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You are on page 1of 84

In just a few steps, you'll be up and running with building formulas and functions in Excel, the

world's most powerful spreadsheet app.

Let's go >

Go back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To start the tour, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

same as

=A1+B1,

constants

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practice. Why?

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can't easily see

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Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide in Excel without using any built-in functions. You just need to use some basic opera

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EXTRA CREDIT:

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directly into

=SUM(A1:A10,C1:C10)

the formula. is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formul

Dive down for more detail

Previous

Next

More information on the web

More about formulas, cells, and ranges

Use Excel as a calculator

Overview of formulas in Excel

Excel is made up of individual cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows

Excel functions (by category)

are numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over 1 million rows and 16,000

columns, and you can put formulas in any of them.

Excel functions (alphabetical)

Free ExcelFormulas can contain cell references, ranges of cell references, operators, and

training online

constants. The following are all examples of formulas:

=A1+B1

=10*20

=SUM(A1:A10)

You'll notice that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is

a pre-built command that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way,

and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or

ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10,

and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the

Formulas tab.

and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or

ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10,

and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the

Formulas tab.

Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows

with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses.

You confirm a formula by pressing Enter. Once you do that the formula will calculate,

and the result will be displayed in the cell. To see the formula itself, you can look at

the formula bar beneath the Ribbon, or press F2 to enter Edit mode, where you'll see

the formula in the cell. Press Enter again to finalize the formula and calculate the

result.

Previous

cs:

Basics: doing math with Excel

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Add, Subtract, Excel and Divide in Excel without using any built-in functions. You just need to use some basic operators: +, -, *, /. A

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To Divide, select cell F6, type =C3/C4, then press Enter.

*20 is a formula, where 10 and 20 are constants, and the * sign is the operator.

M(A1:A10) is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula arguments, and A1:A1

M(A1:A10,C1:C10) is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula arguments, an

Dive down for more detail Next step

More about formulas, cells, and ranges

Excel as a calculator

rview of formulas in Excel

Excel is made up of individual cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows

el functions (by category)

are numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over 1 million rows and 16,000

columns, and you can put formulas in any of them.

el functions (alphabetical)

e ExcelFormulas can contain cell references, ranges of cell references, operators, and

training online

constants. The following are all examples of formulas: =A1+B1

=A1+B1 Cell

=10*20 reference

=SUM(A1:A10)

You'll notice that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is

a pre-built command that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way, Function

and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or

ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10,

and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the

Formulas tab.

=SUM(A1

and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or

ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10,

and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the

Formulas tab.

A range of cells has a

Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows ending cell. When you

with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses. formula, Excel will au

You confirm a formula by pressing Enter. Once you do that the formula will calculate,

and the result will be displayed in the cell. To see the formula itself, you can look at

the formula bar beneath the Ribbon, or press F2 to enter Edit mode, where you'll see

the formula in the cell. Press Enter again to finalize the formula and calculate the

Function

result.

Previous Next

=SUM(A1

Numbers to use: Operation: Formulas: Answers:

1 Addition (+) 3

2 Subtraction (-) -1

Multiplication (*) 2

Division (/) 0.5

Power (^) 1

ift+6. In cell F7, enter =C3^C4.

CHECK THIS OUT EXTRA CREDIT

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Change the numbers here, and power by using the carat

watch the formula results (^) symbol, like =C3^C4.

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s contain the formula arguments, and A1:A10,C1:C10 are the cell ranges for the function separated by a comma.

GOOD TO KNOW

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=SUM(A1:A10,C1:C10)

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EXTRA CREDIT

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a formula.

More information on the web

All about the3SUM function

Use AutoSum to sum numbers

All about the COUNT function

Free Excel training online

Back to top Dive down for more detail

Next step

Go to the Formulas tab and browse through the Function Library, where functions are

listed by category, like Text, Date & Time, etc. Insert Function will let you search for

functions by name, and launch a function wizard that can help you build your formula.

When you start typing a function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense,

which will list all of the functions starting with the letters you type. When you find the

one you want, press Tab, and Excel will automatically finish the function name and enter

the opening parenthesis for you. It will also display the optional and required

arguments.

Now let's look at the anatomy of a few functions. The SUM function is structured like

this:

If the SUM function could talk, it would say, "Return the sum of all the values in cells

D38 to D41, and all of column H".

Back to top

Go back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To proceed to the next step, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

Introduction to functions

oduction to functions

ctions give you the ability to do a variety of things, like perform mathematical operations, look up values, or even

w let's try AutoSum. Select the cell under the column for Meat (cell G7), then go to Formulas > AutoSum > select SUM. You'll see Excel auto

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1 Under the Amount column for Fruit (cell D7), enter =SUM(D3:D6), or type

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AutoSum feature has all of the most common functions.

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numbers

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e Excel training online

Dive down for more detail Next step

Go to the Formulas tab and browse through the Function Library, where functions are

listed by category, like Text, Date & Time, etc. Insert Function will let you search for

functions by name, and launch a function wizard that can help you build your formula.

