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Chapter 17 Lecture PowerPoint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or

Chapter 17 Lecture PowerPoint

Chapter 17 Lecture PowerPoint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Paris Junior College

2402

Anatomy and Physiology II Chapter 17

Susan Gossett sgossett@parisjc.edu Department of Biology

Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology

Twelfth Edition

Shier Butler Lewis

Chapter

17

Digestive System

 Butler  Lewis Chapter 17 Digestive System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission

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3

17.1: Introduction

Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb

Organs of the digestive system carry out these processes, as well as ingestion, propulsion, absorption and defecation

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal extending from the mouth to the anus, plus accessory organs that empty into the alimentary canal

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Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ACCESSORY ORGANS Salivary glands Secrete saliva, which
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ACCESSORY ORGANS Salivary glands Secrete saliva, which

ACCESSORY ORGANS

Salivary glands

Secrete saliva, which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates

Liver

Produces bile, which emulsifies fat

Gallbladder

Stores bile and introduces it into small intestine

Pancreas

Produces and secretes pancreatic juice, containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions, into small intestine

ALIMENTARY CANAL

Mouth

Mechanical breakdown of food; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates

Pharynx

Connects mouth with esophagus

Esophagus

Peristalsis pushes food to stomach

Stomach

Secretes acid and enzymes; mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins

Small intestine

Mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice; final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules; main site of nutrient absorption

Large intestine

Absorbs water and electrolytes to form feces

Rectum

Regulates elimination of feces

Anus

5

17.2: General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal

The alimentary canal is a muscular tube about 8 meters long

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.5 meter (from tongue to duodenum)

5.5 – 6.0 meters (small intestine)

1.5 meters

(large intestine)

Tongue Esophagus Stomach 1.0m Duodenum Jejunum (2.2 – 2.4 m) Ileum (3.3 – 3.6 m)
Tongue
Esophagus
Stomach
1.0m
Duodenum
Jejunum
(2.2 – 2.4 m)
Ileum
(3.3 – 3.6 m)
Appendix
Cecum
Large
intestine
Anus

Gallbladder

Pancreas

6

Structure of the Wall

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Artery

Vein

Mesentery

required for reproduction or display. Artery Vein Mesentery Serosa Circular fold Mucosa Submucosa Mucosa Mucous
required for reproduction or display. Artery Vein Mesentery Serosa Circular fold Mucosa Submucosa Mucosa Mucous
Serosa Circular fold Mucosa Submucosa Mucosa Mucous gland in submucosa Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle
Serosa
Circular fold
Mucosa
Submucosa
Mucosa
Mucous gland in submucosa
Circular muscle
Longitudinal muscle

layer

Microvilli

Goblet cell

Nucleus

Longitudinal muscle Circular muscle

Epithelium

Lacteal

Villi

Simple columnar epithelium

Capillaries

Lacteal Villi Simple columnar epithelium Capillaries Lacteal Lymph nodule Intestinal gland Nerve plexuses Serosa

Lacteal

Lymph nodule

Intestinal gland

Nerve

plexuses

Serosa

Muscular

7

8

8

Movements of the Tube

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(a) Digesting material (b) Movement of contents
(a)
Digesting material
(b)
Movement of contents
required for reproduction or display. (a) Digesting material (b) Movement of contents Wave of contraction (c)

Wave of

contraction

(c)

9

Innervation of the Tube

Branches of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system extensively innervate the alimentary canal, including:

Submucosal plexus – controls secretions

My enteric plexus – controls gastrointestinal motility

Remember:

Parasympathetic impulses – increase activities of digestive system

Sympathetic impulses – inhibit certain digestive actions

17.3: Mouth

The mouth:

Ingests food

Mechanically breaks up

solid particles using saliva

Prepares food for chemical digestion

This action is called mastication

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Lip

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lip Hard palate Soft palate Uvula Palatine tonsils Tongue

Hard palate

Soft palate

Uvula

Palatine

tonsils

Tongue

for reproduction or display. Lip Hard palate Soft palate Uvula Palatine tonsils Tongue Lingual frenulum Vestibule

