∗ αd∗ αd βu = iβd∗ βu − iβu∗ βd
since αu∗ αu + αd∗ αd = 1. In Bob’s single state

hβ ∗ |τy |βi = (hu| βu∗ + hd| βd∗ )τy (βu |ui + βd |di) = (hu| βu∗ + hd| βd∗ )(iβu |di − iβd |ui) =

iβd∗ βu − iβu∗ βd

Exercise 6.6: hsing|σx τy |singi =? Start with σx τy |singi = √1 σx τy [|udi − |dui] =


2
− √i2 σx [|uui + |ddi] = − √i2 [|dui + |udi] ⇒
hsing|σx τy |singi = − √i2 [hud| − hdu|][|dui + |udi] = − √i2 (1 − 1) = 0. They are not
correlated at all.

Exercise 6.7: hT1 |σz τz |T1 i =? Start with σz τz |T1 i = √1 σz τz [|udi + |dui] =
2
σz

2
[|dui − |udi] = − √12 [|dui + |udi] ⇒
hT1 |σz τz |T1 i = − 12 [hud| + hdu|][|dui + |udi] = −1.
σx
hT1 |σx τx |T1 i =? Start with σx τx |T1 i = √12 σx τx [|udi + |dui] = √
2
[|uui + |udi] =
− √12 [|dui + |udi] ⇒
hT1 |σx τx |T1 i = 12 [hud| + hdu|][|dui + |udi] = 1.
σ
hT1 |σy τy |T1 i =? Start with σy τy |T1 i = √12 σy τy [|udi + |dui] = √y [−i |uui
2
+ i |ddi] =
√1 [−i2 |dui + i(−i) |udi] = √1 [|udi + |dui] ⇒
2 2
hT1 |σy τy |T1 i = 21 [hud| + hdu|][|dui + |udi] = 1.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 19

Exercise 6.8: hT2 |σz τz |T2 i =? Start with σz τz |T2 i = √1 σz τz [|uui + |ddi] =
2
σz

2
[|uui − |ddi] = √12 [|uui + |ddi] ⇒
hT2 |σz τz |T2 i = 12 [huu| + hdd|][|uui + |ddi] = 1.
σx
hT2 |σx τx |T2 i =? Start with σx τx |T2 i = √12 σx τx [|uui + |ddi] = √
2
[|udi + |dui] =
√1 [|ddi + |uui] ⇒
2
hT2 |σx τx |T2 i = 12 [hdd| + huu|][|uui + |ddi] = 1.
σ
hT2 |σy τy |T2 i =? Start with σy τy |T2 i = √12 σy τy [|uui + |ddi] = √y [−i |dui
2
+ i |udi] =
√1 [i2 |ddi + i2 |uui] = − √1 [|uui + |ddi] ⇒
2 2
hT2 |σy τy |T2 i = −1.
σz
hT3 |σz τz |T3 i =? Start with σz τz |T3 i = √12 σz τz [|uui − |ddi] = √
2
[|uui + |ddi] =
√1 [|uui − |ddi] ⇒
2
hT3 |σz τz |T3 i = 12 [huu| − hdd|][|uui − |ddi] = 1.
σx
hT3 |σx τx |T3 i =? Start with σx τx |T3 i = √12 σx τx [|uui − |ddi] = √
2
[|udi − |dui] =
√1 [|ddi − |uui] ⇒
2
hT3 |σx τx |T3 i = 12 [huu| − hdd|][|ddi − |uui] = −1.
σ
hT3 |σy τy |T3 i =? Start with σy τy |T3 i = √1 σy τy [|uui − |ddi] = √y [i |dui + i |udi] =
2 2
√1 [i2 |ddi − i2 |uui] = √1 [|uui − |ddi] ⇒
2 2
hT3 |σy τy |T3 i = 1.

hT3 |σx τx |T3 i = −1


hT2 |σy τy |T2 i = −1
hT1 |σz τz |T1 i = −1. Otherwise all correlations are perfectly positive, +1.