When you start typing a function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense,

which will list all of the functions starting with the letters you type. When you find the

one you want, press Tab, and Excel will automatically finish the function name and enter

the opening parenthesis for you. It will also display the optional and required

arguments.

Now let's look at the anatomy of a few functions. The SUM function is structured like

this:

name. argument. It's arguments,

almost always separated by

required. commas (,).

The function The first Additional

name. argument. It's arguments,

almost always separated by

required. commas (,).

=SUM(D38:D41,H:H)

If the SUM function could talk, it would say, "Return the sum of all the values in cells

D38 to D41, and all of column H".

automatically update when Excel recalculates.

=TODAY()

All about the SUM function

back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To proceed to the next step, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

Fruit Amount Meat Amount

Apples 50 Beef 50

Oranges 20 Chicken 30

Bananas 60 Pork 10

Lemons 40 Fish 50

SUM > 170 SUM >

Bread 50 Bread 50

Donuts 100 Donuts 100

Cookies 40 Cookies 40

Cakes 50 Cakes 50

Pies 20 Pies 20

SUM > COUNT >

EXTRA CREDIT

Try the COUNT function using any

of the methods you've already

tried. The COUNT function counts

the number of cells in a range that

contain numbers.

Fruit Amount

Apples 50 CHECK THIS OUT

Select these cells. Then in the lower-right

Oranges 20 corner of the Excel window, look for this:

Bananas 60

Lemons 40

That's called the Status Bar, and it's just

SUM > 170 another way to quickly find a total and

other details about a selected cell or range.

Item Amount

Cars 20

Trucks 10

Bikes 10

Skates 40

180 100 180

IMPORTANT DETAIL

Double-click this cell. You'll notice the 100 toward the

end. Although it's possible to put numbers in a formula

like this, we don't recommend it unless it's absolutely

necessary. This is known as a constant, and it's easy to

forget that it's there. We recommend referring to

another cell instead, like cell F51. That way it's easily

seen and not hidden inside a formula.

EXTRA CREDIT

Try using

CHECK THIS

MEDIAN or

OUT

MODE here.

AVERAGE function

AVERAGE

Select any

function

range

MEDIAN of gives

Use the AVERAGE

numbers, then function to get the average of numbers in a range of cells.

you the value

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look

in Use

cell the AVERAGE function

the D7, then use AutoSum

theinmiddle to to

addget

anthe average function.

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of

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data set,

cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing =AVERAGE(G3:G6).

an instant

while

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next

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Select to learn all about the AVERAGE function on the web

Select to learn all about the MEDIAN function on the web

Select to learn all about the MODE function on the web

Select to learn about free Excel training on the web

Previous

Previous

AVERAGE function

the AVERAGE function to get the average of numbers in a range of cells.

ect cellUse

D7,the AVERAGE

then function

use AutoSum to to

addget

anthe average function.

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w select cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing =AVERAGE(G3:G6).

ell D15,1 Select

you can use cell D7,AutoSum,

either then use AutoSum

or type toto addanother

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Previous

Previous Next

All about the AVERAGE function

Fruit Amount Meat Amount

Apples 50 Beef 50 CHECK THIS OUT

Select any range of numbers,

Oranges 20 Chicken 30 then look in the Status Bar for

Bananas 60 Pork 10 an instant Average.

Lemons 40 Fish 50

AVERAGE > AVERAGE >

Bread 50 Bread 50

Donuts 100 Donuts 100

Cookies 40 Cookies 40

Cakes 50 Cakes 50

Pies 20 Pies 20

AVERAGE >

EXTRA CREDIT

Try using MEDIAN or MODE here.

the middle of the data set, while

MODE gives the one that occurs

the most frequently.

In some of the above tips, we taught you how to use the SUM function. Here are more details about it.

Cells C37 through D41 contain data with two columns: Fruit and Amount.

The formula in cell D42: =SUM(D38:D41).

If the SUM function in cell D42 could talk, it would say this: Sum up the values in cells D38, D39, D40, and D41.

Here's another way it can be used:

Cells C47 through D48 contain data with two columns: Item and Amount.

All about the SUM function

All about the SUMIF function

Use Excel as your calculator

Free Excel training online

Go back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To proceed to the next step, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

OUT

f numbers,

atus Bar for

.

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or

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You can use either MIN or MAX with multiple ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or

All about the MIN function

All about the MAX function

Use Excel as your calculator

Free Excel training online

MIN and MAX functions

and MAX functions

the MIN function to get the minumum number in a range of cells.

Use

the MAX the MIN

function function

to get to getnumber

the maximum the smallest number

in a range of cells. in a range of cells.

Use the MAX function to get the largest number in a range of cells.

1 Select cell D7, then use the AutoSum Wizard to add a MIN function.

2 Now select cell G7, and enter a MAX function by typing =MAX(D3:D6).

bout the MAX function

Excel training online

3 In cell D15, you can use either the AutoSum Wizard, or type to enter a MIN

or MAX function.