Lingual frenulum

Vestibule

Lip

Cheeks and Lips

The cheeks form the lateral walls of the mouth The lips are highly mobile structures that surround the mouth opening

cheeks form the lateral walls of the mouth • The lips are highly mobile structures that

12

Tongue

The tongue is a thick, muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth and nearly fills the oral cavity when the mouth is closed

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Root

Body

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Root Body Epiglottis Lingual tonsils Palatine tonsil Papillae 13

Epiglottis

Lingual tonsils

Palatine tonsil

Papillae

13

Palate

The palate forms the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a hard anterior part and a soft posterior part

Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Hard palate Vestibule Tongue Tooth Lip Hyoid bone Larynx
Frontal sinus
Nasal cavity
Hard palate
Vestibule
Tongue
Tooth
Lip
Hyoid bone
Larynx

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Sphenoidal sinus

Pharyngeal tonsil

Opening of auditory tube Soft palate Nasopharynx Oral cavity Uvula Palatine tonsil

Oropharynx

Lingual tonsil

Epiglottis

Laryngopharynx

Esophagus

Trachea

Teeth

The teeth are the

hardest structures in the body

There are primary (deciduous) teeth numbering 20

There are secondary (permanent) teeth numbering 32

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Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray,

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer

15

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Incisors Canine (cuspid)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Incisors Canine (cuspid) Premolars (bicuspids) Molars Molars Premolars (bicuspids) Canine (cuspid) Incisors
Incisors
Canine (cuspid)
Premolars
(bicuspids)
Molars
Molars
Premolars
(bicuspids)
Canine (cuspid)
Incisors
Second
premolars
Central
Lateral
Canines
First

(a)

(b)

incisors

incisors

b: © Nick Koudis/Getty Images

premolars

16

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Enamel Dentin Pulp cavity Root Crown Gingiva Alveolar

Enamel

Dentin

Pulp

cavity

Root

Crown

Gingiva

Alveolar

process

Root canal

Periodontal

ligament

Cementum

17

17.1 Clinical Application

Dental Caries

17.4: Salivary Glands

Salivary glands secrete saliva

This begins the digestion of carbohydrates

There are three pairs of major salivary glands, including:

Parotid glands

Submandibular glands

Sublingual glands

There are many minor glands scattered throughout the mucosa of the tongue, palate, and cheeks

Salivary Secretions

The different salivary glands have varying proportions of

two types of secretory cells, serous cells and mucous cells

Serous cells produce a watery fluid with a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase

Mucous cells secrete mucous

Parotid glands

Secrete clear watery, serous fluid

Rich in salivary amylase

Submandibular glands

Secrete primarily serous fluid and some mucus

Sublingual glands

Secrete primarily mucus

Major Salivary Glands

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parotid gland Masseter muscle Tongue Mandible (cut)

Parotid

gland

Masseter

muscle

Tongue

Mandible (cut) Sublingual gland Submandibular duct

Submandibular

gland

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Serous Mucous Serous cell Duct Mucous cell Duct Serous cell cell cell (a) (b) (c)
Serous
Mucous
Serous cell
Duct
Mucous cell
Duct
Serous cell
cell
cell
(a)
(b)
(c)
Duct
a: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer; figure b: © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.; figure c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al

21

17.5: Pharynx and Esophagus

The pharynx is a cavity posterior to the mouth from which the tubular esophagus leads to the stomach

Both the pharynx and esophagus muscular walls function in swallowing

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Skull

Mandible

Superior

constrictor

muscles

Middle

constrictor

muscles

Inferior

constrictor

muscles

Tongue

Epiglottis

Larynx

Esophagus

22

Structure of the Pharynx

The pharynx can be divided into the following parts:

Nasopharynx

Oropharynx

Laryngopharynx

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Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nasopharynx with mucosa removed to show muscles Hard palate
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nasopharynx with mucosa removed to show muscles Hard palate

Nasopharynx with mucosa removed to show muscles

Hard

palate

Food

mass

Tongue

Pharyngeal

constrictor

muscles:

Superior

Middle

Inferior

Epiglottis

Trachea

23

(a) The tongue forces food into the pharynx.