Exercise 6.9: From Page 178-9 we have already learned that ~σ~τ |singi = −3 |singi
and −3 |singi = λ1 |singi ⇒ λ1 = −3.
√ √ √
√2~σ~τ |T1 i √= 2[− |udi − |dui + |dui + |udi + |dui + |udi] = 2[|dui + |udi] =
2 |T1 i = 2λ2 |T1 i ⇒ λ2 = 1.
√ √ √
√2~σ~τ |T2 i √= 2[|uui + |ddi + |ddi + |uui − |ddi − |uui] = 2[|uui + |ddi] =
2 |T2 i = 2λ3 |T2 i ⇒ λ3 = 1.
√ √ √
√2~σ~τ |T3 i √= 2[|uui − |ddi + |ddi − |uui − |ddi + |uui] = 2[|uui − |ddi] =
2 |T3 i = 2λ4 |T3 i ⇒ λ4 = 1.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 20

Exercise 6.10: The eigenvectors of this Hamiltonian are as in Exercise 6.9:


|singi , |T1 i , |T2 i , |T3 i, the triplets. The possible energies therefore are the four
eigenvalues -3, 1, 1 and 1, or -3 or 1 times ω2 .

As in Section 4.13, let’s do the recipe for the Schrodinger ket. We have in
hand already Steps 1-3.

For |ψ(0)i = |uui , α1 (0) = hsing|uui = √12 (hud| − hdu|) |uui = 0;


α2 (0) = hT1 |uui = √12 (hud| + hdu|) |uui = 0;
α3 (0) = hT2 |uui = √12 (huu| + hdd|) |uui = √12 and
α4 (0) = hT3 |uui = √12 (huu| − hdd|) |uui = √12 .
i ω i ω iωt
Step 7: |ψ(t)i = √1 e− } × 2 ×t |T2 i + √1 e− } × 2 ×t |T3 i = √1 e− 2} [|T2 i + |T3 i] =
2 2 2
iωt iωt iωt
√1 e− 2} [ √1 {|uui + |ddi + |uui − |ddi}] = 12 e− 2} × 2 |uui = e− 2} |uui.
2 2

For |ψ(0)i = |udi , α1 (0) = hsing|udi = √12 (hud| − hdu|) |udi = √1 ;


2
α2 (0) = hT1 |udi = √12 (hud| + hdu|) |udi = √12 ;
α3 (0) = hT2 |udi = √12 (huu| + hdd|) |udi = 0 and
α4 (0) = hT3 |udi = √12 (huu| − hdd|) |udi = 0.
i 3ω i ω
Step 7: |ψ(t)i = √1 e− } ×− 2 ×t |singi + √1 e− } × 2 ×t |T1 i =
2 2

1 − iωt 3iωt iωt 3iωt


2 [e
2} +e 2} ] |udi + 12 [e− 2} − e 2} ] |dui

For |ψ(0)i = |dui , α1 (0) = hsing|dui = − √12 ;


α2 (0) = hT1 |dui = √12 ;
α3 (0) = α4 (0) = 0.
i 3ω i ω
Step 7: |ψ(t)i = − √12 e− } ×− 2 ×t |singi + √12 e− } × 2 ×t |T1 i =

1 − iωt 3iωt iωt 3iωt


2 [e
2} −e 2} ] |udi + 12 [e− 2} + e 2} ] |dui

For |ψ(0)i = |ddi , α1 (0) = hsing|ddi = α2 (0) = hT1 |ddi = 0;


α3 (0) = hT2 |ddi = √12 ; α4 (0) = − √12 .
iωt iωt
Step 7: |ψ(t)i = √1 √1 e− 2} [|uui + |ddi − |uui + |ddi] = e− 2} |ddi.
2 2

Exercises 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3: These are straightforward, but tedious and I cannot easily
transcribe my work into this document. Other answers on the internet duplicate my
own efforts. Exercise 7.4: written into my copy.
Page 195: Could have defined notation better. Surely, |ii is the column vector
of zeroes except for 1 in the ith postion.

Page 204: To make Equation 7.18 a little clearer, let’s take an example. Let
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 21

 
    1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
L = σz ⊗ I = ⊗ =  ⇒ Lud,ud = 1 = Luu δdd ,
0 −1 0 1 0 0 −1 0
0 0 0 −1
where Luu is element {1,1} of σz .