Previous Next

can use either MIN or MAX with multiple ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or =MAX(A1:A10,10

All about the MIN function

bout the MIN function

bout the MAX function

All about the MAX function

Excel as your calculator

Excel training online

Free Excel training online

Fruit Amount Meat Amount

Apples 50 Beef 50

Oranges 20 Chicken 30

Bananas 60 Pork 10

Lemons 40 Fish 50

MIN > MAX >

Bread 50 Bread 50

Donuts 100 Donuts 100

Cookies 40 Cookies 40

Cakes 50 Cakes 50

Pies 20 Pies 20

MIN or MAX > 10

GOOD TO KNOW

You can use either MIN or MAX with multiple

IN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or =MAX(A1:A10,10).

ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of

those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or

=MAX(A1:A10,B1), where B1 contains a threshold

value, like 10, in which case the formula would

never return a result less than 10.

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the can>give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract times. For instan

Number > 2you

format

want.

decimals. 2

If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Tim

Previous 3

Next

More information on the web

All about the TODAY function

All about the NOW function

All about the DATE function

Free Excel training online

Time functions

Excel can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You

can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might need to keep track of how

many hours an employee worked each week, and calculate their pay and overtime.

3

Previous

Date functions

el can give you the current date, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract Dates.

ck outExcel

the TODAY function,

can give which

you the gives date,

current you Today's

baseddate. These

on your are live, or regional

computer's volatile functions,

settings. so when you open your workbook tomorrow,

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tract Dates - Enter

can also addyour

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Dates.

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1 Check out the TODAY function, which gives you Today's date. These are live, or

OD TO KNOW

el keeps dates and times based on the number of days starting from January 1, 1900. Times are kept in fractional portions of a day based o

volatile functions, so when you open your workbook tomorrow, it will have

tomorrow's date. Enter =TODAY() in cell D6.

el can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might n

2 Subtract Dates - Enter your next birthday in MM/DD/YY format in cell D7, and

watch Excel tell you how many days away it is by using =D7-D6 in cell D8.

is formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multip

3 Add Dates - Let's say you want to know what date a bill is due, or when you

need to return a library book. You can add days to a date to find out. In cell

D10,

re information on theenter

web a random number of days. In cell D11, we added =D6+D10 to

about the TODAY calculate

functionthe due date from today.

about the NOW function

about the DATE function

e Excel training online

Time functions

Excel can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You

can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might need to keep track of how

many hours an employee worked each week, and calculate their pay and overtime.

1 In cell D28, enter =NOW(), which will give the current time, and will

update each time Excel calculates. If you need to change the Time format,

you can go to Ctrl+1 > Number > Time > Select the format you want.

(D34-D33))*24, which calculates someone's start and end times, then

subracts the time they took for lunch. The *24 at the end of the formula

converts the fractional portion of the day that Excel sees into hours. You'll

need to format the cell as a Number though. To do that, go to Home >

Format > Cells (Ctrl+1) > Number > Number > 2 decimals.

3 If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it

from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply

those by 24 to convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In -

Time Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch Out))*24.

If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it

from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply

those by 24 to convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In -

Time Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch Out))*24.

*24 to convert Excel's

fraction of a day to

Time Out Lunch Out hours

=((D35-D32)-(D34-D33))*24

Time In Lunch In

GOOD TO KNOW

You can use keyboard s

Times that won't contin

The inner parentheses () make sure Excel calculates those D

parts of the formula by themselves. The outer Time

parentheses make sure Excel multiplies the final inner result by

24.

Previous Next

All about the TODAY function

you open your workbook tomorrow, it will have tomorrow's date. Enter =TODAY() in cell D6.

ny days away it is by using =D7-D6 in cell D8.

Date functions

Today's date:

Your birthday:

Days

ract times. For until your

instance, youbirthday: 0 many hoursIMPORTANT

might need to keep track of how

DETAIL

Ifan employee

you worked

don't want Exceleach week,aand

to display calculate

negative their pay and ove

number,

because you haven't entered your birthday yet, you can

Grace period days: use an IF function like this: =IF(D7="","",D7-D6), which

Bill due on: 12/30/99 says, "IF D7 equals nothing, then show nothing,

otherwise show D7 minus D6".

he Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply those by 24 to convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In - Time Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch O

GOOD TO KNOW

Excel keeps dates and times based on the number of days

starting from January 1, 1900. Times are kept in fractional

portions of a day based on minutes. So 01/01/2017 12:30

PM is actually stored as 42736.5208. If the Time or Date

show up as numbers like that, then you can press Ctrl+1 >

Number > select a Date or Time format.

Time functions

Current Time:

Time In: 8:00 AM

Lunch Out: 12:00 PM

Lunch In: 1:00 PM

Time Out: 5:00 PM

Total Hours: 8

Static Date & Time

Date: 09/27/17

Time: 8:52 AM

GOOD TO KNOW

You can use keyboard shortcuts to enter Dates and

Times that won't continuously change:

Date - Ctrl+;

Time - Ctrl+Shift+:

culate

ve their pay and overtime.

number,

ay yet, you can

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Joining

There are Joining text from different cells

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in Excel

In cell E3, enter =D3&C3 to join the last and first names.