Swallowing Mechanism

Swallowing can be divided into three stages:

Voluntary stage where saliva is mixed with chewed food

Swallowing begins and the swallowing reflex is triggered

Peristalsis transports food in the esophagus to the stomach

Specifically:

The palate and uvula raise

The hyoid bone and larynx elevate

The epiglottis closes off top of the trachea

The longitudinal muscles of pharynx contract

The inferior constrictor muscles relax and the esophagus opens

The peristaltic waves pushes food through the pharynx

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Nasopharynx with mucosa removed to show muscles

Hard palate Soft palate Food mass Food mass Tongue Epiglottis Epiglottis Inferior Hyoid bone pharyngeal
Hard
palate
Soft palate
Food
mass
Food
mass
Tongue
Epiglottis
Epiglottis
Inferior
Hyoid bone
pharyngeal
constrictor
Larynx
Trachea
muscles
Esophagus
Esophagus
Peristaltic wave
Tongue
Food mass
Esophagus
Stomach

The tongue forces food into the pharynx.

Esophagus Stomach The tongue forces food into the pharynx. Pharyngeal constrictor muscles: Superior Middle Inferior (a)

Pharyngeal

constrictor

muscles:

Superior

Middle

Inferior

(a)

(b) The soft palate, hyoid bone, and larynx are raised, the tongue is pressed against the palate, the epiglottis closes, and the inferior constrictor muscles relax so that the esophagus opens.

Soft

palate

Superior

pharyngeal

constrictor

muscles

Food

mass

Larynx

(c) Superior constrictor muscles contract and force food into the esophagus.

(d) Peristaltic waves move food through the esophagus to the stomach.

Esophagus

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Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Esophagus Diaphragm Esophageal hiatus Stomach Copyright ©

Esophagus

Diaphragm

Esophageal

hiatus

Stomach

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Lumen Mucosa Submucosa Muscular layer
Lumen
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscular
layer

© Ed Reschke

26

17.6: Stomach

The stomach is a J-shaped, pouch-like organ, about 25-30 centimeters long

It hangs inferior to the diaphragm in the upper-left portion of the abdominal cavity

The stomach has two layers of smooth muscle

An inner circular layer

An outer longitudinal layer

(There may be a third inner layer of oblique fibers.)

Parts of the Stomach

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Esophagus

Lower esophageal sphincter Esophagus Cardia Pyloric sphincter Lesser curvature Duodenum Pyloric opening Pyloric
Lower esophageal
sphincter
Esophagus
Cardia
Pyloric
sphincter
Lesser
curvature
Duodenum
Pyloric opening
Pyloric
canal
Pylorus
Pyloric
antrum
Gastric folds
(rugae)
(b)
canal Pylorus Pyloric antrum Gastric folds (rugae) (b) Circular fibers Longitudinal fibers Esophagus Oblique fibers
canal Pylorus Pyloric antrum Gastric folds (rugae) (b) Circular fibers Longitudinal fibers Esophagus Oblique fibers

Circular

fibers

Pyloric antrum Gastric folds (rugae) (b) Circular fibers Longitudinal fibers Esophagus Oblique fibers Longitudinal

Longitudinal

fibers

Esophagus

Oblique

fibers

Longitudinal

fibers

(a)

Fundus

Body

Greater

curvature

28

Parts of the Stomach

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyloric sphincter Duodenum Pylorus Fundus Gastric folds Body

Pyloric sphincter

required for reproduction or display. Pyloric sphincter Duodenum Pylorus Fundus Gastric folds Body © Dr. Kent

Duodenum

Pylorus

reproduction or display. Pyloric sphincter Duodenum Pylorus Fundus Gastric folds Body © Dr. Kent M. Van

Fundus

Gastric folds

Body

Gastric Secretions

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

Pepsinogen

From the chief cells

Inactive form of pepsin

Pepsin

From pepsinogen in the presence of hydrochloric acid

Is a protein splitting enzyme

Hydrochloric acid

From the parietal cells

Needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin

Mucus

From the goblet cells and the mucous glands

Protective to stomach wall

Intrinsic factor

From the parietal cells

Is required for vitamin B 12 absorption

30

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Portion of a gastric gland Gastric pits Gastric pit Mucous cell Mucosa Submucosa Parietal cell
Portion of
a gastric gland
Gastric pits
Gastric pit
Mucous cell
Mucosa
Submucosa
Parietal cell
Portion of a
gastric gland
Muscle
Chief cell
layers
Serosa
(b)