As the last paragraph admits at the end on Page 204, ”the same symbol L refers to
two different matrices.” This has to be some of the worst notation ever.

Exercises 7.4 through 7.7 are written into my copy.


Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 22

Exercise 7.8:

|ψ1 i ⇒ ψ(u, u) = ψ(u, d) = ψ(d, u) = ψ(d, d) = 12 .

ρuu,A = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) = 21 ;

ρud,A = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(d, d) = 21 ;

ρdu,A = ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(u, d) = 21 ;

ρdd,A = ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 1


2

ρuu,B = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, u) = 12 ;

ρud,B = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, d) + ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, d) = 21 ;

ρdu,B = ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, u) = 21 ;

ρdd,B = ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 1


2

 
1/2 1/2
ρA = ρB = ⇒ Tr ρ = 1;
1/2 1/2
    
2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2
ρ = = ⇒ Tr ρ2 = 1. A pure state is
1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2
|ψ1 i.


|ψ2 i ⇒ ψ(u, u) = ψ(d, d) = 1/ 2; ψ(d, u) = ψ(u, d) = 0.

ρuu,A = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) = 1/2;

ρud,A = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(d, d) = 0;

ρdu,A = ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(u, d) = 0;

ρdd,A = ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 1/2

ρuu,B = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, u) = 1/2;

ρud,B = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, d) + ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, d) = 0;

ρdu,B = ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, u) = 0;

ρdd,B = ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 1/2


Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 23

Exercise 7.8 continued:


 
1/2 0
ρA = ρB = ⇒ Tr ρ = 1;
0 1/2
    
2 1/2 0 1/2 0 1/4 0
ρ = = ⇒ Tr ρ2 = 1/2. A mixed state is
0 1/2 0 1/2 0 1/4
|ψ2 i. In fact, it is one of the triplet states on Page 166.

|ψ3 i ⇒ ψ(u, u) = 35 ; ψ(u, d) = 45 ; ψ(d, u) = ψ(d, d) = 0.

ρuu,A = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) = 9


25 + 16
25 = 1;

ρud,A = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(d, d) = 0;

ρdu,A = ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(u, d) = 0;

ρdd,A = ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 0

ρuu,B = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, u) = 9


25 ;

ρud,B = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, d) + ψ ∗ (d, u)ψ(d, d) = 12


25 ;

ρdu,B = ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, u) = 12


25 ;

ρdd,B = ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) + ψ ∗ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 16


25

 
1 0
ρA = ⇒ Tr ρ = 1 and Tr ρ2 = 1;
0 0
 9 12   
1 225 300
ρB = 2512
25
16 ⇒ Tr ρ = 1 and ρ2B = 252 ⇒ Tr ρ = 1 and Tr ρ2 = 1.
25 25 300 400
This is a pure state.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 24

Exercise 7.9:

From Page 164, Equation 6.5 we have hAi = αu∗ Auu αu + αu∗ Aud αd + αd∗ Adu αu + αd∗ Add αd
and hBi = βu∗ Buu βu + βu∗ Bud βd + βd∗ Bdu βu + βd∗ Bdd βd . From the definition of the product
state we can write

hABi = αu∗ βu∗ Auu Buu αu βu + αu∗ βd∗ Aud Bud αu βd + αd∗ βu∗ Adu Bdu αd βu + αd∗ βd∗ Add Bdd αd βd

since hab|a0 b0 i = 1 6=P0 iff. ab 6= a0 b0 . And from the definition of hAi and hBi above we know
hAihBi = hABi + a,b,a0 ,b0 αa∗0 βb∗0 Aa0 b0 Bab αa βb , a0 6= a, b0 6= b. But since A is an Alice
operator and B is a Bob operator, Aa0 b0 Bab has to be a zero-operator(matrix) since Aa0 b0
opertates only on |a0 b0 i and Bab operates only on |abi. It follows that hAihBi = hABi.

Pages 217-18: Can the authors not say what the density matrix is or derive it
for the singlet state? Looks like they delay all this for Exercise 7.12. Ok.