SmithNancy doesn't look quite right though. We need to add a comma and a space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new

There are many times in Excel when you want to join text that's in different cells. This

To create the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space without a comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.

example is very common, where you have first and last names, and want to combine

Dive downthem as first

for more name, last name, or full name. Fortunately, Excel lets us do that with the

detail

Next Ampersand (&) sign, which you can enter with Shift+7.

Using text and numbers together

Look

In cellatC36, 1C28:D29.

cellsenter See"&TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY").

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for Month/Day/Year, like you

like 09/25/2

=C28

WORTH " &2

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TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")

If you don't don't know what format code to use, you can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you want. Then sele

More information on the web

All about the TEXT function

Combine text and numbers

3 online

Free Excel training

Now we'll use the & to join text and numbers, not just text and text

Look at cells C28:D29. See how the date and times are in separate cells? You can join

them together with the & symbol like you'll see in cells C32:C33, but that doesn't look

right, does it? Unfortunately, Excel doesn't know how you want to format the

numbers, so it breaks them down to their basest format, which is the the Serial date

in this case. We need to explicity tell Excel how to format the number portion of the

formula, so it displays the way you want in the resulting text string. You can do that

with the TEXT function and a format code.

2

Previous

ingare

re Joining text from different cells

text fromtimes

many different cellswhen you want to join text that's in different cells. This example is very common, where you have first and last n

in Excel

ell E3, enter =D3&C3 to join the last and first names.

thNancy doesn't look quite right though. We need to add a comma and a space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new text string. Thi

There are many times in Excel when you want to join text that's in different cells. This

reate the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space without a comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.

example is very common, where you have first and last names, and want to combine

e downthem as first

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detail

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k atC36,

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8 & "EXPLORING

RTH TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")

a space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new text string. This time,

ou don't don't know what format code to use, you can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you want. Then select the Custom o

enter =D3&", "&C3. The &", "& portion lets us join a comma and space

re information on the web

with the text in the cells.

about the TEXT function

mbine text and numbers

3 To

e Excel training create the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space

online

without a comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.

Now we'll use the & to join text and numbers, not just text and text

Look at cells C28:D29. See how the date and times are in separate cells? You can join

them together with the & symbol like you'll see in cells C32:C33, but that doesn't look

right, does it? Unfortunately, Excel doesn't know how you want to format the

numbers, so it breaks them down to their basest format, which is the the Serial date

in this case. We need to explicity tell Excel how to format the number portion of the

formula, so it displays the way you want in the resulting text string. You can do that

with the TEXT function and a format code.

is the US format code for Month/Day/Year, like 09/25/2017.

AM/PM is the US format code for Hours:Minutes AM or PM, like 1:30 PM.

In cell C37, enter =C29&" "&TEXT(D29,"HH:MM AM/PM"). HH:MM

AM/PM is the US format code for Hours:Minutes AM or PM, like 1:30 PM.

Previous Next

All about the TEXT function

First Name Last Name Last Name, First Name Full Name

Nancy Smith Smith, Nancy Nancy Smith

Andy North

Jan Kotas

Mariya Jones

Steven Thorpe

Michael Neipper

Robert Zare

Yvonne McKay

you want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the format code that's displayed back to your formula.

Today's date: 09/26/18

Current time: 2:27 AM

Today's date: 43369

Current time: 43369.1022080152

Formatting text & numbers Formulas, especially big ones, can

Today's date: 09/26/2018 sometimes be hard to read, but you can

Current time: 02:27 AM break up their parts with spaces like this:

WORTH EXPLORING

If you don't don't know what format code to use, you

can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you

want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the

format code that's displayed back to your formula.

WORTH EXPLORING

If you don't don't know what format code to use, you

can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you

want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the

format code that's displayed back to your formula.

"Shipping".

formula

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3

Previous

Next

More information on the web

All about the IF function

All about the IFS function

Dive down for more detail

Advanced IF statements

Free Excel training online

IF statements can also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain

condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sales Tax should be

charged, and calculate it if the condition is true.

3

3

Previous

IF statements

atements allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF statement generally says that if one condition is true do somet

UE andstatement generally

FALSE are unlike othersays that

words if oneformulas

in Excel condition is true

in that dodon't

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need to be doand Excel will automatically capitalize them. N

in quotes,

something else. The formulas can return text, values, or even more calculations.

C3="Apple","Yes","No")

e down for more detail

atements1

atement with In cell D9 enter =IF(C9="Apple",TRUE,FALSE). The correct answer is TRUE.

can another

also forcefunction

additional calculations to be performed if a certain condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sa

not an apple.

OD TO KNOW

en you create a formula, Excel will automatically place colored borders around any ranges referenced in the formula, and the correspondin

3 Try another example by looking at the formula in cell D12. We got you

started with =IF(C12<100,"Less than 100","Greater than or equal to

100"). What happens if you enter a number greater than or equal to

re information on100 inweb

the cell C12?

about the IF function

about the IFS function

Dive down for more detail

anced IF statements Next

e Excel training online

IF statements can also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain

condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sales Tax should be

charged, and calculate it if the condition is true.