Mucous cell

Gastric gland

Parietal cell

Chief cell

(a)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

32

Regulation of Gastric Secretions

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Release into 1 Parasympathetic preganglionic nerve fiber (in vagus nerve) bloodstream Stimulation 4 2
Release into
1 Parasympathetic
preganglionic
nerve fiber (in
vagus nerve)
bloodstream
Stimulation
4
2 Parasympathetic
postganglionic
impulses stimulate
the release of
gastric juice from
gastric glands
Bloodstream
3
Impulses
stimulate
the release

Gastrin stimulates gastric glands to release more gastric juice

of gastrin

33

34

34

Gastric Absorption

Gastric enzymes begin breaking down proteins, but the

stomach is not well-adapted to absorb digestive products

Why not ???

The stomach does absorb:

Some water

Certain salts

Certain lipid-soluble drugs

Alcohol

Mixing and Emptying Actions

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Stomach Food entering Duodenum Chyme
Stomach
Food
entering
Duodenum
Chyme

Pyloric sphincter contracted

Pyloric sphincter relaxed

(a)

(b)

(c)

36

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

4 Nerve impulses inhibit peristalsis in stomach wall From CNS nerve To CNS 1 Duodenum
4 Nerve impulses
inhibit peristalsis
in stomach wall
From CNS
nerve
To CNS
1
Duodenum
fills with chyme
3 Sensory nerve
impulses travel
to central
nervous system
2

Sensory stretch receptors are stimulated

Vagus

37

17.2 Clinical Application

Oh, My Aching Stomach!

17.7: Pancreas

The pancreas has a dual function as both an endocrine gland and exocrine gland The exocrine function is to secrete digestive juice called pancreatic juice

Structure of the Pancreas

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Right hepatic duct Cystic duct Left hepatic duct Common hepatic duct Bile duct Gallbladder Pancreatic
Right hepatic duct
Cystic duct
Left hepatic duct
Common hepatic duct
Bile duct
Gallbladder
Pancreatic duct
Pyloric sphincter
Minor duodenal
papilla
Duodenum
Tail of pancreas
Major duodenal
papilla
Bile duct
Pancreatic duct
Sphincter muscles
Head of pancreas
Major duodenal papilla
Intestinal lumen

Hepatopancreatic

ampulla

Hepatopancreatic

sphincter

40

Pancreatic Juice

Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids, and include:

Pancreatic amylase – splits glycogen into disaccharides

Pancreatic lipase – breaks down triglycerides

Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and carboxypeptidase Digest proteins

Nucleases – digest nucleic acids

Bicarbonate ions – make pancreatic juice alkaline

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Acidic chyme 1
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Acidic chyme
1
enters
duodenum
4 Pancreatic juice rich in
bicarbonate ions passes down
pancreatic ducts to the
duodenum
5 Bicarbonate ions
neutralize acidic
chyme
3 Secretin stimulates
pancreas to secrete
bicarbonate ions
2 Intestinal mucosa
releases secretin
into bloodstream
Bloodstream
Hormonal signals
released into bloodstream
Stimulation of effector organ

42

17.8: Liver

The liver is the largest internal organ It is located in the upper-right abdominal quadrant just beneath the diaphragm

Liver Structure

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Inferior vena cava

Coronary ligament

or display. Inferior vena cava Coronary ligament Gallbladder Quadrate lobe Left lobe Cystic duct Right lobe

Gallbladder

or display. Inferior vena cava Coronary ligament Gallbladder Quadrate lobe Left lobe Cystic duct Right lobe
or display. Inferior vena cava Coronary ligament Gallbladder Quadrate lobe Left lobe Cystic duct Right lobe

Quadrate lobe

Left lobe

Cystic duct

Right lobe Left lobe Round ligament Gallbladder Inferior vena cava
Right lobe
Left lobe
Round
ligament
Gallbladder
Inferior vena cava

Falciform

ligament

ligament Gallbladder Inferior vena cava Falciform ligament Hepatic duct Hepatic artery Hepatic portal vein Right lobe