Exercise 7.10:

Given, |ψi = αu |u, bi + αd |d, bi, the exercise is the same as Exercise 7.4.

hu, b|ψi = αu = ψ(u, b); hd, b|ψi = αd = ψ(d, b); ψ ∗ (u, b) = hψ|u, bi  = αu∗ ;
α α∗ αu αd∗
ψ ∗ (d, b) = hψ|d, bi = αd∗ . Alice’s density matrix for state |ψi is ρz = u u∗ ⇒
αd αu αd αd∗
{αu αu∗ }2 + αu αd∗ αd αu∗
 

Tr ρ = αu αu∗ + αd αd∗ = 1 and ρ2 = ⇒
∼ {αd αd∗ }2 + αu αd∗ αd αu∗
Tr ρ2 = {αu αu∗ }2 + 2αu αd∗ αd αu∗ + {αd αd∗ }2 = {αu αu∗ + αd αd∗ }2 = 1. |ψi passes the
trace test for a completely unentangled state.

Exercise 7.11:
√ √ √ √
Given, |ψi = 0.6 |udi − 0.4 |dui, σz |ψi = 0.6 |udi + 0.4 |dui, referring to Ta-
ble 1, Page 350.
√ √
It follows that ψ(u, u) = ψ(d, d) = 0 and ψ(u, d) =  0.6 and ψ(d, u) = 0.4.
ρuu ρud
Alice’s density matrix for σz |ψi is therefore ρz = where ρuu =
ρdu ρdd
ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(u, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(u, d) = 0.6; ρud = ψ ∗ (u, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ ∗ (u, d)ψ(d, d) = 0.0;
ρdu = ψ ∗(d, u)ψ(u, ∗ ∗ ∗
 u) + ψ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 0.0; ρuu = ψ (d, u)ψ(d, u) + ψ (d, d)ψ(d, d) = 0.4.
0.6 0.0
⇒ ρz = , which we note is the same as Alice’s density matrix ρ for state |ψi.
0.0 0.4
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 25

Exercise 7.12:

State-Vector Rap Sheet 1: Everything is definitional down to the Density Matrix


and the authors derive that on Pages 215-16. The wave function factorises, as we know,
since the state-vector is totally unentangled. And the expectation values for both Alice
and Bob sum to one given the spin-polarisation principle, Page 172. Given that the wave
functions factorise, correlation of Alice and Bob operators along any axis is zero.

State-Vector Rap Sheet 2: Everything is definitional down to the Density Matrix.


We know from Page 217 we are looking for a solution matrix that is proportional to the
unit matrix and all eigenvalues are equal to the inverse of (one over the) the dimension of
the basis vector space.

0
   
0 0 0 0
 √1  h i 0 1
− 12 0
2 √1 − √12
− √1  0
|ψi hψ| =  0 =  2  = ρ. The two eigenvec-
2
2 0 − 21 1
2 0
0 0 0 0
0   
0 0
 1 −1
tors are clearly    and the unique nonzero eigenvalue is 1 , as predicted; one
−1 and

 1 2

0 0
over the dimension of the basis vector space. The other eigenvalue is zero. Tr ρ = 1 and
ρ2 = ρ s.t. Tr ρ2 = 1.
1 
1 0
For Alice, ρuu = = ρdd and ρud = 0 = ρdu ⇒ ρA = 2 ⇒ Tr ρA = 1, but
2 0 21
Tr ρ2A = 12 . The expectation values are all derived on Pages 174 and 177-179. In addition,
Exercise 6.6 establishes that hσa τb i = 0, ∀ a 6= b.

State-Vector Rap Sheet 3: Everything is definitional down to the Density Matrix.


   
√ 0 0 0 √ 0 0
 √ √
√0.6 √ 0.6 − 0.24 0 = ρ. The
  0 
|ψi hψ| =  − 0.4 0 0.6 − 0.4 0 =  0 − 0.24 0.4 0
0 0 0 0 0
   
√ 0 √ 0
0.6 − 0.6 √ √


two eigenvectors are   √  and 
  with respective eigenvalues 0.6 and 0.4,
− 0, 4 0.4
0 0
which clearly do not add up to 1. Tr ρ = 1 and ρ2 = ρ s.t. Tr ρ2 = 1. At  the very end
0.6 0.0
of Exercise 7.11 we noted that Alice’s density matrix for |ψi was , which makes
0.0 0.4
ρ2A 6= ρA ; Tr ρA = 1, but Tr ρ2A = 0.52. The wave function will not factorise since we can
see the system is entangled.
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 26