SalesTax as a Named Range with a value of 0.0825. Our formula says If cell

E33 equals Yes, then multiply cell F31 times SalesTax, otherwise return a 0.

cell F35 you'll see =IF(E35="Yes",SUM(D28:D29)*1.25,0). This says "If cell

E35 is Yes, then take the sum of the Quantity column in the table above,

and multiply it by 1.25, otherwise return a 0".

3 Next, change the 1.25 in the formula in cell F35 to "Shipping". As you start

typing, Excel's auto-correct, should find it for you. When it does, press Tab

to enter it. This is a Named Range, and we entered it from Formulas >

Define Name. Now, if you ever need to change your shipping cost, you

3 Next, change the 1.25 in the formula in cell F35 to "Shipping". As you start

typing, Excel's auto-correct, should find it for you. When it does, press Tab

to enter it. This is a Named Range, and we entered it from Formulas >

Define Name. Now, if you ever need to change your shipping cost, you

only have to do it in one place, and you can use the Shipping name

anywhere in the workbook.

Previous Next

All about the IF function

Advanced IF statements

hat if one condition is true do something, otherwise do something else. The formulas can return text, values, or even more calculations.

will automatically capitalize them. Numbers don't need to be in quotes either. Regular text, like Yes or No does need to be in quotes like th

IF statements

Apple

Orange

n the formula, and the corresponding ranges in the formula will be the same color. You can see this if you select cell F33 and press F2 to ed

IMPORTANT DETAIL

TRUE and FALSE are unlike other words in Excel formulas

in that they don't need to be in quotes, and Excel will

automatically capitalize them. Numbers don't need to be

in quotes either. Regular text, like Yes or No does need to

be in quotes like this:

=IF(C3="Apple","Yes","No")

Widget 2 $9.76 $19.52

Doohickey 3 $3.42 $10.26

When you create a formula, Excel will auto

place colored borders around any ranges re

Shipping? Yes $6.25 the formula, and the corresponding ranges

formula will be the same color. You can see

select cell F33 and press F2 to edit the form

Total $38.48

EXPERT TIP

Named Ranges allow you to define terms or values in a

single place, and then reuse them throughout a

workbook. You can see all of the named ranges in this

workbook by going to Formulas > Name Manager. Click

EXPERT TIP

Named Ranges allow you to define terms or values in a

single place, and then reuse them throughout a

workbook. You can see all of the named ranges in this

workbook by going to Formulas > Name Manager. Click

here to learn more.

or even more calculations.

KNOW

ate a formula, Excel will automatically

borders around any ranges referenced in

nd the corresponding ranges in the

e the same color. You can see this if you

and press F2 to edit the formula.

In this case,

exists, but you

we'll wraptoour

still want

existing

suppress

In cell D22, the

VLOOKUP

#N/A

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formula

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error in cell

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D43:

function

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IFERROR

correct answer in cell

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G43:

for Apples is

LOOKUP(C43,C

VLOOKUP

=IFERROR(VLO

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VLOOKUP

37:D41,2,FALS

VLOOKUP

OKUP(F43,F37: is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites too!). VLOOKUP lets you look up a value in

looked

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do VLOOKUP is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites

VLOOKUP

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you

nothing

returns

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right, too!).

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get a value?

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then with

return

result,

returned

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=VLOOKUP(F2 then

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you want to look for it? column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:

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otherwise

Do you want an exact, or approximate match?

otherwise,

LSE). the

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results.

EXPERIMENT

We displayed Note

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Try selecting

nothing here different items from the drop down lists. You'll see the result cells instantly update themselves with new values.

closing

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Dive down

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VLOOKUP

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text, such

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IMPORTANT DETAIL

correct".

IFERROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning it will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can caus

A rule of thumb is to not add error handlers to your formulas until you're absolutely certain they work properly.

Previous

Next

More information on the web

All about the VLOOKUP function

1

All about the INDEX/MATCH functions

All about the IFERROR function

Use PivotTables to analyze worksheet data

2 online

Free Excel training

Invariably, you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to,

and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply

doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

1

2

Previous

VLOOKUP

OKUP is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites too!). VLOOKUP lets you look up a value in a column on th

OOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)

VLOOKUP

at do you want to is

lookone of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites

for?

ou find it, how many columnsyou

too!). VLOOKUP lets look

to the updo

right a value in atocolumn

you want on the left, then returns

get a value?

ere doinformation in another

you want to look for it? column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:

you want an exact, or approximate match?

What do you If you find it, how many

want to look columns to the right do

ERIMENT for? you want to get a value?

selecting different items from the drop down lists. You'll see the result cells instantly update themselves with new values.

e down for more detail

OKUP and

ariably, =VLOOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)

#N/A

you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to, and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because th

ORTANT DETAIL

RROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning it will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can cause problems if E

Where do Do you want

you want to an exact,

ule of thumb is to not add error handlers to your formulas until you're or

absolutely certain they work properly.

look for it? approximate

match?

about the VLOOKUP function

1 In cell D22,

about the INDEX/MATCH

enter =VLOOKUP(C22,C17:D20,2,FALSE). The correct answer

functions

for Apples is 50. VLOOKUP looked for Apples, found it, then went over one

about the IFERROR function

column to the right, and returned the amount.