Hepatic duct

Hepatic artery

Hepatic portal

vein

Right lobe

Bile duct

Caudate lobe

(a)

(b)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Bile duct Branch of hepatic portal vein Branch of hepatic artery Plates of liver cells
Bile duct
Branch of hepatic portal vein
Branch of hepatic artery
Plates of liver cells
Central vein
Branch of
hepatic portal vein
Bile canaliculi
Bile ductule
Hepatic
sinusoids
Bile duct
(a)
Branches of
hepatic artery
Sinusoids
(b)

(c)

c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

45

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Bile duct Bile canaliculi Bile ductule Kupffer cell Hepatic cells
Bile duct
Bile canaliculi
Bile ductule
Kupffer cell
Hepatic cells

Branch

of hepatic

portal vein

Branch

of hepatic

artery

cells Branch of hepatic portal vein Branch of hepatic artery Blood flow Hepatic Central vein sinusoids

Blood flow

Hepatic

Central vein

sinusoids

(blood flow out of liver)

Liver Functions

The liver carries on many important metabolic activities, including:

Produces glycogen from glucose

Breaks down glycogen into glucose

Converts non-carbohydrates to glucose

Oxidizes fatty acids

Synthesizes lipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol

Converts carbohydrates and proteins into fats

Deaminating amino acids

Forms urea

Synthesizes plasma proteins

Converts some amino acids to other amino acids

Stores glycogen, iron, and vitamins A, D, and B 12

Phagocytosis of worn out RBCs and foreign substances

Removes toxins such as alcohol and certain drugs from the blood

48

48

17.1 From Science to Technology

Replacing the Liver

Composition of Bile

Bile is a yellowish-green liquid that hepatic cells continuously secrete

Bile contains:

Water

Bile salts:

Emulsify fats Help absorb fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins

Bile pigments

Cholesterol

Electrolytes

17.3 Clinical Application

Hepatitis

Gallbladder

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Gallbladder Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 52

52

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Carroll Weiss/Camera M.D. Studios 53

© Carroll Weiss/Camera M.D. Studios

Regulation of Bile Release

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Cystic duct Common hepatic duct Gallbladder 3 CCK stimulates muscular layer of gallbladder wall to
Cystic duct
Common
hepatic duct
Gallbladder
3 CCK stimulates muscular layer
of gallbladder wall to contract
Bile duct
1 Chyme with
4
fat enters
duodenum
5
Pancreatic
duct
2 Cells from the
intestinal mucosa
secrete the hormone
cholecystokinin (CCK)
into the bloodstream
Duodenum
Hormonal
signals released
into bloodstream
Stimulation of
Bloodstream
effector organ

Bile passes down the cystic duct and bile duct to duodenum

Hepatopancreatic sphincter relaxes and bile enters duodenum

54

55

Functions of Bile Salts

Bile salts aid digestive enzymes

They reduce surface tension and break fat globules into droplets (like soap or detergent) and this is called emulsification

They enhance absorption of fatty acids and cholesterol

They help absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K

Bile salts are recycled as they return to the liver

17.4 Clinical Application

Gallbladder Disease

17.9: Small Intestine

The small intestine is a tubular organ that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the beginning of the large intestine

It completes digestion of the nutrients in chyme, absorbs

products of digestion, and transports the remaining residue to the large intestine

It consists of three parts that include:

Duodenum

Jejunum

Ileum

Parts of the Small Intestine

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Stomach Jejunum
Stomach
Jejunum
required for reproduction or display. Stomach Jejunum Duodenum Ascending colon Cecum Mesentery Appendix Ileum 59

Duodenum

Ascending colon

Cecum

Mesentery

Appendix

Ileum

59

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stomach Small intestine © Armed Forces Institute of

Stomach

Small intestine

© Armed Forces Institute of Pathology

60

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Liver Stomach Gallbladder Transverse colon underneath Greater omentum
Liver
Stomach
Gallbladder
Transverse colon
underneath
Greater
omentum

61

Structure of the

Small Intestinal Wall

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Villus

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Villus Simple columnar epithelium Lacteal Blood capillary network
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Villus Simple columnar epithelium Lacteal Blood capillary network
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Villus Simple columnar epithelium Lacteal Blood capillary network