Exercise 7.12 continued:

Using Table 1 on Page 350, hσz i = hψ|σz |ψi = 0.6 hud|udi − 0.4 hdu|dui = 0.2;

hσx i = hψ|σx |ψi = 0.6 hud|ddi − 0.4 hdu|uui = 0.0;

hσy i = hψ|σy |ψi = 0.6i hud|ddi + 0.4i hdu|uui = 0.0;

hτz i = hψ|τz |ψi = −0.6 hud|udi + 0.4 hdu|dui = −0.2;

hτx i = hψ|τx |ψi = 0.6 hud|uui + 0.4 hdu|ddi = 0.0;

hτy i = hψ|τy |ψi = −0.6i hud|uui + 0.4i hdu|ddi = 0.0.

Following methods from Pages 177-179 we find:


√ √ √ √
|N√singi = √ 0.6 |udi − 0.4 |dui ⇒ τz σz |N singi = τz [ 0.6 |udi + 0.4 |dui] =
− 0.6 |udi + 0.4 |dui = − |N singi ⇒ hτz σz i = hN sing|τz σz |N singi = −1.
√ √ √ √
|N singi = √ 0.6 |udi − 0.4 |dui ⇒ τx σx |N singi = τx [ 0.6 |ddi − 0.4 |uui] =

0.6 |dui − 0.4 |udi.
 √ 
√0.6
 
Note hN sing| = hud| hdu| ⇒ hτx σx i = hN sing|τx σx |N singi =
− 0.4
√ √ √ √ √
− 0.4 0.6 hud|udi − 0.4 0.6 hdu|dui = −2 0.24. The correlation follows directly.
√ √
What about hτy σy i? τy σy |N singi = τz [ 0.6i |ddi + 0.4i |uui] =
√ √ √ √
− 0.6i2 |dui + 0.4i2 |udi = − 0.4 |udi + 0.6√ |dui. So, note that τy σy |N singi =
τx σx |N singi. It follows that hτy σy i = hτx σx i = −2 0.24.

Exercise 8.1 quite obvious.

Top Page 268: {x, p} = 1 and not {X, P } = 1?

!Page 275, Equation 9.2. Hold on! Isn’t Eq. 9.2 E = mc2 ? Authors write,
“This example is rarely written down, though it turns out to be instructive.”
To say the least!

2 ∂ 2 e ipx 2 ∂( ip ipx
} e } )
Exercise 9.1. Obvious, but if calculus is rusty, try − 2m
}
∂x2
}
= − 2m
}
∂x =
∂e ipx 2 2 2 2
p2
− ip}
2m ∂x
}
= − i2m
p
e ipx
} = Ee ipx
} ⇒E= − i2m
p
= 2m .
Susskind Quantum Mechanics Study Notes by GS Shea Page 27

Page 287: To get Equation 9.9, we start with Equation 9.8 and note that the
“quantum mechanical particle” the authors refer to is the nonrelativistic free
particle of Section 9.2. Its Hamiltonian is just kinetic energy, H = P 2 /2m as in
the top of Page 281.

From the top of Page 287, Equation 4.17, dhLidt = i


} h[H, L]i, is replaced by
dhXi i 2
dt = } h[P /2m, X]i, which is Equation 9.9.

To get Equation 9.10, [P 2 , X] = P 2 X −XP 2 = P 2 X{−P XP +P XP }−XP 2 =


P (P X − XP ) + (P X − XP )P = P [P, X] + [P, X]P .
d d
Exercise 9.3. Expand the rhs of Equation (9.17): V (x)(−i} dx )ψ(x) − (−i} dx )V (x)ψ(x) =
d d d (( dV (x) dψ(x)

V (x)(−i} dx )ψ(x) + i}( dx )V (x)ψ(x) = ( ((( dx )ψ(x) + i}ψ(x) dx + 
V (x)(−i}( ( i}V(x)
 dx =
i}ψ(x) dVdx(x) = [V (x), P ]ψ(x) ⇒ i} dVdx(x) = [V (x), P ].