PivotTables to analyze worksheet data

2 online

e Excel training Now try for yourself in the Meat section, in cell G22. You should end up EXPERIMENT

Try selecting different i

with =VLOOKUP(F22,F17:G20,2,FALSE). see the result cells inst

values.

Invariably, you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to,

and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply

doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

1 If you know your lookup value exists, but want to hide the error if the lookup

cell is blank, you can use an IF statement. In this case, we'll wrap our existing

VLOOKUP formula like this in cell D43:

=IF(C43="","",VLOOKUP(C43,C37:D41,2,FALSE))

If you know your lookup value exists, but want to hide the error if the lookup

cell is blank, you can use an IF statement. In this case, we'll wrap our existing

VLOOKUP formula like this in cell D43:

=IF(C43="","",VLOOKUP(C43,C37:D41,2,FALSE))

This says, "If cell C43 equals nothing (""), then return nothing, otherwise

return the VLOOKUP's results". Note the second closing parenthesis at the

end of the formula. This closes the IF statement.

2 If you're not sure your lookup value exists, but you still want to suppress

the #N/A error, you can use an error handling function called IFERROR in

cell G43: =IFERROR(VLOOKUP(F43,F37:G41,2,FALSE),""). IFERROR says,

"If the VLOOKUP returns a valid result, then display that, otherwise, display

nothing ("")". We displayed nothing here (""), but you can also use numbers

(0,1, 2, etc.), or text, such as "Formula isn't correct".

Previous Next

All about the VLOOKUP function

ou look up a value in a column on the left, then returns information in another column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:

r (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

Apples 50 Beef 50

Oranges 20 Chicken 30

Bananas 60 Pork 10

Lemons 40 Fish 50

Apples Pork

EXPERIMENT

Try selecting different items from the drop down lists. You'll

see the result cells instantly update themselves with new

values.

M function in cell D42 could talk, it would say this: Sum up the values in cells D38, D39, D40, and D41.

Item Amount Item Amount

Bread 50 Bread 50

Donuts 100 Donuts 100

Cookies 40 Cookies 40

Cakes 50 Cakes 50

Pies 20 Pies 20

#N/A Pastry

IMPORTANT DETAIL

IFERROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning

it will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can

cause problems if Excel is giving you a notification that your

formula has a legitimate error that needs to be fixed.

until you're absolutely certain they work properly.

match. VLOOKUP says:

written, you

can just

replace the

function name

with the one

you want.

We've written

all the

functions

you'll

Conditional functions - SUMIF

need for

Conditional

cell E106, so

Conditional

functions - SUMIF

functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range based on a given condition, or criter

you can

copy/paste

SUMIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in another range, like how many Apples you h

these, Conditional

or try to functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range

=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)

type thembased on a given condition, or criteria you specify. Such as, out of all the fruits in the

What

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SUMIF

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=SUMIF(C92:C

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103,C106,E92:

=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)

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Select cell H64

E92:E103,C92: functions - COUNTIF

and type

COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you specify. They're a bit different from the other IF

C103,C106,D9

=COUNTIFS(F5

2:D92,D106)

Select cell D64 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). COUNTIF is structured like this:

0:F61,F64,G50:

COUNTIF

=COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64)

G61,G64).

=COUNTIF(C92

COUNTIFS

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2:C103,C106,D

92:D103,D106)

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

MAXIFS

This is the first range to count

=MAXIFS(E92:

This is the criteria for the first match

E103,C92:C103

,C106,D92:D10

This is the second range to count

3,D106)

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MINIFS is criteria for the second match

Dive down for more detail

=MINIFS(E92:E

103,C92:C103,

Next

C106,D92:D10

More

3,D106) conditional functions

=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)

Dive down for more detail

Next

SUMIF with a value argument

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values greater than a given amount:

200

Sum up through

....Look some values

thesebased

cells...on this criterion:

...and if the value is greater than 50, sum it up.

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a PivotTable is a better solution. See this Piv

Dive down for more detail

More information on thedown

Dive web for more detail

All about the SUMIF function

All about the SUMIFS function

All about the COUNTIF function

All about the COUNTIFS function

Conditional functions - COUNTIF

All about the AVERAGEIF function

All about the AVERAGEIFS function

All about the MINIFS function

COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you

All about the MAXIFS function

specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only

Create a drop-down list

have a criteria range, and criteria. They don't evalute one range, then look in another

Free Excel training online

to summarize.

Back to top

Next

1

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

More conditional functions

You've already seen SUMIF, SUMIFS, COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on

your own with the other functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, MAXIFS, MINIFS. They're

all structured the same way, so once you get one formula written, you can just replace

the function name with the one you want. We've written all the functions you'll need

for cell E106, so you can copy/paste these, or try to type them yourself for practice.