Simple columnar epithelium

Lacteal

Blood capillary network

Goblet cells

Intestinal gland

Arteriole

Venule

Lymph vessel

Lumen

cells Intestinal gland Arteriole Venule Lymph vessel Lumen Villus Intestinal gland © The McGraw-Hill Companies,
cells Intestinal gland Arteriole Venule Lymph vessel Lumen Villus Intestinal gland © The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Villus

Intestinal

gland

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

62

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cytoplasm of epithelial cell Lumen Microvilli
Cytoplasm of
epithelial cell
Lumen
Microvilli
or display. Cytoplasm of epithelial cell Lumen Microvilli Microvilli Cell membrane Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus
or display. Cytoplasm of epithelial cell Lumen Microvilli Microvilli Cell membrane Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus

Microvilli

Cell membrane

Mitochondrion

Golgi apparatus

Nucleolus

Cell membrane Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Nucleolus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus (a) (b) b: © The

Rough

endoplasmic

Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Nucleolus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies,

reticulum

Nucleus

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

63

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

(a) Villi
(a)
Villi
Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) Villi (b) Plicae circulares Submucosa Circular muscle

(b)

Plicae

circulares

Submucosa

Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle

Serosa

display. (a) Villi (b) Plicae circulares Submucosa Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle Serosa Muscular layer 64

Muscular

layer

64

Secretions of the Small Intestine

In addition to mucous-secreting goblet cells, there are many specialized mucous-secreting glands (Brunner’s glands) that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus in response to certain stimuli Enzymes in the membranes of the microvilli include:

Peptidase – breaks down peptides into amino acids

Sucrase, maltase, lactase – break down disaccharides into monosaccharides

Lipase – breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol

Enterokinase – converts trypsinogen to trypsin

Somatostatin – hormone that inhibits acid secretion by stomach

Cholecystokinin – hormone that inhibits gastric glands, stimulates

pancreas to release enzymes in pancreatic juice, and stimulates the gallbladder to release bile

Secretin – stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice

Regulation of

Small Intestinal Secretions

Regulation of small intestine secretion occurs by:

Mucus secretion is stimulated by the presence of chyme in the small intestine

Distension of the intestinal wall activates nerve plexuses in the wall of the small intestine

Parasympathetic reflexes triggering the release of intestinal enzymes

67

67

Absorption of the Small Intestine

Villi increase the surface area for absorption

Small intestine absorption is so effective that very little reaches the organ’s distal end, noting that:

Monosaccharides and amino acids absorb:

Through facilitated diffusion and active transport

Absorbed into blood

Large proteins are broken down and absorbed into villi

Fatty acids and glycerol absorb by:

Several steps involved as noted

Absorbed into lymph and blood

Electrolytes and water absorb:

Through diffusion, osmosis, and active transport

Absorbed into blood

69

69

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O O O O H H H H H H H H Maltase H 2
O
O
O
O
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Maltase
H 2 O
O
OH
HO
OH
HO
Maltase

HO

Maltose

+

Water

Glucose

+

OH

Glucose

Disaccharide

Monosaccharides

H R O H R O H O H R O Dipeptidase H N C
H
R
O
H
R
O
H
O
H
R
O
Dipeptidase
H
N
C
C
N
C
C
OH
H
H
N
C
C
OH
H
N
C
C
OH
2 O
H
H
R
H
H
+ Water
Dipeptidase
Amino acid
+ Amino acid

Dipeptide (from protein digestion)

O H C C 17 H 35 C HO C H H OH C 17
O
H
C
C 17 H 35 C
HO
C
H
H
OH
C 17 H 35 COO
C
H
O
Lipase
C 17 H 35 COO
C
H
C
3H 2 O
HO
C
H
C 17 H 35 C
OH
H
C
C 17 H 35 COO
O
H
HO
C
H
C
C 17 H 35 C
OH
H
Fat
+
Water
Lipase
Fatty acids
+
Glycerol

70

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Fats collect in clusters encased in protein to form chylomicrons