SUMIF =SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)

SUMIFS =SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

AVERAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)

AVERAGEIFS =AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)

COUNTIF =COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)

COUNTIFS =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

MAXIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

MINIFS =MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values

greater than a given amount:

Sum up some

values based

on this

criterion:

=SUMIF(D118:D122,">=50"

)

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a

PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article for more information.

More information on the web

Back to top

Conditional functions - SUMIF

ditional functions - SUMIF

ditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range based on a given condition, or criter

MIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in another range, like how many Apples you h

Conditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range

MIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)

based on a given condition, or criteria you specify. Such as, out of all the fruits in the

at range do you want to look at?

list, how many are apples? Or, how many oranges are the Florida type?

at value (text or number) do you want to look for?

eachismatch

MIFS found,

the same what range

as SUMIF, but itdolets

youyou

want

usetomultiple

sum in?criteria. So in this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. S

1 SUMIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in

another range, like how many Apples you have. Select cell D17 and type

MIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)

at range do you=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D14).

want to sum? SUMIF is structured like this:

is the first range to look in for matches

is the criteria for the first matchWhat range do you For each match found, what

want to look at? range do you want to sum?

=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)

e down for more detail

UNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values inWhat a range based

value (textonor anumber)

criteria you specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functio

ect cell D64 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). do you want tois look

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structured

OUNTIF(C50:C61,C64)

at range do you want to look at?

at value 2(text orSUMIFS

number)isdo the same

you wantastoSUMIF, but it lets you use multiple criteria. So in this

look for?

example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select cell

H17 and type =SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17). SUMIFS is

OUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

structured like this:

is the first range to count

is the criteria for the firstWhat

match

range This is the This is the

is the second range to countdo you want criteria for criteria for

to sum?

is criteria for the second match the first the second

match match

e down for more detail

re conditional functions

=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)

e down for more detail

This is the

e's an example of the SUMIF function using greater Thisgreater

than (>) to find all values is the than a given amount:

first range to second range

look in for to look in for

mook

up through

some values based on

these cells... this criterion: matches matches

nd if the value is greater than 50, sum it up.

TE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article f

Dive down for more detail Next

re information on thedown

Dive web for more detail Next

about the SUMIF function

about the SUMIFS function

about the COUNTIF function

about the COUNTIFS function

Conditional functions - COUNTIF

about the AVERAGEIF function

about the AVERAGEIFS function

about the MINIFS function

COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you

about the MAXIFS function

specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only

ate a drop-down list

have a criteria range, and criteria. They don't evalute one range, then look in another

e Excel training online

to summarize.

like this:

What range do you

want to look at?

=COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64)

do you want to look for?

2 COUNTIFS is the same as SUMIF, but it lets you use multiple criteria. So in

this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select

cell H64 and type =COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64). COUNTIFS is

structured like this:

range to count range to count

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

for the first match the second match

More conditional functions

You've already seen SUMIF, SUMIFS, COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on

your own with the other functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, MAXIFS, MINIFS. They're

all structured the same way, so once you get one formula written, you can just replace

the function name with the one you want. We've written all the functions you'll need

for cell E106, so you can copy/paste these, or try to type them yourself for practice.

SUMIF =SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)

SUMIFS =SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

AVERAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)

AVERAGEIFS =AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)

COUNTIF =COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)

COUNTIFS =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

MAXIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

MINIFS =MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values

greater than a given amount:

values based these cells... value is

on this greater than

criterion: 50, sum it up.

=SUMIF(D118:D122,">=50"

)

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a

PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article for more information.

More information on the web

All about the SUMIF function All about the SUMIFS function

All about the COUNTIF function All about the COUNTIFS function

All about the AVERAGEIF function All about the AVERAGEIFS function

All about the MINIFS function All about the MAXIFS function

Fruit Amount Fruit Type Amount

Apples 50 Apples Fuji 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Florida 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

Lemons 40 Lemons Rough 40

Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Lady Finger 60

Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

Apples Oranges Florida

ent from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only have a criteria range, and criteria. They don't evalute

EXPERT TIPone range, then look in anoth

Each one of the Fruit and Type cells has

a drop-down list where you can select

different fruits. Try it, and watch the

formulas automatically update.

Fruit Amount Fruit Type Amount

Apples 50 Apples Fuji 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Florida 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

Lemons 40 Lemons Rough 40

Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Lady Finger 60

Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

Apples 3 Oranges Florida 1

Fruit Type Amount

Apples Fuji 50

Oranges Florida 20

Bananas Cavendish 60

Lemons Rough 40

Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges Navel 20

Bananas Lady Finger 60

Lemons Eureka 40

Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges Navel 20

Bananas Cavendish 60

Lemons Eureka 40

Lemons Eureka 80

Item Amount

Bread 50

Donuts 100

Cookies 40

Cakes 50

Pies 20

200

one range, then look in another to summarize.

ruit and Type cells has

where you can select

y it, and watch the

tically update.

GOOD TO KNOW

Double-click this cell and you'll see that the formula

is different. Specifically, the sum criteria is ">=50"

which means greater than or equal to 50. There are

other operators you can use like "<=50" which is

less than or equal to 50. And there's "<>50" which is

not equals 50.

you enter each

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function thebox,

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result.can type cell and range references, or select them with your mouse.

1

Previous

Next

More information on the web

Overview of formulas in Excel

2 (by category)

Excel functions

Excel functions (alphabetical)

Free Excel training online

Previous

the

Let the Function Wizard guide you

Function

u know Wizard

the name ofguide you you want, but you're not sure how to build it, you can use the Function Wizard to help you out.

the function

If you know the name of the function you want, but you're not sure how to build it,

OD TO you

KNOWcan use the Function Wizard to help you out.

can type cell and range references, or select them with your mouse.

1 Select cell D10, then go to Formulas > Insert Function > type

VLOOKUP in the Search for a function box, and press GO. When you

see VLOOKUP highlighted, click OK at the bottom. When you select a

function

e information on the webin the list, Excel will display its syntax.

rview of formulas in Excel

2 (by Next,

el functions enter the function arguments in their respective text boxes. As you

category)

enter each one, Excel will evaluate it, and show you its result, with the final

el functions (alphabetical)

Excel training result

online at the bottom. Press OK when you're done, and Excel will enter the

formula for you.

GOOD TO KNOW

As you enter each argu

description will be disp

above the Formula resu

Previous Next

Overview of formulas in Excel

Excel functions (alphabetical)

on Wizard to help you out.

Fruit Amount

Apples 50

Oranges 20

Bananas 60

Lemons 40

Apples 50

You should end up with

=VLOOKUP(C10,C5:D8,2,FALSE)

GOOD TO KNOW

You can type cell and range references, or select them

with your mouse.

GOOD TO KNOW

As you enter each argument's section, the argument's

description will be displayed toward the bottom of the form,

above the Formula result.

GOOD TO

Fixing

KNOW

At some

Clicking

Fixing formula errors

formula

point inerrors

time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will display with #ErrorName. Errors can be hel

Error checking

Options will let- Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog that will tell you the general cause for your specific erro

If you

you setclick

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rules At some point in time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will

for when

Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an erro

display with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when

errors in Excel

EXPERIMENT

are displayed

What's something's

wrong not

here? Hint: working

We're tryingright, butup

to SUM they canitems.

all the be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there

or ignored.

are several options that can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it.

Previous

Next

1

More information on the web

Detect errors in formulas

How to avoid broken formulas

Evaluate a nested formula one step at a time

Free Excel training online

3

3

Previous

ng

ome Fixing formula errors

formula errors

point in time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will display with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because th

r checking - Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog that will tell you the general cause for your specific error. In cell D9, the

u click Help on this Error, a help topic specific to the error message will open. If you click Show Calculation Steps, an Evaluate Formula dialo

At some point in time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will

h time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an error occurs, but it w

display with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when

ERIMENT

something's

at's wrong not

here? Hint: working

We're tryingright, butup

to SUM they canitems.

all the be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there

are several options that can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it.

1 Error checking - Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog

that will tell you the general cause for your specific error. In cell D9, the

e information on#N/A

the weberror is caused because there is no value matching "Apple". You can

ect errors in formulas

fix this by using a value that does exist, suppress the error with IFERROR, or

w to avoid brokenignore

formulasit and know it will go away when you do use a value that exists.

uate a nested formula one step at a time

Excel training online

2 If you click Help on this Error, a help topic specific to the error message

will open. If you click Show Calculation Steps, an Evaluate Formula dialog

will load.

3 Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one

section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an error occurs, but it will

point out where. From there, look at the help topic to deduce what went

wrong with your formula.

3 Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one

section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an error occurs, but it will

point out where. From there, look at the help topic to deduce what went

wrong with your formula.

Previous Next

Detect errors in formulas

me. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when something's not working right, but they can be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there

Fruit Amount

Apples 50

Oranges 20

Bananas 60

Lemons 40

Apple #N/A

GOOD TO KNOW

Clicking Options will let you set the

rules for when errors in Excel are

displayed or ignored.

Fruit Amount

Apples 50

Oranges 20

Bananas 60

Lemons 40

Total #NAME?

EXPERIMENT

What's wrong here? Hint: We're trying to SUM

up all the items.

What's wrong here? Hint: We're trying to SUM

up all the items.

ng to fix. Fortunately, there are several options that can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it.

More questions about Excel?

Press ALT+Q and type what you want to know.

Keep going. There is more to learn with Excel:

LinkedIn Learning: Video courses for all levels—from beginner to advanced. Take at your own pace.

Community: Ask questions and connect with other Excel fans.

What else is new?Office 365 subscribers get continual updates and new features.

Give us feedback on this tour

More questions about Excel?

Press ALT+Q and type what you want to know.

More questions about Excel?

Keep going. There is more to learn with Excel:

LinkedIn Learning: Video courses for all levels—from beginner to advanced. Take at your own pace.

Community: Ask questions and connect with other Excel fans.

Click the Tell Me button and type what you want to know.

Video courses for all Ask questions and

levels—from beginner to connect with other

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own pace.

Learn more Learn more

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