3 Nucleus 4 2 Fatty acids are used to synthesize fats in endoplasmic reticulum Chylomicrons
3
Nucleus
4
2 Fatty acids are
used to synthesize
fats in endoplasmic
reticulum
Chylomicrons
5
1 Fatty acids
resulting from fat
digestion enter
epithelial cell
Fatty acids
Endoplasmic
reticulum
Epithelial
cell
Lacteal
Lumen of
intestine
reticulum Epithelial cell Lacteal Lumen of intestine To blood Chylomicrons leave epithelial cell and enter

To blood

Chylomicrons leave epithelial cell and enter lacteal

Lymph in lacteal transports chylomicrons away from intestine

Chylomicrons leave epithelial cell and enter lacteal Lymph in lacteal transports chylomicrons away from intestine Lymph

Lymph

71

Movements of the Small Intestine

The small intestine carries on mixing movements that include:

Peristalsis – pushing movements that propel chyme

Segmentation – ring-like contractions that can move chyme back and forth

17.10: Large Intestine

The large intestine is named because of its diameter It has five parts that include:

Cecum

Colon Ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid

Rectum

Anus

Parts of the Large Intestine

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Muscular layer

required for reproduction or display. Muscular layer Serous layer Epiploic appendage Ileum Rectum Anal canal
Serous layer Epiploic appendage Ileum Rectum Anal canal
Serous layer
Epiploic
appendage
Ileum
Rectum
Anal canal

Cecum

Appendix

Mucous membrane

Transverse colon

Hepatic flexure

Splenic

flexure

Tenia coli

Ascending colon

Descending colon

Ileocecal sphincter

Orifice of appendix

Haustra

Sigmoid colon

74

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Jim Wehtje/Getty Images

© Jim Wehtje/Getty Images

Structure of the

Large Intestinal Wall

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold Lumen Mucosa Submucosa Muscular

© Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold

Lumen

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscular layer Serosa

76

Functions of the Large Intestine

The large intestine:

Has little or no digestive function

Absorbs water and electrolytes

Secretes mucus

Houses intestinal flora

Forms feces

Carries out defecation

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lumen of large intestine Goblet cells © Ed

Lumen of

large

intestine

Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lumen of large intestine Goblet cells © Ed

Goblet

cells

© Ed Reschke

Movements of the Large Intestine

Movements of the large intestine are similar to those of the small intestine

It is slower and less frequent than that of the small intestine

Movements include:

Mixing movements

Peristalsis

Mass movements usually follow meals

The defecation reflex relaxes the internal anal sphincter and then the external anal sphincter

Feces

Feces is composed of materials not digested or absorbed, and include:

Water

Electrolytes

Mucus

Bacteria

Bile pigments altered by bacteria provide the color

The pungent odor is produced by bacterial compounds including:

Phenol

Hydrogen sulfide

Indole

Skatole

Ammonia

79

17.5 Clinical Application

Disorders of the Large Intestine

17.11: Lifespan Changes

Changes to the digestive system are slow and slight, and eventually include:

Teeth may become sensitive

Gums may recede

Teeth may loosen, break or fall out

Heartburn may become more frequent

Constipation may become more frequent

Nutrient absorption decreases

Accessory organs age but typically not necessarily in ways that effect health

Important Points in Chapter 17:

Outcomes to be Assessed

17.1: Introduction

Describe the general functions of the digestive system.

Name the major organs of the digestive system.

17.2: General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal

Describe the structure of the wall of the alimentary canal.

Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are mixed and

moved.

17.3: Mouth

Describe the functions of the structures of the mouth.

Describe how different types of teeth are adapted for different

functions, and list the parts of the tooth.

82

Important Points in Chapter 17:

Outcomes to be Assessed

17.4-17.10: Salivary Glands – Large Intestine

Locate each of the organs and glands; then describe the general

function of each.

Identify the function of each enzyme secreted by the digestive organs

and glands.

Describe how digestive secretions are regulated.

Explain control of movement of material through the alimentary

canal.

Describe the mechanisms of swallowing, vomiting, and defecating.

Explain how the products of digestion are absorbed.

Important Points in Chapter 17:

Outcomes to be Assessed

17.11: Lifespan Changes Describe aging-related changes in the digestive system.

Quiz 17

Complete Quiz 17 now!

Read Chapter 18.